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Sample records for psychiatric phenotypes discrete

  1. [Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. The author worked at Dr. Weinberger's laboratory, and after returning home, introduced the concept to Japan, creating a term "Chukanhyogengata" to translate "intermediate phenotype". Intermediate phenotype has been proposed as a tool for the identification of risk genes for mental disorders, spreading the concept as a biomarker for the bridging between genes and behaviors. Intermediate phenotype studies later became one of the main pillars of psychiatric research. As a large number of data and samples are needed for intermediate phenotype research, we built a research resource database that combines the brain phenotype and bioresources. We performed genome-wide association analysis of cognitive decline in schizophrenia and identified the DEGS2 gene using this sample. This research resource database was developed for a multicenter study by COCORO (Cognitive Genetics Collaborative Research Organization). COCORO carried out genome-wide association analysis of the gray matter volume of the superior temporal gyrus and identified genome-wide significant loci. In this paper, we introduce the concept and history of intermediate phenotype study of mental illness and the latest trends. We hope to contribute to the future development of mental illness research through translational research. PMID:27044135

  2. [Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. The author worked at Dr. Weinberger's laboratory, and after returning home, introduced the concept to Japan, creating a term "Chukanhyogengata" to translate "intermediate phenotype". Intermediate phenotype has been proposed as a tool for the identification of risk genes for mental disorders, spreading the concept as a biomarker for the bridging between genes and behaviors. Intermediate phenotype studies later became one of the main pillars of psychiatric research. As a large number of data and samples are needed for intermediate phenotype research, we built a research resource database that combines the brain phenotype and bioresources. We performed genome-wide association analysis of cognitive decline in schizophrenia and identified the DEGS2 gene using this sample. This research resource database was developed for a multicenter study by COCORO (Cognitive Genetics Collaborative Research Organization). COCORO carried out genome-wide association analysis of the gray matter volume of the superior temporal gyrus and identified genome-wide significant loci. In this paper, we introduce the concept and history of intermediate phenotype study of mental illness and the latest trends. We hope to contribute to the future development of mental illness research through translational research.

  3. Connectomic Intermediate Phenotypes for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fornito, Alex; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes (IPs) that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A, and APOE, may be higher for IPs characterized at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localized brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of the human connectome. PMID

  4. Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotype of Childhood Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douniol, Marie; Jacquette, Aurelia; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Rachidi, Linda; Angeard, Nathalie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Vallee, Louis; Eymard, Bruno; Plaza, Monique; Heron, Delphine; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…

  5. Modeling psychiatric disorders: from genomic findings to cellular phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Falk, A; Heine, V M; Harwood, A J; Sullivan, P F; Peitz, M; Brüstle, O; Shen, S; Sun, Y-M; Glover, J C; Posthuma, D; Djurovic, S

    2016-01-01

    Major programs in psychiatric genetics have identified >150 risk loci for psychiatric disorders. These loci converge on a small number of functional pathways, which span conventional diagnostic criteria, suggesting a partly common biology underlying schizophrenia, autism and other psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the cellular phenotypes that capture the fundamental features of psychiatric disorders have not yet been determined. Recent advances in genetics and stem cell biology offer new prospects for cell-based modeling of psychiatric disorders. The advent of cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provides an opportunity to translate genetic findings into patient-specific in vitro models. iPSC technology is less than a decade old but holds great promise for bridging the gaps between patients, genetics and biology. Despite many obvious advantages, iPSC studies still present multiple challenges. In this expert review, we critically review the challenges for modeling of psychiatric disorders, potential solutions and how iPSC technology can be used to develop an analytical framework for the evaluation and therapeutic manipulation of fundamental disease processes. PMID:27240529

  6. Modeling psychiatric disorders: from genomic findings to cellular phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Falk, A; Heine, V M; Harwood, A J; Sullivan, P F; Peitz, M; Brüstle, O; Shen, S; Sun, Y-M; Glover, J C; Posthuma, D; Djurovic, S

    2016-01-01

    Major programs in psychiatric genetics have identified >150 risk loci for psychiatric disorders. These loci converge on a small number of functional pathways, which span conventional diagnostic criteria, suggesting a partly common biology underlying schizophrenia, autism and other psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the cellular phenotypes that capture the fundamental features of psychiatric disorders have not yet been determined. Recent advances in genetics and stem cell biology offer new prospects for cell-based modeling of psychiatric disorders. The advent of cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provides an opportunity to translate genetic findings into patient-specific in vitro models. iPSC technology is less than a decade old but holds great promise for bridging the gaps between patients, genetics and biology. Despite many obvious advantages, iPSC studies still present multiple challenges. In this expert review, we critically review the challenges for modeling of psychiatric disorders, potential solutions and how iPSC technology can be used to develop an analytical framework for the evaluation and therapeutic manipulation of fundamental disease processes. PMID:27240529

  7. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  8. The psychiatric phenotype in triple X syndrome: New hypotheses illustrated in two cases

    PubMed Central

    Otter, Maarten; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T. R. M.; Didden, Robert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Triple X syndrome (47,XXX or trisomy X) is a relatively frequent cytogenetic condition with a large variety of physical and behavioural phenotypes. Method: Two adult patients with a triple X karyotype are described. Results: Their karyotype was unknown until some years ago. What these patients have in common is that they were diagnosed with a broader autism phenotype, they were sexually abused, they suffer from psychotic illness and they show challenging behaviour, suicidality and a decline in occupational capacity. Discussion: These gene-environment interactions are discussed. Gene-environment interactions may explain the variety of behavioural and psychiatric phenotypes in triple X syndrome. Ongoing atypical development in adults is hypothesized. Conclusions: Gene-environment interactions and ongoing atypical development in adults should be taken into account in research concerning the psychiatric phenotype of developmental disorders, especially those involving triple X syndrome. PMID:22582855

  9. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  10. Neurovisceral phenotypes in the expression of psychiatric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Jessica A.; Owens, Andrew P.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Umeda, Satoshi; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    show that common constitutional differences affecting autonomic responsivity are linked to psychiatric symptoms, notably anxiety. PMID:25713509

  11. Cognitive phenotype and psychiatric disorder in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asit B; Furniss, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder. This paper reviews research on the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and the development of psychiatric disorders in 22q11DS. Aspects of cognitive function including verbal I.Q., visual memory, and executive function, are associated with mental health outcome in people with 22q11DS. This relationship may result from a common neurobiological basis for the cognitive difficulties and psychiatric disorders. Some of the cognitive difficulties experienced by people with 22q11DS, especially in attention, memory retrieval, and face processing, may, however, in themselves constitute risk factors for development of hallucinations and paranoid delusions. Future research into factors leading to psychiatric disorder in people with 22q11DS should include assessment of social and psychological factors including life events, symptoms associated with trauma, attachment, and self-esteem, which together with cognitive risk factors may mediate mental health outcome. PMID:26942704

  12. Psychometric precision in phenotype definition is a useful step in molecular genetic investigation of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M K; Gaysina, D; Barnett, J H; Scoriels, L; van de Lagemaat, L N; Wong, A; Richards, M; Croudace, T J; Jones, P B

    2015-01-01

    Affective disorders are highly heritable, but few genetic risk variants have been consistently replicated in molecular genetic association studies. The common method of defining psychiatric phenotypes in molecular genetic research is either a summation of symptom scores or binary threshold score representing the risk of diagnosis. Psychometric latent variable methods can improve the precision of psychiatric phenotypes, especially when the data structure is not straightforward. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, we compared summary scores with psychometric modeling based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scale for affective symptoms in an association analysis of 27 candidate genes (249 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). The psychometric method utilized a bi-factor model that partitioned the phenotype variances into five orthogonal latent variable factors, in accordance with the multidimensional data structure of the GHQ-28 involving somatic, social, anxiety and depression domains. Results showed that, compared with the summation approach, the affective symptoms defined by the bi-factor psychometric model had a higher number of associated SNPs of larger effect sizes. These results suggest that psychometrically defined mental health phenotypes can reflect the dimensions of complex phenotypes better than summation scores, and therefore offer a useful approach in genetic association investigations. PMID:26125156

  13. Behavioral and Psychiatric Phenotypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kerri L; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda P.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2DS is a chromosomal microdeletion that affects approximately 40–50 genes, and impacts various organs and systems throughout the body. Detection is typically achieved by fluorescence in-situ hybridization following diagnosis of one of the major features of the deletion or via chromosomal microarray or non-invasive prenatal testing. The physical phenotype can include congenital heart defects, palatal and pharyngeal anomalies, hypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism, skeletal abnormalities, and cranial/brain anomalies, although prevalence rates of all of these features are variable. Cognitive function is impaired to some degree in most individuals, with prevalence rates of greater than 90% for motor/speech delays and learning disabilities. Attention, executive function, working memory, visual spatial abilities, motor skills, and social cognition/social skills are affected. The deletion is also associated with an increased risk for behavioral disorders and psychiatric illness. The early onset of psychiatric symptoms common to 22q11.2DS disrupts the development and quality of life of individuals with the syndrome, and is also a potential risk factor for later development of a psychotic disorder. This review discusses prevalence, phenotypic features, and management of psychiatric disorders commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS, including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia/psychotic disorders. Guidelines for the clinical assessment and management of psychiatric disorders in youth with this syndrome are provided, as are treatment guidelines for the use of psychiatric medications. PMID:26372046

  14. A common cognitive, psychiatric, and dysmorphic phenotype in carriers of NRXN1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Viñas-Jornet, Marina; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Gabau, Elisabeth; Ribas-Vidal, Núria; Baena, Neus; San, Joan; Ruiz, Anna; Coll, Maria Dolors; Novell, Ramon; Guitart, Miriam

    2014-11-01

    Deletions in the 2p16.3 region that includes the neurexin (NRXN1) gene are associated with intellectual disability and various psychiatric disorders, in particular, autism and schizophrenia. We present three unrelated patients, two adults and one child, in whom we identified an intragenic 2p16.3 deletion within the NRXN1 gene using an oligonucleotide comparative genomic hybridization array. The three patients presented dual diagnosis that consisted of mild intellectual disability and autism and bipolar disorder. Also, they all shared a dysmorphic phenotype characterized by a long face, deep set eyes, and prominent premaxilla. Genetic analysis of family members showed two inherited deletions. A comprehensive neuropsychological examination of the 2p16.3 deletion carriers revealed the same phenotype, characterized by anxiety disorder, borderline intelligence, and dysexecutive syndrome. The cognitive pattern of dysexecutive syndrome with poor working memory and reduced attention switching, mental flexibility, and verbal fluency was the same than those of the adult probands. We suggest that in addition to intellectual disability and psychiatric disease, NRXN1 deletion is a risk factor for a characteristic cognitive and dysmorphic profile. The new cognitive phenotype found in the 2p16.3 deletion carriers suggests that 2p16.3 deletions might have a wide variable expressivity instead of incomplete penetrance.

  15. A common cognitive, psychiatric, and dysmorphic phenotype in carriers of NRXN1 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Viñas-Jornet, Marina; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Gabau, Elisabeth; Ribas-Vidal, Núria; Baena, Neus; San, Joan; Ruiz, Anna; Coll, Maria Dolors; Novell, Ramon; Guitart, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Deletions in the 2p16.3 region that includes the neurexin (NRXN1) gene are associated with intellectual disability and various psychiatric disorders, in particular, autism and schizophrenia. We present three unrelated patients, two adults and one child, in whom we identified an intragenic 2p16.3 deletion within the NRXN1 gene using an oligonucleotide comparative genomic hybridization array. The three patients presented dual diagnosis that consisted of mild intellectual disability and autism and bipolar disorder. Also, they all shared a dysmorphic phenotype characterized by a long face, deep set eyes, and prominent premaxilla. Genetic analysis of family members showed two inherited deletions. A comprehensive neuropsychological examination of the 2p16.3 deletion carriers revealed the same phenotype, characterized by anxiety disorder, borderline intelligence, and dysexecutive syndrome. The cognitive pattern of dysexecutive syndrome with poor working memory and reduced attention switching, mental flexibility, and verbal fluency was the same than those of the adult probands. We suggest that in addition to intellectual disability and psychiatric disease, NRXN1 deletion is a risk factor for a characteristic cognitive and dysmorphic profile. The new cognitive phenotype found in the 2p16.3 deletion carriers suggests that 2p16.3 deletions might have a wide variable expressivity instead of incomplete penetrance. PMID:25614873

  16. Cognitive, Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome has become an important model for understanding the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental conditions, particularly schizophrenia which develops in about 20–25% of individuals with a chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. From the initial discovery of the syndrome, associated developmental delays made it clear that changes in brain development were a key part of the expression. Once patients were followed through childhood into adult years, further neurobehavioural phenotypes became apparent, including a changing cognitive profile, anxiety disorders and seizure diathesis. The variability of expression is as wide as for the myriad physical features associated with the syndrome, with the addition of evolving phenotype over the developmental trajectory. Notably, variability appears unrelated to length of the associated deletion. Several mouse models of the deletion have been engineered and are beginning to reveal potential molecular mechanisms for the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes observable in animals. Both animal and human studies hold great promise for further discoveries relevant to neurodevelopment and associated cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21573985

  17. Phenotypic psychiatric characterization of children with Williams syndrome and response of those with ADHD to methylphenidate treatment.

    PubMed

    Green, Tamar; Avda, Sarit; Dotan, Inbar; Zarchi, Omer; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Zalsman, Gil; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with cognitive deficits, special behavioral phenotype, and high rates of psychiatric disorders. The aims of the present study were: (1) To compare the rates of psychiatric disorders and repetitive behaviors in children with WS to children with idiopathic developmental disability (DDs); (2) To longitudinally assess the change in psychiatric disorders during adolescence in WS; (3) To assess retrospectively the effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in WS children with ADHD. The study consisted of a cohort of 38 children and adolescents (age 13.1 ± 5.2 years) with WS and a sample of age-matched DDs (age 15.0 ± 3.1 years). A current follow-up evaluation was conducted after 5.6 ± 1.6 years for 25 subjects (65.8%) of the WS cohort. The rate of most psychiatric disorders was found similar in children with WS and DD controls. Specific phobia, especially from noises, obsessive-compulsive symptoms (e.g., aggressive obsessions and repetitive questions), and stereotypic behaviors (e.g., glancing), were more common in WS than DDs. In a longitudinal follow-up of the WS children, we found a decrease in the rate of anxiety disorders. In addition, a clinically significant improvement was reported in 72.2% of WS children with ADHD following MPH treatment. Sadness/unhappiness was the most common side effect associated with MPH treatment in WS, occurring in 2/3 of treated individuals. The present study further elucidates the neuropsychiatric phenotype of WS. Our results also suggest that MPH treatment for ADHD in WS warrants future prospective controlled trials.

  18. Genetic heterogeneity, modifier genes, and quantitative phenotypes in psychiatric illness: searching for a framework.

    PubMed

    Fanous, A H; Kendler, K S

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia has long been thought to be clinically heterogeneous. A range of studies suggests that this is due to genetic heterogeneity. Some clinical features, such as negative symptoms, are associated with a greater risk of illness in relatives. Affected sibling pairs are correlated for clinical and course features as well as subforms of illness, and twin studies suggest that this is due to genetic factors. This is further supported by findings that subjects from families linked to some chromosomal regions may differ clinically from those from unlinked families. Moreover, some genes may affect clinical features without altering susceptibility (ie are modifier genes). High-risk genotypes may have quantitative, rather than categorical effects, and may influence milder or subclinical phenotypes. Another recent finding is that nonpsychotic relatives may have personality features that resemble those of their affected relatives. These findings taken together suggest that there may be several classes of gene action in schizophrenia: some genes may influence susceptibility only, others may influence clinical features only, and still others may have a mixed effect. Furthermore, subsets of these classes may affect personality and other traits in nonpsychotic relatives. Understanding these classes of gene action may help guide the design of linkage and association studies that have increased power. We describe five classes of genes and their predictions of the outcomes of family, twin, and several types of linkage studies. We go on to explore how these predictions can in turn be used to aid in the design of linkage studies.

  19. Evidence for a discrete behavioral phenotype in the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe

    SciTech Connect

    Kenworthy, L.; Charnas, L.

    1995-11-20

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, cognitive impairment, and renal tubular dysfunction. Although there is a wide range of intellectual function in affected individuals, it is often compromised by a high prevalence of maladaptive behaviors, including tantrums, stubbornness, and stereotypy. Whether these behaviors simply reflect the multiple disabilities found in some developmentally impaired individuals with or without OCRL, or a specific genetically-determined behavioral phenotype of OCRL, is unknown. Controls were matched for sex, age, visual impairment, and adaptive functioning and compared with OCRL patients on three standardized measures of adaptive/maladaptive behaviors. Forty-three matched pairs of OCRL and control subjects were identified. Both groups were similar in communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills, in socioeconomic status, and in measures of parental stress. Individuals with OCRL displayed significantly more severe maladaptive behaviors than control boys, as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), with 41% of the difference between the two groups attributable to the diagnosis of OCRL. Twelve maladaptive behaviors measured on the VABS appeared more frequently in OCRL than in controls. Five of these 12 behaviors, i.e., temper tantrums, irritability, complex repetitive behaviors (stereotypy)/mannerisms, obsessions/unusual preoccupations, and negativism, were identified by discriminant function analysis to significantly distinguish between controls and OCRL individuals. The diagnosis of OCRL is associated with a behavioral phenotype consisting of temper tantrums, stereotypy, stubbornness, and obsessions/unusual preoccupations. This phenotype cannot be attributed solely to the visual, motor, and intellectual disabilities characteristic of OCRL, and may represent a specific effect of the OCRL gene on the central nervous system. 57 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Principal component and cluster analysis of morphological variables reveals multiple discrete sub-phenotypes in weaver mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Serra, Roger; Valero, Oliver; Molina, Vanessa; Hervás, José P; Villegas, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluates the usefulness of the principal component analysis-based cluster analysis in the categorization of several sub-phenotypes in the weaver mutant by using several morphological parameters from the cerebellar cortex of control, heterozygous (+/wv) and homozygous (wv/wv) weaver mice. The quantified parameters were length of the cerebellar cortex, area of the external granular layer, area of the molecular layer, number of the external granular layer cells (EGL), and number of Purkinje cells (PCs). The analysis indicated that at postnatal day 8, the genotype +/wv presented three sub-phenotypes tagged as +/wv (0), +/wv (1) and +/wv (2), whereas two sub-phenotypes designated as wv (0)/wv (1) and wv (0)/wv (2) were identified in the genotype wv/wv. The number of PCs for the genotype +/wv and the number of EGL cells for the genotype wv/wv were the variables that discriminated the best among sub-phenotypes. Each one of the sub-phenotypes showed specific abnormalities in the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellar cortex as well as in the foliar pattern. In particular, the wv (0)/wv (1) and wv (0)/wv (2) sub-phenotypes had the most altered cytoarchitectonics, followed by the +/wv (2) sub-phenotype and then by the +/wv (1) one. The sub-phenotype +/wv (0) was the less affected one. Apart from reporting for the first time the coexistence of several sub-phenotypes in the weaver mutant, our approach provides a new statistical tool that can be used to assess cerebellar morphology.

  1. Effects of Deletion of Mutant Huntingtin in Steroidogenic Factor 1 Neurons on the Psychiatric and Metabolic Phenotype in the BACHD Mouse Model of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petersén, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric and metabolic features appear several years before motor disturbances in the neurodegenerative Huntington’s disease (HD), caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although the mechanisms leading to these aspects are unknown, dysfunction in the hypothalamus, a brain region controlling emotion and metabolism, has been suggested. A direct link between the expression of the disease causing protein, huntingtin (HTT), in the hypothalamus and the development of metabolic and psychiatric-like features have been shown in the BACHD mouse model of HD. However, precisely which circuitry in the hypothalamus is critical for these features is not known. We hypothesized that expression of mutant HTT in the ventromedial hypothalamus, an area involved in the regulation of metabolism and emotion would be important for the development of these non-motor aspects. Therefore, we inactivated mutant HTT in a specific neuronal population of the ventromedial hypothalamus expressing the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) in the BACHD mouse using cross-breeding based on a Cre-loxP system. Effects on anxiety-like behavior were assessed using the elevated plus maze and novelty-induced suppressed feeding test. Depressive-like behavior was assessed using the Porsolt forced swim test. Effects on the metabolic phenotype were analyzed using measurements of body weight and body fat, as well as serum insulin and leptin levels. Interestingly, the inactivation of mutant HTT in SF1-expressing neurons exerted a partial positive effect on the depressive-like behavior in female BACHD mice at 4 months of age. In this cohort of mice, no anxiety-like behavior was detected. The deletion of mutant HTT in SF1 neurons did not have any effect on the development of metabolic features in BACHD mice. Taken together, our results indicate that mutant HTT regulates metabolic networks by affecting hypothalamic circuitries that do not involve the SF1 neurons of the

  2. Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotypes in Men and Boys with X-Linked Ichthyosis: Evidence from a Worldwide Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sohini; Humby, Trevor; Davies, William

    2016-01-01

    Background X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all. Materials and Methods Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58) and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24) males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data. The survey comprised demographic and background information (including any prior clinical diagnoses) and validated questionnaires assaying phenotypes of particular interest (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11, adult and adolescent Autism Quotient, Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder Rating Scale). Results Individuals with XLI generally exhibited normal sensory function. Boys with XLI were at increased risk of developmental disorder, whilst adults with the condition were at increased risk of both developmental and mood disorders. Both adult and younger XLI groups scored significantly more highly than male general population norms on measures of inattention, impulsivity, autism-related traits, psychological distress and disruptive behavioural traits. Conclusions These findings indicate that both adult and younger males with XLI exhibit personality profiles that are distinct from those of males within the general population, and suggest that individuals with XLI may be at heightened risk of psychopathology. The data are consistent with the notion that STS is important in neurodevelopment and ongoing brain function, and

  3. Psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric power and psychiatric abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric abuse, such as we usually associate with practices in the former Soviet Union, is related not to the misuse of psychiatric diagnoses, but to the political power intrinsic to the social role of the psychiatrist in totalitarian and democratic societies alike. Some reflections are offered on the modern, therapeutic state's proclivity to treat adults as patients rather than citizens, disjoin rights from responsibilities, and thus corrupt the language of political-philosophical discourse. PMID:7996558

  4. Circadian Disruption in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie G; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that abnormalities in circadian rhythms might prove causally or pathophysiologically significant in psychiatric illness. The circadian regulation of hormonal and behavioral timekeeping processes is often altered in patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, and a susceptibility to rhythm instability may contribute to the functional impairment. For some patients, interventions that stabilize or resynchronize circadian rhythms prove therapeutically effective. Circadian disruption in the clinical profiles of most psychiatric illnesses and the treatment efficacy of chronobiological interventions suggest that attention to circadian phenotypes in a range of psychiatric disorders may help to uncover shared pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:26568124

  5. Psychiatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Santina; Dschida, Dorothy; Talen, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are acute disturbances in thought, behavior, mood, or social relationship that require immediate intervention as defined by the patient, family, or social unit to save the patient and/or others from imminent danger. Ensuring the safety of the patient, surrounding persons, and the medical team is the first step of evaluation. Treatment focuses on stabilization of the patient, then on specific symptoms and ultimately the cause of symptoms. There are important legal considerations, particularly regarding involuntary admissions. It is important to debrief with the patient, surrounding family, and the health care team to ensure a continued therapeutic alliance and the emotional health of all involved. PMID:27262012

  6. Irresistible impulse: psychiatric viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Weil, F

    1989-01-01

    The responses of the psychiatric profession to the legal criteria applied to irresistible impulse in cases of psychotic offenders are examined. An illustrative case, and its legal consequences, support the desirability of the psychiatric approach.

  7. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sandeep Kumar; Singh, Paramjit; Gargi, Parshotam D.; Goyal, Samta; Garg, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of psychiatric illness in correctional settings is significantly elevated, with higher than community rates reported for most mental disorders. Aims: (1) To examine the socio-demographic profile of convicted prisoners. (2) To evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in convicted prisoners. Materials and Methods: 500 convicts were assessed for psychiatric morbidity with the help of (a) Socio-demographic proforma, (b) Pareek Udai and Trivedi G's socio-economic status scale (rural) (household schedule), (c) Kuppuswamy's economic status scale (urban) and (d) Present State Examination (PSE). Results: 23.8% of the convicted prisoners were suffering from psychiatric illness excluding substance abuse. 56.4% of the prisoners had history of substance abuse / dependence prior to incarceration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a substantial burden of psychiatric morbidity exists in the prison population of India and the burden of psychiatric illness in this vulnerable and marginalized population poses a serious challenge to psychiatrists. PMID:22135446

  8. [History of psychiatric care].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H

    2006-01-01

    The lecture incorporates stages of the Ettelbruck jubilee-hospital into european psychiatric history of the two last centuries. Beginning with social exclusion in the sense of a Michel Foucauld ("Central Hospice"), then turning into a typical large psychiatric hospital the CHNP is nowadays a specialized clinic with national tasks within the network of mental health community care. Milestones of this evolution are: the isolation theory of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries; eugenics and euthanasia on patients in Nazi-Germany; the second psychiatric revolution after World War 2 and it's impact in Luxembourg.

  9. Psychiatric Disorders, Comorbidity, and Suicidality in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies have reported that psychiatric disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). However, surprisingly little is known about the independent associations between each disorder and each suicidal behavior due to a failure to account for comorbidity. Methods This study used data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001–2002) to examine the unique associations between psychiatric disorders and suicidality. Results A prior psychiatric disorder was present in 48.8% of those with a suicide ideation and in 65.2% of those with an attempt. Discrete-time survival models adjusting for comorbidity revealed that conduct disorder and alcohol abuse/dependence were the strongest predictors of a subsequent suicide attempt. Most disorders predicted suicidal ideation but few predicted the transition from ideation to a suicide plan or attempt. Limitations M-NCS is a household survey that excluded homeless and institutionalized people, andthe diagnostic instrument used did not include an assessment of all DSM-IV disorders which would increase the comorbidity discussed here. Conclusions These results reveal a complex pattern of associations in which diverse psychiatric disorders impact different parts of the pathway to suicide attempts. These findings will help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries. PMID:19926141

  10. Psychiatric hospitalization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Frydman, L

    1983-01-01

    An overview of psychiatric hospitalization in Poland is presented in the context of Polish political and socio-cultural developments. The areas addressed include: the characteristics of the patient population; the organization of Polish mental health service; the nature of psychiatric treatment; psychiatric legislation; patients' rights; and the training and social status of the various mental health professionals. In spite of the meager resources allocated to mental health services, and the consequent staff shortages and overcrowded, drab living conditions in psychiatric facilities, the care afforded patients is generally humane and nonoppressive. Polish psychiatry has succeeded in maintaining its professional autonomy and has assumed a leadership role in the modernization of its service delivery system.

  11. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  12. Psychiatric testimony in Britain.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, D

    1989-01-01

    In the criminal-justice system psychiatric evidence may be relevant both before and after conviction. The scope of psychiatric testimony in the criminal courts has been more restricted in Britain than it has been elsewhere. It is generally confined to questions of fitness to plead, responsibility and disposal after conviction. A distinction must be made between matters of clinical psychiatry and those of moral culpability or legal competence. When psychiatric evidence strays from purely clinical questions there is an increased likelihood of misuse and abuse. Even when considering clinical issues there are factors of a non-clinical nature which may distort the type of evidence given. The implications of these matters for psychiatric witnesses are discussed. It is suggested that forensic psychiatrists are refining their role as expert witnesses.

  13. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... Families Guide - Search No. 52; Updated November 2012 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate ...

  14. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.

  15. Psychiatric symptoms and CAG expansion in Huntington`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.W.; Schmid, W.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-02-16

    The mutation responsible for Huntington`s disease (HD) is an elongated CAG repeat in the coding region of the IT15 gene. A PCR-based test with high sensitivity and accuracy is now available to identify asymptomatic gene carriers and patients. An inverse correlation between CAG copy number and age at disease onset has been found in a large number of affected individuals. The influence of the CAG repeat expansion on other phenotypic manifestations, especially specific psychiatric symptoms has not been studied intensively. In order to elucidate this situation we investigated the relation between CAG copy number and distinct psychiatric phenotypes found in 79 HD-patients. None of the four differentiated categories (personality change, psychosis, depression, and nonspecific alterations) showed significant differences in respect to size of the CAG expansion. In addition, no influence of individual sex on psychiatric presentation could be found. On the other hand in patients with personality changes maternal transmission was significantly more frequent compared with all other groups. Therefore we suggest that clinical severity of psychiatric features in HD is not directly dependent on the size of the dynamic mutation involved. The complex pathogenetic mechanisms leading to psychiatric alterations are still unknown and thus genotyping does not provide information about expected psychiatric symptoms in HD gene carriers. 40 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago.

  17. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  18. Pharmacogenomics in Psychiatric Practice.

    PubMed

    El-Mallakh, Rif S; Roberts, R Jeannie; El-Mallakh, Peggy L; Findlay, Lillian Jan; Reynolds, Kristen K

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing in psychiatry is becoming an established clinical procedure. Several vendors provide clinical interpretation of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing of gene variants that have documented predictive implications regarding either pharmacologic response or adverse effects in depression and other psychiatric conditions. Such gene profiles have demonstrated improvements in outcome in depression, and reduction of cost of care of patients with inadequate clinical response. Additionally, several new gene variants are being studied to predict specific response in individuals. Many of these genes have demonstrated a role in the pathophysiology of depression or specific depressive symptoms. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art application of psychiatric pharmacogenomics. PMID:27514465

  19. [The rights of psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Baudis, P

    1995-05-01

    The author gives a historical account of patient's rights and in particular the development of codes of rights of psychiatric patients during the past twenty years. He describes differences in attitudes to rights of psychiatric patients in different societies and the different emphasis on patient's rights, as compared with rights of society. Briefly the so far most elaborated account of rights of psychiatric patients submitted by the American Psychiatric Association is described.

  20. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  1. Teaching psychiatric ethics.

    PubMed

    Bloch, S

    1988-11-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed a burgeoning of interest in ethical issues amongst psychiatrists. Teaching of the subject, however, remains at a rudimentary stage. Various approaches to such instruction are available, particularly modelling (students observe their experienced counterpart), the case method (examining specific clinical situations which involve a need for ethical decision-making), and the seminar approach (trainees are exposed to a core body of knowledge, mainly theoretical in nature). Faced with these different teaching models, the University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry has opted for a blend of all three approaches, which incorporates two goals: an increase in the trainees' sensitivity to the many intricate moral dilemmas facing the psychiatric profession; and their familiarity with salient concepts in moral philosophy which constitute a basis for ethical reasoning and which have a bearing on clinical practice. The teaching programme comprises the following: a pair of trainees prepares a presentation on an aspect of psychiatric ethics under the supervision of a senior psychiatrist. A moral philosopher assumes the role of discussant of the ethical problems raised by the trainees; this is followed by a general discussion. Topics have included involuntary hospitalization, dual loyalty, suicide, psychiatric diagnosis, and ethical issues in various spheres of psychiatric practice such as sex therapy, psychotherapy and child psychiatry. The approach has worked effectively and proved rewarding to all participants involved. PMID:3226351

  2. Psychiatric Morbidity Following Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, B.N.; Swain, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    A Case of cerebral neurocysticercosis reported with manic episode on first presentation which was confirmed after CT scan of Brain. Psychiatric manifestation showed a gradual decline following treatment with medication. Normal social and occupational functioning was ensured by prolonged treatment with Mood Stabilizer. PMID:21224909

  3. Psychiatric evidence in extenuation: assessment and testimony in homicide defendants.

    PubMed

    Zabow, T

    1989-01-01

    The role of psychiatric evaluation and testimony on 202 cases demonstrates the participation of mental health experts in the legal process. The majority of these cases fall outside the mental abnormal groupings of 'incompetent to stand trial' or 'criminal insane'. A finding of diminished responsibility on account of mental illness provides for a finding of extenuating circumstances on account of mental illness. The numerous factors and categories influencing the defendant's behaviour are specific to each, requiring presentation for the court's discretion as to significance of psychiatric factors in extenuation of sentence. The population studies as representative of psychiatric extenuation are a personal consecutive sample of court referrals for formal evaluation undertaken in a psychiatric hospital unit. Reasons for referral all include possible psychiatric disorder. One third of referrals were accused of killing a family member. Alcohol and drugs were contributory to the behaviour in 50 per cent of cases. The contributions of witchcraft and history of head injury to the sample are evident in subgroupings. The value of psychiatric contribution to the courts is discussed in relation to South African legal process and clinical experiences.

  4. Ethical issues in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Barry, Liliana Kalogjera

    2009-06-01

    The field of psychiatric research ethics has evolved in recent years. This evolution seems to stem from the efforts of various groups (eg, medical ethicists, regulatory bodies, and the profession's own association, the APA) and from increased understanding of the endeavor of psychiatric empirical research. Current data regarding mental illness highlight the need for the continued expansion of psychiatric research to help relieve the suffering of the many individuals whom mental illness affects. The ethics for psychiatric research should parallel this expansion of psychiatric research to ensure that studies sufficiently address ethical considerations and thus foster the proper, delicate balance between progress and protection (see Table 1).

  5. [Tinnitus and psychiatric comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Goebel, G

    2015-04-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. To date, its causes are not well understood. The perceived severity of tinnitus correlates more closely to psychological and general health factors than to audiometric parameters. Together with limbic structures in the ventral striatum, the prefrontal cortex forms an internal "noise cancelling system", which normally helps to block out unpleasant sounds, including the tinnitus signal. If this pathway is compromised, chronic tinnitus results. Patients with chronic tinnitus show increased functional connectivity in corticolimbic pathways. Psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients who seek help for tinnitus or hyperacusis. Clinicians need valid screening tools in order to identify patients with psychiatric disorders and to tailor treatment in a multidisciplinary setting.

  6. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning.

  7. An Optimization-Based Framework for the Transformation of Incomplete Biological Knowledge into a Probabilistic Structure and Its Application to the Utilization of Gene/Protein Signaling Pathways in Discrete Phenotype Classification.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Mohammad Shahrokh; Dougherty, Edward R

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype classification via genomic data is hampered by small sample sizes that negatively impact classifier design. Utilization of prior biological knowledge in conjunction with training data can improve both classifier design and error estimation via the construction of the optimal Bayesian classifier. In the genomic setting, gene/protein signaling pathways provide a key source of biological knowledge. Although these pathways are neither complete, nor regulatory, with no timing associated with them, they are capable of constraining the set of possible models representing the underlying interaction between molecules. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework and the mathematical tools to transform signaling pathways to prior probabilities governing uncertainty classes of feature-label distributions used in classifier design. Structural motifs extracted from the signaling pathways are mapped to a set of constraints on a prior probability on a Multinomial distribution. Being the conjugate prior for the Multinomial distribution, we propose optimization paradigms to estimate the parameters of a Dirichlet distribution in the Bayesian setting. The performance of the proposed methods is tested on two widely studied pathways: mammalian cell cycle and a p53 pathway model. PMID:26671803

  8. Principles of Discrete Time Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-04-01

    1. Introduction; 2. The physics of discreteness; 3. The road to calculus; 4. Temporal discretization; 5. Discrete time dynamics architecture; 6. Some models; 7. Classical cellular automata; 8. The action sum; 9. Worked examples; 10. Lee's approach to discrete time mechanics; 11. Elliptic billiards; 12. The construction of system functions; 13. The classical discrete time oscillator; 14. Type 2 temporal discretization; 15. Intermission; 16. Discrete time quantum mechanics; 17. The quantized discrete time oscillator; 18. Path integrals; 19. Quantum encoding; 20. Discrete time classical field equations; 21. The discrete time Schrodinger equation; 22. The discrete time Klein-Gordon equation; 23. The discrete time Dirac equation; 24. Discrete time Maxwell's equations; 25. The discrete time Skyrme model; 26. Discrete time quantum field theory; 27. Interacting discrete time scalar fields; 28. Space, time and gravitation; 29. Causality and observation; 30. Concluding remarks; Appendix A. Coherent states; Appendix B. The time-dependent oscillator; Appendix C. Quaternions; Appendix D. Quantum registers; References; Index.

  9. Psychiatric UR worksheet.

    PubMed

    Barnes, H

    1988-01-01

    This worksheet was developed in response to an ever increasing number and intensity of admission and concurrent telephone reviews conducted by third and fourth-party payors. This worksheet was developed as an aid in information gathering for subsequent telephone and other reviews. The left-margin headings evolved from queries for information from the most demanding psychiatric nurse reviewers. When I have fully addressed all the information in my review, it is usually no problem in obtaining certification for admission or continued stay for the patient.

  10. Forensic psychiatric examinations: competency.

    PubMed

    Koson, D F

    1982-01-01

    The many definitions of competency in civil, criminal, and domestic relations law are discussed with emphasis on the various legal criteria for competency and the different classes of psychiatric information required to apply the criteria to a given case. Within the context of a general discussion of forensic examinations, techniques for gathering the right kind of information are systematically related to the exigencies of evaluating past, present, or future mental states by selectively altering the focus of mental status evaluations and history-taking. In addition, special investigative techniques such as hypnosis, Amytal sodium interview, stress interview, psychological testing, and others are discussed.

  11. [Psychiatric dossier and firing.].

    PubMed

    Beau, R

    1985-01-01

    This article is part of a general outline on the Psychiatry of Work, and with the help of case histories, looks upon a sector not well researched in the literature: the direct or indirect use of the psychiatric file in the firing of an employee. The first case presents a patient known as such, who had become too ill to reintegrate his job and who needed help having his fundamental rights recognized. In the second case, the employer, on the strength of a psychiatric evaluation he himself had ordered, fired an employee, invoquing a refusal on his part to accept treatment. Testimonies revealed afterwards that abnormal pressures were used on this employee. The author concludes that in similar cases, caution is necessary especially when the demand for an evaluation comes from the employer. He wishes that in an overall perspective of social réintégration, the therapeutic teams give more attention to the réintégration in the work field.

  12. Noncoding RNAs and neurobehavioral mechanisms in psychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    The human genome project has revolutionized our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in psychiatric disease. It is now abundantly clear that neurobehavioral phenotypes are epigenetically controlled by noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The microRNA (miRNA) class of ncRNAs are ubiquitously expressed throughout the brain and govern all major neuronal pathways. The attractive therapeutic potential of miRNAs is underscored by their pleiotropic capacities, putatively targeting multiple pathways within a single neuron. Many psychiatric diseases stem from a multi-factorial origin, thus conventional drug targeting of single proteins may not prove most effective. In this exciting post-genome sequencing era, many new epigenetic targets are emerging for therapeutic investigation. Here we review the reported roles of miRNAs, as well as other ncRNA classes, in the pathology of psychiatric disorders; there are both common and unique ncRNA mechanisms that influence the various diagnoses. Collectively, these potent epigenetic regulators may clarify the disrupted signaling networks in psychiatric phenotypes. PMID:25824307

  13. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  14. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  15. The Psychiatric Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles R.; Lucas, Alexander R.

    A general textbook on the psychiatric disorders of childhood, the book is intended to be an introductory text for students and practitioners working with children (such as psychiatric and pediatric residents and psychologists, teachers, medical students). The genesis of mental illness is discussed in terms of the contributions of heredity and the…

  16. Broader Indications for Psychiatric Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A liaison approach to psychiatric consultation increases the patient population who can benefit from psychiatric assessment during hospitalization for medical or surgical conditions. It also broadens the scope of the psychiatric investigation of the individual patient. The meaning of the illness to the patient, and the patient's present methods of adapting to his or her illness are important considerations. Unconscious concerns, which interfere with the patient's compliance to medical treatment, may be sufficiently clarified and resolved so that medical progress is expedited. Psychiatric consultation can be used to prevent an untoward psychological reaction to illness, if this is foreseen. This preventive consultation, which is often possible only because of the family physician's awareness of the psychological vulnerability of some of her or his patients, can result in reduced medical and psychiatric morbidity. PMID:21263836

  17. Psychiatric morbidity in primary care.

    PubMed

    al-Haddad, M K; al-Garf, A; al-Jowder, S; al-Zurba, F I

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of hidden psychiatric morbidity was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD). A total of 149 Bahraini patients aged > or = 16 years were selected randomly from those attending primary health care centres for problems other than psychiatric illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity using GHQ was 45.1% (cut-off > or = 5) and 27.1% (cut-off > or = 9). Using the HAD scale, the prevalence was 44.4% (cut-off > or = 8) and 23.6% (cut-off > or = 11). Psychiatric morbidity was more common in women aged 50-55 years, in divorcees or widows and in lesser educated patients. Either instrument could be used to diagnose psychiatric illness.

  18. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  19. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  20. Exorcism: a psychiatric viewpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Trethowan, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    Doctors, for several reasons, should be concerned with exorcism is the view of Professor Trethowan, who in this paper, looks at the main features of exorcism as practised in the middle ages and now appearing in the modern world, as was seen in the recent Ossett case in Britain. He examines in some detail the nature of supposed demoniacal possession and describes its symptoms and signs. He also touches on the social, as opposed to the religious, background in which demoniacal possession flourished (not lacking in the world today), so leading to an examination of the psychodynamic aspects of demoniacal possession and the question of absolute evil. Finally he compares the techniques of exorcism and of modern psychiatric practice. PMID:966260

  1. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-17

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  2. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    PubMed

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory.

  3. Discrete monotron oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Haynes, W.B.

    1996-08-01

    The authors theoretically and numerically investigate the operation and behavior of the discrete monotron oscillator, a novel high-power microwave source. The discrete monotron differs from conventional monotrons and transit time oscillators by shielding the electron beam from the monotron cavity`s RF fields except at two distinct locations. This makes the discrete monotron act more like a klystron than a distributed traveling wave device. As a result, the oscillator has higher efficiency and can operate with higher beam powers than other single cavity oscillators and has more stable operation without requiring a seed input signal than mildly relativistic, intense-beam klystron oscillators.

  4. Care systematization in psychiatric nursing within the psychiatric reform context.

    PubMed

    Hirdes, A; Kantorski, L P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to approach care systematization in psychiatric nursing in two psychiatric disorder patients who attended 'Nossa Casa', São Lourenço do Sul, RS, Brazil. Nossa Casa services psychiatric patients in the community, focussing on: (i) permanence in their environment, allowing patients to remain close to their families and social spheres; (ii) integral attendance to meet individual needs; (iii) respecting individual differences; (iv) rehabilitation practices; and (v) social reinsertion. Concepts and assumptions of the psychiatric reform and the Irving's nursing process were used as theoretical-methodological references to elaborate this systematization. A therapeutic project for the psychiatric patient was elaborated, in accordance with the interdisciplinary proposal accepted by Nossa Casa. Interdisciplinary team intervention, guided by a previously discussed common orientation and defined through an individualized therapeutic project, allowed for an effective process of psychosocial rehabilitation. The authors concluded that a therapeutic project based on the mentioned premises leads to consistent, comprehensive, dialectical and ethical assistance in mental health, thereby reinstating the citizenship of psychiatric patients.

  5. [Psychiatric advance directives--medical models into psychiatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Mautner, Sigal; Lachman, Max; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Since the year 2005, in the field of general medicine, the legislature in Israel determined ways to implement medically advanced directives according to the power of the law. Different states in the world had implemented parallel legislation for patients who suffer from mental illness. Psychiatric Advance Directives is a legitimate document which is valid in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, England and in 25 countries in the U.S.A. Psychiatric advance directives (PAD's) allow competent persons, through advance instructions, to state their preferences for future mental health treatment in the event of an incapacitating psychiatric crisis. Self Determination Theory, Self Care and Autonomy are dominant supportive approaches in the creation of Psychiatric Advance Directives. Research conducted on psychiatric advance directives shows positive potential benefits for mental health clients, therapists and psychiatrists. More research in that area must be conducted. Psychiatric advance directives are currently developed and implemented with the cooperation of the Tauber Foundation and the Beer Sheva Mental Health Center. This is the first step in learning of effective ways to use this intervention in Israel and change perceptions toward a positive connection between medical efficiency and client preferences.

  6. The Discrete Hanging Cable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

  7. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  8. Epigenetic approaches to psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Carolyn; Petronis, Arturas

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric diseases place a tremendous burden on affected individuals, their caregivers, and the health care system. Although evidence exists for a strong inherited component to many of these conditions, dedicated efforts to identify DNA sequence-based causes have not been exceptionally productive, and very few pharmacologic treatment options are clinically available. Many features of psychiatric diseases are consistent with an epigenetic dysregulation, such as discordance of monozygotic twins, late age of onset, parent-of-origin and sex effects, and fluctuating disease course. In recent years, experimental technologies have significantly advanced, permitting indepth studies of the epigenome and its role in maintenance of normal genomic functions, as well as disease etiopathogenesis. Here, we present an epigenetic explanation for many characteristics of psychiatric disease, review the current literature on the epigenetic mechanisms involved in major psychosis, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorders, and describe some future directions in the field of psychiatric epigenomics. PMID:20373664

  9. Psychiatric Emergencies in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael P; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Shah, Asim A; Vilke, Gary M

    2015-11-01

    Psychiatric emergencies in pregnancy can be difficult to manage. The authors (both practicing psychiatrists and emergency clinicians) review the evaluation and treatment of common mental health diagnoses in pregnancy.

  10. Psychiatric Diagnostic Uncertainty: Challenges to Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Aultman, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    In this case and commentary, a patient's request to be treated for depression without a stigmatizing diagnostic label of bipolar II disorder challenges a clinician's obligation to provide a clinically and ethically appropriate diagnosis and safe treatment consistent with the patient's family medical history. Sensitively recognizing and responding to patients' concerns and values, even when they might conflict with the delivery of reasonable psychiatric care, is essential when gauging the appropriateness of such therapeutic practices. Furthermore, developing honest and open communication; recognizing that patients, like some psychiatric diagnoses, do not fit into discrete boundaries or cannot be categorized by a single label; and placing the patient at the center of care can all serve to resolve value conflicts, protect patient privacy, and promote accurate diagnostic and treatment practices. PMID:27322991

  11. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  12. Psychiatric manifestations in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraidakis, M J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare and severe, but treatable, inborn disorder of bile acid biosynthesis and sterol storage with autosomal recessive inheritance and variable clinical presentation. CTX treatment consists of chenodeoxycholic acid and must be started as early as possible to prevent permanent disability. Psychiatric manifestations are rare and non-specific, and often lead to significant diagnostic and treatment delay. Therefore, better recognition of the gamut of psychiatric manifestations in CTX can diminish the risk of misdiagnosis and irreversible neurological deterioration. We hereby describe the psychiatric features in CTX. A complete review of all published cases of CTX in the medical literature was undertaken and the case reports with psychiatric presentation were collected and analyzed. We also describe the psychiatric features in relation to the neurological semeiology in six patients with CTX diagnosed at the La Salpêtrière Hospital. We conclude that psychiatric manifestations in CTX follow a bimodal/bitemporal pattern, appearing early in the disease course in the form of a behavioral/personality disorder associated with learning difficulties or mental retardation, or manifesting in advanced disease in the setting of dementia as rich neuropsychiatric syndromes, such as frontal, orbitofrontal or frontotemporal syndromes of cortico-subcortical dementia encompassing behavioral/personality disturbance, affective/mood disorders or psychotic disorders. Behavioral/personality disturbance in childhood or adolescence, especially when accompanied by learning difficulties, should therefore lead to further investigation to exclude CTX, as early diagnosis and treatment is critical for prognosis. PMID:24002088

  13. From solitary vice to split mind: psychiatric discourses of male sexuality and coming of age, 1918-1938.

    PubMed

    Cohen, E

    1999-01-01

    Early in this century, adolescence began to emerge as a discrete, biologically based and, therefore, "natural" subject category. The psychiatric profession engaged in the discursive production of the adolescent through the identification, classification and use of the psychiatric illness of adolescent insanity. The mental disease of youth, dementia praecox, drew young men into a tutelary relationship with psychiatrists, who were eager to delineate the appropriate strategies for avoidance of the age-specific mental disease.

  14. Dopamine in socioecological and evolutionary perspectives: implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system functions in such social groups of animals, and its dysfunction causes compromises in the groups has remained less understood. Here we propose that alterations of DA signaling and associated genetic variants and behavioral phenotypes, which have been normally considered as “deficits” in investigation at an individual level, may not necessarily yield disadvantages, but even work advantageously, depending on social contexts in groups. This hypothesis could provide a novel insight into our understanding of the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, and a potential explanation that disadvantageous phenotypes associated with DA deficits in psychiatric disorders have remained in humans through evolution. PMID:26136653

  15. Accountability and psychiatric disorders: how do forensic psychiatric professionals think?

    PubMed

    Höglund, Pontus; Levander, Sten; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Radovic, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Swedish penal law does not exculpate on the grounds of diminished accountability; persons judged to suffer from severe mental disorder are sentenced to forensic psychiatric care instead of prison. Re-introduction of accountability as a condition for legal responsibility has been advocated, not least by forensic psychiatric professionals. To investigate how professionals in forensic psychiatry would assess degree of accountability based on psychiatric diagnoses and case vignettes, 30 psychiatrists, 30 psychologists, 45 nurses, and 45 ward attendants from five forensic psychiatric clinics were interviewed. They were asked (i) to judge to which degree (on a dimensional scale from 1 to 5) each of 12 psychiatric diagnoses might affect accountability, (ii) to assess accountability from five case vignettes, and (iii) to list further factors they regarded as relevant for their assessment of accountability. All informants accepted to provide a dimensional assessment of accountability on this basis and consistently found most types of mental disorders to reduce accountability, especially psychotic disorders and dementia. Other factors thought to be relevant were substance abuse, social network, personality traits, social stress, and level of education.

  16. Psychiatric syndromes in individuals with chromosome 18 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Juan; Ramirez, Mercedes; Medina, Rolando; Heard, Patricia; Carter, Erika; Crandall, AnaLisa; Hale, Daniel; Cody, Jannine; Escamilla, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Chromosome 18 abnormalities are associated with a range of physical abnormalities such as short stature and hearing impairments. Psychiatric manifestations have also been observed. This study focuses on the presentations of psychiatric syndromes as they relate to specific chromosomal abnormalities of chromosome 18. Twenty-five subjects (13 with an 18q deletion, 9 with 18p tetrasomy, and 3 with an 18p deletion), were interviewed by psychiatrists (blind to specific chromosomal abnormality) using the DIGS (subjects 18 and older) or KSADS-PL (subjects under 18). A consensus best estimation diagnostic process was employed to determine psychiatric syndromes. Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Agilent Technologies) was utilized to define specific regions of chromosome 18 that were deleted or duplicated. These data were further analyzed to determine critical regions of the chromosome as they relate to phenotypic manifestations in these subjects. 58.3% of the chromosome 18q- deletion subjects had depressive symptoms, 58.3% had anxiety symptoms, 25% had manic symptoms, and 25% had psychotic symptoms. 66.6% of the chromosome 18p- deletion subjects had anxiety symptoms, and none had depressive, manic, or psychotic symptoms. Fifty percent of the chromosome 18p tetrasomy subjects had anxiety symptoms, 12.5% had psychotic symptoms, and 12.5% had a mood disorder. All three chromosomal disorders were associated with high anxiety rates. Psychotic, manic and depressive disorders were seen mostly in 18q- subjects and this may be helpful in narrowing regions for candidate genes for these psychiatric conditions. PMID:19927307

  17. Depression: discrete or continuous?

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the true structure of depression is necessary if we are to advance our understanding and treatment options. Central to the issue of structure is whether depression represents discrete types or occurs on a continuum. Nature almost universally operates on the basis of continuums, whereas human perception favors discrete categories. This reality might be formalized into a 'continuum principle': natural phenomena tend to occur on a continuum, and any instance of hypothesized discreteness requires unassailable proof. Research evidence for discrete types falls far short of this standard, with most evidence supporting a continuum. However, quantitative variation can yield qualitative differences as an emergent property, fostering the appearance of discreteness. Depression as a continuum is best characterized by duration and severity dimensions, with the latter understood in terms of depressive inhibition. In the absence of some degree of cognitive, emotional, social, and physical inhibition, depression should not be diagnosed. Combining the dimensions of duration and severity provides an optimal way to characterize the quantitative and related qualitative aspects of depression and to describe the overall degree of dysfunction. The presence of other symptom types occurs when anxiety, hypomanic/manic, psychotic, and personality continuums interface with the depression continuum. PMID:25531962

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  19. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  20. Understanding due discretion of judgment in Catholic marriage courts.

    PubMed

    Young, J L; Griffith, E E

    1991-01-01

    Psychiatrists and psychologists provide consultation to the Catholic Church's marriage courts. Operating under the Church's legal code, these tribunals assess the validity of weddings that have ended in divorce. This report describes one of the standards used for this purpose, the lack of due discretion of judgment, which is concerned with the maturity, understanding, and appreciation that the couple brought to the ceremony. This normal capacity is vulnerable to various mental illnesses, which if present with sufficient severity may nullify the marriage vows as seen by the Church (though not necessarily by the state). Such a finding results in freedom to marry again despite the Church's ban on divorce, provided that due discretion of judgment is regained. Case examples and discussion of the assessment process for due discretion of judgment prepare the consultant to apply psychiatric findings to this unique and urgent legal issue.

  1. The Tidal Model: developing an empowering, person-centred approach to recovery within psychiatric and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Barker, P

    2001-06-01

    Nursing theories and nursing models have a low profile within psychiatric and mental health nursing in the United Kingdom. This paper describes the philosophical and theoretical background of the Tidal Model, which emerged from a 5-year study of the 'need for psychiatric nursing'. The Tidal Model extends and develops some of the traditional assumptions concerning the centrality of interpersonal relations within nursing practice. The model also integrates discrete processes for re-empowering the person who is disempowered by mental distress or psychiatric services or both. The paper reports briefly on the ongoing evaluation of the model in practice.

  2. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress. PMID:26060583

  3. Phenotype-specific diagnosis of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Espay, Alberto J; Lang, Anthony E

    2015-06-01

    Published diagnostic criteria for functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs) include psychiatric symptoms and some historical variables to affect the threshold between categories of diagnostic certainty. Clinically probable and possible categories, however, do not suffice to rule in FMD or rule out complex organic movement disorders and therefore are of little practical help. In contrast, a handful of unequivocal and reliably incongruent or inconsistent clinical features in each functional movement phenotype, when present, allow a clinically definite diagnosis of FMD, regardless of any psychiatric symptom. We suggest that the use of phenotype-specific clinically definite FMD diagnostic criteria will increase inter-rater reliability and minimize false-positive diagnostic errors. This process involves the ascertainment of core (mandatory) examination features instead of supportive but insufficiently sensitive historical, psychiatric, and inconsistent examination features. PMID:25900093

  4. The Reliability of Psychiatric Diagnosis Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Eric; France, Cheryl; El-Missiry, Ahmed; John, Collin

    2006-01-01

    Background: The authors reviewed the topic of reliability of psychiatric diagnosis from the turn of the 20th century to present. The objectives of this paper are to explore the reasons of unreliability of psychiatric diagnosis and propose ways to improve the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on the concept of reliability of psychiatric diagnosis with emphasis on the impact of interviewing skills, use of diagnostic criteria, and structured interviews on the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. Results: Causes of diagnostic unreliability are attributed to the patient, the clinician and psychiatric nomenclature. The reliability of psychiatric diagnosis can be enhanced by using diagnostic criteria, defining psychiatric symptoms and structuring the interviews. Conclusions: The authors propose the acronym ‘DR.SED,' which stands for diagnostic criteria, reference definitions, structuring the interview, clinical experience, and data. The authors recommend that clinicians use the DR.SED paradigm to improve the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:21103149

  5. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  6. Deformed discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  7. Discrete breathers in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Baimova, Yu A.; Velarde, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems, in addition to traveling waves, support vibrational defect-localized modes. It turned out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Since the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, it is only through the special choice of initial conditions that a group of nodes can be found on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), will be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of the small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically conserve its vibrational energy forever provided no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery in them of DBs was only a matter of time. It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems support both traveling waves and vibrational defect-localized modes. It turns out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Because the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, only a special choice of the initial conditions allows selecting a group of nodes on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), can be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically preserve its vibrational energy forever if no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery of DBs in them was only a matter of time. Experimental studies of DBs encounter major technical difficulties, leaving atomistic computer simulations as the primary investigation tool. Despite

  8. Psychiatric wards: places of safety?

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Nolan, P; Bowers, L; Simpson, A; Whittington, R; Hackney, D; Bhui, K

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the purpose and quality of provision delivered in acute inpatient psychiatric settings have been increasingly questioned. Studies from a service user perspective have reported that while some psychiatric inpatients feel safe and cared for, others feel their time in hospital is neither safe nor therapeutic. This paper explores the experiences of service users on acute inpatient psychiatric wards in England, with a particular focus on their feelings of safety and security. Interviews were conducted with 60 psychiatric inpatients in England. The majority of service users felt safe in hospital and felt supported by staff and other service users. However, anything that threatened their sense of security such as aggression, bullying, theft, racism and the use of alcohol and drugs on the ward, made some respondents feel insecure and unsafe. Psychiatric wards are still perceived by many as volatile environments, where service users feel forced to devise personal security strategies in order to protect themselves and their property. It would appear that there remains much to do before research findings and policies are implemented in ways that facilitate all service users to derive the maximum benefit from their inpatient experience.

  9. Psychiatric wards: places of safety?

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Nolan, P; Bowers, L; Simpson, A; Whittington, R; Hackney, D; Bhui, K

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the purpose and quality of provision delivered in acute inpatient psychiatric settings have been increasingly questioned. Studies from a service user perspective have reported that while some psychiatric inpatients feel safe and cared for, others feel their time in hospital is neither safe nor therapeutic. This paper explores the experiences of service users on acute inpatient psychiatric wards in England, with a particular focus on their feelings of safety and security. Interviews were conducted with 60 psychiatric inpatients in England. The majority of service users felt safe in hospital and felt supported by staff and other service users. However, anything that threatened their sense of security such as aggression, bullying, theft, racism and the use of alcohol and drugs on the ward, made some respondents feel insecure and unsafe. Psychiatric wards are still perceived by many as volatile environments, where service users feel forced to devise personal security strategies in order to protect themselves and their property. It would appear that there remains much to do before research findings and policies are implemented in ways that facilitate all service users to derive the maximum benefit from their inpatient experience. PMID:20465757

  10. Validation of candidate genes associated with cardiovascular risk factors in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Windemuth, Andreas; de Leon, Jose; Goethe, John W; Schwartz, Harold I; Woolley, Stephen; Susce, Margaret; Kocherla, Mohan; Bogaard, Kali; Holford, Theodore R; Seip, Richard L; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants predictive of cardiovascular risk factors in a psychiatric population treated with second generation antipsychotics (SGA). 924 patients undergoing treatment for severe mental illness at four US hospitals were genotyped at 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Patients were assessed for fasting serum lipid (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDLc], high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLc], and triglycerides) and obesity phenotypes (body mass index, BMI). Thirteen candidate genes from previous studies of the same phenotypes in non-psychiatric populations were tested for association. We confirmed 8 of the 13 candidate genes at the 95% confidence level. An increased genetic effect size was observed for triglycerides in the psychiatric population compared to that in the cardiovascular population.

  11. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.

  12. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  13. Family violence and psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Bland, R; Orn, H

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between family violence and psychiatric disorders was examined using standardized diagnostic interviews of 1200 randomly selected residents of a large Canadian city. The results showed that higher than expected proportions of those exhibiting violent behavior had a psychiatric diagnosis and the rate of violent behaviors in those with diagnoses (54.4%) significantly (p less than .0001) exceeds the rate in the remainder of the sample (15.5%). Particularly high rates of violence are found in those where alcoholism is combined with antisocial personality disorder and/or recurrent depression (80-93%). Also at high risk for violence are those who have made suicide attempts (over 50%) and those who have been arrested for non-traffic offences (two-thirds). These data suggest that psychiatric disorders have a strong relationship to violent behavior, and are not in agreement with the predominantly sociological explanations of family violence.

  14. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use

  16. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use.

  17. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  18. Discrete cavity solitons.

    PubMed

    Peschel, U; Egorov, O; Lederer, F

    2004-08-15

    We derive evolution equations describing light propagation in an array of coupled-waveguide resonators and predict the existence of discrete cavity solitons. We identify stable, unstable, and oscillating solitons by varying the coupling strength between the anticontinuous and the continuous limit. PMID:15357356

  19. Religious ideas and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, B; Argyle, M

    1977-01-01

    The evidence presented above points to the need for considering factors other than purely religious ones in determining the role of religious ideas in psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of religious ideas as part of the content of individual delusional systems in psychiatric patients can be explained on the basis of exposure to religious ideas through the social environment. It may be also related to the prominence of religion, vis-a-vis other belief systems, in the social envirnment. When considering psychopathological explanations for intense religious experiences, one has to be conscious again of the social factors involved. When an unusual experience having religious content becomes normative in a certain group (for whatever reasons), trying to explain its appearance on the basis of individual psychodynamics or psychopathology becomes very difficult. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the social nature of a religious experience and its psychopathological nature, i.e., there is more psychopathology in individuals reporting solitary religious experiences, or individual religious ideas. Thus the solitary experience seems to be more influenced by disturbed individual dynamics, but in other cases social factors seem to be crucial. Our overall conclusion is that a psychiatric analysis of the role of religious factors in psychopathology has to be first a social-psychiatric analysis. An individual presenting psychiatric symptoms and religious ideas has to be evaluated in light of his social background, since the specific content of psychiatric symptoms seems to be determined by social background factors. Individual psychodynamics determine the appearance of symptoms, but their particular form will be the result of these background factors, one of which is religion. PMID:863602

  20. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  1. Brain Tumours Simulating Psychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, G. E.

    1963-01-01

    Brain tumours may present with symptoms indistinguishable from psychiatric disease. The impression of most psychiatrists is that individuals suffering from brain tumour rarely appear among their patients. A priori reasoning based on evidence from neurological, neurosurgical and pathological sources suggests the contrary. The present study is a frequency analysis of cases of previously undiagnosed brain tumours admitted to either an open psychoneurotic ward or a mental hospital over a period of 15 years. The results support the impression held by psychiatrists that brain tumours are uncommon among psychiatric patients. PMID:13954870

  2. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  3. Psychiatric pharmacogenomics in pediatric psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Wall, Christopher A; Croarkin, Paul E; Swintak, Cosima; Koplin, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an overview of where psychiatric pharmacogenomic testing stands as an emerging clinical tool in modern psychotropic prescribing practice, specifically in the pediatric population. This practical discussion is organized around the state of psychiatric pharmacogenomics research when choosing psychopharmacologic interventions in the most commonly encountered mental illnesses in youth. As with the rest of the topics on psychopharmacology for children and adolescents in this publication, a clinical vignette is presented, this one highlighting a clinical case of a 16 year old genotyped during hospitalization for recalcitrant depression.

  4. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.

    PubMed

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  5. Teaching Psychodynamics to Psychiatric Residents through Psychiatric Outpatient Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso Zoppe, Eva Helena C.; Schoueri, Patricia; Castro, Monica; Neto, Francisco Lotufo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates whether a course that was designed for first-year psychiatric residents and that specifically addressed psychodynamic principles fostered residents' progress in knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding these concepts. Methods: The course was given in the 2005 academic year to all residents (N=18) in their first…

  6. A theoretical framework for psychiatric nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Onega, L L

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, specific theoretical frameworks which are congruent with psychiatric nursing practice have been poorly articulated. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss a philosophical base, a theoretical framework, application to psychiatric nursing, and issues related to psychiatric nursing knowledge development and practice. A philosophical framework that is likely to be congruent with psychiatric nursing, which is based on the nature of human beings, health, psychiatric nursing and reality, is identified. Aaron Antonovsky's Salutogenic Model is discussed and applied to psychiatric nursing. This model provides a helpful way for psychiatric nurses to organize their thinking processes and ultimately improve the health care services that they offer to their clients. Goal setting and nursing interventions using this model are discussed. Additionally, application of the use of Antonovsky's model is made to nursing research areas such as hardiness, uncertainty, suffering, empathy and literary works. Finally, specific issues related to psychiatric nursing are addressed.

  7. Test of Treatment in Psychiatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Feras Ali

    2011-01-01

    Due to lack of laboratorial investigations in psychiatric practice, tests of treatment are often used to aid diagnosis. This article provides examples of test of treatment in psychiatric practice and outlines their limitations. PMID:22506439

  8. Poetry Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Catherine J.

    Poetry therapy has been in use with adult psychiatric patients at Saint Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, D.C, for 10 years. The treatment used involves reading poetry, listening to recordings, studying poets, and writing poetry. The patients' choice of poems is not restricted by the staff, but different types of poetry appeal to different types of…

  9. Functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Staab, J P

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral factors have long been recognized as affecting spatial orientation and balance function. Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic studies conducted worldwide over the last 30 years have substantially advanced our knowledge about the inherently strong connectivity among threat/anxiety, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems in the brain. Clinical investigations have shed greater light on the nature of functional and psychiatric disorders that manifest or magnify vestibular morbidity. Concepts of these syndromes have changed over 150 years. Even their nomenclature has had different meanings in different eras. This chapter will review functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders. Terminology will follow the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition, beta draft and the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders. Anxiety plays a central role in behavioral vestibular morbidity. Anxiety, traumatic stress, obsessive, and depressive disorders may be primary causes of episodic and chronic vestibular symptoms or secondary complications of other vestibular disorders. These psychiatric illnesses affect 30-50% of patients who consult neurologists or otologists for vestibular symptoms. Coexisting psychiatric disorders adversely affect treatment for patients with structural vestibular diseases, especially when unrecognized. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the leading cause of long-term vestibular disability. Fortunately, pharmacologic, psychotherapeutic, and rehabilitative treatments of these illnesses have improved in recent years. PMID:27638082

  10. Associations among Major Psychiatric Diagnoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Abraham W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined the frequency and associations of multiple diagnoses in 205 psychiatric inpatients, assessing past and current episodes of illness. Over one-half of the sample received more than one diagnosis. Alcoholism, antisocial personality, and drug dependence formed one group; primary depression, primary mania, and secondary affective disorder,…

  11. PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS IN THE SCHOOLS.

    PubMed

    Maccurdy, J T

    1916-12-01

    The purpose of this important paper by Doctor MacCurdy is to point out why psychiatric clinics in the schools may offer reasonable hope of reducing insanity in the later life of the pupils. And since it is undoubtedly true that the next problem of public health administration will be concerned with mental disorders, where better to begin than with the school child?

  12. Job satisfaction in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Cowman, S

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, mental health services across Europe have undergone major organizational change with a move from institutional to community care. In such a context, the impact of change on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses and data were collected in 2003. The population of qualified psychiatric nurses (n = 800) working in a defined geographical health board area was surveyed. Methodological triangulation with a between-methods approach was used in the study. Data were collected on job satisfaction using a questionnaire adopted from the Occupational Stress Indicator. A response rate of 346 (43%) was obtained. Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data. Factors influencing levels of job satisfaction predominantly related to the nurses work location. Other factors influencing job satisfaction included choice of work location, work routine, off duty/staff allocation arrangements, teamwork and working environment. The results of the study highlight to employers of psychiatric nurses the importance of work location, including the value of facilitating staff with choices in their working environment, which may influence the recruitment and retention of nurses in mental health services. PMID:17635253

  13. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The mean age…

  14. The psychiatric presentation of fragile x: evolution of the diagnosis and treatment of the psychiatric comorbidities of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tranfaglia, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders worldwide. It presents with a distinct behavioral phenotype which overlaps significantly with that of autism. Unlike autism and most common psychiatric disorders, the neurobiology of fragile X is relatively well understood. Lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein causes dysregulation of synaptically driven protein synthesis, which in turn causes global disruption of synaptic plasticity. Thus, FXS can be considered a disorder of synaptic plasticity, and a developmental disorder in the purest sense: mutation of the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) gene results in abnormal synaptic development in response to experience. Accumulation of this abnormal synaptic development, over time, leads to a characteristic and surprisingly consistent behavioral phenotype of attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsivity, multiple anxiety symptoms, repetitive/perseverative/stereotypic behaviors, unstable affect, aggression, and self-injurious behavior. Many features of the behavioral and psychiatric phenotype of FXS follow a developmental course, waxing and waning over the life span. In most cases, symptoms present as a mixed clinical picture, not fitting established diagnostic categories. There have been many clinical trials in fragile X subjects, but no placebo-controlled trials of adequate size or methodology utilizing the most commonly prescribed psychiatric medications. However, large and well-designed trials of investigational agents which target the underlying pathology of FXS have recently been completed or are under way. While the literature offers little guidance to the clinician treating patients with FXS today, potentially disease-modifying treatments may be available in the near future.

  15. Internees in Poland: psychiatric abuse claim.

    PubMed

    Rich, Vera

    1982-09-30

    The World Psychiatric Association has been asked to intervene on behalf of four Polish internees who are claiming to be victims of psychiatric repression for political reasons. Under martial law, Poland's security forces have shown a renewed interest in psychiatric internment of disruptive persons. PMID:11643799

  16. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  17. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  18. Discreteness induced extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy

    2015-11-01

    Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.

  19. Early-life stress interactions with the epigenome: potential mechanisms driving vulnerability toward psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Candace R; Olive, M Foster

    2014-09-01

    Throughout the 20th century a body of literature concerning the long-lasting effects of the early environment was produced. Adverse experiences in early life, or early-life stress (ELS), is associated with a higher risk of developing various psychiatric illnesses. The mechanisms driving the complex interplay between ELS and adult phenotype has baffled many investigators for decades. Over the last decade, the new field of neuroepigenetics has emerged as one possible mechanism by which ELS can have far-reaching effects on adult phenotype, behavior, and risk for psychiatric illness. Here we review two commonly investigated epigenetic mechanisms, histone modifications and DNA methylation, and the emerging field of neuroepigenetics as they relate to ELS. We discuss the current animal literature demonstrating ELS-induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression that results in altered adult phenotypes. We also briefly discuss other areas in which neuroepigenetics has emerged as a potential mechanism underlying environmental and genetic interactions.

  20. A paradigm for discrete physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.

    1987-01-01

    An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity.

  1. [Authority in the psychiatric clinic].

    PubMed

    Laemmel, K

    1983-01-01

    Although considerable progress was made as far as therapy and individual rights of the patients are concerned today the psychiatric hospital is more than ever the butt of open citicism. One of the reasons for that is the odium of involuntarity and authority surrounding it. It is based on the ill-fame and dubious reputation of the nineteenth century "asylum". The problem of authority concerns today's hospitals as much as ever. How the hospital is run depends naturally in the first place on the personality of it's director his views on authority, as much as on his understanding and ability to handle the intensive dynamic processes in the institution. Recognizing the boundaries of his actual knowledge and training, his "authoritative authority", makes him wisely limit his goals and activities. Power or "authoritarian authority" must be employed with restraint and moderation but without hesitancy when necessary. The clinic represents for the patient a total milieu. It's therapeutic effect relies a great deal on the regulatory influence of the daily routine based on the authority of the treatment team. Jones' ideas of the "Therapeutic Community" have only limited value for today's psychiatric hospital. Even less significant contributions have been made by the antipsychiatric movement or the Marxist-inspired reformers of the last decades. Only that is therapeutic which in the final analysis helps the patient to cope successfully with reality. Even today the use of involuntary measures-seclusion and medication etc. remain a necessary tool for the treatment of some patients. As every institution is always part of a public or private structure, it's authority is always bridled by these. Ethical clinical psychiatry requires an ethical political state, if it is not to become it's henchman. Even in democratic countries problems may arise around involuntary hospitalization, the care of psychiatrically ill criminals or the legalities around medicating the uncooperative psychotic

  2. Psychiatric issues in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Thomas W; Marcangelo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation present a unique opportunity for psychiatric involvement in the care of medically complex patients. The burden of psychiatric illness in patients awaiting transplant and following transplant is significant and associated with potential morbidity and mortality. Possibilities for psychiatric liaison with our colleagues in transplant medicine and surgery start with the comprehensive psychiatric evaluation that is often performed with potential organ recipients and donors. The vital role of the psychiatrist continues following transplantation, as adjustment is often a stressful experience with associated psychiatric comorbidity. The treatment of psychiatric illness in patients following transplantation requires an understanding of the immunosuppressant medications that patients may be taking, coupled with an awareness of the associated risks of adverse effects and drug-drug interactions.

  3. Association between variants of zinc finger genes and psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Hu, Die; Liang, Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders have a negative impact on society and human lives. Genetic factors are involved in the occurrence and development of psychiatric diseases. ZNF804A has been identified as one of the most compelling risk genes associated with broad phenotypes related to psychosis. We conducted a systematic meta-analysis and reviewed ZNF804A variants in psychosis-related disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We also summarized the association between other zinc finger protein genes (ZNFs) and psychiatric diseases. The meta-analysis included a total of six variants of ZNF804A and three variants of other ZNFs (ZDHHC8 and ZKSCAN4), and the effects of ZNF variants on neurocognition and neuroimaging phenotypes were reviewed. The biological functions of these variants are also presented. We verified that ZNF804A was significantly related to psychiatric diseases, and the association between ZNF804A rs1344706 and psychosis (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) did not vary with disease or ethnicity. The main brain area regulated by ZNF804A rs1344706 was the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The effect of ZNF804A variants on cognition did not display consistency with different diseases or methodologies. These findings suggest that ZNF804A might play an important role in common pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, and its variants are likely involved in regulating the expression of psychosis-related genes, especially the dopamine pathway genes. Further research should focus on the molecular mechanisms by which ZNF804A variants act in psychiatric diseases and related phenotypes.

  4. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  5. Fratricide: a forensic psychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of fratricide rates based on national homicide data have provided some general information pertaining to offenders and victims of sibling homicide but are limited by data constraints to examining a few major variables. Exploring fratricide from a forensic psychiatric perspective could uncover other related factors and provide insight into why some individuals murder their siblings. In a retrospective study of data from coroners' files on domestic homicide pertaining to individuals killed by their siblings over a 10-year period in Quebec, Canada, we identified several specific offender and victim characteristics and circumstances surrounding offenses. The impact of mental illness and substance abuse on fratricidal behavior is indicated, underscoring the importance of identifying existing psychopathology. From a forensic psychiatric perspective, we identify characteristic patterns and discuss potential dynamics operating in fratricide. We raise some issues relevant to treatment and prevention, including the fact that most cases are alcohol-related, impulsive, and unpredictable until the moment they occur.

  6. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  7. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  8. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  9. Discrete Dynamics Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  10. Caution When Diagnosing Your Mouse With Schizophrenia: The Use and Misuse of Model Animals for Understanding Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert H C; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biomedical research, but their applicability to psychiatric disorders is less clear. There are several reasons for this, including 1) emergent features of psychiatric illness that are not captured by the sum of individual symptoms, 2) a lack of equivalency between model animal behavior and human psychiatric symptoms, and 3) the possibility that model organisms do not have (and may not be capable of having) the same illnesses as humans. Here, we discuss the effective use, and inherent limitations, of model animals for psychiatric research. As disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a genetic risk factor across a spectrum of psychiatric disorders, we focus on the results of studies using mice with various mutations of DISC1. The data from a broad range of studies show remarkable consistency with the effects of DISC1 mutation on developmental/anatomical endophenotypes. However, when one expands the phenotype to include behavioral correlates of human psychiatric diseases, much of this consistency ends. Despite these challenges, model animals remain valuable for understanding the basic brain processes that underlie psychiatric diseases. We argue that model animals have great potential to help us understand the core neurobiological dysfunction underlying psychiatric disorders and that marrying genetics and brain circuits with behavior is a good way forward. PMID:26058706

  11. Caution When Diagnosing Your Mouse With Schizophrenia: The Use and Misuse of Model Animals for Understanding Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert H C; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biomedical research, but their applicability to psychiatric disorders is less clear. There are several reasons for this, including 1) emergent features of psychiatric illness that are not captured by the sum of individual symptoms, 2) a lack of equivalency between model animal behavior and human psychiatric symptoms, and 3) the possibility that model organisms do not have (and may not be capable of having) the same illnesses as humans. Here, we discuss the effective use, and inherent limitations, of model animals for psychiatric research. As disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a genetic risk factor across a spectrum of psychiatric disorders, we focus on the results of studies using mice with various mutations of DISC1. The data from a broad range of studies show remarkable consistency with the effects of DISC1 mutation on developmental/anatomical endophenotypes. However, when one expands the phenotype to include behavioral correlates of human psychiatric diseases, much of this consistency ends. Despite these challenges, model animals remain valuable for understanding the basic brain processes that underlie psychiatric diseases. We argue that model animals have great potential to help us understand the core neurobiological dysfunction underlying psychiatric disorders and that marrying genetics and brain circuits with behavior is a good way forward.

  12. Imaging Genetics and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of large-scale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders. PMID:25732148

  13. Imaging genetics and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-Omethyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of largescale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders.

  14. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  15. Adult Neurogenesis and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunchai; Wen, Zhexing; Song, Hongjun; Christian, Kimberly M; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders continue to be among the most challenging disorders to diagnose and treat because there is no single genetic or anatomical locus that is causative for the disease. Current treatments are often blunt tools used to ameliorate the most severe symptoms, at the risk of disrupting functional neural systems. There is a critical need to develop new therapeutic strategies that can target circumscribed functional or anatomical domains of pathology. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be one such domain. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional regulation and forms of learning and memory that include temporal and spatial memory encoding and context discrimination, and that its dysregulation is associated with psychiatric disorders, such as affective disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Further, adult neurogenesis has proven to be an effective model to investigate basic processes of neuronal development and converging evidence suggests that aberrant neural development may be an etiological factor, even in late-onset diseases. Constitutive neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the mature brain reflects large-scale plasticity unique to this region and could be a potential hub for modulation of a subset of cognitive and affective behaviors that are affected by multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:26801682

  16. Chronotherapeutics in a psychiatric ward.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Barbini, Barbara; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2007-12-01

    Psychiatric chronotherapeutics is the controlled exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. In recent years some techniques (mainly light therapy and sleep deprivation) have passed the experimental developmental phase and reached the status of powerful and affordable clinical interventions for everyday clinical treatment of depressed patients. These techniques target the same brain neurotransmitter systems and the same brain areas as do antidepressant drugs, and should be administered under careful medical supervision. Their effects are rapid and transient, but can be stabilised by combining techniques among themselves or together with common drug treatments. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics target the broadly defined depressive syndrome, with response and relapse rates similar to those obtained with antidepressant drugs, and good results are obtained even in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression. Chronotherapeutics offer a benign alternative to more radical treatments of depression for the treatment of severe depression in psychiatric wards, but with the advantage of rapidity of onset.

  17. Discrete-Time Goldfishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    The original continuous-time ''goldfish'' dynamical system is characterized by two neat formulas, the first of which provides the N Newtonian equations of motion of this dynamical system, while the second provides the solution of the corresponding initial-value problem. Several other, more general, solvable dynamical systems ''of goldfish type'' have been identified over time, featuring, in the right-hand (''forces'') side of their Newtonian equations of motion, in addition to other contributions, a velocity-dependent term such as that appearing in the right-hand side of the first formula mentioned above. The solvable character of these models allows detailed analyses of their behavior, which in some cases is quite remarkable (for instance isochronous or asymptotically isochronous). In this paper we introduce and discuss various discrete-time dynamical systems, which are as well solvable, which also display interesting behaviors (including isochrony and asymptotic isochrony) and which reduce to dynamical systems of goldfish type in the limit when the discrete-time independent variable l=0,1,2,... becomes the standard continuous-time independent variable t, 0≤t<∞.

  18. PSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS OF CLINICAL PRACTICE IN GENERAL HOSPITALS: A SURVEY OF NON-PSYCHIATRIC CLINICIANS

    PubMed Central

    Chadda, R.K.; Shome, S.

    1996-01-01

    The present work was carried out to study the awareness of non-psychiatric clinicians working in a teaching general hospital about the frequency of psychiatric morbidity in their clinical practice, their utilization of psychiatric consultation services, and opinion about utility of liaison psychiatry in general hospitals. A substantial proportion of doctors underestimated the psychiatric morbidity especially about unexplained physical symptoms and specific depressive symptoms in their patients. Psychiatric consultation services were not sufficiently utilised by a large number of clinicians. Most ofthemfelt the need to improve upon undergraduate medical education in psychiatry in India as well as a desire to have consultation - liaison psychiatric units in India. PMID:21584151

  19. [Support for the psychiatric nurse specialist and the psychiatric community nurse in their interactions with the psychiatric patient. Part II].

    PubMed

    van Wyk, S; Poggenpoel, M; Gmeiner, A C

    1998-09-01

    In this article the research is described that had as goal to generate a supportive approach for the psychiatric nurse specialist to the psychiatric community nurse in interaction with the psychiatric patient, to promote, maintain and restore their mental health as an integral part of health. Guidelines for operationalisation of this supportive approach by the psychiatric nurse specialist, are also described. The research design utilised a qualitative, descriptive and contextual design. The exploratory field work was done in phase one of this research (as described in part I of these articles) and consisted of phenomenological interviews and focus groups. Trustworthiness was ensured by utilising Guba's model for trustworthiness.

  20. Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H

    2014-09-01

    An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  1. Nonintegrable Schrodinger discrete breathers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Floría, L M; Peyrard, M; Bishop, A R

    2004-12-01

    In an extensive numerical investigation of nonintegrable translational motion of discrete breathers in nonlinear Schrödinger lattices, we have used a regularized Newton algorithm to continue these solutions from the limit of the integrable Ablowitz-Ladik lattice. These solutions are shown to be a superposition of a localized moving core and an excited extended state (background) to which the localized moving pulse is spatially asymptotic. The background is a linear combination of small amplitude nonlinear resonant plane waves and it plays an essential role in the energy balance governing the translational motion of the localized core. Perturbative collective variable theory predictions are critically analyzed in the light of the numerical results.

  2. Discrete bisoliton fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. M.; Han, X. X.; Yao, X. K.

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative solitons, which result from the intricate balance between dispersion and nonlinearity as well as gain and loss, are of the fundamental scientific interest and numerous important applications. Here, we report a fiber laser that generates bisoliton – two consecutive dissipative solitons that preserve a fixed separation between them. Deviations from this separation result in its restoration. It is also found that these bisolitons have multiple discrete equilibrium distances with the quantized separations, as is confirmed by the theoretical analysis and the experimental observations. The main feature of our laser is the anomalous dispersion that is increased by an order of magnitude in comparison to previous studies. Then the spectral filtering effect plays a significant role in pulse-shaping. The proposed laser has the potential applications in optical communications and high-resolution optics for coding and transmission of information in higher-level modulation formats. PMID:27767075

  3. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  4. Discrete Pearson distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, K.O. ); Shenton, L.R. ); Kastenbaum, M.A. , Basye, VA )

    1991-11-01

    These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.

  5. Discrete anti-gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P. ); Starson, S. )

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.

  6. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Doane, B K; Quigley, B G

    1981-09-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.Other areas dealt with inadequately in most of the articles reviewed included analyses of symptoms and of the evidence on the duration of sequelae, descriptions of the criteria for approving abortions, investigation of the psychiatric histories of the patients, presentation of data on the effects of refusing abortion requests, systematic study of a number of epidemiologic factors, and analyses of the circumstances leading to pregnancy in patients having abortions. The evidence was found to be sparse on the effects of supportive relationships, different abortion techniques and the length of gestation on the psychologic status of patients. Little attention was paid to the consequences of psychiatric labelling of patients, or to the effect of having an abortion on factors that may influence future pregnancies.The potential roles of health care professionals appear to deserve more study, and little research seems to have been done to compare the psychologic factors associated with abortion and those associated with live birth. As well, there is little evidence that differences in abortion legislation account for significant differences in the psychologic

  7. Psychiatric stigma in correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D; Metzner, J L

    1994-01-01

    While legislatively sanctioned discrimination against the mentally ill in general society has largely disappeared, it persists in correctional systems where inmates are denied earn-time reductions in sentences, parole opportunities, placement in less restrictive facilities, and opportunities to participate in sentence-reducing programs because of their status as psychiatric patients or their need for psychotropic medications. The authors discuss the prevalence of such problems from detailed examinations of several correctional systems and from the results of a national survey of correctional medical directors.

  8. Psychiatric Emergencies in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Veronica; Kalra, S; Galwankar, Sagar; Sagar, Galwankar

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing life expectancy, the geriatric population has been increasing over the past few decades. By the year 2050, it is projected to compose more than a fifth of the entire population, representing a 147% increase in this age group. There has been a steady increase in the number of medical and psychiatric disorders, and a large percentage of geriatric patients are now presenting to the emergency department with such disorders. The management of our progressively complex geriatric patient population will require an integrative team approach involving emergency medicine, psychiatry, and hospitalist medicine.

  9. RDoC and Translational Perspectives on the Genetics of Trauma-Related Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L.; Gelernter, Joel; Hudziak, James; Kaufman, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a history of child abuse are at high risk for depression, anxiety disorders, aggressive behavior, and substance use problems. The goal of this paper is to review studies of the genetics of these stress-related psychiatric disorders. An informative subset of studies that examined candidate gene by environment (GxE) predictors of these psychiatric problems in individuals maltreated as children is reviewed, together with extant genome wide association studies (GWAS). Emerging findings on epigenetic changes associated with adverse early experiences are also reviewed. Meta-analytic support and replicated findings are evident for several genetic risk factors; however, extant research suggests the effects are pleiotropic. Genetic factors are not associated with distinct psychiatric disorders, but rather diverse clinical phenotypes. Research also suggests adverse early life experiences are associated with changes in gene expression of multiple known candidate genes, genes involved in DNA transcription and translation, and genes necessary for brain circuitry development, with changes in gene expression reported in key brain structures implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and substance use disorders. The finding of pleiotropy highlights the value of using the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework in future studies of the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders, and not trying simply to link genes to multifaceted clinical syndromes, but to more limited phenotypes that map onto distinct neural circuits. Emerging work in the field of epigenetics also suggests that translational studies that integrate numerous unbiased genome-wide approaches will help to further unravel the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26592203

  10. Monoamine oxidase and agitation in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Podobnik, Josip; Kozumplik, Oliver; Vlatkovic, Suzana; Pivac, Nela

    2016-08-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia or conduct disorder display a lifelong pattern of antisocial, aggressive and violent behavior and agitation. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme involved in the degradation of various monoamine neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and therefore has a role in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and pathological behaviors. Platelet MAO-B activity has been associated with psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits, while variants of the MAOA and MAOB genes have been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including aggressiveness, antisocial problems and violent delinquency. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of platelet MAO-B activity, MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism and MAOA uVNTR polymorphism with severe agitation in 363 subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. The results demonstrated significant association of severe agitation and smoking, but not diagnosis or age, with platelet MAO-B activity. Higher platelet MAO-B activity was found in subjects with severe agitation compared to non-agitated subjects. Platelet MAO-B activity was not associated with MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism. These results suggested the association between increased platelet MAO-B activity and severe agitation. No significant association was found between severe agitation and MAOA uVNTR or MAOB rs1799836 polymorphism, revealing that these individual polymorphisms in MAO genes are not related to severe agitation in subjects with schizophrenia and conduct disorder. As our study included 363 homogenous Caucasian male subjects, our data showing this negative genetic association will be a useful addition to future meta-analyses. PMID:26851573

  11. Epigenetic Signaling in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic-stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is revealing new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:24709417

  12. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  13. Value-sensitive psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Kalian, Moshe; Witztum, Eliezer

    2010-09-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation contains value-laden concepts that may be unacceptable to certain cultures and many individuals. The concepts of independence and work are examined in a clash between mental health professionals in charge of national policies in psychiatric rehabilitation in Israel and a rehabilitation center for the severely mentally ill within the ultra-orthodox Jewish community. The government professionals considered that having the living quarters and work site in the same building deemed it unsuitable for rehabilitation, and too few progressed to independent living and working. As such, they ordered the center to be closed. Clients' families turned to the Supreme Court and the claims and counter claims reveal value-laden positions. The bases for misunderstanding and lack of cooperation between the government professionals and the rehabilitation center are explained in the context of everyday life and values in the ultra-orthodox Jewish community and attitudes in the general population. Fruitful cooperation is based on appreciating core values, identifying and working with the community's figures of authority, and accepting that the role of the mental health professional is to advise the community, within which the professional has no status.

  14. [150 years of psychiatric therapy].

    PubMed

    von Keyserlingk, H

    1976-06-01

    The treatment of insane persons in the last century is briefly described. A more liberal and unrestrained treatment was introduced at the turn of the century, and chiefly agriculturally oriented insane asylums were established at that time. The question of persons trained to care for subjects afflicted with insanity was increasingly gaining in importance, and the aim was to have available a pool of skilled nursing personnel. Treatment by inducing artificial fever is outlined in addition to a brief description of a more activ treatment of patients by the Simon-Gütersloh method. In 1925, a "neuro-psychiatric dispensary" was established in the Soviet Union. Later, there were introduced such methods as insulin shock treatment and electroconvulsive therapy and, more recently, treatment with psychopharmaceuticals, the latter being drugs used in the treatment of emotional disorders in modern psychiatric hospitals. Inpatient and outpatient treatment is further developed with the establishment of day/night hospitals, and the need is pointed out to develop a system of care for mental patients on the model of that which exists in the Soviet Union.

  15. [Mental capacity of psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2010-12-01

    Nearly every society maintains legal norms that define those members of society qualified to participate in social affairs. Mental capacity and legal competence are deemed necessary conditions for legal actions to have legal validity. On Nov. 23, 2009, newly revised adult guardianship provisions came into effect in Taiwan. However, there has been lack of discussion with regard to how assessments of mental capacity and legal competence should be conducted on psychiatric patients. This paper reviewed relevant overseas literature on this subject and followed common practice in separating legal mental capacity into causal and functional components. The causal component predicates the diseases and illnesses that render the disability, while the functional component represents legally substantial impairments in terms of cognition, emotion and behavior. The paper explored functional component contents, including finance management, individual health care, independence in daily life, interpersonal relationships and communing. Findings pointed out that in setting up competence standards, a trade-off between respect for autonomy and beneficence is unavoidable. As Taiwan does not have rich empirical data on competence assessments and decisions, collaboration between the legal and psychiatric professions is recommended to engage in relevant research to enhance legal consistencies and the science of competence assessment.

  16. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  17. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

  18. PRN prescribing in psychiatric inpatients: potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon J C; Lennard, Martin S; Ghahramani, Parviz; Pratt, Peter; Robertson, Andrea; Potokar, John

    2007-03-01

    Medications are commonly prescribed to psychiatric inpatients on a PRN (pro re nata/as required) basis, allowing drugs to be administered on patient request or at nurses' discretion for psychiatric symptoms, treatment side effects or physical complaints. However, there has been no formal study of the pharmacokinetic implications of PRN prescribing. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of PRN drug prescription and administration, and to assess the potential for interactions involving CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 between drugs prescribed and administered to inpatients on psychiatry wards.A cross-sectional survey of prescriptions on general adult and functional elderly psychiatric wards in one city was carried out. Data were recorded from prescription charts of 323 inpatients (236 on general adult and 87 on functional elderly wards). Of 2089 prescriptions, 997 (48%) of prescriptions were on a PRN basis (most commonly benzodiazepines and other hypnotic agents, antipsychotics, analgesics and anticholinergic agents), but only 143 (14%) of these had been administered in the previous 24 hours. One fifth of patients were prescribed drug combinations interacting with CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 of potential clinical importance which included one or more drugs prescribed on a PRN basis.PRN prescribing is common among inpatients in psychiatry, and may lead to cytochrome P450 mediated interactions. Prescribers should be aware of the potential for unpredictability in plasma concentrations, side effects and efficacy which PRN prescribing may cause through these interactions, particularly in old age psychiatry and in treatment of acute psychosis.

  19. Amish Revisited: Next Generation Sequencing Studies of Psychiatric Disorders Among the Plain People

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Liping; Faraci, Gloria; Chen, David T.W.; Kassem, Layla; Schulze, Thomas G.; Shugart, Yin Yao; McMahon, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has led to renewed interest in the potential contribution of rarer forms of genetic variation to complex, non-Mendelian phenotypes, such as psychiatric illnesses. Although challenging, family-based studies offer some advantages, especially in communities with large families and a limited number of founders. Here we revisit family-based studies of mental illnesses in traditional Amish and Mennonite communities -- known collectively as the Plain people. We discuss the new opportunities for NGS in these populations, with a particular emphasis on investigating psychiatric disorders. We also address some of the challenges facing NGS-based studies of complex phenotypes in founder populations. PMID:23422049

  20. Semantic Web Ontology and Data Integration: a Case Study in Aiding Psychiatric Drug Repurposing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jingchun; Tao, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing progress towards treating mental illness, there remain significant difficulties in selecting probable candidate drugs from the existing database. We describe an ontology - oriented approach aims to represent the nexus between genes, drugs, phenotypes, symptoms, and diseases from multiple information sources. Along with this approach, we report a case study in which we attempted to explore the candidate drugs that effective for both bipolar disorder and epilepsy. We constructed an ontology that incorporates the knowledge between the two diseases and performed semantic reasoning task on the ontology. The reasoning results suggested 48 candidate drugs that hold promise for a further breakthrough. The evaluation was performed and demonstrated the validity of the proposed ontology. The overarching goal of this research is to build a framework of ontology - based data integration underpinning psychiatric drug repurposing. This approach prioritizes the candidate drugs that have potential associations among genes, phenotypes and symptoms, and thus facilitates the data integration and drug repurposing in psychiatric disorders. PMID:27570661

  1. Semantic Web Ontology and Data Integration: a Case Study in Aiding Psychiatric Drug Repurposing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jingchun; Tao, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing progress towards treating mental illness, there remain significant difficulties in selecting probable candidate drugs from the existing database. We describe an ontology - oriented approach aims to represent the nexus between genes, drugs, phenotypes, symptoms, and diseases from multiple information sources. Along with this approach, we report a case study in which we attempted to explore the candidate drugs that effective for both bipolar disorder and epilepsy. We constructed an ontology that incorporates the knowledge between the two diseases and performed semantic reasoning task on the ontology. The reasoning results suggested 48 candidate drugs that hold promise for a further breakthrough. The evaluation was performed and demonstrated the validity of the proposed ontology. The overarching goal of this research is to build a framework of ontology - based data integration underpinning psychiatric drug repurposing. This approach prioritizes the candidate drugs that have potential associations among genes, phenotypes and symptoms, and thus facilitates the data integration and drug repurposing in psychiatric disorders.

  2. The Next Challenge for Psychiatric Genetics: Characterizing the Risk Associated with Identified Genes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Background As advances in genetics further our ability to identify genes influencing psychiatric disorders, the next challenge facing psychiatric genetics is to characterize the risk associated with specific genetic variants in order to better understand how these susceptibility genes are involved in the pathways leading to illness. Methods To further this goal, findings from behavior genetic analyses about how genetic influences act can be used to guide hypothesis testing about the effects associated with specific genes. Results Using the phenotype of alcohol dependence as an example, this paper provides an overview of how the integration of behavioral and statistical genetics can advance our knowledge about the genetics of psychiatric disorders. Areas currently being investigated in behavior genetics include careful delineation of phenotypes, to examine the heritability of various aspects of normal and abnormal behavior; developmental changes in the nature and magnitude of genetic and environmental effects; the extent to which different behaviors are influenced by common genes; and different forms of gene-environment correlation and interaction. Conclusions Understanding how specific genes are involved in these processes has the potential to significantly enhance our understanding of the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:17162621

  3. Phenotypic models of evolution and development: geometry as destiny.

    PubMed

    François, Paul; Siggia, Eric D

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative models of development that consider all relevant genes typically are difficult to fit to embryonic data alone and have many redundant parameters. Computational evolution supplies models of phenotype with relatively few variables and parameters that allows the patterning dynamics to be reduced to a geometrical picture for how the state of a cell moves. The clock and wavefront model, that defines the phenotype of somitogenesis, can be represented as a sequence of two discrete dynamical transitions (bifurcations). The expression-time to space map for Hox genes and the posterior dominance rule are phenotypes that naturally follow from computational evolution without considering the genetics of Hox regulation.

  4. Discrete subaortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M M; Varma, M P; Cleland, J; O'Kane, H O; Webb, S W; Mulholland, H C; Adgey, A A

    1981-01-01

    Data concerning 17 consecutive patients with discrete subaortic stenosis are recorded. Twelve patients underwent operative resection of the obstructing lesion. Of these all except one were symptomatic and all had electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular hypertrophy with strain. They had a peak resting systolic left ventricular outflow tract gradient of greater than 50 mmHg as predicted from the combined cuff measurement of systolic blood pressure and the echocardiographically estimated left ventricular systolic pressure and/or as determined by cardiac catheterisation. The outflow tract gradient as predicted from M-mode echocardiography and peak systolic pressure showed close correlation with that measured at cardiac catheterisation or operation. During the postoperative follow-up from one month to 11 years, of 11 patients, one patient required a further operation for recurrence of the obstruction four years after the initial operation. All patients are now asymptomatic. Five patients have not had an operation. The left ventricular outflow tract gradient as assessed at the time of cardiac catheterisation was greater than 50 mmHg. One patient has been lost to follow-up. The remaining four have been followed from four to eight years and have remained asymptomatic and the electrocardiograms have remained unchanged. Careful follow-up of all patients is essential with continuing clinical assessment, electrocardiograms, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms, and if necessary cardiac catheterisation. Prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis is also essential. Images PMID:6457617

  5. Discreteness inducing coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.

  6. Psychiatric comorbidities of episodic and chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Buse, Dawn C; Silberstein, Stephen D; Manack, Aubrey N; Papapetropoulos, Spyros; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-08-01

    Migraine is a prevalent disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Population- and clinic-based studies suggest that psychiatric comorbidities, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, are more common among persons with chronic migraine than among those with episodic migraine. Additional studies suggest that psychiatric comorbidities may be a risk factor for migraine chronification (i.e., progression from episodic to chronic migraine). It is important to identify and appropriately treat comorbid psychiatric conditions in persons with migraine, as these conditions may contribute to increased migraine-related disability and impact, diminished health-related quality of life, and poor treatment outcomes. Here, we review the current literature on the rates of several psychiatric comorbidities, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder, among persons with migraine in clinic- and population-based studies. We also review the link between physical, emotional, and substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, and migraine. Finally, we review the data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification and explore theories and evidence underlying the comorbidity between migraine and these psychiatric disorders. PMID:23132299

  7. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges.

  8. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges. PMID:26071640

  9. Sleep in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems.

  10. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation’s largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges. PMID:26071640

  11. The new Russian law on psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, D

    1994-01-01

    On July 2, 1992, President Boris Yeltsin signed into effect a law that has the potential for advancing human rights of psychiatric clients in the Russian Federation. The author provides a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Russian psychiatric laws, demonstrating a striking similarity of the laws in terms of substance and scope.

  12. Personal Digital Assistants in Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, John S.; Ton, Hendry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the various administrative and clinical applications for PDA use in psychiatric care and review the process for implementation in an academic medical center. Method: The authors reviewed the psychiatric literature and tested various hardware and software products. Results: The literature describes various uses of…

  13. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  14. Community Mental Health and the Psychiatric Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.

    The National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT), a non-profit organization, is the outgrowth of local and state organizations of psychiatric attendants, aides, and technicians who had banded together to improve their knowledge and skills and to demonstrate their competence to assume greater responsibilities in the care and treatment of…

  15. Behavioral Interviewing in Psychiatric Rehabilitation Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan

    Psychiatric rehabilitation differs from traditional approaches to mental health, because it places much greater emphasis on the importance of the person's relationship with the environment. In psychiatric rehabilitation, the importance is not placed on finding a cure for the client's mental illness; rather, what matters is the ability to hold a…

  16. Accommodating Faculty and Staff with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Barbara A.; Ruger, Peter H.

    This pamphlet discusses the legal protections for employees with psychiatric disabilities, and analyzes the decisions of federal and state courts in cases where employees who claimed a psychiatric disorder challenged an employment decision under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, or state law. It…

  17. Psychiatric diagnosis: the indispensability of ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses how debate over the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has tended to privilege certain conceptions of psychiatric diagnosis over others, as well as to polarise positions regarding psychiatric diagnosis. The article aims to muddy the black and white tenor of many discussions regarding psychiatric diagnosis by moving away from the preoccupation with diagnosis as classification and refocusing attention on diagnosis as a temporally and spatially complex, as well as highly mediated process. The article draws on historical, sociological and first-person perspectives regarding psychiatric diagnosis in order to emphasise the conceptual—and potentially ethical—benefits of ambivalence vis-à-vis the achievements and problems of psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:24515564

  18. Discrete Darboux transformation for discrete polynomials of hypergeometric type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerezako, Gaspard

    1998-03-01

    The Darboux transformation, well known in second-order differential operator theory, is applied to the difference equations satisfied by the discrete hypergeometric polynomials (Charlier, Meixner-Kravchuk, Hahn).

  19. Discrete Dirac Structures and Implicit Discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leok, Melvin; Ohsawa, Tomoki

    2010-07-01

    We present discrete analogues of Dirac structures and the Tulczyjew's triple by considering the geometry of symplectic maps and their associated generating functions. We demonstrate that this framework provides a means of deriving discrete analogues of implicit Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. In particular, this yields implicit nonholonomic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian integrators. We also introduce discrete Lagrange-d'Alembert-Pontryagin and Hamilton-d'Alembert variational principles, which provide an alternative derivation of the same set of integration algorithms. In addition to providing a unified treatment of discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics in the more general setting of Dirac mechanics, it provides a generalization of symplectic and Poisson integrators to the broader category of Dirac integrators.

  20. Psychiatric Aspects of Female Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Myre; Emens, J. M.; Jordan, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Follow-up of 151 women who had been sterilized for social or gynaecological reasons one to three years earlier showed that 146 were completely satisfied with the results of the operation on their health and on their sexual relationships with their husbands. The five who were dissatisfied either wished they could still conceive or found the operation had not produced the effect hoped for. On the basis of this study we believe that adverse psychiatric sequelae of sterilization can be kept to a minimum with careful selection of patients. Women should be over 30 or if younger should have had two or more children, and the operation should not be performed at childbirth, in the neonatal period, or during a postabortive depression. PMID:4718839

  1. Measurement of Psychiatric Treatment Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Velligan, Dawn; Weiden, Peter J.; Valenstein, Marcia; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonadherence to medications for mental disorders substantially limits treatment effectiveness and results in higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and disability. Accurate measurement of medication adherence is important not only in adherence research, but also in clinical trials in which medications are being evaluated, and in clinical practice where failure to detect nonadherence results in premature medication changes, unnecessary polypharmacy, and greater likelihoods of functional deteriorations and hospitalizations. This is a review of psychiatric treatment adherence methods and measures arising from a meeting on “Methodological Challenges in Psychiatric Treatment Adherence Research” held on September 27-28, 2007 in Bethesda, MD and organized by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Methods This paper reviews the range of modalities currently available for assessing adherence behavior including pill counts, pharmacy records, technology-assisted monitoring, biological assays, and a range of self-report and interviewer-rated scales. Measures of adherence attitudes are also reviewed. Results Each of the adherence measures described are imperfect estimates of actual medication ingestion but each provides informative estimates of adherence or the attitudinal factors associated with adherence. Measure selection depends on a range of factors including the patient sample, the context in which the measure is being used, and the clinical outcomes expected from various levels of nonadherence. The use of multiple measures of adherence is encouraged to balance the limitations of individual measures. Conclusion While adherence assessment has become increasingly sophisticated in recent years there remains a need for refinement and expansion on currently available methods and measures. PMID:21109048

  2. Psoriasis and Associated Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, José Luís Pio Da Costa; Reis, José Pedro Gaspar Dos; Figueiredo, Américo Manuel Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high impact on self-esteem and patients’ health-related quality of life. In the last decades some studies have pointed out mental disorders associated with psoriasis and the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind that co-existence. This work compiles psychopathology associated with psoriasis and further analyzes the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and mental disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and using the “5S” levels of organization of evidence from healthcare research, as previously described. Results: Psoriasis is linked with many mental disorders, both in the psychotic and neurotic sprectrum. Chronic stress diminishes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulates sympathetic-adrenal-medullary responses, stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, it maintains and exacerbates psoriasis and some of its mental disorders. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines connect psoriasis, psychiatric conditions, and other comorbidities of psoriasis (such as atherosclerosis) within a vicious cycle. Furthermore, the etiopathogenesis of the link between each psychiatric comorbidity and psoriasis has its own subtleties, including the cooccurrence of other comorbidities, the parts of the body affected by psoriasis, treatments, and biological and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The study of psychopathology can amplify our understanding about the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and associated mental disorders. Patients would benefit from a psychodermatologic approach. The adequate treatment should take into account the mental disorders associated with psoriasis as well as the circumstances under which they occur. PMID:27386050

  3. Ethical issues in psychiatric genetics.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2004-11-01

    As knowledge grows regarding the genetic bases of psychiatric disorders, a variety of ethical issues will need to be confronted. Current evidence suggests that the etiology of most psychiatric disorders rests on a combination of multiple genes and environmental factors. As tests for the genes involved become more easily available, pressures will arise to use them for prenatal testing, screening of children and adults, selection of potential adoptees, and pre-marital screening. Common problems that will need to be addressed include popular misunderstanding of the consequences of possessing an affected allele, impact of knowledge of one's genetic make-up on one's sense of self, and the discriminatory use of genetic information to deny persons access to insurance and employment. Although most states have some legislation aimed at preventing discrimination, the laws' coverage is spotty and federal rules are lacking. Physicians may find that newly available genetic information creates new duties for them, including warning third parties who may share the patient's genetic endowment. And genetics research itself has raised questions about when to disclose information to subjects and their family members about the genes that are being studied, and how to define the subjects of the research when information is collected about family members other than the proband. Knowledge of these dilemmas is a first step to resolving them, something that the medical profession will need to attend to in the near-term. Neglect will lead others to set the rules that will control medical practice, including the practice of psychiatry, in the new world of genetic medicine. PMID:15583515

  4. [Intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2013-04-01

    Genes are major contributors to schizophrenia. The intermediate phenotype concept represents a strategy for identifying risk genes for schizophrenia and for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative, mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in schizophrenia. Intermediate phenotypes are defined by being heritable, being able to measure quantitatively; being related to the disorder and its symptoms in the general population; being stable over time; showing increased expression in unaffected relatives of probands; and cosegregation with the disorder in families. Intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia are neurocognition, neuroimaging, neurophysiology, etc. In this review, we present concept, recent work, and future perspective of intermediate phenotype.

  5. Psychiatric manifestations of neurologic disease: where are we headed?

    PubMed Central

    Lyketsos, Constantin G.; Kozauer, Nicholas; Rabins, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychiatry represents a field of medicine situated at the crossroads of neurology and psychiatry, and deals with the interface of behavioral phenomena driven by brain dysfunction. Psychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in these conditions, are a major source of disability and diminished quality of life, and potentially represent the target of treatment interventions that stand to significantly decrease the suffering they generate. In this article, the disease paradigm is explained, with particular attention to its role as an organizing principle for the field. Specific diseases including traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy are explored in relation to the presentation of multiple psychiatric phenotypes in each, associations with underlying brain pathology, and existing treatment approaches. Finally, the afticle explores the inherent complexities in this area of research and proposes a framework for future work based on the understanding of phenomenology and associated risk factors, the involvement of the rapidly advancing field of neuroscience, and targeted treatment development to serve as a road map for advancement in the field. PMID:17726911

  6. Cumulative and Recent Psychiatric Symptoms as Predictors of Substance Use Onset: Does Timing Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Bordelois, Paula M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.; Pardini, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Aims We examined two questions about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), depression, and anxiety symptoms and substance use onset: (1) what is the relative influence of recent and more chronic psychiatric symptoms on alcohol and marijuana use initiation and (2) are there sensitive developmental periods when psychiatric symptoms have a stronger influence on substance use initiation? Design Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a cohort study of boys followed annually from 7–19 years of age. Setting Recruitment occurred in public schools in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and three boys. Measurements The primary outcomes were age of alcohol and marijuana use onset. Discrete-time hazard models were used to determine whether (a) recent (prior year); and (b) cumulative (from age 7 until 2 years prior to substance use onset) psychiatric symptoms were associated with substance use onset. Findings Recent anxiety symptoms (HR= 1.10, 95% CI=1.03–1.17), recent (HR=1.59, 95% CI=1.35–1.87), cumulative (HR=1.45, 95% CI=1.03–2.03) CD symptoms, and cumulative depression symptoms (HR= 1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.08) were associated with earlier alcohol use onset. Recent (HR=1.39, 95% CI=1.22–1.58) and cumulative CD symptoms (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.02–1.85) were associated with marijuana use onset. Recent anxiety symptoms were only associated with alcohol use onset among black participants. Conclusions Timing matters in the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and substance use onset in childhood and adolescence, and the psychiatric predictors of onset are substance-specific. There is no single sensitive developmental period for the influence of psychiatric symptoms on alcohol and marijuana use initiation. PMID:23941263

  7. Novel approach to data discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowik, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Karol; Jankowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Discretization is an important preprocessing step in data mining. The data discretization method involves determining the ranges of values for numeric attributes, which ultimately represent discrete intervals for new attributes. The ranges for the proposed set of cuts are analyzed, in order to obtain a minimal set of ranges while retaining the possibility of classification. For this purpose, a special discernibility function can be constructed as a conjunction of alternative cuts set for each pair of different objects of different decisions- cuts discern these objects. However, the data mining methods based on discernibility matrix are insufficient for large databases. The purpose of this paper is the idea of implementation of a new data discretization algorithm that is based on statistics of attribute values and that avoids building the discernibility matrix explicitly. Evaluation of time complexity has shown that the proposed method is much more efficient than currently available solutions for large data sets.

  8. Substance use and response to psychiatric treatment in methadone-treated outpatients with comorbid psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L; Peirce, Jessica; Gandotra, Neeraj; Ghazarian, Sharon; Brooner, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    The psychiatric care of opioid users receiving agonist therapies is often complicated by high rates of illicit drug use (Brooner et al., 2013). The present study evaluates if illicit drug use (i.e., opioids, cocaine, sedatives) detected at the start of psychiatric care affects treatment response. Methadone maintenance patients (n = 125) with at least one current psychiatric disorder completed a 3-month randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of financial incentives on attendance to on-site integrated substance abuse and psychiatric services (Kidorf et al., 2013). The present study re-analyzes the data set by grouping participants into one of two conditions based on the 4-week baseline observation: (1) no illicit drug use (baseline negative; n = 50), or (2) any illicit drug use (baseline positive; n = 75). All participants received a similar schedule of psychiatric services, and had good access to prescribed psychiatric medications. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-Revised was administered monthly to evaluate changes in psychiatric distress. Results showed that while both conditions evidenced similar utilization of on-site psychiatric services, baseline negative participants remained in treatment somewhat longer (80.7 vs. 74.8 days, p = .04) and demonstrated greater reductions in GSI scores than baseline positive participants at month 3 (p = .004). These results have implications for interpreting previous studies that have shown inconsistent efficacy of pharmacotherapy and other psychiatric treatments, and for providing clinical care for patients with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders.

  9. The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-01-01

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. PMID:22188350

  10. Personality traits as intermediary phenotypes in suicidal behavior: genetic issues.

    PubMed

    Baud, Patrick

    2005-02-15

    A genetic contribution to the risk of suicidal behavior is now supported by many studies. It probably involves specific factors acting on their own, independently of the genetic transmission of associated psychiatric disorders. A history of childhood maltreatment, adverse events, psychosocial stress, psychological traits and major psychiatric disorders all appear to contribute to the global risk of suicide attempt or completion. The interplay between previously identified risk factors, different as they are in nature and degree of complexity, still remains to be clarified. A stress-diathesis model has been proposed, where trait-like genetic and developmental risk factors (the diathesis) interact through still unknown mechanisms with actual (stress-related) factors to create the conditions for a suicidal gesture. Disentangling the effects of these risk factors, and specifically the effects of the genetic factors influencing these different pathological conditions, appears to be a difficult task. Indeed the results of candidate gene association studies suggest that genetic vulnerability factors for various related psychiatric phenotypes (major psychiatric disorders and personality traits) partly overlap with more specific factors predisposing to suicidal behavior. Personality traits are partly under genetic control and may be closer to the genetic effects than psychiatric syndromes. We review here the available data on the genetics of personality traits presumably involved in suicidal behavior, focusing on the association studies carried out with serotonin-related genes. We suggest that future studies on the genetic vulnerability to suicidal behavior should include the investigation of endophenotypes, with the aim of deciphering the mechanisms underlying the genetic susceptibility to these closely associated phenotypes.

  11. Concurrency and discrete event control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Much of discrete event control theory has been developed within the framework of automata and formal languages. An alternative approach inspired by the theories of process-algebra as developed in the computer science literature is presented. The framework, which rests on a new formalism of concurrency, can adequately handle nondeterminism and can be used for analysis of a wide range of discrete event phenomena.

  12. Discrete photonics in waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Moison, J M; Belabas, N; Minot, C; Levenson, J A

    2009-08-15

    In homogeneous arrays of coupled waveguides, Floquet-Bloch waves are known to travel freely across the waveguides. We introduce a systematic discussion of the built-in patterning of the coupling constant between neighboring waveguides. Key patterns provide functions such as redirecting, guiding, and focusing these waves, up to nonlinear all-optical routing. This opens the way to light control in a functionalized discrete space, i.e., discrete photonics.

  13. Phenotype definition in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Winawer, Melodie R

    2006-05-01

    Phenotype definition consists of the use of epidemiologic, biological, molecular, or computational methods to systematically select features of a disorder that might result from distinct genetic influences. By carefully defining the target phenotype, or dividing the sample by phenotypic characteristics, we can hope to narrow the range of genes that influence risk for the trait in the study population, thereby increasing the likelihood of finding them. In this article, fundamental issues that arise in phenotyping in epilepsy and other disorders are reviewed, and factors complicating genotype-phenotype correlation are discussed. Methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation are addressed, focusing on epidemiologic studies. With this foundation in place, the epilepsy subtypes and clinical features that appear to have a genetic basis are described, and the epidemiologic studies that have provided evidence for the heritability of these phenotypic characteristics, supporting their use in future genetic investigations, are reviewed. Finally, several molecular approaches to phenotype definition are discussed, in which the molecular defect, rather than the clinical phenotype, is used as a starting point.

  14. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering.

  15. Workroles of staff nurses in psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E G; Shealy, A H; Kowalski, C; LaMont, J; Range, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to operationalize Peplau's workroles of the psychiatric staff nurse. Thirty registered nurses audiotaped one-to-one interactions with 62 adult, child, and adolescent psychiatric patients. Content analysis was used to identify role behaviors and to identify roles that were different from those outlined by Peplau. The counselor role was the most frequently occurring primary workrole. Overlap was found between behaviors indicative of autocratic leader versus surrogate and those of resource person versus teacher. The findings supported Peplau's contention that the counselor role is central to the practice of psychiatric nursing. PMID:8710297

  16. Workroles of staff nurses in psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E G; Shealy, A H; Kowalski, C; LaMont, J; Range, B A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to operationalize Peplau's workroles of the psychiatric staff nurse. Thirty registered nurses audiotaped one-to-one interactions with 62 adult, child, and adolescent psychiatric patients. Content analysis was used to identify role behaviors and to identify roles that were different from those outlined by Peplau. The counselor role was the most frequently occurring primary workrole. Overlap was found between behaviors indicative of autocratic leader versus surrogate and those of resource person versus teacher. The findings supported Peplau's contention that the counselor role is central to the practice of psychiatric nursing.

  17. An annotated bibliography of psychiatric medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Anzia, D J; La Puma, J

    1991-03-01

    We offer an annotated bibliography of psychiatric medical ethics that we hope will be useful for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals who are interested in the moral dimensions of psychiatric care. We present the educational and clinical rationale for the bibliography, ways to use the bibliography, and the bibliography itself. Using the American Psychiatric Association's Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry as a principled framework, we selected references based primarily on educational and clinical relevance for physicians. We include both empirical and conceptual analyses of the ethical issues seen daily in the office, clinic, hospital, nursing home, and in society at large.

  18. Psychiatric nurses' self-rated competence.

    PubMed

    Ewalds-Kvist, Beatrice; Algotsson, Martina; Bergström, Annelie; Lützén, Kim

    2012-07-01

    This study explored the self-rated competence of 52 Swedish psychiatric nurses in three clinical environments: forensic psychiatry, general psychiatric inpatient care, and clinical non-residential psychiatric care. A questionnaire wtih 56 statements from nine areas of expertise was completed. Forensic nurses were more skilled in safety and quality and in dealing with violence and conflicts. Non-specialist nurses appreciated their skills more so than specialist nurses in health promotion and illness prevention and conduct, information, and education. Women were inclined to invite patients' relatives for education and information. Men attended to a patients' spiritual needs; they also coped with violence and managed conflicts. PMID:22757599

  19. AN ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATIONS.

    PubMed

    Bloom, B L

    1968-10-01

    In order to develop some understanding of community social structure and its association with psychiatric inpatient medical care patterns, first admission rates for psychiatric disorders into both public and private facilities were determined for each of the 33 census tracts of Pueblo, Colorado. At the same time a cluster analysis was made of the structure of these tracts. Four well- defined clusters were identified (socio-economic affluence, young marrieds, social isolation, and social disequilibrium) and strikingly high differential relationships found between the cluster scores and psychiatric inpatient care patterns. Implications of the findings for preventive strategies and for. social etiology hypotheses are presented.

  20. Horizons of psychiatric genetics and epigenetics: where are we and where are we heading?

    PubMed

    Mostafavi Abdolmaleky, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Today multinational studies using genome-wide association scan (GWAS) for >1000,000 polymorphisms on >100,000 cases with major psychiatric diseases versus controls, combined with next-generation sequencing have found ~100 genetic polymorphisms associated with schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), etc. However, the effect size of each genetic mutation has been generally low (<1%), and altogether could portray a tiny fraction of these mental diseases. Furthermore, none of these polymorphisms was specific to disease phenotypes indicating that they are simply genetic risk factors rather than causal mutations. The lack of identification of the major gene(s) in huge genetic studies increased the tendency for reexamining the roles of environmental factors in psychiatric and other complex diseases. However, this time at cellular/molecular levels mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that are heritable, but reversible while interacting with the environment. Now, gene-specific or whole-genome epigenetic analyses have introduced hundreds of aberrant epigenetic marks in the blood or brain of individuals with psychiatric diseases that include aberrations in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. Interestingly, most of the current psychiatric drugs such as valproate, lithium, antidepressants, antipsychotics and even electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) modulate epigenetic codes. The existing data indicate that, the impacts of environment/nurture, including the uterine milieu and early-life events might be more significant than genetic/nature in most psychiatric diseases. The lack of significant results in large-scale genetic studies led to revise the bolded roles of genetics and now we are at the turning point of genomics for reconsidering environmental factors that through epigenetic mechanisms may impact the brain development/functions causing disease phenotypes. PMID:25780369

  1. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a beneficiary under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  2. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a beneficiary under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  3. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a beneficiary under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  4. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  5. Race Disparities in Psychiatric Rates in Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; Niederhauser, Ronda; Smith, Patrick O.; Morris, Jerry A.; Marx, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases--Ninth Revision were examined in the medical discharge records of 33,000 emergency department (ED) patients to determine if (a) psychiatric disorders were underdiagnosed, (b) there were race and gender disparities in psychiatric rates, and (c) psychiatric rates varied as a…

  6. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a recipient under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  7. Training in Psychiatric Genomics during Residency: A New Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Joel G.; Goebert, Deborah; Matsu, Courtenay; Mrazek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors ascertained the amount of training in psychiatric genomics that is provided in North American psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A sample of 217 chief residents in psychiatric residency programs in the United States and Canada were identified by e-mail and surveyed to assess their training in psychiatric genetics and…

  8. Coping Strategies in Psychiatric Clinical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    1981-01-01

    A broad range of strategies in sampling, measurement, design, execution, implementation, and analysis are examined. Specific strategies are suggested that tend to be successful in the real world of psychiatric clinical research. (Author)

  9. PSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS OF CHRONIC INTRACTABLE PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijoy K.; Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Malhotra, Anil; Chari, Promilla

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Two hundred patients with chronic intractable pain have been evaluated in order to study the clinical characteristics of pain and associated psychiatric illnesses. The commonest site of pain was reported to be head and face, usually dull in nature. Almost 75% of patients reported continuous pain. A great majority (40%–80%) had some psycho-social problem or other problem resultant from the chronic pain. 72% patients had identifiable psychiatric illness, commonest being neurotic depression and anxiety states. The common symptoms reported on the Present State Examination (PSE) were worrying (77%), depression (40%), hypochondrical pre-occupation (35%), autonomic anxiety (42%) and irritability (40%). There is no specific clinical characteristic associated with any particular psychiatric diagnosis. The relevance of psychiatric symptoms and illness associated with chronic pain has been discussed. PMID:21847282

  10. Prevalence of chronic pain in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, S K

    1987-05-01

    Five hundred consecutive patients attending a psychiatric clinic were examined in order to ascertain the prevalence of chronic pain in various psychiatric illnesses and demographic categories. Chronic pain was found to be a frequent symptom in anxiety neurosis (60%), neurotic depression (45%) and hysteria (24.3%). Less than 3% of psychotic patients reported chronic pain. Females and those patients who had entered further education beyond secondary level were found to have significantly higher (P less than 0.001) representation as compared to the psychiatric population without pain. The results are in accordance with certain earlier studies carried out almost two decades ago. Chronic pain was found to be a common symptom of psychiatric illness, reported by 18.6% patients, especially those diagnosed as having neurosis. It was also reported more often by females and by those with a higher education. The reasons for these observations require investigation.

  11. Violent psychiatric inpatients in a public hospital.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E F

    1990-01-01

    Violence in inpatient psychiatric settings is a clinically significant and relevant problem requiring attention by the psychiatric community. Despite the prevalence of research on violent behavior, few nursing studies have been conducted that explore the components of nursing care that may influence the amount of violence occurring in inpatient psychiatric settings. The purpose of the study was to identify the characteristics of violent patients and the components of nursing care that are related to violent patient behavior. A qualitative study was conducted using participant observation and grounded theory methodology. Data were collected in a metropolitan public hospital over a 9-month period. Six categories of violent patients were identified during data analysis: (1) the user, (b) the outlaw, (c) the rebel without a cause, (d) the little big man, (e) the child, and (6) the vamp. Implications of the study for clinicians working in inpatient psychiatric settings are discussed.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  14. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.

  15. Security at a "model" psychiatric center.

    PubMed

    Camacho, H S; Cottrell, P A

    1997-01-01

    The security problems faced by a recently opened psychiatric center located on the campus of a hospital--including staffing, fire safety, access control, patient restraints, and budget cuts--and how they are being dealt with. PMID:10173429

  16. Cultural Competence in Child Psychiatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.; Henderson, Schuyler W.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. faces a changing demographic landscape that is increasingly multiracial. The application of a cultural competence model for assessing and treating the psychiatric disorders of minority youths in light of this demographic change is discussed.

  17. Development of the Riverview Psychiatric Inventory.

    PubMed

    Haley, Glenn M T; Iverson, Grant L; Moreau, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes the development and initial validation of a behavioral rating scale, the Riverview Psychiatric Inventory (RPI). The RPI is a 36-item scale that is scored into four subscales covering daily routine problems, psychological symptoms, social interaction problems, and aggressive behavior. Interrater reliability using 70 pairs of raters assessing 145 patients resulted in a reliability coefficient of .89. Internal consistency for the total score was high (alpha = .93) and each of the subscales showed alpha coefficients ranging from .76 to .87. Validity was evaluated on a sample of 359 adult psychiatric inpatients. The RPI total score significantly distinguished three groups of patients on hospital units designed to treat differing levels of psychiatric illness. The RPI is superior to other behavioral rating scales employed by mental health clinicians because it does not require lengthy training in administration and scoring. The scale is useful for routine assessments on a busy psychiatric unit. PMID:12143086

  18. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures. PMID:25321094

  19. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  20. [Current issues in psychiatric ethics].

    PubMed

    Kovács, József

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes some ethical problems in psychiatry that have been emerging in recent years. It deals with the ongoing intensive debates about the DSM-5 before its publication, and with some of the criticisms of the DSM-5 itself. Then it goes on to analyze the use of placebo. This is followed by the ethical problems of the treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs, among which one is the question of authenticity, namely whether the pre-treatment or the post-treatment personality is the real, authentic self of the patient. This question has been raised not only in the case of the ADHD, but also in relation with the antidepressant treatment of depression earlier, and in relation with deep brain stimulation and dopamine replacement therapy now, all of which causes changes in the treated patient's personality and motivations. Finally the article describes some ethical problems of informed consent in the case of antidepressant medication, together with the necessity to involve psychiatric nurses and rating scales in the assessment of the patient's decision making capacity.

  1. Add grace to psychiatric practice

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Shobha V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The uniqueness of mindset of an individual makes psychiatric practice interesting, sensitive, and at times subjective. The practice in setup of an organization makes the situation more complex in view of administrative regulations, existing work culture, and issues like confidentiality, etc., Dilemmas are often faced while balancing loyalty between an organization and the patients, values of the therapist and the patient, and different dimension of justice coming from different cultural backgrounds of the patients and the treating doctors. A lot of mental work needs to be put in by the practitioner to consistently adhere to medical ethics and professional approach for taking key decisions despite of contradictory external forces from within and without. Aims: I thought of sharing my experiences especially in setup of an organization with my colleagues so that the decision-taking process becomes somewhat easy and balancing for them. Settings and Design: I have to try to interpret my clinical experiences gathered while working with my patients from the Department of Atomic Energy as well as from my private practice. Conclusion: The need of psycho education to self and others from time to time never ceases simply to make the practice more objective, justified, and graceful. PMID:23825861

  2. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  3. Psychiatric Conditions in Parkinson Disease: A Comparison With Classical Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Caldiroli, Alice; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric conditions often complicate the outcome of patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD), but they differ from classical psychiatric disorders in terms of underlying biological mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment response. The purpose of the present review is to illustrate the biological and clinical aspects of psychiatric conditions associated with PD, with particular reference to the differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. A careful search of articles on main databases was performed in order to obtain a comprehensive review about the main psychiatric conditions associated with PD. A manual selection of the articles was then performed in order to consider only those articles that concerned with the topic of the review. Psychiatric conditions in patients with PD present substantial differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. Their clinical presentation does not align with the symptom profiles represented by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases. Furthermore, psychiatry treatment guidelines are of poor help in managing psychiatric symptoms of patients with PD. Specific diagnostic tools and treatment guidelines are needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate treatment of psychiatric conditions in comorbidity with PD.

  4. Teaching transcendental meditation in a psychiatric setting.

    PubMed

    Candelent, T; Candelent, G

    1975-03-01

    For two and a half years the authors have taught Transcendental Meditation (TM) to psychiatric patients at the Institute of Living in Hartford, Connecticut. They have also presented programs to hospital staff to acquaint them with the technique and practice of TM. In this paper they describe briefly the instruction program given to patients at the institute and point out some of the benefits of regular practice of TM for psychiatric patients.

  5. [Rehabilitation work in a psychiatric service].

    PubMed

    Correa, J O; Ingala, E M; Justo, S N

    1987-06-01

    A description of rehabilitation work at a psychiatric ward with all the benefits specific modalities, and results involved is offered. Focusing from a multidisciplinary angle the authors aim at laying the foundations for the setting up of rehabilitation workteams, in the frame of psychiatric hospitals in our country. At the same time clinical examples are submitted to illustrate situations which had to be met during the work and their linking to setting and transference as well.

  6. Necessity of adapting psychiatric treatment to relevant ethical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Martens, W H

    2001-01-01

    In this article the author investigates to what extent most psychiatric professionals act according to international and national psychiatric ethical guidelines. It seems that many psychiatrists and psychotherapists do not know the international and national ethical guidelines for psychiatric conduct, and as a consequence they frequently do not act according to these ethical codes. The problem is that ignoring of ethical guidelines often does not have legal consequences, because these psychiatric ethical codes are not specifically enshrined in the law. I have discussed how we can improve relevant psychiatric ethical knowledge and related more responsible behavior in psychiatric staff members. Suggestions are made to improve psychiatric treatment in the light of ethical guidelines.

  7. The Drosophila phenotype ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phenotype ontologies are queryable classifications of phenotypes. They provide a widely-used means for annotating phenotypes in a form that is human-readable, programatically accessible and that can be used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate manual annotation requires clear textual definitions for terms. Accurate grouping and fruitful programatic usage require high-quality formal definitions that can be used to automate classification. The Drosophila phenotype ontology (DPO) has been used to annotate over 159,000 phenotypes in FlyBase to date, but until recently lacked textual or formal definitions. Results We have composed textual definitions for all DPO terms and formal definitions for 77% of them. Formal definitions reference terms from a range of widely-used ontologies including the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO), the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Cell Ontology (CL). We also describe a generally applicable system, devised for the DPO, for recording and reasoning about the timing of death in populations. As a result of the new formalisations, 85% of classifications in the DPO are now inferred rather than asserted, with much of this classification leveraging the structure of the GO. This work has significantly improved the accuracy and completeness of classification and made further development of the DPO more sustainable. Conclusions The DPO provides a set of well-defined terms for annotating Drosophila phenotypes and for grouping and querying the resulting annotation sets in biologically meaningful ways. Such queries have already resulted in successful function predictions from phenotype annotation. Moreover, such formalisations make extended queries possible, including cross-species queries via the external ontologies used in formal definitions. The DPO is openly available under an open source license in both OBO and OWL formats. There is good potential for it to be used more broadly by the Drosophila

  8. The phenotypic legacy of admixture between modern humans and Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Simonti, Corinne N.; Vernot, Benjamin; Bastarache, Lisa; Bottinger, Erwin; Carrell, David S.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Crosslin, David R.; Hebbring, Scott J.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Li, Rongling; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Roden, Dan M.; Verma, Shefali S.; Tromp, Gerard; Prato, Jeffrey D.; Bush, William S.; Akey, Joshua M.; Denny, Joshua C.; Capra, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Many modern human genomes retain DNA inherited from interbreeding with archaic hominins, such as Neanderthals, yet the influence of this admixture on human traits is largely unknown. We analyzed the contribution of common Neanderthal variants to over 1,000 electronic health record (EHR)-derived phenotypes in ~28,000 adults of European ancestry. We discovered and replicated associations of Neanderthal alleles with neurological, psychiatric, immunological, and dermatological phenotypes. Neanderthal alleles together explain a significant fraction of the variation in risk for depression and skin lesions resulting from sun exposure (actinic keratosis), and individual Neanderthal alleles are significantly associated with specific human phenotypes, including hypercoagulation and tobacco use. Our results establish that archaic admixture influences disease risk in modern humans, provide hypotheses about the effects of hundreds of Neanderthal haplotypes and demonstrate the utility of EHR data in evolutionary analyses. PMID:26912863

  9. The phenotypic legacy of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Simonti, Corinne N; Vernot, Benjamin; Bastarache, Lisa; Bottinger, Erwin; Carrell, David S; Chisholm, Rex L; Crosslin, David R; Hebbring, Scott J; Jarvik, Gail P; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Li, Rongling; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Roden, Dan M; Verma, Shefali S; Tromp, Gerard; Prato, Jeffrey D; Bush, William S; Akey, Joshua M; Denny, Joshua C; Capra, John A

    2016-02-12

    Many modern human genomes retain DNA inherited from interbreeding with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals, yet the influence of this admixture on human traits is largely unknown. We analyzed the contribution of common Neandertal variants to over 1000 electronic health record (EHR)-derived phenotypes in ~28,000 adults of European ancestry. We discovered and replicated associations of Neandertal alleles with neurological, psychiatric, immunological, and dermatological phenotypes. Neandertal alleles together explained a significant fraction of the variation in risk for depression and skin lesions resulting from sun exposure (actinic keratosis), and individual Neandertal alleles were significantly associated with specific human phenotypes, including hypercoagulation and tobacco use. Our results establish that archaic admixture influences disease risk in modern humans, provide hypotheses about the effects of hundreds of Neandertal haplotypes, and demonstrate the utility of EHR data in evolutionary analyses. PMID:26912863

  10. Migraine: Clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Manjeet Singh; Gupta, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a common disorder which has psychiatric sequelae. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of migraine seen over a period of one year were analysed to know the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical pattern and psychiatric morbidity. Results: Maximum patients were between 31-40 years of age group (40%), females (78.0%), married (76%) and housewives (56.0%). Family history of migraine was present in 12% cases. Average age of onset was 22 years. Unilateral and throbbing type of headache was most common. The commonest frequency was one to two per week. Migraine without aura was commonest sub-type (80%). Generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1) was the most common psychiatric disorder (34%), followed by mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (F41.2) (18%) and depressive episode (F32) (14%). In 22% cases, no psychiatric disorder could be elicited. Conclusion: The present study confirms that majority patients with migraine had psychiatric disorders. This needs timely detection and appropriate intervention to treat and control the migraine effectively. PMID:23766573

  11. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Miao; Wang, Zhijiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect "faulty wiring" or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism) based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective. PMID:26604764

  12. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in combat veterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous research that has examined mental health among Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combatants has relied on self-report measures to assess mental health outcomes; few studies have examined predictors of actual mental health diagnoses. The objective of this longitudinal investigation was to identify predictors of psychiatric disorders among Marines who deployed to combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. Methods The study sample consisted of 1113 Marines who had deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Demographic and psychosocial predictor variables from a survey that all Marines in the sample had completed were studied in relation to subsequent psychiatric diagnoses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the influence of the predictors on the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. Results In a sample of Marines with no previous psychiatric disorder diagnoses, 18% were diagnosed with a new-onset psychiatric disorder. Adjusting for other variables, the strongest predictors of overall psychiatric disorders were female gender, mild traumatic brain injury symptoms, and satisfaction with leadership. Service members who expressed greater satisfaction with leadership were about half as likely to develop a mental disorder as those who were not satisfied. Unique predictors of specific types of mental disorders were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the study’s most relevant result was that two potentially modifiable factors, low satisfaction with leadership and low organizational commitment, predicted mental disorder diagnoses in a military sample. Additional research should aim to clarify the nature and impact of these factors on combatant mental health. PMID:23651663

  13. Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2001-01-01

    A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.

  14. Norms, Reliability, and Item Analysis of the Hopelessness Scale in General Psychiatric, Forensic Psychiatric, and College Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Thomas W.

    1982-01-01

    Administered the Hopelessness Scale to criminal psychiatric inpatients, general psychiatric inpatients, and college students. Both psychiatric groups endorsed significantly more items in the hopeless direction. Found the scale more reliable with the psychiatric patients. Item analysis of the Hopelessness Scale suggests that three items were not…

  15. Discrete event simulation of continuous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation of a system described by differential equations requires that some element of the system be approximated by discrete quantities. There are two system aspects that can be made discrete; time and state. When time is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a difference equation (i.e., a discrete time system), and the solution is calculated at fixed points in time. When the state is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a discrete event system. Events correspond to jumps through the discrete state space of the approximation.

  16. Multifactoriality in Psychiatric Disorders: A Computational Study of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pavão, Rodrigo; Tort, Adriano B L; Amaral, Olavo B

    2015-07-01

    The search for biological causes of mental disorders has up to now met with limited success, leading to growing dissatisfaction with diagnostic classifications. However, it is questionable whether most clinical syndromes should be expected to correspond to specific microscale brain alterations, as multiple low-level causes could lead to similar symptoms in different individuals. In order to evaluate the potential multifactoriality of alterations related to psychiatric illness, we performed a parametric exploration of published computational models of schizophrenia. By varying multiple parameters simultaneously, such as receptor conductances, connectivity patterns, and background excitation, we generated 5625 different versions of an attractor-based network model of schizophrenia symptoms. Among networks presenting activity within valid ranges, 154 parameter combinations out of 3002 (5.1%) presented a phenotype reminiscent of schizophrenia symptoms as defined in the original publication. We repeated this analysis in a model of schizophrenia-related deficits in spatial working memory, building 3125 different networks, and found that 41 (4.9%) out of 834 networks with valid activity presented schizophrenia-like alterations. In isolation, none of the parameters in either model showed adequate sensitivity or specificity to identify schizophrenia-like networks. Thus, in computational models of schizophrenia, even simple network phenotypes related to the disorder can be produced by a myriad of causes at the molecular and circuit levels. This suggests that unified explanations for either the full syndrome or its behavioral and network endophenotypes are unlikely to be expected at the genetic and molecular levels.

  17. Multifactoriality in Psychiatric Disorders: A Computational Study of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Rodrigo; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Amaral, Olavo B.

    2015-01-01

    The search for biological causes of mental disorders has up to now met with limited success, leading to growing dissatisfaction with diagnostic classifications. However, it is questionable whether most clinical syndromes should be expected to correspond to specific microscale brain alterations, as multiple low-level causes could lead to similar symptoms in different individuals. In order to evaluate the potential multifactoriality of alterations related to psychiatric illness, we performed a parametric exploration of published computational models of schizophrenia. By varying multiple parameters simultaneously, such as receptor conductances, connectivity patterns, and background excitation, we generated 5625 different versions of an attractor-based network model of schizophrenia symptoms. Among networks presenting activity within valid ranges, 154 parameter combinations out of 3002 (5.1%) presented a phenotype reminiscent of schizophrenia symptoms as defined in the original publication. We repeated this analysis in a model of schizophrenia-related deficits in spatial working memory, building 3125 different networks, and found that 41 (4.9%) out of 834 networks with valid activity presented schizophrenia-like alterations. In isolation, none of the parameters in either model showed adequate sensitivity or specificity to identify schizophrenia-like networks. Thus, in computational models of schizophrenia, even simple network phenotypes related to the disorder can be produced by a myriad of causes at the molecular and circuit levels. This suggests that unified explanations for either the full syndrome or its behavioral and network endophenotypes are unlikely to be expected at the genetic and molecular levels. PMID:25332409

  18. Geometry of discrete quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Sabry, Amr; Tai, Yu-Tsung

    2013-05-01

    Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2n infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} (based on primes p congruent to 3 (mod4)) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space \\mathbf {CP}^{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p + 1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to \\mathbf {DCP}^{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analogue of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\,\\prod _{k=1}^{n-1} ( p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} have pn(p - 1)n unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have pn + 1(p - 1)(p + 1)n - 1 maximally entangled states with purity zero.

  19. Engram formation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, “engrams” or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis) may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions. To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves (a) epigenetic changes, (b) altered neuronal activities, and (c) changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP). However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal) and a wave-like (glial) computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  20. Discrete cloud structure on Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, H. B.

    1989-07-01

    Recent CCD imaging data for the discrete cloud structure of Neptune shows that while cloud features at CH4-band wavelengths are manifest in the southern hemisphere, they have not been encountered in the northern hemisphere since 1986. A literature search has shown the reflected CH4-band light from the planet to have come from a single discrete feature at least twice in the last 10 years. Disk-integrated photometry derived from the imaging has demonstrated that a bright cloud feature was responsible for the observed 8900 A diurnal variation in 1986 and 1987.

  1. The integrated phenotype.

    PubMed

    Murren, Courtney J

    2012-07-01

    Proper functioning of complex phenotypes requires that multiple traits work together. Examination of relationships among traits within and between complex characters and how they interact to function as a whole organism is critical to advancing our understanding of evolutionary developmental plasticity. Phenotypic integration refers to the relationships among multiple characters of a complex phenotype, and their relationships with other functional units (modules) in an organism. In this review, I summarize a brief history of the concept of phenotypic integration in plant and animal biology. Following an introduction of concepts, including modularity, I use an empirical case-study approach to highlight recent advance in clarifying the developmental and genomic basis of integration. I end by highlighting some novel approaches to genomic and epigenetic perturbations that offer promise in further addressing the role of phenotypic integration in evolutionary diversification. In the age of the phenotype, studies that examine the genomic and developmental changes in relationships of traits across environments will shape the next chapter in our quest for understanding the evolution of complex characters.

  2. Proteomics in the discovery of new therapeutic targets for psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Voshol, Hans; Glucksman, Marc J; van Oostrum, Jan

    2003-08-01

    In terms of impact on and cost to society psychiatric disorders are among the most important health problems of today. Current estimates from the US suggest that the collective cost of psychiatric diseases could amount to one-third of the total health care budget with a cumulative lifetime prevalence of 30%. While undoubtedly improvements have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of at least the symptoms of mental illness, there has been frustratingly little progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms. However, a fundamentally different approach to study molecular mechanisms of psychiatric diseases is emerging as a result of technological advances in expression profiling methods. This comprises the investigation of the expressed disease 'phenotypes', developing from the differential gene and protein expression in the central nervous system as a result of the complex interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental modulation. This paper will focus on proteomics, expression profiling at the protein level, reviewing some of the available tools and their application in the molecular analysis of psychiatric disease.

  3. Psychiatric Service Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Tyrer, F. C.; McGrother, C.; Ganghadaran, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK policies aim to facilitate access to general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability (ID). If this is to be achieved, it is important to have a clear idea of the characteristics and proportion of people with ID who currently access specialist psychiatric services and the nature and extent of psychiatric…

  4. Psychiatric genetics in China: achievements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Thomas G.; Burmeister, Margit; Sham, Pak Chung; Yao, Yong-gang; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Chao; An, Yu; Dai, Jiapei; Yue, Weihua; Li, Miao Xin; Xue, Hong; Su, Bing; Chen, Li; Shi, Yongyong; Qiao, Mingqi; Liu, Tiebang; Xia, Kun; Chan, Raymond C.K.

    2016-01-01

    To coordinate research efforts in psychiatric genetics in China, a group of Chinese and foreign investigators have established an annual “Summit on Chinese Psychiatric Genetics” to present their latest research and discuss the current state and future directions of this field. To date, two Summits have been held, the first in Changsha in April, 2014, and the second in Kunming in April, 2015. The consensus of roundtable discussions held at these meetings is that psychiatric genetics in China is in need of new policies to promote collaborations aimed at creating a framework for genetic research appropriate for the Chinese population: relying solely on Caucasian population-based studies may result in missed opportunities to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. In addition, participants agree on the importance of promoting collaborations and data sharing in areas where China has especially strong resources, such as advanced facilities for non-human primate studies and traditional Chinese medicine: areas that may also provide overseas investigators with unique research opportunities. In this paper, we present an overview of the current state of psychiatric genetics research in China, with emphasis on genome-level studies, and describe challenges and opportunities for future advances, particularly at the dawn of “precision medicine.” Together, we call on administrative bodies, funding agencies, the research community, and the public at large for increased support for research on the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders in the Chinese population. In our opinion, increased public awareness and effective collaborative research hold the keys to the future of psychiatric genetics in China. PMID:26481319

  5. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  6. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm2 exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  7. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    SciTech Connect

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm{sup 2} exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  8. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  9. Legal issues in psychiatric treatment.

    PubMed

    Mills, M J

    1984-09-01

    This paper has presented a discussion of the three overlapping phases in the regulation of psychiatric treatment: consent, patients' rights, and physicians' duties. The concepts of consent are relatively well defined. Still, the courts sometimes utilize the rubric of consent to decide difficult cases (e.g., Clites). One can predict that litigation attempting to further define the specific aspects of consent for high-risk therapies will continue. Because of the court's decision in Youngberg, one can also predict that there will be more litigation as to the constituents of constitutionally-adequate treatment. Given the court's dicta in that case, about deferring to professional judgment, it is impossible to know how these cases will fare if and when they are reviewed by the Supreme Court. Given the court's decisions in Mills and Rennie, it is unlikely that the Supreme Court will be ruling on a broad constitutionally-based right to refuse treatment for some time. The most active interface of psychiatry and law is that detailing physicians' duties. In terms of dangerousness, the majority of cases require that psychiatrists attempt to protect victims, or classes of victims, when they believe that dangerous conduct is apt to occur. Still unclear is the extent to which the courts will inquire specifically into the clinical decision-making process to determine whether the physician "reasonably should have known" that the patient was dangerous. Also unclear is the extent to which the courts will find that physicians owe a duty to an ill-defined class. Still, a reasonable guess would be that other courts will find Lipari persuasive. Finally, with regard to specific treatment modalities, it is evident that physicians are being required to practice with an extra measure of care and caution when prescribing neuroleptics, ECT, or psychosurgery. One final note: Too often, physicians have been leery of the political process. Since many decisions with great impact on patients and

  10. [Decision trees in psychiatric therapy].

    PubMed

    Dantchev, N

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of decision analysis is to offer a theoretical representation of choices made in an environment of uncertainty. This technique is currently under development in a great variety of fields, particularly in medicine, where aid in decision making is the topic of much research. Psychiatry, in turn, is very much concerned by these new developments which could be of particular interest to therapeutics-an area where the large number of studies and date are in great contrast with the lack of consensus concerning the various solutions proposed to patients. Decision analysis utilizes different techniques among which are decision trees. The technique of decision trees goes far beyond a simple graphic representation of reasoning in the form of a chart. Its basic principles is to measure the uncertainty associated with decision making in the hopes of better understanding the rationale of decisions while optimizing the gain versus cost ratio. The goal is to calculate, within a series of decisions, the weight of their importance expressed in terms of usefulness or unpleasantness. In psychiatric therapeutics, only three studies have been published which incorporate the technique of decision trees. Two of these deal with treating depression (Schulberg et al., 1989; Koenig et al., 1993) while the third deals with schizophrenia (Hatcher, 1995). The limits of these techniques are, on one hand, due to their feasibility in that their complexity renders them inapplicable when a great number of variables have to be taken into account or when the amount of necessary data is still insufficient. Moreover, the use of these techniques remains relatively restricted as their expansion depends upon their acceptance by clinical physicians. Also, their use raises questions as to what extent it is possible to rationalize decisions in psychiatry. From a larger perspective, one must consider that these techniques may eventually furnish certain elements which could be integrated to

  11. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Bromundt, Vivien

    2014-11-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry.

  12. Understanding psychiatric institutionalization: a conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Goffman’s seminal work on psychiatric institutions, deinstitutionalization has become a leading term in the psychiatric debate. It described the process of closure or downsizing of large psychiatric hospitals and the establishment of alternative services in the community. Yet, there is a lack of clarity on what exactly the concept of institutionalization means in present-day psychiatry. This review aims to identify the meaning of psychiatric institutionalization since the early 1960s to present-day. Method A conceptual review of institutionalization in psychiatry was conducted. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Results Four main themes were identified in conceptualizing institutionalization: bricks and mortar of care institutions; policy and legal frameworks regulating care; clinical responsibility and paternalism in clinician-patient relationships; and patients’ adaptive behavior to institutionalized care. Conclusions The concept of institutionalization in psychiatry reflects four distinct themes. All themes have some relevance for the contemporary debate on how psychiatric care should develop and on the role of institutional care in psychiatry. PMID:23773398

  13. Comorbidity between neurological illness and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in many neurological disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and stroke. These comorbidities increase disease burden and may complicate the treatment of the combined disorders. Initial studies of the comorbidity of psychiatric and neurological disorders were cross-sectional, and time order of the associations was impossible to elucidate. More recent work has clarified time associations between psychiatric disorders and neurological disorders, particularly in epilepsy and stroke where epidemiological evidence suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship. This article takes an epidemiological approach to understanding these relationships and focuses mostly on epilepsy. Although, these relationships are understood in many neurological disorders, routine screening for psychiatric disorders in neurological disorders is infrequent, mostly due to the lack of partnerships between psychiatrists and neurologists and the paucity of neuropsychiatrists. Much more needs to be done to improve the detection and treatment of patients affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. Understanding the scope of this overlap may inspire collaborations to improve the lives of people affected by both disorders. PMID:26898322

  14. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  15. Neurocognitive Allied Phenotypes for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hill, S. Kristian; Harris, Margret S. H.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Pavuluri, Mani; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are genetically complex and represent the end product of multiple biological and social factors. Links between genes and disorder-related abnormalities can be effectively captured via assessment of phenotypes that are both associated with genetic effects and potentially contributory to behavioral abnormalities. Identifying intermediate or allied phenotypes as a strategy for clarifying genetic contributions to disorders has been successful in other areas of medicine and is a promising strategy for identifying susceptibility genes in complex psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, rather than being wholly distinct disorders, share genetic risk at several loci. Further, there is growing evidence of similarity in the pattern of cognitive and neurobiological deficits in these groups, which may be the result of the effects of these common genetic factors. This review was undertaken to identify patterns of performance on neurocognitive and affective tasks across probands with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as unaffected family members, which warrant further investigation as potential intermediate trait markers. Available evidence indicates that measures of attention regulation, working memory, episodic memory, and emotion processing offer potential for identifying shared and illness-specific allied neurocognitive phenotypes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, very few studies have evaluated neurocognitive dimensions in bipolar probands or their unaffected relatives, and much work in this area is needed. PMID:18448479

  16. [Psychiatric anamnesis, psychiatric findings and their relevance for legal questions in psychiatric assessment before the social court].

    PubMed

    Zeit, T; Wiester, W

    1995-03-01

    Psychiatric expertise in court implies specific requirements with regard to the formal aspects. On the one hand, they are determined by psychiatry as a branch of medical research and on the other by the fact that the expert testimony serves as a piece of evidence in court. Up to now psychiatrists have focused on the legal consequences of different kinds of diseases rather than on the formal aspects of expertise testimony. In this paper, we try to reconcile the specific requirements of psychiatric exploration with the requirements that have to be fulfilled in order to convince the court.

  17. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Individual variation in functional brain connectivity: implications for personalized approaches to psychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Emily S.; Todd Constable, R.

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a popular technique for investigating neural organization in both healthy subjects and patients with mental illness. Despite a rapidly growing body of literature, however, functional connectivity research has yet to deliver biomarkers that can aid psychiatric diagnosis or prognosis at the single-subject level. One impediment to developing such practical tools has been uncertainty regarding the ratio of intra- to interindividual variability in functional connectivity; in other words, how much variance is state- versus trait-related. Here, we review recent evidence that functional connectivity profiles are both reliable within subjects and unique across subjects, and that features of these profiles relate to behavioral phenotypes. Together, these results suggest the potential to discover reliable correlates of present and future illness and/or response to treatment in the strength of an individual's functional brain connections. Ultimately, this work could help develop personalized approaches to psychiatric illness. PMID:27757062

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Haider A; Wang, David; Glozier, Nicholas; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2014-12-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing, the commonest form of which is obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly recognised as a treatable cause of morbidity. It shares many risk factors with psychiatric disorders including behaviours such as smoking and physical comorbidity. Many symptoms of the two overlap, leaving OSA often undetected and undertreated. In the few studies that assess the two, OSA is commonly comorbid with depression (17-45%) and schizophrenia (up to 55%) and possibly bipolar. There is some limited evidence that treating OSA can ameliorate psychiatric symptoms. Some psychotropics, such as narcotics, cause sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), whilst weight-inducing neuroleptics may exacerbate it. An extreme form of SDB, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is a risk in mothers with substance abuse. Being aware of these common comorbidities may help improve psychiatric patient's treatment and quality of life. PMID:25308389

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mayberg, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    Medications, psychotherapy, and other treatments are effective for many patients with psychiatric disorders. However, with currently available interventions, a substantial number of patients experience incomplete resolution of symptoms, and relapse rates are high. In the search for better treatments, increasing interest has focused on focal neuromodulation. This focus has been driven by improved neuroanatomical models of mood, thought, and behavior regulation, as well as by more advanced strategies for directly and focally altering neural activity. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of the most invasive focal neuromodulation techniques available; data have supported its safety and efficacy in a number of movement disorders. Investigators have produced preliminary data on the safety and efficacy of DBS for several psychiatric disorders, as well. In this review, we describe the development and justification for testing DBS for various psychiatric disorders, carefully consider the available clinical data, and briefly discuss potential mechanisms of action. PMID:21692660

  1. Psychiatric considerations in military aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Marsh, R W

    2001-02-01

    Military aerospace medicine requires a psychiatric selection and certification process that determines not only the absence of significant mental disorders, but also the presence of positive qualities in the realms of motivation, ability and stability: not all normal people are fit to fly. Other issues of aerospace psychiatry involve maintenance of mental resilience and hardiness during a flying career, aeromedical decisions about when to remove from flight duties and when to return, criteria for waivers for psychiatric conditions, use of medications for treatment of psychiatric symptoms, questions of substance abuse, and research in such areas as genetics. This report reviews the basis for military aerospace psychiatry, primarily as practiced in the United States Air Force (USAF), and presents some of its underlying principles as they apply to clinical situations.

  2. Negative Rumor: Contagion of a Psychiatric Department

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohesion and morale among the staff implicated in these, too often, neglected occurrences. Dynamic aspects with particular focus on rumors in psychiatric units and suggestions for remedy and treatment are presented. PMID:25133051

  3. Narcissism and relational representations among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E

    2015-06-01

    Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations.

  4. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D.; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states, and has been associated with interpersonal trauma and post-traumatic stress. Affect regulation difficulties also play a role in many other psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders, specifically major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span. Exposure to traumatic events and interpersonal trauma in childhood is associated with a wide range of psychosocial, developmental, and medical impairments in children, adolescents and adults, with emotional dysregulation being a core feature that may help to account for this heightened risk. In order to understand how the developmental effects of childhood maltreatment contribute to emotional dysregulation and psychiatric sequelae, we review emotional regulation and its developmental neurobiology, and examine the research evidence of associations between childhood traumatization, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric co-morbidities in children, adolescents and adults. PMID:24704784

  5. Defining the psychiatric role in spastic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, B I; Wallack, J J; Srain, J J; Biller, H F

    1988-03-01

    The authors evaluated 11 surgically-treated patients with spastic dysphonia, a phonation disorder of unclear etiology. The results indicate that the illness does not appear to be a somatoform disorder, but that stress may play a role in its expression, and that there may be secondary depression and anxiety. The experience of spastic dysphonics suggests that psychiatric treatments may be inappropriately applied to an illness without clear organic etiology, whereas, conversely, a proper psychiatric role may be rejected when effective medical or surgical treatment is available. The authors recommend that psychiatrists evaluating patients with illnesses of unclear etiology should be cautious in making a primary psychiatric diagnosis unless DSM-III criteria are met.

  6. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  7. Psychiatric thoughts in the Tamil culture.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O

    2002-04-01

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PSYCHIATRIC THOUGHTS IN TAMIL CULTURE IS BROUGHT FORTH WITH RELEVANT HISTORICAL AND LITERARY EVIDENCES: psycho-physiological aspects of emotions, descriptions of severely disturbed individuals, attitude of the society towards the mentally ill and epigraphic material describing hospital care of psychiatric patients in the first millennium are alluded. These references unravel the advanced psychiatric medical knowledge in the Ancient Tamil system of Medicine namely the Siddha system. The mythical origin of Siddha Medicine, attributes of the Siddhars (knowledgeable persons) and short biographical notes of eminent siddhars like Agathiyar, Bogar, Therayar and Thirumoolar are cited. Ancient theories of etiopathogenesis, namely the Panchaboothas and Tridoshas are detailed. Agathiyar's deschptions, classification and treatment of mental illnesses and Yogi Siddhar's contribution to psychiatry require significant mentioning. Siddha system has proved its potential effect by displaying promising results in treating HIV and Hepatitis-B. Likewise the author encourages similar discoveries in Siddha Medicine with relevance to psychiatry.

  8. Unrecognized medical emergencies admitted to psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R R; Pendarvis, E J; Kimble, R

    2000-07-01

    Alteration of mental status secondary to medical illness may occasionally be incorrectly attributed to a psychiatric problem. The cases of 64 patients with unrecognized medical emergencies inappropriately admitted to psychiatric units from emergency departments were reviewed to determine the cause of the misdiagnoses. Medical diagnoses most often missed included severe intoxication with alcohol or other illicit substance (34.4%), drug or alcohol withdrawal or delirium tremens (12.5%), and prescription drug overdose (12.5%). In none of the cases (0%) was an appropriate mental status examination performed. Other common causes of misdiagnosis included inadequate physical examination (43.8%), failure to obtain indicated laboratory studies (34.4%), and failure to obtain available history (34.4%). A systematic approach is required for patients with altered mental status, including those with psychiatric presentations.

  9. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    PubMed

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.

  10. Psychiatric aspects of brain tumors: A review

    PubMed Central

    Madhusoodanan, Subramoniam; Ting, Mark Bryan; Farah, Tara; Ugur, Umran

    2015-01-01

    Infrequently, psychiatric symptoms may be the only manifestation of brain tumors. They may present with mood symptoms, psychosis, memory problems, personality changes, anxiety, or anorexia. Symptoms may be misleading, complicating the clinical picture. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted regarding reports of brain tumors and psychiatric symptoms from 1956-2014. Search engines used include PubMed, Ovid, Psych Info, MEDLINE, and MedScape. Search terms included psychiatric manifestations/symptoms, brain tumors/neoplasms. Our literature search yielded case reports, case studies, and case series. There are no double blind studies except for post-diagnosis/-surgery studies. Early diagnosis is critical for improved quality of life. Symptoms that suggest work-up with neuroimaging include: new-onset psychosis, mood/memory symptoms, occurrence of new or atypical symptoms, personality changes, and anorexia without body dysmorphic symptoms. This article reviews the existing literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this clinically complex condition. PMID:26425442

  11. Comparative Transcriptomics of Alternative Developmental Phenotypes in a Marine Gastropod.

    PubMed

    Lesoway, Maryna Pauline; Abouheif, Ehab; Collin, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Alternative phenotypes are discrete phenotypic differences that develop in response to both genetic and environmental cues. Nutritive embryos, which arrest their development to serve as nutrition for their viable siblings, are an example of an alternative developmental phenotype found in many animal groups. Females of the marine snail, Crepidula navicella, produce broods that consist mainly of nutritive embryos and a small number of viable embryos. In order to better understand the genetic mechanisms that lead to the development of alternative phenotypes in this species, we compared the transcriptomes of viable and nutritive embryos at the earliest stage that we were able to distinguish visually between the two. Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing, we assembled and annotated a de novo transcriptome and compared transcript levels in viable and nutritive embryos. Viable embryos express high levels of transcripts associated with known developmental events, while nutritive embryos express high levels of apoptosis-related transcripts. Gene Ontology term enrichment with GOSeq found that these are associated with the negative regulation of apoptotic processes. This enrichment, combined with morphological evidence, suggests that apoptosis is important in the formation of gastrula-like nutritive embryos. Apoptosis has been implicated in the development of alternative phenotypes in other animal groups, raising the possibility that this mechanism's role in alternative phenotypes is conserved in gastropod development. We suggest possible alternative mechanisms of nutritive embryo development. Most importantly, we contribute further evidence to the hypothesis that nutritive embryos are an alternative developmental phenotype.

  12. Discrete gauge symmetries in discrete MSSM-like orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, L. E.; Schellekens, A. N.; Uranga, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the necessity of discrete ZN symmetries in the MSSM to insure baryon stability, we study the origin of discrete gauge symmetries from open string sector U(1)'s in orientifolds based on rational conformal field theory. By means of an explicit construction, we find an integral basis for the couplings of axions and U(1) factors for all simple current MIPFs and orientifolds of all 168 Gepner models, a total of 32 990 distinct cases. We discuss how the presence of discrete symmetries surviving as a subgroup of broken U(1)'s can be derived using this basis. We apply this procedure to models with MSSM chiral spectrum, concretely to all known U(3)×U(2)×U(1)×U(1) and U(3)×Sp(2)×U(1)×U(1) configurations with chiral bi-fundamentals, but no chiral tensors, as well as some SU(5) GUT models. We find examples of models with Z2 (R-parity) and Z3 symmetries that forbid certain B and/or L violating MSSM couplings. Their presence is however relatively rare, at the level of a few percent of all cases.

  13. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kali, Arunava

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders. PMID:27621125

  14. Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-09-25

    Large-scale genomic investigations have just begun to illuminate the molecular genetic contributions to major psychiatric illnesses, ranging from small-effect-size common variants to larger-effect-size rare mutations. The findings provide causal anchors from which to understand their neurobiological basis. Although these studies represent enormous success, they highlight major challenges reflected in the heterogeneity and polygenicity of all of these conditions and the difficulty of connecting multiple levels of molecular, cellular, and circuit functions to complex human behavior. Nevertheless, these advances place us on the threshold of a new frontier in the pathophysiological understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disease. PMID:26404826

  15. Mind and brain in psychiatric treatment.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, G O

    1994-01-01

    Psychological and biological components of psychiatric illness must be integrated to avoid the perils of reductionism in diagnosis and treatment. With the decline of dualism, a number of creative thinkers have conceptualized the mind-body problem in a manner that values perspectives derived from psychoanalytic thinking as well as from the neurosciences. Similarly, modern studies of the etiology and pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders suggest that only through a sophisticated synthesis of psychosocial and genetic/biochemical points of view can causation be comprehensively understood. In light of this accumulating knowledge, the author concludes that treatment must be informed by psychotherapeutic approaches as well as by pharmacotherapy.

  16. Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-09-25

    Large-scale genomic investigations have just begun to illuminate the molecular genetic contributions to major psychiatric illnesses, ranging from small-effect-size common variants to larger-effect-size rare mutations. The findings provide causal anchors from which to understand their neurobiological basis. Although these studies represent enormous success, they highlight major challenges reflected in the heterogeneity and polygenicity of all of these conditions and the difficulty of connecting multiple levels of molecular, cellular, and circuit functions to complex human behavior. Nevertheless, these advances place us on the threshold of a new frontier in the pathophysiological understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disease.

  17. Genetics and genomics of psychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Daniel H.; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genomic investigations have just begun to illuminate the molecular genetic contributions to major psychiatric illnesses, ranging from small-effect-size common variants to larger-effect-size rare mutations. The findings provide causal anchors from which to understand their neurobiological basis. Although these studies represent enormous success, they highlight major challenges reflected in the heterogeneity and polygenicity of all of these conditions and the difficulty of connecting multiple levels of molecular, cellular, and circuit functions to complex human behavior. Nevertheless, these advances place us on the threshold of a new frontier in the pathophysiological understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disease. PMID:26404826

  18. The Centre for Psychiatric Nursing Research and practice: promoting excellence in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda

    2006-09-01

    The Centre for Psychiatric Nursing Research and Practice (CPNRP), is funded by the Department of Human Services Victoria, as an initiative to support psychiatric nurses throughout the State of Victoria. At the time of the CPNRPs inception in 1999, psychiatric nursing had been affected by widespread changes in the delivery of mental health services and nursing education in Victoria. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of the CPNRP and how this development reflected the significant issues of the time. The CPNRP introduced a number of programs and other initiatives in response to six primary issues: recruitment, retention, leadership, professional development, research: practice gap and communication.

  19. Dark Energy from Discrete Spacetime

    PubMed Central

    Trout, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502

  20. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    PubMed

    Trout, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  1. A FORTRAN Program for Discrete Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, James O.; Brewer, James K.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran program is presented for discriminant analysis of discrete variables. The program assumes discrete, nominal data with no distributional, variance-covariance assumptions. The program handles a maximum of fifty predictor variables and twelve outcome groups. (Author/JKS)

  2. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  3. Down Syndrome: Cognitive Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies…

  4. Observability of discretized partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.

  5. Psychiatric home care: a new tool for crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Spiro, A H

    1994-03-01

    The cost of psychiatric care has been rapidly increasing in recent years. Between 1984 and 1987, there was a 46 percent increase in psychiatric hospitals beds and a 60 percent increase in psychiatric units in general hospitals. This reflected a recognition by many health care systems that psychiatric patients were a good source of revenue. With this push toward more and more inpatient programs, crucial aspects of psychiatric care were left behind. Specifically, the limitations of inpatient therapy have not been recognized. Within the past five years, a new program has been developed and pioneered to use home care to prevent psychiatric hospitalizations and to also prevent the difficult transitions for psychiatric patients. Over a two-year period, this program was studied for its impact on the quality and cost of psychiatric care.

  6. 3. PSYCHIATRIC WARD IN 24' X 60' QUONSET HUT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PSYCHIATRIC WARD IN 24' X 60' QUONSET HUT, VIEW OF SOUTH FACE - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  7. 4. FIRE BREAK BETWEEN PSYCHIATRIC WARD AND NEXT WARD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRE BREAK BETWEEN PSYCHIATRIC WARD AND NEXT WARD TO THE SOUTH - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  8. Psychiatric home care: a new tool for crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Spiro, A H

    1994-03-01

    The cost of psychiatric care has been rapidly increasing in recent years. Between 1984 and 1987, there was a 46 percent increase in psychiatric hospitals beds and a 60 percent increase in psychiatric units in general hospitals. This reflected a recognition by many health care systems that psychiatric patients were a good source of revenue. With this push toward more and more inpatient programs, crucial aspects of psychiatric care were left behind. Specifically, the limitations of inpatient therapy have not been recognized. Within the past five years, a new program has been developed and pioneered to use home care to prevent psychiatric hospitalizations and to also prevent the difficult transitions for psychiatric patients. Over a two-year period, this program was studied for its impact on the quality and cost of psychiatric care. PMID:10132548

  9. The legal basis of forensic psychiatry: statutorily mandated psychiatric diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J D; Rogers, J L

    1987-07-01

    Using the Oregon statutory scheme as an example, the authors review certain areas of the law where psychiatric expertise is mandated by statute. This review points out the diversity of determinations where forensic psychiatric expertise is required by law. The authors' thesis is that forensic psychiatry draws its vitality from the law. Legal requirements, however, should not dictate psychiatric response, which should be guided by psychiatric knowledge and ethical concerns.

  10. Use of animal-assisted therapy with psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Jeanette; King, Camille

    2010-11-01

    The use of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) as an adjunct treatment approach in psychiatric settings has received much attention in the literature. This article explores the use of AAT with psychiatric patients. The authors performed a literature review and found that AAT can have a significant effect on the improvement of psychiatric patients' socialization and provides a variety of psychological benefits. Nurses can benefit from learning about the potential benefits of AAT for psychiatric patients.

  11. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  12. Consent in psychiatric biobanks for pharmacogenetic research.

    PubMed

    van der Baan, Frederieke H; Bernabe, Rose D C; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Gregoor, Jochem G; Meynen, Gerben; Knol, Mirjam J; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2013-04-01

    In psychiatric practice, pharmacogenetics has the potential to identify patients with an increased risk of unsatisfactory drug responses. Genotype-guided treatment adjustments may increase benefits and reduce harm in these patients; however, pharmacogenetic testing is not (yet) common practice and more pharmacogenetic research in psychiatric patients is warranted. An important precondition for this type of research is the establishment of biobanks. In this paper, we argue that, for the storage of samples in psychiatric biobanks, waiving of consent is not ethically justifiable since the risks cannot be considered minimal and the argument of impracticability does not apply. An opt-out consent procedure is also not justifiable, since it presumes competence while the decisional competence of psychiatric patients needs to be carefully evaluated. We state that an enhanced opt-in consent procedure is ethically necessary, i.e. a procedure that supports the patients' decision-making at the time when the patient is most competent. Nevertheless, such a procedure is not the traditional exhaustive informed consent procedure, since this is not feasible in the case of biobanking. PMID:22607776

  13. Profiling psychiatric inpatient suicide attempts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Katsumi; Shimoda, Shigero; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Arita, Keisuke; Shimamoto, Takuya; Murata, Kiyoshi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is an adverse event that can occur even when patient are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. This study delineates the demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in mental hospitals and psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Japan, a country where the suicide rate is remarkably high. Analyses of incident reports on serious suicide attempts in psychiatric inpatients were performed using prefectural incident records between April 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012. Suicide reports were included for 35 incidents that occurred over 11 years, and demonstrated that 83% of patients (n = 29) committed suicide and 17% (n = 6) survived their attempt with serious aftereffects, such as cognitive impairment or persistent vegetative state. The male/female ratio of inpatient suicide was 1.5:1. The mean age of the attempters was 50.5 years (SD = 18.2). The most common psychiatric diagnoses for those with suicide incident reports were schizophrenia spectrum disorders (51.4%) and affective disorders (40%). Hanging (60%) was the most common method of suicide attempt, followed by jumping in front of moving objects (14.3%) and jumping from height (11.4%). Fifty-four percent of suicides (n = 19) occurred within hospital sites and the remainder (46%; n = 16) occurred outside hospital sites (e.g., on medical leave or elopement) while they were still inpatients. PMID:25345233

  14. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Gender Dysphoric Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). Methods: To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children…

  15. [Physical activities, psychiatric care and mental health].

    PubMed

    Davanture, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    At Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital, sports activities are used as one of several therapeutic tools. The day-long multi-sport sessions, led notably by a nurse, form part of the care programme. Sport not only enables the patients to exert themselves, it is above all a form of therapeutic mediation which encourages verbal and non-verbal communication.

  16. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  17. Novel Therapeutic GPCRs for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most common targets of the neuropharmacological drugs in the central nervous system (CNS). GPCRs are activated by manifold neurotransmitters, and their activation in turn evokes slow synaptic transmission. They are deeply involved in multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. In the brain, the striatum is strongly innervated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and plays a central role in manifestation of psychiatric disorders. Recently, anatomical and comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the non-odorant GPCR superfamily revealed that the orphan GPCRs GPR88, GPR6, and GPR52, as well as dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and the adenosine A2a receptor, are the most highly enriched in the rodent striatum. Genetically engineered animal models and molecular biological studies have suggested that these striatally enriched GPCRs have a potential to be therapeutic psychiatric receptors. This review summarizes the current understanding of the therapeutic GPCR candidates for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26101869

  18. Educational Needs in the Psychiatric Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluckin, Andy; Hanna, Bob

    1991-01-01

    Case studies in Norwich, England, identified issues in the provision of adult education in psychiatric settings: differing definitions of the role of adult education; role conflict between adult educators and health professionals; and opposing beliefs about outsiders entering an institution. The cases also affirmed the therapeutic value of…

  19. Asperger Syndrome: Associated Psychiatric and Medical Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the association of medical and psychiatric conditions with Asperger syndrome, based mainly on publications from the last two decades. It examines comorbidity of Asperger syndrome with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, violence and aggression,…

  20. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  1. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  2. Psychiatric Patients Face Longer Waits in ER

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160934.html Psychiatric Patients Face Longer Waits in ER And they're ...

  3. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  4. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  5. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Primary Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Pirjo; Sourander, Andre; Metsahonkala, Liisa; Aromaa, Minna; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpaa, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of psychiatric symptoms with migraine and tension-type headache in children. Method: A questionnaire completed by 1,135 Finnish children in the sixth grade identified 154 children with migraine, 138 with tension-type headache, and 407 children who were headache-free. Seventy children were randomly selected…

  6. Cholinergic connectivity: it's implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew S.; Neo, Jaclyn; Udawela, Madhara; Dean, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system. PMID:23653591

  7. The Contextual Nature of Psychiatric Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhan, David L.

    1975-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses are powerfully influenced by the contexts in which patients are found and the expectations of diagnosticians. The observations of Millon, Spitzer, and Weiner on Rosenhan's "On Being Sane in Insane Places" (AA 521 951) were examined for the implications they held for the meanings of sanity and insanity. (Editor/RK)

  8. [Ethical problems in forensic-psychiatric assessment].

    PubMed

    Barbey, I

    1988-09-01

    Forensic psychiatry as a subspecialty variously differs from general psychiatry. Therefore psychiatrists working in forensic psychiatry are confronted with ethical problems of other kind. In the following several ethical problems connecting with forensic psychiatric examination are pointed out. Finally the question is discussed, whether there is a need of special ethical guidelines for forensic psychiatry.

  9. Psychiatric illness in the New Zealand Maori.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P S

    1989-12-01

    This paper compares psychiatric illness in the contemporary Maori with that in the non-Maori New Zealander. The ethnic data available are all from secondary sources. The limitations of this and the problems of achieving a satisfactory definition of "a Maori" are discussed. The data suggest that the Maori have a slightly greater risk of psychiatric hospitalization than the non-Maori. First admission rates for schizophrenia are higher for the Maori, as are the readmission rates. First admission rates for major affective illness are roughly comparable in the two groups, and those for neuroses and neurotic depression are lower in the Maori. Rates of admission for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and personality disorders are much higher for the Maori male aged 20-40 years and this group is at greatest risk of psychiatric hospitalization. A larger proportion of Maori are admitted involuntarily, especially under the Criminal Justice Act. The median stay in hospital is not longer for the Maori but their re-admissions are more frequent. The Maori have shown an increase in first psychiatric admission rates since the 1950s, with rapid increases in the early 60s and the 80s. The rates for psychotic disorders have been relatively constant and the most significant changes have been for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and personality disorders. The author relates this historical change to socioeconomic and politico-cultural factors, particularly the stress of rapid urbanization. PMID:2610653

  10. A CBT Approach to Inpatient Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Kim J.

    2005-01-01

    During a psychiatric hospitalization of 5 to 10 days, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies can be used for the management of inpatients and to support the transition to outpatient treatment. This format was chosen after several years of frustration dealing with crisis inpatient care. The use of CBT is well known, and it seemed that an…

  11. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  12. [Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Himmerich, H; Erbguth, F

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and specific nutritional supplements can have prophylactic or therapeutic properties with respect to certain psychiatric disorders. A traditional Mediterranean diet, for example, seems to have prophylactic benefits against depression and dementia, whereas overeating and obesity increase the risk for both.Although evidence for nutritional supplements in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is not sufficient for general recommendations, data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) seem to point to their use for specific indications. Folate, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), for instance, seem to have antidepressant properties, zinc may be beneficial in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) could reduce extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) seems to be effective against negative symptoms, abnormal movements and akathisia in schizophrenia.Psychiatric disorders, in turn, may lead to deficiency of mineral nutrients and vitamins. For instance, vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency is common in alcohol-dependent patients and should therefore be considered during withdrawal treatment. Although vitamin malnutrition is uncommon in developed countries, vitamin deficiency syndromes, such as pernicious anemia or Wernicke's encephalopathy are still relevant differential diagnoses.Some psychopharmacological drugs may additionally change the nutritional habits of the patients in an unfavorable way leading to weight gain and obesity and the risk for further psychiatric problems. PMID:25421417

  13. The role of the community psychiatric nurse.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P; Hawksworth, J; Hobbs, R; Jackson, D

    1990-06-01

    The community psychiatric nurse is an essential element in a comprehensive mental health service. At present each nurse is expected to be a trained counsellor and psychotherapist, a skilled behaviour therapist and an expert assessor of clinical status. This superhuman role is unrealistic; a more appropriate one is outlined.

  14. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  15. Witches, multiple personalities, and other psychiatric artifacts.

    PubMed

    McHugh, P R

    1995-02-01

    Contemporary psychiatric misdirections derived primarily from standard medical errors of oversimplification, misplaced emphasis, and invention are reviewed. These particular errors, however, were in part prompted and sustained by the sociocultural fads and fashions of the day. The results have been disastrous for everyone--patients, families, the public and psychiatry itself.

  16. Reviewing case management in community psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Bush, Tony

    Case management is a process of psychiatric care provision that uses a structured and focused approach to effectively assess individual patient's needs. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of case management in NHS community mental health care in terms of therapeutic impact and relevance. PMID:16209396

  17. Adequacy of Psychiatric Training: A Singaporean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tor, Phern-Chern; Ng, Tze-Pin; Kua, Ee-Heok

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The specialty training program for psychiatry in Singapore is transitioning to a seamless 5-year training program. It is timely to assess the perceived adequacy of current psychiatric specialty training. Methods: An anonymous survey was sent to all psychiatry trainees and psychiatrists in the public sector to assess the current adequacy…

  18. Educational Programming at Alaska Psychiatric Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopasek, Dean E.

    The background, organization, and operation of the Alaska Psychiatric Institute (API), a residential program for behavior disordered and emotionally disturbed children and adolescents, are described. Components of the educational program at API, including academic and social assessment, individual education plans, and elementary and secondary…

  19. Psychiatric reflections on the death penalty.

    PubMed

    West, L J

    1975-07-01

    Capital punishment is outdated, immoral, wasteful, cruel, brutalizing, unfair, irrevocable, useless, dangerous, and obstructive to justice. In addition, psychiatric observations reveal that it generates disease through the torture of death row; it perverts the identity of physicians from trials to prison wards to executions; and, paradoxically, it breeds more murder than it deters.

  20. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  1. [The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings].

    PubMed

    Dunet, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings. In addition to certain "classic" creations, the Dunet architectural office has designed several units for difficult patients as well as a specially adapted hospitalisation unit. These creations which are demanding in terms of the organisation of care require close consultation with the nursing teams. Testimony of an architect who is particularly engaged in the universe of psychiatry.

  2. Cigarette smoking among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Fabiana Cristina Ribeiro de; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cournos, Francine; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Peixoto, Eliane Rezende de Morais; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among psychiatric patients attended in care facilities in Brazil and assess associated factors. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted of psychiatric patients (N = 2,475) selected from 26 care facilities. Current and ex-smokers were compared to those who had never smoked. Odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression. The current and past smoking prevalence rates were 52.7% and 18.9%, respectively. Being male, aged 40 years or over, drug and alcohol use, unprotected sex and a history of physical violence were factors associated with both current and past smoking, while a low education level (≤ 8 years of schooling), history of homelessness, not practicing a religion, current or previous psychiatric hospitalization, and main psychiatric diagnosis substance use disorders, were factors only associated with current smoking. Tobacco smoking prevalence among this population was high and was higher than the rate in the general population. Appropriate interventions and smoking prevention policies should be incorporated into mental health services. PMID:25099043

  3. [Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Himmerich, H; Erbguth, F

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and specific nutritional supplements can have prophylactic or therapeutic properties with respect to certain psychiatric disorders. A traditional Mediterranean diet, for example, seems to have prophylactic benefits against depression and dementia, whereas overeating and obesity increase the risk for both.Although evidence for nutritional supplements in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is not sufficient for general recommendations, data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) seem to point to their use for specific indications. Folate, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), for instance, seem to have antidepressant properties, zinc may be beneficial in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) could reduce extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) seems to be effective against negative symptoms, abnormal movements and akathisia in schizophrenia.Psychiatric disorders, in turn, may lead to deficiency of mineral nutrients and vitamins. For instance, vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency is common in alcohol-dependent patients and should therefore be considered during withdrawal treatment. Although vitamin malnutrition is uncommon in developed countries, vitamin deficiency syndromes, such as pernicious anemia or Wernicke's encephalopathy are still relevant differential diagnoses.Some psychopharmacological drugs may additionally change the nutritional habits of the patients in an unfavorable way leading to weight gain and obesity and the risk for further psychiatric problems.

  4. [Actual problems of inpatient psychiatric care in Russia].

    PubMed

    Iastrebov, V S; Mitikhin, V G; Solokhina, T A; Shevchenko, L S; Tvorogova, N A

    2013-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of inpatient psychiatric care in Russia and some other countries is presented. A systematic analysis of the performance of psychiatric hospitals is conducted. The process of the deinstitutionalization in Russian psychiatry is highlighted. A range of problems hindering a reform of inpatient psychiatric service of the country is singled out. PMID:24300798

  5. [Association between smoking and co-morbid psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well-established that there is an association between smoking and co-morbid psychiatric disorders, several issues remain unclear because most studies do not use standardized diagnostic instruments to assess psychiatric disorders and smoking. Recently three candidate genes have been reported to be associated with both cigarette smoking and various psychiatric disorders. PMID:21033415

  6. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or before authorization for...

  7. College Student Utilization of a Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Bakhai, Yogesh D.; Warren, Calvert G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to identify college students at risk for experiencing a mental health crisis that warranted a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital and/or a psychiatric hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of college students evaluated at a comprehensive psychiatric emergency program during a 1-year period was conducted. Demographic…

  8. What is Wrong With the Current Psychiatric Medication?

    PubMed Central

    Kubacki, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Some common aspects of the misuse of psychotropic drugs are discussed against the background of disparate development of psychiatric and medical sciences. Particular attention is granted the anxiolytic agents, antidepressants, and neuroleptic drugs, and the related psychiatric conditions are considered correspondingly. Popular errors in applying psychiatric medication are thus discussed with their adverse consequences. PMID:20469001

  9. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of psychiatric medications. 549.42 Section 549.42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.42 Use of psychiatric medications....

  10. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of psychiatric medications. 549.42 Section 549.42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.42 Use of psychiatric medications....

  11. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of psychiatric medications. 549.42 Section 549.42 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.42 Use of psychiatric medications....

  12. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or before authorization for...

  13. Coping in Chest Pain Patients with and without Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relations between psychiatric disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 77 patients with chest pain, and compared coping profiles of chest pain patients with and without psychiatric disorders and CHD. Psychiatric patients with no medical disease were also studied. Results are discussed in the context of illness behavior and…

  14. Crisis hospitalization on a psychiatric emergency service.

    PubMed

    Breslow, R E; Klinger, B I; Erickson, B J

    1993-09-01

    The availability of short-stay beds for brief admissions to a Psychiatric Emergency Service (PES) is a model that meets a variety of patient and system needs, allowing time to develop alternatives to hospitalization or gain diagnostic clarity, serving a respite function, providing a hospital setting that does not gratify dependency needs, and relieving inpatient census pressures. An eight-bed service for brief inpatient stays of up to 3 days was developed on a PES which serves a large nine-country catchment area in northeastern New York State. Admissions to this unit would otherwise have gone to a medical school teaching hospital psychiatric unit or a state psychiatric center. Fifty-one consecutive admissions were studied. The majority of patients were dischargeable in the short time frame and did not require transfer for longer-term care. The patients as a group showed improvement in psychiatric symptomatology and rated high satisfaction with the program. Most patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia or personality disorder (PD). Suicidality and substance abuse were frequent. The PD patients had a strong association with suicidality and some association with substance abuse, whereas the schizophrenics had more psychiatric symptomatology. PD patients were more likely to be discharged, leading us to propose a rationale for why this group may be uniquely suited to this approach. The study was replicated after a year on another sample of 51 consecutive admissions, confirming the earlier results and providing a 1-year follow-up on the program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8307344

  15. Predictors of psychiatric rehospitalization among elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chun Yin Terry

    2015-01-01

    The population of Hong Kong and the proportion of elderly people have been increasing rapidly. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to determine predictive factors for psychiatric rehospitalization within 2 years among elderly patients who were discharged from psychiatric wards, in attempt to reduce their rehospitalization rate and to reintegrate them into the community. Patients aged 65 and over, who were discharged from psychiatric wards of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital from 1 March 2010 to 29 February 2012, were identified. Rehospitalization within 2 years after discharge was the primary outcome measure, and the time to rehospitalization was measured as the secondary outcome. Patients were subgrouped into readmitted and non-readmitted groups. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were applied to the potential predictive factors with odds ratios and hazard ratios obtained, respectively, for the significant findings. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted for graphical representation of the study results in survival analysis. 368 individuals satisfying the study criteria were identified. The same four factors were shown to be significantly associated with rehospitalization in both multiple logistic regression and Cox regression survival analysis. Referral to other psychiatric disciplines upon discharge (p< 0.001, OR=0.325, HR=0.405) was associated with a lower rehospitalization risk and correlated to a longer time to rehospitalization. History of suicidal behaviors (p< 0.001, OR=4.906, HR=3.161), history of violent behaviors (p< 0.001, OR=5.443, HR=3.935) and greater number of previous psychiatric admissions (p< 0.001, OR=1.250, HR=1.121)  were associated with a higher rehospitalization risk and predicted earlier rehospitalization. The rehospitalization rate of elderly patients was 5.2% at 1 month, 9.5% at 3 months, 15.0% at 6 months, 17.1% at 1 year, 18.8% at 1.5 year and 20.9% at 2 years. PMID:26870319

  16. Measuring behavioral phenotypes: provocations from the "new genetics".

    PubMed

    Dykens, E M

    1995-03-01

    Recent revolutionary advances in genetics bring a renewed importance to the behavioral phenotypes of mental retardation syndromes. Although the so-called "new genetics" calls for improved research on syndromic behavior, this work has not been a priority in the larger mental retardation field. Further, the work has suffered from inconsistent definitions and methodologies. In this paper key properties of behavioral phenotypes were clarified, including within-syndrome variability and between-syndrome similarities and qualitative differences. Three strategies were offered that improve the traditional focus on easily observed syndromic traits: a psychiatric approach, psychometric methods, and syndrome-specific observations. The need to combine these approaches was discussed as were complications of the work due to developmental and environmental issues. PMID:7779347

  17. Clinical Phenotypes and Comorbidity in European Sleep Apnoea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saaresranta, Tarja; Hedner, Jan; Bonsignore, Maria R.; Riha, Renata L.; McNicholas, Walter T.; Penzel, Thomas; Anttalainen, Ulla; Kvamme, John Arthur; Pretl, Martin; Sliwinski, Pawel; Verbraecken, Johan; Grote, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical presentation phenotypes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and their association with comorbidity as well as impact on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment have not been established. Methods A prospective follow-up cohort of adult patients with OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of ≥5/h) from 17 European countries and Israel (n = 6,555) was divided into four clinical presentation phenotypes based on daytime symptoms labelled as excessive daytime sleepiness (“EDS”) and nocturnal sleep problems other than OSA (labelled as “insomnia”): 1) EDS (daytime+/nighttime-), 2) EDS/insomnia (daytime+/nighttime+), 3) non-EDS/non-insomnia (daytime-/nighttime-), 4) and insomnia (daytime-/nighttime+) phenotype. Results The EDS phenotype comprised 20.7%, the non-EDS/non-insomnia type 25.8%, the EDS/insomnia type 23.7%, and the insomnia phenotype 29.8% of the entire cohort. Thus, clinical presentation phenotypes with insomnia symptoms were dominant with 53.5%, but only 5.6% had physician diagnosed insomnia. Cardiovascular comorbidity was less prevalent in the EDS and most common in the insomnia phenotype (48.9% vs. 56.8%, p<0.001) despite more severe OSA in the EDS group (AHI 35.0±25.5/h vs. 27.9±22.5/h, p<0.001, respectively). Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with insomnia like OSA phenotypes independent of age, gender and body mass index (HR 1.5 (1.188–1.905), p<0.001). The EDS phenotype tended to associate with higher CPAP usage (22.7 min/d, p = 0.069) when controlled for age, gender, BMI and sleep apnoea severity. Conclusions Phenotypes with insomnia symptoms comprised more than half of OSA patients and were more frequently linked with comorbidity than those with EDS, despite less severe OSA. CPAP usage was slightly higher in phenotypes with EDS. PMID:27701416

  18. Single cell dynamic phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Patsch, Katherin; Chiu, Chi-Li; Engeln, Mark; Agus, David B.; Mallick, Parag; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; Ruderman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Live cell imaging has improved our ability to measure phenotypic heterogeneity. However, bottlenecks in imaging and image processing often make it difficult to differentiate interesting biological behavior from technical artifact. Thus there is a need for new methods that improve data quality without sacrificing throughput. Here we present a 3-step workflow to improve dynamic phenotype measurements of heterogeneous cell populations. We provide guidelines for image acquisition, phenotype tracking, and data filtering to remove erroneous cell tracks using the novel Tracking Aberration Measure (TrAM). Our workflow is broadly applicable across imaging platforms and analysis software. By applying this workflow to cancer cell assays, we reduced aberrant cell track prevalence from 17% to 2%. The cost of this improvement was removing 15% of the well-tracked cells. This enabled detection of significant motility differences between cell lines. Similarly, we avoided detecting a false change in translocation kinetics by eliminating the true cause: varied proportions of unresponsive cells. Finally, by systematically seeking heterogeneous behaviors, we detected subpopulations that otherwise could have been missed, including early apoptotic events and pre-mitotic cells. We provide optimized protocols for specific applications and step-by-step guidelines for adapting them to a variety of biological systems. PMID:27708391

  19. Ill health in spouses of psychiatric patients: cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Van den Broucke, S; Vandereycken, W

    1994-10-01

    1. In the literature on the marital relationship of psychiatric patients it often has been reported that the healthy spouses may show a considerable degree of psychological distress. 2. A correlation of psychiatric disorders in married couples commonly has been interpreted according to two models: assortative mating and pathogenic interaction, neither of which can sufficiently explain the spousal psychiatric illness correlation. 3. The issue of psychiatric illness in the spouses of patients merits more attention from both researchers and clinicians. A psychiatric illness in one spouse must be understood within the ongoing interaction of the marital relationship.

  20. Behavioral phenotyping of Nestin-Cre mice: implications for genetic mouse models of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Sebastian A; Vercelli, Claudia A; Vogl, Annette M; Kolarz, Adam W; Pino, Natalia S; Deussing, Jan M; Refojo, Damian

    2014-08-01

    Genetic mouse models based on the Cre-loxP system have been extensively used to explore the influence of specific gene deletions on different aspects of behavioral neurobiology. However, the interpretation of the effects attributed to the gene deletion might be obscured by potential side effects secondary to the Cre recombinase transgene insertion or Cre activity, usually neither controlled nor reported. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis of endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric disorders in the extensively used Nestin(Cre) mouse line, commonly employed to restrict genetic modifications to the CNS. We observed no alterations in locomotion, general exploratory activity, learning and memory, sociability, startle response and sensorimotor gating. Although the overall response to stimuli triggering anxiety-like behaviors remained unaltered in Nestin(Cre) mice, a strong impairment in the acquisition of both contextual- and cued-conditioned fear was observed. These results underline the importance of adequately controlling the behavioral performance of the employed Cre-lines per-se in pre-clinical neurobehavioral research.

  1. Genes, Brain Development and Psychiatric Phenotypes in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Schaer, Marie; Eliez, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) has been in the focus of intensive research over the last 15 years. The syndrome represents a homogeneous model for studying the effect of a decreased dosage of genes on the development of brain structure and function and, consequently, on the emergence of schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder. In this review, we…

  2. Semantic Web Ontology and Data Integration: a Case Study in Aiding Psychiatric Drug Repurposing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jingchun; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    There remain significant difficulties selecting probable candidate drugs from existing databases. We describe an ontology-oriented approach to represent the nexus between genes, drugs, phenotypes, symptoms, and diseases from multiple information sources. We also report a case study in which we attempted to explore candidate drugs effective for bipolar disorder and epilepsy. We constructed an ontology incorporating knowledge between the two diseases and performed semantic reasoning tasks with the ontology. The results suggested 48 candidate drugs that hold promise for further breakthrough. The evaluation demonstrated the validity our approach. Our approach prioritizes the candidate drugs that have potential associations among genes, phenotypes and symptoms, and thus facilitates the data integration and drug repurposing in psychiatric disorders.

  3. Prospects for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorder drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael; Enna, S J

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of CNS-active drugs has, to a major extent, resulted from clinical serendipity. Once targets for such compounds were identified, conventional mechanism-based approaches were used to identify new chemical entities for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Most of these have, however, failed to display any greater efficacy than existing psychotherapeutics and may, in fact, be less efficacious because of side effect liabilities. Among the reasons for this lack of success in drug discovery include a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding the causes of CNS disorders, the absence of biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions, a paucity of animal models that are congruent with the human disease state and the increasing likelihood that CNS conditions are multifactorial in their etiology. These challenges force the inclusion of a Phase IIa proof of concept trial as a component of the drug discovery program. Unlike other therapeutic areas, serendipity is a major factor in the CNS translational medicine interface requiring a close collaboration between preclinical and clinical scientists trained to appreciate unusual behavioral phenotypes. When combined with conventional target-based drug discovery technologies, this increases the likelihood of identifying truly novel drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. PMID:22646072

  4. Discreteness effects in population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Lecomte, Vivien

    2016-05-01

    We analyse numerically the effects of small population size in the initial transient regime of a simple example population dynamics. These effects play an important role for the numerical determination of large deviation functions of additive observables for stochastic processes. A method commonly used in order to determine such functions is the so-called cloning algorithm which in its non-constant population version essentially reduces to the determination of the growth rate of a population, averaged over many realizations of the dynamics. However, the averaging of populations is highly dependent not only on the number of realizations of the population dynamics, and on the initial population size but also on the cut-off time (or population) considered to stop their numerical evolution. This may result in an over-influence of discreteness effects at initial times, caused by small population size. We overcome these effects by introducing a (realization-dependent) time delay in the evolution of populations, additional to the discarding of the initial transient regime of the population growth where these discreteness effects are strong. We show that the improvement in the estimation of the large deviation function comes precisely from these two main contributions.

  5. Discrete auroras and magnetotail processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.

    Important information about magnetospheric phenomena associated with auroras and substorms can be inferred from low-altitude auroral observations. Satellite observations have shown that discrete auroral arcs lie within a boundary plasma sheet (BPS) region that is outside the central plasma sheet (CPS). The observations imply that arcs are generated along BPS field lines by magnetospheric processes that form large, perpendicular electric field structures. The BPS and the arc generation processes apparently lie along field lines that are in the vicinity of the boundary between open and closed field lines and cross the tail (or magnetopause) current sheet. Ground-based observations show that the first indication of a substorm onset is the brightening of a quiet, discrete arc. This suggests that substorms are initiated along the BPS field lines associated with arc generation, and not within the CPS. Finally, auroral observations have shown that the area of open, polar-cap field lines varies considerably during periods of geomagnetic activity. Expansion of the polar cap has the potential for releasing trapped plasma sheet particles along freshly open field lines. The resulting evacuation of field lines has the potential for being an important loss process for the plasma sheet and for being a source of tailward flows and energetic particle bursts in the tail.

  6. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  7. Genomic insights into the overlap between psychiatric disorders: implications for research and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Although currently classified into distinct disorder categories, they show clinical overlap and familial co-aggregation, and share genetic risk factors. Recent advances in psychiatric genomics have provided insight into the potential mechanisms underlying the overlap between these disorders, implicating genes involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Furthermore, evidence from copy number variant, exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies supports a gradient of neurodevelopmental psychopathology indexed by mutational load or mutational severity, and cognitive impairment. These findings have important implications for psychiatric research, highlighting the need for new approaches to stratifying patients for research. They also point the way for work aiming to advance our understanding of the pathways from genotype to clinical phenotype, which will be required in order to inform new classification systems and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24944580

  8. Genomic insights into the overlap between psychiatric disorders: implications for research and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Joanne L; Owen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Although currently classified into distinct disorder categories, they show clinical overlap and familial co-aggregation, and share genetic risk factors. Recent advances in psychiatric genomics have provided insight into the potential mechanisms underlying the overlap between these disorders, implicating genes involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Furthermore, evidence from copy number variant, exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies supports a gradient of neurodevelopmental psychopathology indexed by mutational load or mutational severity, and cognitive impairment. These findings have important implications for psychiatric research, highlighting the need for new approaches to stratifying patients for research. They also point the way for work aiming to advance our understanding of the pathways from genotype to clinical phenotype, which will be required in order to inform new classification systems and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24944580

  9. Molecular analysis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome patients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, C; Papolos, D; Pandita, R K; Faedda, G L; Veit, S; Goldberg, R; Shprintzen, R; Kucherlapati, R; Morrow, B

    1997-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is characterized by conotruncal cardiac defects, cleft palate, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial appearance and is associated with hemizygous deletions within 22q11. A newly recognized clinical feature is the presence of psychiatric illness in children and adults with VCFS. To ascertain the relationship between psychiatric illness, VCFS, and chromosome 22 deletions, we evaluated 26 VCFS patients by clinical and molecular biological methods. The VCFS children and adolescents were found to share a set of psychiatric disorders, including bipolar spectrum disorders and attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The adult patients, >18 years of age, were affected with bipolar spectrum disorders. Four of six adult patients had psychotic symptoms manifested as paranoid and grandiose delusions. Loss-of-heterozygosity analysis of all 26 patients revealed that all but 3 had a large 3-Mb common deletion. One patient had a nested distal deletion and two did not have a detectable deletion. Somatic cell hybrids were developed from the two patients who did not have a detectable deletion within 22q11 and were analyzed with a large number of sequence tagged sites. A deletion was not detected among the two patients at a resolution of 21 kb. There was no correlation between the phenotype and the presence of the deletion within 22q11. The remarkably high prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders, in association with the congenital anomalies of VCFS and its occurrence among nondeleted VCFS patients, suggest a common genetic etiology. Images Figure 4 PMID:9106531

  10. Psychiatric diagnosis and the oppression of women.

    PubMed

    Russell, D

    1985-01-01

    The system of psychiatric diagnosis which has recently been adopted by most western countries has features, which in various ways, work against the interests of women. This is important as the diagnostic scheme is not a theoretical work which will lay gathering dust on the bookshelves in medical libraries, it is a practical tool which forms the basis for the categorization of 'the insane'. Once the label has been assigned, it is then quite likely that the person labelled will be encouraged or even forced to have certain treatments. This may cause disquiet if the initial labelling is suspect. The purpose of this article is to reveal problems lurking beneath the surface of this moderately bland-looking system of psychiatric diagnosis and to show how the Scheme may help perpetuate the oppression of women.

  11. [Psychiatric and psychological consequences of abortion].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2007-02-14

    Over the last decades a debate on the psychological and psychiatric consequences of the right to abortion took place. Abortion is a word-wide phenomenon linked to different aspects of public health. Although negative consequences are assumed to occur after abortion, most of the women who decide to terminate their pregnancy show several signs of relief. For instance, a decrease of signs of anxiety and depression may occur during the first month after abortion. Actually, the critical moment is the pre-abortion period. In this phase, most of the psychiatric and psychologic manifestations take place. Moreover, recent studies reinforce the importance to address the consequences of abortion with a multidisciplinary approach integrating somatic and psychologic components.

  12. Modeling psychiatric disorders for developing effective treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Tobias; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The recent advance in identifying risk genes has provided an unprecedented opportunity for developing animal models for psychiatric disease research with the goal of attaining translational utility to ultimately develop novel treatments. However, at this early stage, successful translation has yet to be achieved. Here, we review recent advances in modeling psychiatric disease, discuss utility and limitations of animal models, and emphasize the importance of shifting from behavioral analysis to identifying neurophysiological defects, which are likely more conserved across species and thus increase translatability. Looking forward, we envision that preclinical research will align with clinical research to build a common framework of comparable neurobiological abnormalities and form subgroups of patients based on similar pathophysiology. Experimental neuroscience can then use animal models to discover mechanisms underlying distinct abnormalities and develop strategies for effective treatments. PMID:26340119

  13. Forensic psychiatric aspects of inpatient violence.

    PubMed

    Quanbeck, Cameron

    2006-09-01

    Inpatient aggression jeopardizes the safety of psychiatric clinicians and patients. A minority of psychiatric inpatients is responsible for most of inpatient assaults; this subset of repetitively assaultive patients warrants greater attention in the form of systematic study. In developing treatment approaches for assaultive inpatients, it is important to characterize the primary motivation driving aggressive behavior. There are many pharmacologic agents and psychotherapeutic approaches available to address inpatients who engage in impulsive and psychotic violence, but the treatment of inpatients with antisocial or psychopathy personality remain limited, and further study is needed. To protect the safety of patients and staff, criminal prosecution of inpatient assaults is clinically justified if an assailant continues to be aggressive despite appropriate clinical interventions or commits an act of planned aggression so egregious that prosecution is the only reasonable alternative.

  14. Understanding those who seek frequent psychiatric hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Kirkpatrick, Helen

    2002-02-01

    In the period after deinstitutionalization, there has been a rise in hospital readmission rates. It is estimated that the readmission rate for individuals who are frequent users of psychiatric inpatient services is approximately 40% to 50% within 1 year of hospital discharge. Attempts to determine predictors of recidivism have identified multiple variables, some of which are mutually contradictory. Furthermore, comparison among studies is difficult given methodological and theoretical limitations. Despite such issues, however, one consistent predictor of frequent rehospitalization is a person's history of past psychiatric hospital admissions. It seems that those who have shown a pattern of seeking inpatient services in the past tend to repeat this treatment-seeking behavior. The aim of this report is to critically examine some of the predictors of rehospitalization. A better understanding of those who engage in the persistent pattern of seeking inpatient services may assist nurses in planning care that is more suited for their needs. PMID:11877602

  15. The intellectual crisis of psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the intellectual crisis and the potential sources of reveille in clinical research in psychiatry. Current prevailing conceptual models in psychiatry are critically examined, with particular reference to neurobiology, clinical psychopharmacology, assessment, and the therapeutic process. Biological reductionism, neglect of individual responses to treatment, massive propaganda from the pharmaceutical industry, misleading effects of psychometric theory on clinical assessment, and lack of consideration of multiple therapeutic ingredients and of the role of psychological well-being are identified as major sources of an intellectual crisis in psychiatric research. The conceptual crisis of psychiatry is shared by other areas of clinical medicine and stems from a narrow concept of science that neglects clinical observation, the basic method of medicine. A unified concept of health and disease may yield new clinical insights in psychiatric disorders, and may result in therapeutic efforts of more enduring quality than current strategies.

  16. Caring for the elderly female psychiatric patient.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudhasir; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2010-06-01

    With the growth of the elderly population, and the female elderly population in particular, healthcare providers will see increasing numbers of elderly women with psychiatric disorders. To properly care for this group of patients, better understanding is needed not only of group differences in this patient population but also of the differences in each individual, as they age, given their unique life experiences, cohort effects, medical comorbidity, social situation, and personality traits. Understandably, these characteristics will interact with psychiatric disorders in ways that may increase the challenge to correctly diagnose and treat these patients. In addition, understanding late life changes, the prevalence of various mental disorders and the sometimes unique presentation of mental disorders in this age group is required to better diagnose and treat this population.

  17. Satanism in a psychiatric adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Gagnon, A; Bradford, J M

    1988-04-01

    In a university affiliated adolescent psychiatric facility, providing approximately 250 consultations per year, an unsuspectedly high prevalence of preoccupation with "satanism" was found in referred adolescents. Interested by the phenomenon, the authors have identified and documented eight cases in an attempt to isolate common characteristics among the cases. Initially a link between the marginal cult belief and general maladjustment was hypothesized, specifically delinquent behaviour. The study confirmed this trend and showed a significant impairment in the social adjustment of these adolescents. One of the most striking findings was the high prevalence of family disruption and parental abuse. Furthermore, a wide range of psychiatric symptoms were found in our subjects. This study raises concerns over the psychological development of adolescents who are subject to high levels of psychosocial stress. It will hopefully encourage further work in the area of increased susceptibility towards beliefs and indoctrination.

  18. The hypocretin system and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Magnani, Michele; Indrio, Camilla; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The hypocretin system is constituted by a small group of hypothalamic neurons with widespread connections within the entire central nervous system producing two neuropeptides involved in several key physiological functions such as the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, motor control, autonomic functions, metabolism, feeding behavior, and reward. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder regarded as a disease model for the selective hypocretin system damage, and also shares several psychopatological traits and comorbidities with psychiatric disorders. We reviewed the available literature on the involvement of the hypocretin system in psychiatric nosography. Different evidences such as cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels, genetic polymorphisms of the neuropeptides or their receptors, response to treatments, clinical, experimental and functional data directly or indirectly linked the hypocretin system to schizophrenia, mood, anxiety and eating disorders, as well as to addiction. Future genetic and pharmacological studies will disentangle the hypocretin system role in the field of psychiatry.

  19. Courts' misplaced confidence in psychiatric diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Mellsop, Graham W; Fraser, Debra; Tapsell, Rees; Menkes, David B

    2011-01-01

    In considering psychiatric evidence, criminal justice systems make considerable use of labels from official psychiatric classificatory systems. There are legislated requirements for psychological and/or behavioural phenomena to be addressed in legal tests, however medico-legal use of the current categorical diagnostic frameworks which are increasingly complex is difficult to justify. The lack of validity in large domains of the present classificatory systems is now more openly acknowledged, prompting a critical rethink. Illustrative examples include post-traumatic stress disorder, various personality disorders, and dissociative identity disorder. It follows that the Courts' faith in the present categorical classifications (e.g., DSMIV and ICD10) is misplaced and may be ultimately unhelpful to the administration of justice.

  20. Psychiatric diagnoses aboard an aircraft carrier.

    PubMed

    Bohnker, B; McEwen, G; Blanco, J; Feeks, E

    1992-11-01

    A descriptive study was conducted for 150 consecutive patients with a psychiatric diagnosis evaluated over 11 months by the medical staff onboard an aircraft carrier. Patients with sole diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Axis II diagnoses, or personality disorders, were more common (N = 120) than Axis I diagnoses (N = 46). The most common Axis I diagnoses were adjustment disorder and major depression. Axis II diagnoses were significantly more likely (OR = 7.33, 95% CI 4.45-12.16, p = 0.000) in sailors less than 23 years of age compared to ship's population. Suicide behavior was demonstrated in 68% (102/150) of the patient population. This study emphasized the requirement for extensive psychiatric training for the clinical aerospace medicine specialists providing operational support to aircraft carrier crews.

  1. [The psychiatric disease of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Lemke, S; Lemke, C

    1993-09-01

    From more than 650 letters of van Gogh psychopathologically striking phrases were collected. Their occurrence in the last 18 years of van Gogh's life was observed. The very different interpretations of his symptoms were compiled in a schedule. Finally the case of van Gogh's is used to discuss the borderline between psychosis and epilepsy, a topic which has long been neglected in German psychiatric teaching.

  2. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  3. Psychiatric hospital challenges for healthcare security officers.

    PubMed

    White, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Security and Safety managers in today's healthcare facilities need to use creative thinking and resourcefulness, to juggle competing issues in psychiatric hospitals, wards, or units. Using a 3-step process of accountability, access control, and scenario exercises, these managers can mitigate the real-world risk assessment discoveries that might not be evident in well-documented facility policies, staff training, or even written surveys. PMID:12629788

  4. [Forensic psychiatric assessment in the USSR].

    PubMed

    Friemert, K

    1988-11-01

    Basing on the author's experiences during his study stay at the Serbsky All-Union Research Institute for General and Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow a report is given about the theoretical foundations and the carrying-out of forensic-psychiatric expert-opinions in the field of penal as well as civil law in the U.S.S.R. Some peculiarities in comparison with the practice in the G.D.R. are taken in special account.

  5. Paranoid atmospheres: Psychiatric knowledge and delusional realities

    PubMed Central

    Schlimme, Jann E

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the topic of paranoid atmospheres. This subject is especially of interest with respect to persons who are deluded, and also, I will demonstrate, sheds light upon the psychiatrist's "gaze" and knowledge of delusions. In my argument I will follow a path initially outlined by Karl Jaspers (1883-1969): modern psychiatric diagnosis of delusions is a diagnosis of form and not content. Jaspers' emphasis on the form of delusions enables psychiatrists to be self-critical about their professional knowledge and, consequently, prevent the development of dogmatic attitudes. In accord with Jaspers, my argument will focus on the basic structure of delusions and highlight the difference between delusional realities and non-delusional realities, a difference that follows from the possibility of self-criticism of one's own conscious and explicit convictions. I will demonstrate the importance of self-criticism with regard to paranoid atmospheres and also to psychiatric knowledge. In this manner, an understanding of delusions as lived experience will be developed, which argues that an escalation of the influence of delusional convictions, resulting in a profoundly paranoid atmosphere, is most problematic for the deluded person. To acknowledge this insight mirrors the need for a self-critique of psychiatric discourse, encourages an empathic and respectful relationship between professionals and deluded patients, and enables deluded persons to restrict their paranoid atmosphere. It is the main conclusion of my paper that a deluded person cannot do (with respect to his delusional convictions) what a psychiatrist must do (with respect to his psychiatric knowledge and his own existential convictions) in order to prevent a profoundly paranoid atmosphere in their relationship: be self-critical. PMID:19761600

  6. The Quantitative Genetics of Phenotypic Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Schadt, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypic robustness, or canalization, has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically. However, it remains unknown to what extent robustness varies between individuals, and whether factors buffering environmental variation also buffer genetic variation. Here we introduce a quantitative genetic approach to these issues, and apply this approach to data from three species. In mice, we find suggestive evidence that for hundreds of gene expression traits, robustness is polymorphic and can be genetically mapped to discrete genomic loci. Moreover, we find that the polymorphisms buffering genetic variation are distinct from those buffering environmental variation. In fact, these two classes have quite distinct mechanistic bases: environmental buffers of gene expression are predominantly sex-specific and trans-acting, whereas genetic buffers are not sex-specific and often cis-acting. Data from studies of morphological and life-history traits in plants and yeast support the distinction between polymorphisms buffering genetic and environmental variation, and further suggest that loci buffering different types of environmental variation do overlap with one another. These preliminary results suggest that naturally occurring polymorphisms affecting phenotypic robustness could be abundant, and that these polymorphisms may generally buffer either genetic or environmental variation, but not both. PMID:20072615

  7. Phenotypic Characterization of Chicken Thymic Stromal Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Trevor J.; Bean, Andrew G.; Ward, Harry A.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    1992-01-01

    Phenotypic profiles of the thymic stromal components provide an excellent approach to elucidating the nature of the microenvironment of this organ. To address this issue in chickens, we have produced an extensive panel of 18 mAb to the thymic stroma. These mAb have been extensively characterized with respect to their phenotypic specificities and reveal that the stromal cells are equally as complex as the T cells whose maturation they direct. They further demonstrate that, in comparison to the mammalian thymus, there is a remarkable degree of conservation in thymic architecture between phylogenetically diverse species. Eleven mAb reacted with thymic epithelial cells: MUI-73 was panepithelium, MUI-54 stained all cortical and medullary epithelium but only a minority of the subcapsule, MUI-52 was specific for isolated stellate cortical epithelial cells, MUI-62, -69, and -71 were specific for the medulla (including Hassall’s corpusclelike structures), MUI-51, -53, -70, and -75 reacted only with the type-I epithelium, or discrete regions therein, lining the subcapsular and perivascular regions and MUI-58 demonstrated the antigenic similarity between the subcapsule and the medulla. Seven other mAb identified distinct isolated stromal cells throughout the cortex and medulla. Large thymocyte-rich regions, which often spanned from the outer cortex to medulla, lacked epithelial cells. These mAb should prove invaluable for determining the functional significance of thymic stromal-cell subsets to thymopoiesis. PMID:1387829

  8. Dynamic Phenotypic Clustering in Noisy Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ernebjerg, Morten; Kishony, Roy

    2011-01-01

    In natural ecosystems, hundreds of species typically share the same environment and are connected by a dense network of interactions such as predation or competition for resources. Much is known about how fixed ecological niches can determine species abundances in such systems, but far less attention has been paid to patterns of abundances in randomly varying environments. Here, we study this question in a simple model of competition between many species in a patchy ecosystem with randomly fluctuating environmental conditions. Paradoxically, we find that introducing noise can actually induce ordered patterns of abundance-fluctuations, leading to a distinct periodic variation in the correlations between species as a function of the phenotypic distance between them; here, difference in growth rate. This is further accompanied by the formation of discrete, dynamic clusters of abundant species along this otherwise continuous phenotypic axis. These ordered patterns depend on the collective behavior of many species; they disappear when only individual or pairs of species are considered in isolation. We show that they arise from a balance between the tendency of shared environmental noise to synchronize species abundances and the tendency for competition among species to make them fluctuate out of step. Our results demonstrate that in highly interconnected ecosystems, noise can act as an ordering force, dynamically generating ecological patterns even in environments lacking explicit niches. PMID:21445229

  9. Impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; Rein, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; Jacobi, Andrea; Rotter, Andrea; Schütz, Patricia; Hillemacher, Thomas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in a European psychiatric inpatient sample. Two hundred thirty four consecutive psychiatric inpatients (62% female) were examined using a module of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) that has been developed for ICDs (SCID-ICD). In addition to intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, kleptomania, pathological gambling, and trichotillomania, the proposed ICDs not otherwise specified were assessed, including compulsive buying, nonparaphilic compulsive sexual behavior, pathological internet use, and pathological skin picking. Based on the SCID-ICD, a lifetime ICD rate of 23.5% and a current ICD rate of 18.8% were found. The most frequent ICDs were pathological skin picking (lifetime 7.3%, current 6.8%), compulsive buying (lifetime 6.8%, current 6.0%), and intermittent explosive disorder (lifetime 5.6%, current 3.4%). In contrast, referring to admission diagnoses taken from patients' charts only 3.8% of the inpatients were diagnosed with any current ICD. Individuals with comorbid ICD were significantly younger and had more admission diagnoses other than ICD. The results suggest high rates of ICDs among psychiatric inpatients that remain to be under-diagnosed in clinical routine.

  10. Links between Circadian Rhythms and Psychiatric Disease.

    PubMed

    Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2014-01-01

    Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily) clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24834040

  11. The origins of American psychiatric epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Grob, G N

    1985-01-01

    Psychiatric epidemiology developed relatively late (as compared with epidemiology generally). Nineteenth century psychiatrists, although avid collectors of statistics, did not use such data in any systematic manner. The impetus for the creation of an epidemiology of mental illness came from the work of late nineteenth century social scientists concerned with understanding individual and social behavior and applying their findings to social problems. Initially they helped to create the modern census, which represented a radical faith that quantitative research, when merged with administrative rationality, could replace politics. During and after the 1920s, the demographic analysis of the institutionalized mentally ill population expanded sharply; by the late 1930s and 1940s psychiatric epidemiologists had begun to study the role of socioenvironmental variables and the incidence of mental illness in the community. Twentieth century psychiatric epidemiologists, however, faced a severe intellectual problem; their work rested on a descriptive rather than an etiological nosology. Consequently, the results of epidemiological studies in psychiatry often differed precisely because of variations in the design of studies and classification systems as well as the subjective observations of the investigators themselves. The ensuing disagreements among those involved in the epidemiologic study of mental illness were a natural consequence. Images p230-a p231-a p231-b p232-a p233-a p233-b p234-a PMID:3883818

  12. Psychiatric Prescribers' Experiences With Doctor Shoppers.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie; Johnson, Mary; Karnik, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Doctor shopping is a primary method of prescription medication diversion. After opioids, benzodiazepines and stimulants are the next most common prescription medications used nonmedically. Studies have shown that patients who engage in doctor shopping find it fun, exciting, and easy to do. There is a lack of research on the prescriber's perspective on the phenomenon of doctor shopping. This study investigates the experiences of prescribers in psychiatry with patients who engage in doctor shopping. Fifteen prescribers including psychiatrists and psychiatric nurse practitioners working in outpatient psychiatry were interviewed to elicit detailed information about their experiences with patients who engage in doctor shopping. Themes found throughout the interview were that psychiatric prescribers' experience with patients who engage in doctor shopping includes (a) detecting red flags, (b) negative emotional responding, (c) addressing the patient and the problem, and (d) inconsistently implementing precautions. When red flags were detected when prescribing controlled drugs, prescribers in psychiatry experienced both their own negative emotional responses such as disappointment and resentment as well as the negative emotions of the patients such as anger and other extreme emotional responses. Psychiatric prescribers responded to patient's doctor shopping in a variety of ways such as changing their practice, discharging the patients or taking steps to not accept certain patients identified as being at risk for doctor shopping, as well as by talking to the patient and trying to offer them help. Despite experiencing doctor shopping, the prescribers inconsistently implemented precautionary measures such as checking prescription drug monitoring programs.

  13. Risk factors associated with psychiatric readmission.

    PubMed

    Lorine, Kim; Goenjian, Haig; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Schmidt, Kendall; Goenjian, Armen K

    2015-06-01

    The present study focused on identifying risk factors for early readmission of patients discharged from an urban community hospital. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 207 consecutive inpatient psychiatric admissions that included patients who were readmitted within 15 days, within 3 to 6 months, and not admitted for at least 12 months post-discharge. Findings indicated that a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (OR = 18; 95% CI 2.70-117.7; p < 0.05), history of alcohol abuse (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.80-40.60; p < 0.05), number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.28-3.73; p < 0.05), and type of residence at initial admission (e.g., homeless, OR = 29; 95% CI 3.99-217; p < 0.05) were significant risk factors for early readmission, where OR compares readmission group 1 versus group 3 in the multinomial logistic regression. Initial positive urine drug screen, history of drug abuse or incarceration, and legal status at initial admission did not predict early readmission. Reducing the risk factors associated with psychiatric readmissions has the potential to lead to the identification and development of preventative intervention strategies that can significantly improve patient safety, quality of care, well-being, and contain health care expenditures. PMID:25974053

  14. [Double diagnosis and forensic psychiatric opinion].

    PubMed

    Kocur, Józef; Trendak, Wiesława

    2009-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol or any other psychoactive substance can run parallel with other diseases or mental disorders. One can then observe co-occurrence and mutual interaction of dysfunctions typical of addiction and of other mental disorders that accompany addiction. That is why, clinical pictures of such states (double diagnosis) are usually less unique, have an unusual course and cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty. The problem of forensic psychiatric opinion and treatment of people with a double diagnosis is another aspect of these difficulties. It is caused by the fact that forensic psychiatric assessment of the mental state of such people requires taking into consideration a very complex clinical and legal situation triggered by the interference of various ethiopathogenetic and clinical disorders. It leads to the need for complex evaluation and reference to sanity or other signs of functioning within the current law should result, first of all, from the analyses directly pertaining to the influence of the diagnosed disorders on the state of patients with double diagnosis. The forensic psychiatric aspect of disorders connected with double diagnosis is particularly significant as there is a relatively high risk of behaviours posing a threat to public order in this group of patients.

  15. Links between Circadian Rhythms and Psychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karatsoreos, Ilia N.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily) clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual’s vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24834040

  16. The psychiatric interview: validity, structure, and subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Nordgaard, Julie; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2013-06-01

    There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully structured interview is neither theoretically adequate nor practically valid in obtaining psycho-diagnostic information. Failure to address these basic issues may have contributed to the current state of malaise in the study of psychopathology. PMID:23001456

  17. Substance abuse in an inpatient psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Brady, K; Casto, S; Lydiard, R B; Malcolm, R; Arana, G

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between psychoactive drug abuse and psychopathology is complex. There have been few systematic explorations of substance abuse in psychiatric populations since the recent epidemic of cocaine abuse. To update and further explore the relationship between psychiatric illness and substance abuse, 100 consecutively admitted patients to an inpatient psychiatry unit were administered a drug and alcohol use/abuse questionnaire. Sixty-four percent endorsed current or past problems with substance abuse and 29% met DSM-III-R criteria for substance abuse in the 30 days prior to admission. For the major diagnostic categories, there were no significant differences between groups in percentages of patients with substance abuse disorders. There was a trend (p less than or equal to .2) toward an increased number of lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations in the substance-abusing group. Alcohol was the most common drug of choice followed by stimulants, cannabis, and sedative hypnotics. Differences in drug choices between diagnostic categories are discussed. Forty-three percent of urine drug screens obtained were positive, and of those with positive urine drug screens, 42% denied drug use upon admission. Only 40% of patients with current or past substance abuse problems had received treatment for their chemical dependency. In our sample, while substance abuse was very prevalent, it was underreported and undertreated.

  18. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation and Donation

    PubMed Central

    Faeder, Sarah; Moschenross, Darcy; Rosenberger, Emily; Dew, Mary Amanda; DiMartini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals typically assist with evaluating and treating psychiatric and behavioral issues in transplant candidates, recipients and living organ donors. In this review recent findings on specific psychiatric issues in adult solid organ transplant candidates and recipients, as well as living donors are discussed as well as their relevance to clinical practice. Recent findings Patients with complex mental health and addiction histories can have outcomes similar to patients without these disorders but may require specialized pre-transplant preparation or post-transplant interventions to optimize their outcomes. Specific attention to the preparation and wellbeing of living donors is needed. Summary As transplant programs increasingly consider patients with complex mental health histories, psychiatrists and mental health professionals evaluating and treating these patients need to consider plans for early identification and treatment. Psychiatric care provided across the pre- to post-operative periods will best address the longitudinal care needs of patients with mental health disorders. Abstinence from substances and complete adherence to medical directives provides the best chance for optimal outcomes. Treatment of depression may improve transplant outcomes. Research is needed to identify effective interventions and the best strategies to engage patients to improve adherence. PMID:26186069

  19. Psychiatric disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, G A; Nehall, J E; Simeon, D T

    1996-06-01

    The symptoms of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) may include altered mental function. The present study sought to determine whether the psychiatric disorders are due to the disease itself or to the stress of having a chronic disease. Forty-five SLE patients attending outpatient clinics at the Port-of-Spain General Hospital in Trinidad were compared with two control groups: patients with chronic debilitating diseases similar to SLE in terms of chronicity and treatment (n = 44) and non-diseased individuals (n = 48). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R was used to identify psychiatric disorders. Both the SLE and the chronic illness groups had more psychiatric illness (44% and 39%, respectively) when compared with the non-diseased controls (2%) (p < 0.001). Major depression was the most common diagnosis among both diseased groups. However, psychotic illnesses (schizophrenic-type psychosis and bipolar disorders) were more prevalent in the SLE group (11.1% vs 0%, p = 0.02). These results indicate that major depression in SLE may be related more to the effects of a chronic illness than to SLE itself. However, the occurrence of psychotic symptoms may be related to SLE disease and needs further study.

  20. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  1. Psychiatric aspects of murder and attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Medicott, R W

    1976-01-14

    The clinical data and forensic aspects of 28 individuals charged with murder and 10 charged with attempted murder examined over the last 35 years are recorded. The majority of those aged 40 years or over were criminally insane. A positive family history of psychiatric illness was present in the majority of the criminally insane group. Murder and attempted murder in the setting of a stable marriage was almost invariably the result of serious psychiatric illness. After the clearcut cases of schizophrenia and depressive illness were separated there were left a mixed paranoid group and a large group of individuals with severe personality disorders. Of the forensic aspects a case is made for the wider use of "unfitness to plead" in the severely psychotic. The follow-up of cases strongly suggested that those found not guilty on psychiatric grounds were likely to be held for longer periods than those treated as criminals. The author suggests that the public would be better protected if the Crown sought an insanity verdict in some cases rather than oppose it.

  2. Targeted mutagenesis tools for modelling psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Deussing, Jan M

    2013-10-01

    In the 1980s, the basic principles of gene targeting were discovered and forged into sharp tools for efficient and precise engineering of the mouse genome. Since then, genetic mouse models have substantially contributed to our understanding of major neurobiological concepts and are of utmost importance for our comprehension of neuropsychiatric disorders. The "domestication" of site-specific recombinases and the continuous creative technological developments involving the implementation of previously identified biological principles such as transcriptional and posttranslational control now enable conditional mutagenesis with high spatial and temporal resolution. The initiation and successful accomplishment of large-scale efforts to annotate functionally the entire mouse genome and to build strategic resources for the research community have significantly accelerated the rapid proliferation and broad propagation of mouse genetic tools. Addressing neurobiological processes with the assistance of genetic mouse models is a routine procedure in psychiatric research and will be further extended in order to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms. In light of the highly complex nature of psychiatric disorders and the current lack of strong causal genetic variants, a major future challenge is to model of psychiatric disorders more appropriately. Humanized mice, and the recently developed toolbox of site-specific nucleases for more efficient and simplified tailoring of the genome, offer the perspective of significantly improved models. Ultimately, these tools will push the limits of gene targeting beyond the mouse to allow genome engineering in any model organism of interest.

  3. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey: acculturation and the prevalence of psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Ghubash, R; Hamdi, E; Bebbington, P

    1994-02-01

    Dubai, an Emirate in the Gulf region, has experienced spectacular social change as a result of the exploitation of its oil reserves. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey was designed to study the effects of this social change on the mental health of female nationals. In this paper, we approach the problem by quantifying social change in two main ways: the first focused on social change at the individual level as measured by the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (Bebbington et al. 1993). The second examined the effect of social change at the community level by identifying areas of residence at different levels of development. We hypothesized that attitudes and behaviours markedly at odds with traditional prescriptions would be associated with high rates of psychiatric morbidity. On the individual level, the association between psychiatric morbidity and the amount of social change reflected in the behaviours and views of the subjects was not significant. However, there was a significant association between morbidity and between social attitudes and behaviours. At the community level, in contrast, the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and social change was significant: there was more psychiatric morbidity in areas at the extremes of the social change continuum. The hypothesis put forward in this study must be modified accordingly.

  4. `Weak A' phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J. P.; Gerbal, A.; Hughes-Jones, N. C.; Salmon, C.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-five weak A samples including fourteen A3, eight Ax, seven Aend, three Am and three Ae1 were studied in order to determine their A antigen site density, using an IgG anti-A labelled with 125I. The values obtained ranged between 30,000 A antigen sites for A3 individuals, and 700 sites for the Ae1 red cells. The hierarchy of values observed made it possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the red cell agglutinability of these phenotypes measured under standard conditions, and their antigen site density. PMID:4435836

  5. Semantic Web Ontology and Data Integration: a Case Study in Aiding Psychiatric Drug Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jingchun; Tao, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Despite ongoing progress towards treating mental illness, there remain significant difficulties in selecting probable candidate drugs from the existing database. We describe an ontology — oriented approach aims to represent the nexus between genes, drugs, phenotypes, symptoms, and diseases from multiple information sources. Along with this approach, we report a case study in which we attempted to explore the candidate drugs that effective for both bipolar disorder and epilepsy. We constructed an ontology that incorporates the knowledge between the two diseases and performed semantic reasoning task on the ontology. The reasoning results suggested 48 candidate drugs that hold promise for a further breakthrough. The evaluation was performed and demonstrated the validity of the proposed ontology. The overarching goal of this research is to build a framework of ontology — based data integration underpinning psychiatric drug repurposing. This approach prioritizes the candidate drugs that have potential associations among genes, phenotypes and symptoms, and thus facilitates the data integration and drug repurposing in psychiatric disorders. PMID:27570661

  6. Observers for discrete-time nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Walter D.

    Observer synthesis for discrete-time nonlinear systems with special applications to parameter estimation is analyzed. Two new types of observers are developed. The first new observer is an adaptation of the Friedland continuous-time parameter estimator to discrete-time systems. The second observer is an adaptation of the continuous-time Gauthier observer to discrete-time systems. By adapting these observers to discrete-time continuous-time parameter estimation problems which were formerly intractable become tractable. In addition to the two newly developed observers, two observers already described in the literature are analyzed and deficiencies with respect to noise rejection are demonstrated. Improved versions of these observers are proposed and their performance demonstrated. The issues of discrete-time observability, discrete-time system inversion, and optimal probing are also addressed.

  7. Ideal shrinking and expansion of discrete sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Ideal methods are described for shrinking or expanding a discrete sequence, image, or image sequence. The methods are ideal in the sense that they preserve the frequency spectrum of the input up to the Nyquist limit of the input or output, whichever is smaller. Fast implementations that make use of the discrete Fourier transform or the discrete Hartley transform are described. The techniques lead to a new multiresolution image pyramid.

  8. Determinant Expressions for Discrete Integrable Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi

    2006-08-01

    Explicit formulas for several discrete integrable maps with periodic boundary condition are obtained, which give the sequential time developments in a form of the quotient of successive determinants of tri-diagonal matrices. We can expect that such formulas make the corresponding numerical simulations simple and stable. The cases of discrete Lotka-Volterra and discrete KdV equations are demonstrated by using the common algorithm computing determinants of tri-diagonal matrices.

  9. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  10. Discretizing gravity in warped spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Matthew; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Thambyahpillai, Shiyamala

    2005-07-11

    We investigate the discretized version of the compact Randall-Sundrum model. By studying the mass eigenstates of the lattice theory, we demonstrate that for warped space, unlike for flat space, the strong coupling scale does not depend on the IR scale and lattice size. However, strong coupling does prevent us from taking the continuum limit of the lattice theory. Nonetheless, the lattice theory works in the manifestly holographic regime and successfully reproduces the most significant features of the warped theory. It is even in some respects better than the KK theory, which must be carefully regulated to obtain the correct physical results. Because it is easier to construct lattice theories than to find exact solutions to GR, we expect lattice gravity to be a useful tool for exploring field theory in curved space.

  11. Lepton mixing and discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    The pattern of lepton mixing can emerge from breaking a flavor symmetry in different ways in the neutrino and charged lepton Yukawa sectors. In this framework, we derive the model-independent conditions imposed on the mixing matrix by the structure of discrete groups of the von Dyck type which include A4, S4, and A5. We show that, in general, these conditions lead to at least two equations for the mixing parameters (angles and CP phase δ). These constraints, which correspond to unbroken residual symmetries, are consistent with nonzero 13 mixing and deviations from maximal 2-3 mixing. For the simplest case, which leads to an S4 model and reproduces the allowed values of the mixing angles, we predict δ=(90°-120°).

  12. The Phenotype of Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Goossens’ (in press) review nicely maps the progression of scientific research from its early focus on loneliness as a dysphoric state that results from the discrepancy between a person's ideal and actual social relationships to its current emphasis on the centrality of loneliness to our very nature as a social species, and he argues that developmental science throughout Europe has a great deal to contribute to our understanding of this construct. He concludes that psychologists should care about research on loneliness for five reasons: (i) it is a well-defined phenotype, (ii) it shows both high stability and individual differences in rates of change across years, (iii) it has adaptive value and evolutionary significance, (iv) it has a genetic substrate that is moderated by social environments, and (v) it has self-maintaining features that can lead to adverse mental health outcomes. Goossen's (2012) review is rife with information and ideas. We focus here on two additional important reasons and on the phenotype of loneliness. PMID:23024688

  13. [Predisposition - obesity phenotype].

    PubMed

    Blüher, M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity belongs to the five most important health burdens in modern societies and reaches with ~20 % prevalence in Germany epidemic proportions. Obesity significantly increases the risk of developing metabolic (e. g. type 2 diabetes), cardiovascular, orthopaedic, psychologic and other disorders. Despite the well established epidemiologic relationship between obesity and these co-morbidities, there is a subgroup of metabolically healthy obese patients, which seems to be protected against metabolic and cardiovascular obesity related disorders. Compared to metabolically unhealthy or high risk obese patients, metabolically healthy obese individuals are characterized by preserved insulin sensitivity, lower liver fat content, lower visceral fat mass, as well as normal adipose tissue function. Noteworthy, metabolically healthy obese individuals do not significantly improve their obesity-associated risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and vascular diseases. Therefore, distinction between metabolically healthy from high-risk obese phenotypes will facilitate the identification of the obese person who will benefit the most from early lifestyle, pharmacological or bariatric surgery interventions. A stratified treatment approach considering these different obesity phenotypes should be introduced into clinical management of obese patients.

  14. Scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jesus; Taylor, Padraic

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems. By allowing more general boundary conditions and by imposing less restrictions on the nonlinearities, we obtain results that extend previous work in the area of discrete boundary value problems [Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Periodic solutions of nonlinear discrete-time systems, Appl. Anal. 62 (1996) 119-137; Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Scalar discrete nonlinear two-point boundary value problems, J. Difference Equ. Appl. 4 (1998) 127-144].

  15. A discrete event method for wave simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a discrete event interpretation of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) and digital wave guide network (DWN) wave simulation schemes. The discrete event method is formalized using the discrete event system specification (DEVS). The scheme is shown to have errors that are proportional to the resolution of the spatial grid. A numerical example demonstrates the relative efficiency of the scheme with respect to FDTD and DWN schemes. The potential for the discrete event scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and attenuation errors is discussed.

  16. [Psychiatric manifestations by prions. A narrative review].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Robles, Daniel; García Maldonado, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of rare and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that may cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. This group of diseases has been described since the 18(th) century, but they were recognized decades later, when it became clear that the humans were affected by infected animals. There was controversy when the problem was attributed to a single protein with infective capacity. The common pathological process is characterized by the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein into an abnormal form. In humans, the illness has been classified as idiopathic, inherited and acquired through exposure to exogenous material containing abnormal prions. The most prominent neurological manifestation of prion diseases is the emergence of a rapidly progressive dementia, mioclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia and also extra pyramidal symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms occur in early stages of the illness and can contribute to timely diagnosis of this syndrome. Psychiatric symptoms have traditionally been grouped in three categories: affective symptoms, impaired motor function and psychotic symptoms. Such events usually occur during the prodromal period prior to the neurological manifestations and consists in the presence of social isolation, onset of delusions, irritability/aggression, visual hallucinations, anxiety and depression, and less frequent first-rank symptoms among others. Definite diagnosis requires post mortem examination. The possibility that a large number of cases may occur in the next years or that many cases have not been considered with this diagnosis is a fact. In our opinion, psychiatrists should be aware of symptoms of this disease. The main objective of this research consisted of assessing the correlation between this disturbance and neuro-psychiatric symptoms and particularly if this psychiatric manifestations integrate a clinical picture suggestive for the diagnosis of these diseases, but firstly reviewed taxonomic

  17. Valuing psychiatric patients' stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting.

    PubMed

    James, Caryl C A B; Carpenter, Karen A; Peltzer, Karl; Weaver, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine illness presentation and understand how psychiatric patients make meaning of the causes of their mental illnesses. Six Jamaican psychiatric patients were interviewed using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview Schedule. Of the 6, 3 representative case studies were chosen. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach and the common sense model were used in the formulation of patients' explanatory models. Results indicate that psychiatric patients actively conceptualized the causes and resultant treatment of their mental illnesses. Patients' satisfaction and compliance with treatment were dependent on the extent to which practitioners' conceptualization matched their own, as well as practitioners' acknowledgement of patients' concerns about causation, prognosis, and treatment. PMID:24067328

  18. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-10-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth is important to tailor current preventive and treatment interventions to the needs of these youth. The aim of this study was to explore factors at child, family, school, peer, neighbourhood and ethnic minority group level associated with mental health problems in Moroccan-Dutch youth (n = 152, mean age 13.6 ± 1.9 years). Self-reported and teacher-reported questionnaire data on psychiatric symptoms and self-report interview data on psychiatric disorders were used to divide children into three levels of mental health problems: no symptoms, only psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were associated with more psychopathic traits, a higher number of experienced trauma and children in the family, and more conflicts with parents, affiliation with delinquent peers, perceived discrimination and cultural mistrust. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were also associated with less self-esteem, parental monitoring, affiliation with religion and orientation to Dutch or Moroccan culture, and a weaker ethnic identity. For youth growing up in a disadvantaged ethnic minority position, the most important factors were found at family (parent-child relationship and parenting practices) and ethnic minority group level (marginalization, discrimination and cultural mistrust). Preventive and treatment interventions for socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth should be aimed at dealing with social disadvantage and discrimination, improving the parent-child relationship and parenting practices, and developing a positive (cultural) identity.

  19. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-10-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth is important to tailor current preventive and treatment interventions to the needs of these youth. The aim of this study was to explore factors at child, family, school, peer, neighbourhood and ethnic minority group level associated with mental health problems in Moroccan-Dutch youth (n = 152, mean age 13.6 ± 1.9 years). Self-reported and teacher-reported questionnaire data on psychiatric symptoms and self-report interview data on psychiatric disorders were used to divide children into three levels of mental health problems: no symptoms, only psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were associated with more psychopathic traits, a higher number of experienced trauma and children in the family, and more conflicts with parents, affiliation with delinquent peers, perceived discrimination and cultural mistrust. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were also associated with less self-esteem, parental monitoring, affiliation with religion and orientation to Dutch or Moroccan culture, and a weaker ethnic identity. For youth growing up in a disadvantaged ethnic minority position, the most important factors were found at family (parent-child relationship and parenting practices) and ethnic minority group level (marginalization, discrimination and cultural mistrust). Preventive and treatment interventions for socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth should be aimed at dealing with social disadvantage and discrimination, improving the parent-child relationship and parenting practices, and developing a positive (cultural) identity. PMID:26895811

  20. Shrug ambivalence and disagreement; search commonalities in psychiatric phenomena(**).

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R

    2014-01-01

    social psychopathology;Of goals - that of unravelling the aetiopathology of psychiatric disorders; finding precision in diagnostics and investigative tests; finding biomarkers; and finding precise therapies for precise disorders that control such disorders; and not just control, but finally cure them; finding methods of primary prevention; of moving from mental disorder to mental health; and, further, of progress to individual actualisation and personal and collective well-being with longevity;Of practice - a) in therapy: By synergising psychopharmacology/somatic therapies with psychotherapy/therapies, social therapies and pharmacogenetics; b) in diagnostics: By identifying the phenotype-genotype-endophenotype axis; and (c) by promoting such therapy and diagnostics as brings about control, and finally, cure/primary prevention of psychiatric disorders.The future course for psychiatry involves a goal oriented forward movement - while allowing for diversity in practice and theory, stressing on unity of purpose, goals, and practice. PMID:24891800

  1. Mice Lacking the Circadian Modulators SHARP1 and SHARP2 Display Altered Sleep and Mixed State Endophenotypes of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoradi, Ali; Reinecke, Lisa; Kroos, Christina; Wichert, Sven P.; Oster, Henrik; Wehr, Michael C.; Taneja, Reshma; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Rossner, Moritz J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that clock genes may be implicated in a spectrum of psychiatric diseases, including sleep and mood related disorders as well as schizophrenia. The bHLH transcription factors SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE41 and SHARP2/DEC1/BHLHE40 are modulators of the circadian system and SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE40 has been shown to regulate homeostatic sleep drive in humans. In this study, we characterized Sharp1 and Sharp2 double mutant mice (S1/2-/-) using online EEG recordings in living animals, behavioral assays and global gene expression profiling. EEG recordings revealed attenuated sleep/wake amplitudes and alterations of theta oscillations. Increased sleep in the dark phase is paralleled by reduced voluntary activity and cortical gene expression signatures reveal associations with psychiatric diseases. S1/2-/- mice display alterations in novelty induced activity, anxiety and curiosity. Moreover, mutant mice exhibit impaired working memory and deficits in prepulse inhibition resembling symptoms of psychiatric diseases. Network modeling indicates a connection between neural plasticity and clock genes, particularly for SHARP1 and PER1. Our findings support the hypothesis that abnormal sleep and certain (endo)phenotypes of psychiatric diseases may be caused by common mechanisms involving components of the molecular clock including SHARP1 and SHARP2. PMID:25340473

  2. Phenotypic analyses of Agrobacterium.

    PubMed

    Morton, Elise R; Fuqua, Clay

    2012-05-01

    Agrobacterium species are plant-associated relatives of the rhizobia. Several species cause plant diseases such as crown gall and hairy root, although there are also avirulent species. A. tumefaciens is the most intensively studied species and causes crown gall, a neoplastic disease that occurs on a variety of plants. Virulence is specified by large plasmids, and in the case of A. tumefaciens this is called the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid. During pathogenesis virulent agrobacteria copy a segment of the Ti plasmid and transfer it to the plant, where it subsequently integrates into the plant genome, and expresses genes that result in the disease symptoms. A. tumefaciens has been used extensively as a plant genetic engineering tool and is also a model microorganism that has been well studied for host-microbe associations, horizontal gene transfer, cell-cell communication, and biofilm formation. This unit describes standard protocols for simple phenotypic characterizations of A. tumefaciens. PMID:22549164

  3. Psychiatric Effects of Military Deployment on Children and Families

    PubMed Central

    James, Trenton

    2012-01-01

    Deployments in the United States military have increased greatly in the past 10 years. Families and children are psychiatrically affected by these deployments, and recent studies are clarifying these effects. This article focuses on the psychiatric effects of deployment on children and uses a composite case example to review the use of play therapy to treat children who are having psychiatric issues related to the deployment of one or both parents. PMID:22468239

  4. Respect for patient autonomy in forensic psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald N

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental issue that forensic psychiatric nurses struggle with is respect for patient autonomy, as the two liberal prerequisites for autonomy, liberty and rationality, are either absent or compromised in forensic psychiatric settings. In this paper, a contemporary feminist perspective of autonomy, relational autonomy, will be advanced as an alternative approach to the traditional liberalist, Kantian, perspective of autonomy. The concepts of autonomy, paternalism, and justice will be discussed in relation to forensic psychiatric nursing. PMID:17073051

  5. 5 CFR 572.102 - Agency discretion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency discretion. 572.102 Section 572.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES; NEW APPOINTEES AND INTERVIEWS § 572.102 Agency discretion. Payment of travel...

  6. Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…

  7. Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…

  8. Covariance control of discrete stochastic bilinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Kherat, S. M.; Yaz, E.

    1991-01-01

    The covariances that certain bilinear stochastic discrete time systems may possess are characterized. An explicit parameterization of all controllers that assign such covariances is given. The state feedback assignability and robustness of the system are discussed from a deterministic point of view. This work extends the theory of covariance control for continuous time bilinear systems to a discrete time setting.

  9. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  10. Discreteness and Gradience in Intonational Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Three experimental techniques that can be used to investigate the gradient of discrete nature of intonational differences, the semantic task, the imitation task, and the pitch range task are discussed and evaluated. It is pointed out that categorical perception is a sufficient but not a necessary, property of phonological discreteness. (Author/VWL)

  11. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Specker, Sheila; Meller, William H.; Thurber, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524) to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD) (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs). Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF) with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data gathering. Although

  12. Skin and brain: itch and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Stefano; Bove, Domenico; Bove, Rocco M; LA Montagna, Maddalena

    2016-10-01

    Skin diseases (atopic eczema, psoriasis, idiopathic urticaria), systemic diseases (chronic hepatic or renal failure, morbus Hodgkin, diabetes mellitus) and psychiatric disorders (obsessive compulsive disorders, depression, delusions of parasitosis) can occur with itching. The aim of this review is to clarify the link between pruritus and psychiatric morbidity and emphasize the importance of a psychiatric consultation for patients with a chronic itching, without a skin disease. In the last years, there is a growing awareness regarding psychogenic itch, although these types of itch are significantly less studied in comparison to other types of pruritus. Psychogenic pruritus is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. There are not controlled studies about treatment of psychogenic itch, but the same drugs prescribed for neuropathic pain, depression, and anxiety are used. There is a strong association between pruritus and psyche; so, it is important that the dermatologist evaluates psychosomatic dimension. According to the analysis of scientific literature and our clinical experience, pruritus seems to be a rather common phenomenon in patients suffering from depression. Future works should explain the basis of psychopathology of chronic itching thanks to studies of selected groups of patients with a particular type of chronic itching, highlighting the clinical features to establish appropriate and individual targeted care, based on the several types of pruritus. Some questions still unanswered could be clarified in this way. It is really important to decrease the symptoms "itching", because the quality of life of the patient will be improved, but the goal is to identify the underlying mechanisms of itch and establish a targeted therapy, depending on the biological changes and the underlying disease. PMID:25854671

  13. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  14. [Psychiatric care in South Tyrol -- an example of coordination].

    PubMed

    Pycha, Roger; Conca, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The Tyrol's division after the two World Wars cut the South Tyrol off from every relevant aspect of psychiatric care. First attempts towards a community psychiatric system weren't sufficiently sustained by politicians. Only in the 90 ty's was the association of relatives of mentally ill people able to sensitize public and politicians to the need for an adequate psychiatric care system. Since 1996 an excellent psychiatric plan has been in existence, 80 % of which has to date been able to be put into practice. Since 1997 mentally ill people have founded their own self-help-organization and influenced the planning process.

  15. Psychiatric disorders, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 and CAG expansion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Uanda Cristina Almeida; Marques, Wilson; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo C; Osório, Flávia L

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the association between spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and psychiatric disorders, using mainly screening scales to assess signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety. With these limitations in mind, we assessed the prevalence of DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders in SCA3 patients and their possible associations with the length of CAG repeats and socio-demographic characteristics, highlighting potential risk factors. DNA samples were collected from 59 adults diagnosed with SCA3 for the quantification of CAG repeats. Next, the patients were assessed in respect to the presence of psychiatric disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Approximately half of the sample had at least one psychiatric disorder (mood disorders 45.2 %), mainly dysthymia and current depression. There were no statistically significant differences in the length of CAG repeats between subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. The perception that SCA3 has a negative impact on life and the subjective assessment of current health status as poor emerged as risk factors for the occurrence of psychiatric disorders in the sample. There is a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in SCA3 patients compared to the general population. The lack of association between CAG repeats and occurrence of psychiatric disorders lends support to the hypothesis that psychiatric disorders in this group are associated with adaptive emotional responses to becoming ill.

  16. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated.

  17. EHR Big Data Deep Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Given the quickening speed of discovery of variant disease drivers from combined patient genotype and phenotype data, the objective is to provide methodology using big data technology to support the definition of deep phenotypes in medical records. Methods As the vast stores of genomic information increase with next generation sequencing, the importance of deep phenotyping increases. The growth of genomic data and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in medicine provides a unique opportunity to integrate phenotype and genotype data into medical records. The method by which collections of clinical findings and other health related data are leveraged to form meaningful phenotypes is an active area of research. Longitudinal data stored in EHRs provide a wealth of information that can be used to construct phenotypes of patients. We focus on a practical problem around data integration for deep phenotype identification within EHR data. The use of big data approaches are described that enable scalable markup of EHR events that can be used for semantic and temporal similarity analysis to support the identification of phenotype and genotype relationships. Conclusions Stead and colleagues’ 2005 concept of using light standards to increase the productivity of software systems by riding on the wave of hardware/processing power is described as a harbinger for designing future healthcare systems. The big data solution, using flexible markup, provides a route to improved utilization of processing power for organizing patient records in genotype and phenotype research. PMID:25123744

  18. Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes.

  19. [Psychiatric symptoms can reveal Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Thusgaard, Helle; Arnfred, Sidse Marie H

    2013-02-01

    Turner syndrome is usually diagnosed by physical characteristics, i.e. low height and infertility. This case report presents a woman, who was referred to a chromosome analysis at the age of 35 years, due to a specific pattern of psychiatric symptoms. She felt childish, had strong emotional bonds to her family, yet lacked friendships and intimate relationships. She had moderate symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder with a sexual content. Confronted with this constellation of symptoms, psychiatrists and psychologists should be aware of Turner syndrome.

  20. Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Dastgiri, Saeed; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, andthose who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-SADS questionnaire and demographic factors. We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence. Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD (5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of

  1. AIDS antibody tests on inpatient psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L

    1987-02-01

    An antibody test for the causative virus of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) became commercially available in 1985. The author discusses the use of the AIDS antibody test on inpatient psychiatric units. She reviews the controversial legal and ethical questions related to its use, addressing such questions as Who should be tested for the AIDS antibody? When and to whom should the results of the test be disclosed? and How should the doctrine of "right to privacy" be balanced with the "duty to warn"?

  2. Correlates of hopelessness in psychiatrically hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Kashani, J H; Soltys, S M; Dandoy, A C; Vaidya, A F; Reid, J C

    1991-01-01

    The importance of hopelessness within the study of childhood psychiatric disorders is becoming increasingly apparent. The present study divides a child inpatient sample (age 7 to 12 years) into two groups based on scores from the Kazdin Hopelessness Scale for Children. Comparisons made between the two groups on various measures showed that children with high hopelessness had lower cognitive ability, "difficult child" temperament characteristics, more anxiety, lower self-esteem, and a higher degree of psychopathology than the low-hopelessness group. The role of hopelessness in academic success and future psychopathology are discussed.

  3. Deconstructing the language of psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Mohr, W K

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to deconstruct the language of psychiatric nurses' documentation and charting. Employing concepts developed by post-modern theorists, everyday professional activities can be examined in unique ways that uncover how they conceal or skew rather than reveal and illumine patient conditions. The study design and sample was exploratory; content analysis with first and second level analyses. Nine major categories of charting entry were found. Deconstruction of the language and discourse of nursing through a Foucaultian lens goes beyond what is manifest to what is not said. Professional assumptions about patients and the social construction of patients and patient problems are exposed. PMID:10320487

  4. DISC1 genetics, biology and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    THOMSON, Pippa A.; MALAVASI, Elise L.V.; GRÜNEWALD, Ellen; SOARES, Dinesh C.; BORKOWSKA, Malgorzata; MILLAR, J. Kirsty

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, and in many individuals likely arise from the combined effects of genes and the environment. A substantial body of evidence points towards DISC1 being one of the genes that influence risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and functional studies of DISC1 consequently have the potential to reveal much about the pathways that lead to major mental illness. Here, we review the evidence that DISC1 influences disease risk through effects upon multiple critical pathways in the developing and adult brain. PMID:23550053

  5. Oregon's Juvenile Psychiatric Security Review Board.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stewart S; Buckley, Mary Claire; Newman, Senia Pickering; Bloom, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Oregon Legislature passed a bill modifying the existing Psychiatric Security Review Board (PRSB) statute, creating a juvenile panel for management of juvenile insanity acquittees. Dubbed the Juvenile PSRB (JPSRB), it borrows heavily from the 30 years of experience of its adult predecessor. Statutory language was also modified to create a plea of "responsible except for insanity" for juveniles in Oregon. The authors discuss the similarities of the JPSRB to the adult PSRB system and highlight the differences that take into account the unique needs of juvenile defendants. They go on to discuss potential problems foreseen with implementation of the JPSRB system and to recommend possible solutions.

  6. Diminished responsibility--a psychiatric viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Kok, L P; Cheang, M; Chee, K T

    1989-11-01

    Diminished responsibility is based on the notion that mental disorder may make a person only partially accountable for his act in the killing of another person. For this plea to succeed it has to be shown that an accused has to be suffering from such an abnormality of mind that his responsibility for the action is substantially diminished. As these concepts of abnormality of mind and criminal responsibility do not fit easily into psychiatric classification of mental disorders, nine senior psychiatrists who regularly attend court as expert witnesses were surveyed and their viewpoints about mental abnormality and diminished responsibility were elected.

  7. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  8. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD PSYCHIATRIC SERVICE UTILIZERS

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rakesh; Singh, Brij Mohan

    1994-01-01

    Sex, age and diagnostic characteristics of a consecutive series of first contact children seen over a period of one year at a psychiatric center was analyzed Most of (he referrals were for male adolescents. “No diagnosis on Axis I” was quite common, especially in the younger age group; most of them had mental retardation. “Hysteria ” was uncommon, and this was the only category which was slightly more common in girls. Manic depressive psychosis was the most common disorder among adolescents. PMID:21743676

  9. [Psychiatric disorders in children of alcoholic parents].

    PubMed

    Elpers, M; Lenz, K

    1994-06-01

    The role of parental alcohol abuse was investigated in children and adolescents seen as inpatients or outpatients at our child psychiatry unit in 1992. Data were obtained from our clinical documentation system, which is based on WHO recommendations. The control group consisted of patients in whose families there was neither substance abuse nor another serious medical problem. The groups differed significantly on axis V of the Multi-axial Classification Scheme (associated abnormal psychosocial situations) but not in psychopathology or psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:8053265

  10. Cooccurring Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Zachary D; Riggs, Paula D

    2016-10-01

    Research shows that the majority of adolescents with substance use disorders also have other cooccurring psychiatric disorders, which has been associated with poorer treatment outcomes. Despite considerable consensus that treatment of cooccurring disorders should be integrated or concurrent, most such youth do not receive it. In addition to systemic and economic barriers, few studies have been conducted that inform evidence-based integrated treatment approaches. This article provides a review of current research from which empirically derived principles of integrated treatment can originate and which have informed the development of at least one evidence-based model of integrated mental health and substance treatment. PMID:27613347

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood and adolescence headache.

    PubMed

    Dyb, Grete; Stensland, Synne; Zwart, John-Anker

    2015-03-01

    Primary headaches among children and adolescents have a substantial impact on quality of life, daily activities, social interaction, and school performance in combination with psychopathological symptoms. The main purpose of the present paper is to summarize clinical and epidemiological evidence for psychiatric comorbidity among children and adolescents with headaches, to describe how evidence in headache research suggest different pathways involved in the development and maintenance of these comorbid conditions, and finally suggest some elements professionals may find helpful to assess the scope of complaints, related functional impairment, and potential precipitating factors in planning of more targeted treatments.

  12. [Psychiatric implications of PACAP signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Studies on genetically modified mice for investigating the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the brain have revealed a previously uncharacterized function of this neuropeptidergic signaling in the regulation of psychomotor behaviors. In addition, recent clinical studies investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations in the PACAP and its receptor genes have associated the variations with major psychiatric disorders and stress-dependent mental disorders. Here, I briefly review these recent advances in the field and make this an opportunity to consider future direction of research.

  13. Active control of turbomachine discrete tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleeter, Sanford

    This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.

  14. Generalized exponential function and discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto Martinez, Alexandre; Silva González, Rodrigo; Lauri Espíndola, Aquino

    2009-07-01

    Here we show that a particular one-parameter generalization of the exponential function is suitable to unify most of the popular one-species discrete population dynamic models into a simple formula. A physical interpretation is given to this new introduced parameter in the context of the continuous Richards model, which remains valid for the discrete case. From the discretization of the continuous Richards’ model (generalization of the Gompertz and Verhulst models), one obtains a generalized logistic map and we briefly study its properties. Notice, however that the physical interpretation for the introduced parameter persists valid for the discrete case. Next, we generalize the (scramble competition) θ-Ricker discrete model and analytically calculate the fixed points as well as their stabilities. In contrast to previous generalizations, from the generalized θ-Ricker model one is able to retrieve either scramble or contest models.

  15. Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method.

  16. Clutter from non-discrete seabed structures.

    PubMed

    Holland, Charles W; Ellis, Dale D

    2012-06-01

    Clutter, or discrete target-like returns, is the most significant problem in the employment of active sonar. It is well understood that discrete objects, which are of the same spatial scale as the target and which possess a significant impedance contrast to the surrounding ocean, can lead to clutter. Here a somewhat counter-intuitive result is shown: that discrete target-like returns can occur from slowly varying seabed structures. The range dependence of the seabed can be weak and smooth-due to changes in layer thicknesses, sound speed, or both. Thus, this clutter mechanism may be a viable hypothesis for areas in which seabed clutter has been observed, but no discrete features, buried or proud, could be found. By using a broadband source, the time-frequency evolution of this clutter could be a useful way to discriminate against other kinds of clutter; e.g., that due to discrete objects.

  17. [Teaching psychiatric nursing/mental health: its interface with the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Josicelia Dumêt; Sadigursky, Dora; Silva, Rosana Maria de Oliveira; Amorim, Aclair Bastos; Teixeira, Giselle Alves da Silva; de Araújo, Maria da Conceição Filgueiras

    2009-12-01

    This theoretical study addresses the education system for Psychiatric Nursing in an increasingly changing world of accelerated scientific and technological modernization. The objective is to discuss the pedagogy in Psychiatric Nursing, and its interface with the principles of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses. The theoretical foundation of the study consisted of constructs of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses and their relationship to factors constituting the pedagogy in psychiatric nursing. The study shows that it is not enough to identify technical issues regarding contents and teaching, didactic procedures, methods and pedagogical techniques; it is necessary to implement changes, using a new perspective and by daring to question the nature of knowledge and institutional psychiatric practices. PMID:20085170

  18. Non-Psychiatric Health Problems among Psychiatric Inpatients with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlot, L.; Abend, S.; Ravin, P.; Mastis, K.; Hunt, A.; Deutsch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical distress resulting from medical problems has been found to cause increased behaviour problems in patients with intellectual disabilities (ID). Despite this fact, little has been documented on the medical problems of individuals with ID admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. We conducted an exploratory investigation based on…

  19. Validation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) with Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Lance P.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Hollander, Beth L. G.; Dyl, Jennifer; Rizzo, Christie J.; Steinley, Douglas L.; Spirito, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) for adolescent inpatients aged 12 to 18. The results reveal moderate agreement between ChIPS diagnoses and Schedule for Affective Disorder sand Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version diagnoses.

  20. Diagnostic Stability of Psychiatric Disorders in Re-Admitted Psychiatric Patients in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Fatemeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Sabahi, Abdolreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have evaluated the stability of psychiatric diagnosis follow in readmission of patients in psychiatric hospitals. However, there is little data concerning this matter from Iran. This study is designed to evaluate this diagnostic stability of the commonest psychiatric disorders in Iran. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the long-term diagnostic stability of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among re-admitted patients at the Shahid Beheshti teaching hospital in Kerman, Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was based on 485 adult patients re-admitted at the Shahid Beheshti hospital between July and November 2012. All of the diagnoses were made according to DSM IV TR. Prospective and retrospective consistency and the ratio of patients who were obtained a diagnosis in at least 75%, 100% of the admissions were calculated. Results: The most frequent diagnoses at the first admission were bipolar disorder (48.5%) and Major depressive disorder (18.8%). The most stable diagnosis was bipolar disorder (71% prospective consistency, 69.4% retrospective consistency). Schizoaffective disorder had the greatest diagnostic instability (28.5% prospective consistency, 16.6% retrospective consistency). Conclusions: Among the cases evaluated, bipolar disorder had the most stability in diagnosis and the stability of schizoaffective disorder was poor. PMID:25168983

  1. MULTISCALE DISCRETIZATION OF SHAPE CONTOURS

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, L.; Rao, R.

    2000-09-01

    We present an efficient multi-scale scheme to adaptively approximate the continuous (or densely sampled) contour of a planar shape at varying resolutions. The notion of shape is intimately related to the notion of contour, and the efficient representation of the contour of a shape is vital to a computational understanding of the shape. Any polygonal approximation of a planar smooth curve is equivalent to a piecewise constant approximation of the parameterized X and Y coordinate functions of a discrete point set obtained by densely sampling the curve. Using the Haar wavelet transform for the piecewise approximation yields a hierarchical scheme in which the size of the approximating point set is traded off against the morphological accuracy of the approximation. Our algorithm compresses the representation of the initial shape contour to a sparse sequence of points in the plane defining the vertices of the shape's polygonal approximation. Furthermore, it is possible to control the overall resolution of the approximation by a single, scale-independent parameter.

  2. Medical futility and physician discretion

    PubMed Central

    Wreen, M

    2004-01-01

    Some patients have no chance of surviving if not treated, but very little chance if treated. A number of medical ethicists and physicians have argued that treatment in such cases is medically futile and a matter of physician discretion. This paper critically examines that position. According to Howard Brody and others, a judgment of medical futility is a purely technical matter, which physicians are uniquely qualified to make. Although Brody later retracted these claims, he held to the view that physicians need not consult the patient or his family to determine their values before deciding not to treat. This is because professional integrity dictates that treatment should not be undertaken. The argument for this claim is that medicine is a profession and a social practice, and thus capable of breaches of professional integrity. Underlying professional integrity are two moral principles, one concerning harm, the other fraud. According to Brody both point to the fact that when the odds of survival are very low treatment is a violation of professional integrity. The details of this skeletal argument are exposed and explained, and the full argument is criticised. On a number of counts, it is found wanting. If anything, professional integrity points to the opposite conclusion. PMID:15173362

  3. A prevalence study of bestiality (zoophilia) in psychiatric in-patients, medical in-patients, and psychiatric staff.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, W A; Freinhar, J P

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of bestiality (both actual sexual contacts and sexual fantasy) was investigated in an experimental group (psychiatric in-patients) and two control populations (medical in-patients and psychiatric staff). Psychiatric patients were found to have a statistically significant higher prevalence rate (55%) of bestiality than the control groups (10% and 15% respectively). Implications of these findings are discussed. It is recommended that due to the obvious prevalence of this condition, questions exploring this previously ignored topic should be routinely included in the psychiatric interview.

  4. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  5. Psychiatric implications of altered limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity.

    PubMed

    Holsboer, F

    1989-01-01

    Hormones of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (LHPA) system are much involved in central nervous system regulation. The major LHPA neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP) and corticotropin (ACTH) do not only coordinate the neuroendocrine response to stress, but also induce behavioral adaptation. Transcription and post-translational processing of these neuropeptides is regulated by corticosteroids secreted from the adrenal cortex after stimulation by ACTH and other proopiomelanocortin derived peptides. These steroids play a key role as regulators of cell development, homeostatic maintenance and adaptation to environmental challenges. They execute vitally important actions through genomic effects resulting in altered gene expression and nongenomic effects leading to altered neuronal excitability. Since excessive secretory activity of this particular neuroendocrine system is part of an acute stress response or depressive symptom pattern, there is good reason to suspect that central actions of these steroids and peptides are involved in pathophysiology determining the clinical phenotype, drug response and relapse liability. This overview summarizes the clinical neuroendocrine investigations of the author and his collaborators, while they worked at the Department of Psychiatry in Mainz. The major conclusions from this work were: (1) aberrant hormonal responses to challenges with dexamethasone, ACTH or CRH are reflecting altered brain physiology in affective illness and related disorders; (2) hormones of the LHPA axis influence also nonendocrine behavioral systems such as sleep EEG; (3) physiologically significant interactions exist between LHPA hormones, the thyroid, growth hormone, gonadal and other neuroendocrine systems; (4) hormones of the LHPA axis constitute a bidirectional link between immunoregulation and brain activity; and (5) future psychiatric research topics such as molecular genetics of affective disorders

  6. Sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders, and psychotropic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Staner, Luc

    2005-01-01

    Brain neurotransmitter dysfunctions involved in the pathophysiological processes of psychiatric disorders are likely to be reflected by concomitant alterations in sleep continuity and architecture. Since the corrective effects of psychotropic drugs on dysfunctional neurotransmission systems can be evidenced through polysomnographic recordings, one may consider sleep as a kind of “window” on the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. During the last 10 years, major breakthroughs in our understanding of sleep-wake mechanisms have provided some indications on how psychotropic drugs could influence the sleep-wake cycle. In this review, recent inroads into the understanding of sleep regulatory neural mechanisms are introduced and discussed in terms of the effects of psychotropic drugs. The relationship between the patho-physiological process of a disease, its consequence on sleep, and the corrective effect of a psychotropic drug are exemplified by two psychopathological states: substance withdrawal and major depression. One may conclude that polysomnographic recordings are a unique noninvasive tool to analyze brain functioning, and are particularly well suited to evaluating the objective effects of new psychotropic drugs. PMID:16416708

  7. [The psychiatric aspects of animal assisted therapy].

    PubMed

    Bánszky, Noémi; Kardos, Edina; Rózsa, Linda; Gerevich, József

    2012-01-01

    Animal assisted therapy is a known preventive and interventive method which is held by the contribution of specially trained animals and professionals. One of its main indication fields is psychiatry. The purpose of this summary is to give an overview on the animal assisted therapy's background, possible uses and effectiveness with literature. It looks for the answer if this therapeutic method can be used for effectively easing the symptoms of specific psychiatric diseases and on which fields can it be used most effectively. Due to the data provided by literature it can be determined that the therapy supported by animals is able to give an effective help on the fields of various psychiatric supports, preventions, interventions and rehabilitations regardless of the age. It is mostly used in the case of depression, anxiety, addiction, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Aside from these it could also be used effectively in the rehabilitation of victims of sexual abuse especially in the case of children. It can also play a role in the re-socialization of inadapted adolescences and adults, even with farmtherapy. Due to experiences the therapies supported by animals are effective on the following fields: improving social and communication skills, easing anxiety, improving mood, helping independent living, improving emphatic skills. PMID:22781543

  8. Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Dobry, Yuriy; Braquehais, María Dolores; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a highly prevalent behavior which carries a significant social, medical and financial cost for its victims and perpetrators, with powerful and long-lasting psychological and social impact. Bullying has been defined as a specific form of intentional, repeated aggression, that involves a disparity of power between the victim(s) and perpetrator(s). The aggression can take physical, verbal or gestural forms. The behavior of bullying crosses sociodemographic categories of age, gender, ethnicity, level of academic achievement and professional environment. It has been abundantly observed by teachers and parents in elementary schools, but has also shown its negative presence in corporate boardrooms. The direct outcome of bullying, for both victims and perpetrators, is an increased risk of psychiatric disorders including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Cruelty (and bullying, as one of its manifestations) breaks the basis of morality. Mental health professionals usually treat the victims of those actions unfortunately long after they have been exposed to the harm. The evidence does not support the idea that the majority of cruel actions are intrinsically "pathological", in the sense of being motivated by "mental disorders". Therefore, only moral rules and legal actions - but not psychiatric or psychological interventions - may dissuade humans from this form of cruelty. PMID:24006324

  9. Lunar phase and psychiatric illness in goa.

    PubMed

    Parmeshwaran, R; Patel, V; Fernandes, J M

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable research on the influence of the lunar cycle on mental illness with conflicting findings. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between full moon (FM), new moon (NM), and other moon (OM) days and the frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in patients seen at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Goa and to examine relationships with eclipses. Analysis of all new patients in two calendar years (1997 & 1993) was carried out. Diagnoses of interest were : Non affective psychoses; depression; and mania. The numbers of new patients seen at the OPD of the Institute of Psychiatry & Human Behaviour, Goa, with these diagnoses were compared between FM, NM and OM days. Numbers of patients with these diagnoses on eclipse days (lunar/solar) were also examined. A significant trend was observed for greater numbers of patients with non-affective psychoses on FM days, but no pattern was observed for mania or depression. The excess of non-affective psychoses was more marked on days of a visible lunar eclipse. A relationship between FM and non-affective psychoses has been demonstrated. Its implications for further research and the potential mechanism to explain these findings are discussed. PMID:21455355

  10. Fitness to plead and psychiatric reports.

    PubMed

    Larkin, E P; Collins, P J

    1989-01-01

    The role of the psychiatrist in the determination of fitness to plead is reviewed by reference to 77 pre-trial psychiatric reports prepared on 31 Special Hospital patients detained under the provision of Section 5(1)(c) (Unfit to Plead) of the Criminal Procedure (Insanity) Act 1964. Each psychiatric report was analysed using a standardized checklist which addressed the legal criteria used to determine fitness to plead, the nature of the alleged offence and the clinical diagnosis. The results showed that almost 40% of the reports made no mention of fitness to plead at all and that only one-third of the reports made a statement about fitness to plead which was supported by reference to standard legal criteria. The results of this study support earlier work which has suggested that psychiatrists have a poor understanding of the issues surrounding fitness to plead and criminal responsibility. These findings are discussed in relation to recommendations made by the Report of the Committee on Mentally Abnormal Offenders, 1975 (Butler Report) and legislative changes introduced by the Mental Health Act 1983.

  11. Ethics and evidence in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Many psychiatrists have endorsed the idea of evidence-based psychiatry, the application of the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to psychiatric practice. Proponents of an evidence-based approach to psychiatry hope that if practice is driven by "hard" scientific data, there will be greater potential to help patients. In other words, advocates of evidence-based psychiatry aim to bolster psychiatry's ethical standing through scientific evidence. Can EBM provide this ethical substantiation to psychiatry? This article provides an overview of some of the main ethical issues within psychiatry and examines three interrelated questions: (1) to which ethical values is EBM committed? (2) which ethical theory is reflected in these values? and (3) can these values and theories resolve existing ethical issues in psychiatry? EBM strives for the "greatest good for the greatest number," where good is defined as improved health. This utilitarian orientation cannot, however, address critical areas of moral importance for psychiatry, such as how its practitioners differentiate normal from abnormal, how they determine which forms of suffering should be alleviated through psychiatric means, and when involuntary intervention is ethically justified. The ethical principles implicit in EBM are too limited to serve as an ethical basis for psychiatry. PMID:19395825

  12. Thalamic transcriptome screening in three psychiatric states.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tearina T; Liu, Yuexun; Kemether, Eileen

    2009-11-01

    The prefrontal cortex has been implicated in schizophrenia (SZ) and affective disorders by gene expression studies. Owing to reciprocal connectivity, the thalamic nuclei and their cortical fields act as functional units. Altered thalamic gene expression would be expected to occur in association with cortical dysfunction. We screened the expression of the entire human genome of neurons harvested by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) from the thalamic primary relay to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in three psychiatric disease states as compared with controls. Microarray analysis of gene expression showed the largest number of dysregulated genes was in SZ, followed by major depression (MD) and bipolar mood bipolar (BP) (1152, 385 and 288, respectively). Significantly, IGF1-mTOR-, AKT-, RAS-, VEGF-, Wnt- and immune-related signaling, eIF2- and proteasome-related genes were unique to SZ. Vitamin D receptor and calcium signaling pathway were unique to BP. AKAP95 pathway and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis were unique to MD. There are significant differences among the three psychiatric disorders in MDNp cells. These findings offer new insights into the transcriptional dysregulation in the thalamus of SZ/BP/MD subjects. PMID:19834500

  13. Psychiatric issues in cosmetic plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ericksen, William Leif; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2012-09-01

    The objective of cosmetic surgery is increased patient self-esteem and confidence. Most patients undergoing a procedure report these results post-operatively. The success of any procedure is measured in patient satisfaction. In order to optimize patient satisfaction, literature suggests careful pre-operative patient preparation including a discussion of the risks, benefits, limitations and expected results for each procedure undertaken. As a general rule, the patients that are motivated to surgery by a desire to align their outward appearance to their body-image tend to be the most satisfied. There are some psychiatric conditions that can prevent a patient from being satisfied without regard aesthetic success. The most common examples are minimal defect/Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the patient in crisis, the multiple revision patient, and loss of identity. This paper will familiarize the audience with these conditions, symptoms and related illnesses. Case examples are described and then explored in terms of the conditions presented. A discussion of the patient's motivation for surgery, goals pertaining to specific attributes, as well as an evaluation of the patient's understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of the procedure can help the physician determine if a patient is capable of being satisfied with a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgeons can screen patients suffering from these conditions relatively easily, as psychiatry is an integral part of medical school education. If a psychiatric referral is required, then the psychiatrist needs to be aware of the nuances of each of these conditions.

  14. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  15. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  16. Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Priday, Lee J.; Ireland, Carol A.; Chu, Simon; Kilcoyne, Jennifer; Mulligan, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk. Aims To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)). Method Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus was on aggression in hospital. Results The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4 years) and was specific to certain types of aggression. Conclusions The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting is considered. Declaration of interest J.L.I., C.A.M. and J.K. are employed by the trust where the data were collected. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703760

  17. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity in psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of criteriological diagnostic systems since the 1980s has increased the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. On the other hand, the limits of this approach for clinicians and researchers are becoming increasingly apparent. In particular, the assessment of subjective experience is nearly excluded on the theoretical level and undervalued on the pragmatic level, with detrimental consequences for the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, empirical research and therapeutic purposes. To correct this unfavourable development, three major approaches to the assessment of mental illness should be equally taken into account: (1) the positivistic, objectifying or 3rd-person approach as endorsed by DSM-IV and ICD-10, focusing mainly on observable behavioural symptoms; (2) the phenomenological, subject-oriented or 1st-person approach, focusing on the patient's self-experience and exploring its basic structures, and (3) the hermeneutic, intersubjective or 2nd-person approach, mainly aiming at the co-construction of narratives and interpretations regarding the patient's self-concept, relationships and conflicts. These three approaches will be compared regarding their respective values for psychopathological description, diagnosis, research and therapeutic purposes.

  18. Genetics of psychiatric disorders: Methods: Molecular approaches

    PubMed Central

    Avramopoulos, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Summary The launch of the Human Genome Project in 1990 triggered unprecedented technological advances in DNA analysis technologies, followed by tremendous advances in our understanding of the human genome since the completion of the first draft in 2001. During the same time the interest shifted from the genetic causes of the Mendelian disorders, most of which were uncovered through linkage analyses and positional cloning, to the genetic causes of complex (including psychiatric) disorders that proved more of a challenge for linkage methods. The new technologies, together with our new knowledge of the properties of the genome, and significant efforts towards generating large patient and control sample collections, allowed for the success of genome-wide association studies. The result has been that reports currently appear in the literature every week identifying new genes for complex disorders. We are still far from completely explaining the heritable component of complex disorders, but we are certainly closer to being able to use the new information towards prevention and treatment of illness. Next-generation sequencing methods, combined with the results of association and perhaps linkage studies, will help us uncover the missing heritability and achieve a better understanding of the genetic aspects of psychiatric disease, as well as the best strategies for incorporating genetics in the service of patients. PMID:20159337

  19. Intellectuality and emotionality in psychiatric residents.

    PubMed

    Paris, J

    1981-04-01

    The fully trained psychiatrist must be able to integrate vast amounts of phenomenological data as well as to empathically share feeling states in patients. Beginning psychiatric residents often lean either towards intellectuality or towards emotionality, tendencies which potentially reinforce splitting within the profession. Cognitive styles may correlate with neurophysiological indicators, such as hemispheric dominance and the augmenting-reducing dimension. There may also be sex differences in cognition; if so, they would have to be taken into account as more women enter psychiatric training. A theoretical understanding of individual differences in students provides a basis for the pedagogical correction of biases. Overly intellectual residents may be organically or psychodynamically oriented. In either case they favour theory over concrete experience, and there are difficulties in mobilizing their empathic capacities. Identification with empathic teachers and a focus in supervision on the perception and integration of more stimuli, especially nonverbal cues, are important correctives. Overly emotional residents identify excessively with their patients and tend to have problems with boundaries. An augmenting tendency, leading to stimulus overload, can be controlled by teaching residents how to structure and set limits. Identification with the supervisor is sided by clear boundaries in the supervisory relationship. In both cases the resident's strengths must not be denigrated while correcting his weaknesses. Examples of learning problems in both kinds of residents are given, with discussion of supervisory pitfalls.

  20. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535

  1. [The psychiatric aspects of animal assisted therapy].

    PubMed

    Bánszky, Noémi; Kardos, Edina; Rózsa, Linda; Gerevich, József

    2012-01-01

    Animal assisted therapy is a known preventive and interventive method which is held by the contribution of specially trained animals and professionals. One of its main indication fields is psychiatry. The purpose of this summary is to give an overview on the animal assisted therapy's background, possible uses and effectiveness with literature. It looks for the answer if this therapeutic method can be used for effectively easing the symptoms of specific psychiatric diseases and on which fields can it be used most effectively. Due to the data provided by literature it can be determined that the therapy supported by animals is able to give an effective help on the fields of various psychiatric supports, preventions, interventions and rehabilitations regardless of the age. It is mostly used in the case of depression, anxiety, addiction, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Aside from these it could also be used effectively in the rehabilitation of victims of sexual abuse especially in the case of children. It can also play a role in the re-socialization of inadapted adolescences and adults, even with farmtherapy. Due to experiences the therapies supported by animals are effective on the following fields: improving social and communication skills, easing anxiety, improving mood, helping independent living, improving emphatic skills.

  2. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  3. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  4. On the definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables.

    PubMed

    Español, Pep; Zúñiga, Ignacio

    2009-10-28

    The Green-Kubo formula for discrete hydrodynamic variables involves information about not only the fluid transport coefficients but also about discrete versions of the differential operators that govern the evolution of the discrete variables. This gives an intimate connection between discretization procedures in fluid dynamics and coarse-graining procedures used to obtain hydrodynamic behavior of molecular fluids. We observed that a natural definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables in terms of Voronoi cells leads to a Green-Kubo formula which is divergent, rendering the full coarse-graining strategy useless. In order to understand this subtle issue, in the present paper we consider the coarse graining of noninteracting Brownian particles. The discrete hydrodynamic variable for this problem is the number of particles within Voronoi cells. Thanks to the simplicity of the model we spot the origin of the singular behavior of the correlation functions. We offer an alternative definition, based on the concept of a Delaunay cell that behaves properly, suggesting the use of the Delaunay construction for the coarse graining of molecular fluids at the discrete hydrodynamic level.

  5. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: from pathology to phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mathey, Emily K; Park, Susanna B; Hughes, Richard A C; Pollard, John D; Armati, Patricia J; Barnett, Michael H; Taylor, Bruce V; Dyck, P James B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy S-Y

    2015-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an inflammatory neuropathy, classically characterised by a slowly progressive onset and symmetrical, sensorimotor involvement. However, there are many phenotypic variants, suggesting that CIDP may not be a discrete disease entity but rather a spectrum of related conditions. While the abiding theory of CIDP pathogenesis is that cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves, the relative contributions of T cell and autoantibody responses remain largely undefined. In animal models of spontaneous inflammatory neuropathy, T cell responses to defined myelin antigens are responsible. In other human inflammatory neuropathies, there is evidence of antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin or nodal antigens. In this review, the roles of the cellular and humoral immune systems in the pathogenesis of CIDP will be discussed. In time, it is anticipated that delineation of clinical phenotypes and the underlying disease mechanisms might help guide diagnostic and individualised treatment strategies for CIDP.

  6. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  7. Discrete symmetries and de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Cotăescu, Ion I. Pascu, Gabriel

    2014-11-24

    Aspects of the ambiguity in defining quantum modes on de Sitter spacetime using a commuting system composed only of differential operators are discussed. Discrete symmetries and their actions on the wavefunction in commonly used coordinate charts are reviewed. It is argued that the system of commuting operators can be supplemented by requiring the invariance of the wavefunction to combined discrete symmetries- a criterion which selects a single state out of the α-vacuum family. Two such members of this family are singled out by particular combined discrete symmetries- states between which exists a well-known thermality relation.

  8. Multigravity from a discrete extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.

    2004-06-01

    Multigravity theories are constructed from the discretization of the extra dimension of five-dimensional gravity. Using an ADM decomposition, the discretization is performed while maintaining the four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariance on each site. We relate the Goldstone bosons used to realize nonlinearly general covariance in discretized gravity to the shift fields of the higher-dimensional metric. We investigate the scalar excitations of the resulting theory and show the absence of ghosts and massive modes; this is due to a local symmetry inherited from the reparametrization invariance along the fifth dimension.

  9. High-accuracy discrete positioning device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, John J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An article (30) is controllably and precisely positioned at one of three discrete locations defined by a linkage. The positioning apparatus includes two independently driven cranks (34, 42), with a link (50) pivotably connected between the two cranks (34, 42). Another connector (44) is pivotably connected between one of the cranks (34 or 42) and the article (30) to be positioned. The cranks (34, 42) are rotationally adjusted so that the pivot points (52, 54) of the link (50) are collinear with the axes of rotation of the cranks (40, 48), thereby defining one of the three discrete locations. Additional cranks and links can be provided to define additional discrete locations.

  10. Discrete flavour symmetries from the Heisenberg group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floratos, E. G.; Leontaris, G. K.

    2016-04-01

    Non-abelian discrete symmetries are of particular importance in model building. They are mainly invoked to explain the various fermion mass hierarchies and forbid dangerous superpotential terms. In string models they are usually associated to the geometry of the compactification manifold and more particularly to the magnetised branes in toroidal compactifications. Motivated by these facts, in this note we propose a unified framework to construct representations of finite discrete family groups based on the automorphisms of the discrete and finite Heisenberg group. We focus in particular, on the PSL2 (p) groups which contain the phenomenologically interesting cases.

  11. Teaching Scholarly Activity in Psychiatric Training: Years 6 and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Boland, Robert; Cowley, Deborah; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Pato, Michele T.; Thrall, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To address nationally recognized needs for increased numbers of psychiatric clinician-scholars and physician-scientists, the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) has provided a series of full-day conferences of psychiatry residency training directors designed to increase their competence in…

  12. The Utility of the BIOSIS PREVIEWS Database in Psychiatric Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Bob; Piotrowski, Chris

    Designed to evaluate the usefulness of the BIOSIS PREVIEWS database when searching the psychiatric literature, this study compared the effectiveness of this online database with the effectiveness of two other computerized databases, MEDLINE and PsycINFO (Psychological Abstracts), which psychiatric researchers and clinicians usually rely on when…

  13. University Students' Views on the Utility of Psychiatric Advance Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna M.; Rooks, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rates of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) among university students are increasing, and universities are struggling with how to respond to students who show SMI symptoms. Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) allow individuals, when well, to document their wishes for treatment during a psychiatric crisis. This project explored the…

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  15. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  16. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  17. Psychiatric Adjustment in the Year after Meningococcal Disease in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Daniel; Nadel, Simon; Gledhill, Julia; Gordon, Fabiana; Garralda, M. Elena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychiatric status after meningococcal disease. Method: Cohort study of 66 children (34 boys, 32 girls) ages 4 to 17 years admitted to pediatric hospitals with meningococcal disease. The main outcome measure was psychiatric disorder (1-year period and point prevalence on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia…

  18. Psychiatric Advance Directives and Social Workers: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Scheyett, Anna; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are legal documents that allow individuals to express their wishes for future psychiatric care and to authorize a legally appointed proxy to make decisions on their behalf during incapacitating crises. PADs are viewed as an alternative to the coercive interventions that sometimes accompany mental health crises…

  19. The Presence of Psychiatric Disorders in HIV-Infected Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Many women of low socioeconomic status who have contracted HIV qualify for individual, dual, and multiple psychiatric diagnoses that predate their knowledge of their HIV infection. Earlier intervention addressing these problems might have prevented the onset of psychiatric disorders as well as high-risk behaviors that lead to HIV infection. (FC)

  20. The Role of a Psychiatric Pharmacist in College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mental health care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…

  1. Clinical Internship Training Program in Psychiatric Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geckle, Michelle O.; Katz, Lynda J.

    This manual has been designed for university-based training programs in rehabilitation counseling, psychiatric rehabilitation field sites, and other potential training sites and community programs, that may wish to implement a clinical training program in psychiatric/vocational rehabilitation. The manual is formatted to follow the trainee/student…

  2. Developing psychiatric competence during medical education and internship: contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Høifødt, Tordis Sørensen; Olstad, Reidun; Sexton, Hal

    2007-11-01

    The study describes the learning process in psychiatry of medical students through their clerkship and internship, It focused upon the development of students' attitudes to psychiatry, subjective psychiatric competence and self-confidence. The relationships between the participants' background, aspects of the learning environment, their attitudes to psychiatry, psychiatric competence and psychiatric self-confidence were explored in order to develop an empirical model of the learning process.The participants were medical students at the University of Tromsoe, Norway. The study was prospective and based on students' self-reports, Structural panel modelling and growth curve analyses were used to explore the complex interactions between the variables over time and to create a model of the learning processes. The medical students significantly increased their subjective competence and psychiatric self-confidence during their clerkship in psychiatry and maintained them during their internship. Previous psychiatric experience, attitudes towards psychiatry and current psychiatric experience contributed to subjective psychiatric competence, Competence in turn had a positive effect on self-confidence. Interestingly, those with greater subjective competence also appeared to have more psychiatric experience during their internship. An empirical model of the important aspects of the learning process was developed.

  3. Supporting the Health and Wellness of Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarbrick, Margaret; Nemec, Patricia B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Psychiatric rehabilitation is recognized as a field with specialized knowledge and skills required for practice. The certified psychiatric rehabilitation practitioner (CPRP) credential, an exam-based certification process, is based on a regularly updated job task analysis that, in its most recent iteration, identified the new core…

  4. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  5. Emotional processing needs further study in major psychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Emotions are largely affected in many psychiatric diseases. A better understanding of the neural networks involved in emotion processing is an important way to be able to improve dysfunctions in emotion recognition, as well as expression, associated with major psychiatric disorders. PMID:26869837

  6. Creative Art Therapy Groups: A Treatment Modality for Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Marie-Celine; Kronish, Neomi

    2007-01-01

    This brief report examines the benefits of a creative art therapy group program for outpatients suffering from psychiatric disorders. Included is a review of relevant treatment outcomes literature on the effectiveness of group art therapy. The authors describe the Creative Art Therapy Group Program offered to adult psychiatric outpatients that is…

  7. Elements of Successful School Reentry after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization is an intensive intervention designed to stabilize adolescents who are experiencing an acute mental health crisis. Reintegrating to school after discharge from psychiatric hospitalization can be overwhelming for many adolescents (E. V. Clemens, L. E. Welfare, & A. M. Williams, 2010). The authors used a consensual…

  8. Qualities of a Psychiatric Mentor: A Quantitative Singaporean Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tor, Phern-Chern; Goh, Lee-Gan; Ang, Yong-Guan; Lim, Leslie; Winslow, Rasaiah-Munidasa; Ng, Beng-Yeong; Wong, Sze-Tai; Ng, Tse-Pin; Kia, Ee-Heok

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric mentors are an important part of the new, seamless training program in Singapore. There is a need to assess the qualities of a good psychiatric mentor vis-a-vis those of a good psychiatrist. Method: An anonymous survey was sent out to all psychiatry trainees and psychiatrists in Singapore to assess quantitatively the…

  9. TBI-ROC Part Nine: Diagnosing TBI and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie; Mustafa, Ruman

    2011-01-01

    This article is the ninth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). It focuses on the process of diagnosing TBI and psychiatric disorders. Diagnosing traumatic brain injury can be challenging. It can be difficult differentiating TBI and psychiatric symptoms, as both have similar symptoms (e.g., memory problems, emotional outbursts,…

  10. [Current problems in psychiatric health care in Poland (2005)].

    PubMed

    Puzyński, Stanisław; Langiewicz, Wanda; Pietrzykowska, Bozena

    2006-01-01

    The paper is a presentation of the most important and actual psychiatric health care problems in Poland: the financial situation of hospitals, the risk faced by the out-patient psychiatric care,ethical problems related to clinical practice, as well as issues on postgraduate education.

  11. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  12. Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Jacob, K S

    2016-01-01

    Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932-December 25, 2015), the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle. Under his leadership, the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSM) became the international standard. PMID:27260820

  13. Psychiatric Diagnosis in Persons with Intellectual Disability in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishore, M. T.; Nizamie, A.; Nizamie, S. H.; Jahan, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the rate of psychiatric diagnosis as per ICD-10 and Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behaviours (RSMB), and distribution of psychiatric diagnosis with regard to the severity of intellectual disability (ID). It also explores the degree of agreement between Reiss screen and clinical diagnosis (ICD-10) in relation to dual diagnosis. …

  14. Help-seeking pathways among Malay psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Razali, S M; Najib, M A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the help-seeking behaviour of Malay psychiatric patients. A semi-structured interview based on a standard proforma was conducted to assess help seeking process and delays for Malay psychiatric patients attending the psychiatric clinic for the first time. Help-seeking process and delays were defined. Among 134 patients evaluated in the study, 69% had visited traditional healers (bomoh) for the present illness before consulting psychiatrists. The second popular choice of treatment was medical practitioner and only a small percentage of them had consulted homeopathic practitioners and herbalists. Patients who had consulted bomohs were significantly delayed in getting psychiatric treatment compared with those who had not consulted them. Consultation of bomohs was significantly higher among married patients, those with major psychiatric illnesses and in family who believed in supernatural causes of mental illness. However, there was no significant difference in age, gender, educational status and occupation between patients who had consulted and not consulted bomoh. We concluded that majority of the Malay psychiatric patients had sought the traditional treatment prior to psychiatric consultation. The strength of social support and the belief of the patients, friends, and/or relatives in supernatural causes of mental illness were strongly associated with the rate of traditional treatment. Deep-seated cultural beliefs were major barrier to psychiatric treatment.

  15. Psychiatric Clinical Programs for Refugees: Development, Staffing, Structure, and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, J. David

    This paper describes the development of clinical programs for the psychiatric needs of refugees. It begins with a discussion of the known psychiatric epidemiology of immigrants and refugees: the increased likelihood of depression, schizophrenia, reactive psychoses from trauma, and organic or psychophysiological disorders. Barriers that refugees…

  16. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB) are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II) and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD). SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range) of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141). Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission and frequent SB repetition

  17. [Crisis interventions: a psychotherapeutical challenge for psychiatric emergencies?].

    PubMed

    Bressi, Cinizia; Damsa, Cristian; Pirrotta, Roberto; Lazignac, Coralie; Invernizzi, Giordano

    2005-01-01

    Taking care of patients consulting the emergency psychiatric unit, raises nosological, legal, ethical and even logistic questions for the emergency departments. The need for emergency psychiatric interventions has grown constantly during the last twenty years and clinicians were challenged to find a new psychotherapeutic approach, more focused on the actual symptoms presented by the patients than the 'classic' psychiatric interventions. The goal of this article is to discuss the possibility of a psychotherapeutic approach in an emergency department, departing from a treatment model that has been developed at the psychiatric emergency of the University of Milan. In this approach, the psychotherapeutic treatment is divided in four different stages: preparation, incubation, transformation and verification. The "psychiatric crisis" becomes an opportunity to change for the patient, being a passage rite towards a new and better psychological functioning.

  18. The development of new psychiatric legislation in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Johanson, E

    1993-01-01

    The development of Swedish psychiatric legislation is summarized, from the law that came into force on 1 January 1967 to the new law promulgated on 1 January 1992. There are now separate laws for (a) patients who are seriously mentally disturbed and urgently in need of psychiatric hospital care; who oppose care or evidently lack capacity to express a well-grounded opinion as to their needs; and (b) patients sentenced by court to forensic psychiatric care, who have to be seriously mentally disturbed but need not oppose care. As earlier, it seems to be possible to take care of them in general psychiatric wards but special wards for forensic psychiatric care are anticipated. Sweden so far has few such facilities.

  19. Psychiatric expertise in the sentencing phase of capital murder cases.

    PubMed

    Dekleva, K B

    2001-01-01

    The role of forensic psychiatry in the sentencing phase of capital murder cases continues to attract intense attention in the psychiatric and legal professions as well as in the public eye. Such cases are high stakes, placing psychiatric experts under intense scrutiny. Issues of professional identity, roles, and ethics arise in capital cases, highlighting the increased psychiatric complexity and need for psychiatric expertise. This article will highlight these issues in the context of recent state (Texas) appellate and federal court rulings. The increased use of capital punishment and the need for increased psychiatric expertise in the sentencing phase of capital cases possesses important educational and ethics issues for our profession in its "quest for excellence."

  20. Which factors influence psychiatric diagnosing in substance abuse treatment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of diagnosing and treating co-occurring psychiatric disorders among substance abusers in treatment has received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent co-occurring psychiatric disorders are diagnosed in a clinical population of substance abusers, and which factors (including the use of MINI-Plus) that influence the diagnosing of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Methods Patients (N = 275) who received inpatient substance use treatment in five different units in Northern Norway participated in the study. The patients’ clinicians gave information on diagnoses given during the stay in the units, and whether a systematic diagnostic tool was used for the diagnosing (MINI-Plus). Predictors of independent co-occurring psychiatric disorders were examined utilizing hierarchical regression analysis. Results One third of the patients were given an independent psychiatric diagnosis. Less than half of the patients were assessed using a diagnostic tool. The main predictor of diagnosing of independent psychiatric disorders was the use of the diagnostic tool MINI-Plus. Younger patients and patients that used less alcohol, were given independent psychiatric diagnoses more frequently. Conclusions The number of co-occurring independent psychiatric diagnoses was lower compared to other studies using standardized diagnostic tools. The low number of patients assessed by such a tool, and the strong relationship between the use of such a tool and the diagnosing of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, suggest that the implementation of standardized diagnostic tools should be addressed in the units. Generally, patients suffering from substance use disorders should be systematically screened for other psychiatric disorders, in order to improve their treatment and health. PMID:23742628