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Sample records for psychological contract measure

  1. Instrument to measure psychological contract violation in pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Spies, Alan R; Wilkin, Noel E; Bentley, John P; Bouldin, Alicia S; Wilson, Marvin C; Holmes, Erin R

    2010-08-10

    To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.

  2. Instrument to Measure Psychological Contract Violation in Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Noel E.; Bentley, John P.; Bouldin, Alicia S.; Wilson, Marvin C.; Holmes, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. Design A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Results Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. Conclusion The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations. PMID:21045949

  3. The Psychological Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    pour aborder les questions de recrutement et de fidelisation dans les armees) 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...variables • Breach and violations of PC • Conclusions • Practical implications and recommendations 4 Definition In broad terms, the Psychological...Contract is the implicit and core component of labor relationships. 5 Definition Rousseau (1995) defined initially the psychological contract as a

  4. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    PubMed

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  5. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  6. Psychological Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Robyn M.

    1994-01-01

    L. L. Thurstone's revolutionary article resulted in the development of many representational measurement models, but the introduction of "true measurement" in social, attitudinal, and personality psychology did not yield the progress Thurstone envisioned. This specific model is seldom used in these areas today. (SLD)

  7. Exchange relationships: examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M; Conway, Neil

    2005-07-01

    The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment.

  8. The application of the psychological contract to workplace safety.

    PubMed

    Walker, Arlene; Hutton, Dorothy M

    2006-01-01

    Psychological contracts of safety are conceptualized as the beliefs of individuals about reciprocal safety obligations inferred from implicit or explicit promises. Although the literature on psychological contracts is growing, the existence of psychological contracts in relation to safety has not been established. The research sought to identify psychological contracts in the conversations of employees about safety, by demonstrating reciprocity in relation to employer and employee safety obligations. The identified safety obligations were used to develop a measure of psychological contracts of safety. The participants were 131 employees attending safety training sessions in retail and manufacturing organizations. Non-participant observation was used to collect the data during safety training sessions. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Categories for coding were established through identification of language markers that demonstrated contingencies or other implied obligations. Direct evidence of reciprocity between employer safety obligations and employee safety obligations was found in statements from the participants demonstrating psychological contracts. A comprehensive list of perceived employer and employee safety obligations was compiled and developed into a measure of psychological contracts of safety. A small sample of 33 safety personnel was used to validate the safety obligations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Implications of these findings for safety and psychological contract research are discussed.

  9. Career Management and the Changing Psychological Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Carol

    2002-01-01

    A 1993 survey in a British bank revealed a lack of strategic approaches to career management and a negative psychological contract. A 2000 follow-up showed that employees viewed the new contract as a regression from a relational to a transactional approach. They had increased responsibility for career development, but management failed to provide…

  10. Career Management and the Changing Psychological Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Carol

    2002-01-01

    A 1993 survey in a British bank revealed a lack of strategic approaches to career management and a negative psychological contract. A 2000 follow-up showed that employees viewed the new contract as a regression from a relational to a transactional approach. They had increased responsibility for career development, but management failed to provide…

  11. Psychological Contracts and Their Implications for Commitment: A Feature-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Kate J.; Meyer, John P.; Feldman, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the link between employee perceptions of the psychological contract and their affective and normative commitments to the organization. The authors adapt a new approach to the study of psychological contracts by developing a generalizable measure of "contract features" (e.g., scope; time frame). In Study 1…

  12. Psychological Contracts and Their Implications for Commitment: A Feature-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Kate J.; Meyer, John P.; Feldman, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the link between employee perceptions of the psychological contract and their affective and normative commitments to the organization. The authors adapt a new approach to the study of psychological contracts by developing a generalizable measure of "contract features" (e.g., scope; time frame). In Study 1…

  13. PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION. PART II. MULTIDIMENSIONALITY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , MEASUREMENT, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, FACTOR ANALYSIS, BEHAVIOR, REACTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, PERSONALITY , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, MATRICES(MATHEMATICS), EQUATIONS, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES.

  14. [The state of the psychological contract and its relation with employees' psychological health].

    PubMed

    Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina

    2006-05-01

    In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.

  15. Lack of symmetry in employees' perceptions of the psychological contract.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Denise M; Rodwell, John J

    2012-06-01

    Despite debate on the nature of employees' perceptions of their psychological contract, little research has compared employees' and employers' sides of the psychological contract. All 80 items from both scales in the Psychological Contract Inventory were used in a survey of 436 currently working, non-student respondents. Structural equation modeling yielded nonsymmetrical perspectives on promises and obligations, highlighting the validity of approaching the issues via individual perceptions.

  16. Career Stage and Generational Differences in Psychological Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Narelle; Jepsen, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine how employees in different generational groups (or cohorts) and different career stages perceive their psychological contracts. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 345 working adults included psychological contract obligations, incentives and importance and the cognitive responses of job…

  17. Career Stage and Generational Differences in Psychological Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Narelle; Jepsen, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine how employees in different generational groups (or cohorts) and different career stages perceive their psychological contracts. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 345 working adults included psychological contract obligations, incentives and importance and the cognitive responses of job…

  18. A 'new' psychological contract for nurses: some management implications.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, S J

    1996-03-01

    Changes within the health services are raising a number of employment issues for nurses. The idea that a professional qualification and a job will lead to security of employment and career development is rapidly changing. These assumptions, the 'old' psychological contract, is giving way to new expectations from employers and employees; the emergence of a 'new' psychological contract. A psychological contract is an implicit agreement between employer and employee that each party will treat the other fairly. Such contracts are maintained by virtue of all parties wanting to seek agreement on issues where possible and to maintain trust. While such a contract is not a legally binding agreement it is nonetheless a binding understanding between people. Changes to this psychological contract can have important implications for individuals and their employer in terms of work and organizational commitment. This paper will discuss some of the issues surrounding psychological contracts and the impact of violating them. It will also discuss, from a management perspective, how psychological contracts develop between employer and employee, and how to form a 'new' psychological contract based upon mutual benefit and shared values.

  19. Hedgehogs, Foxes, Ethics, and the Evolving Social Contract in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosnow, Ralph L.

    This paper discusses the importance of ethics in psychological research. It defines the social contract between psychological science and society as the responsibility not to do psychological or physical harm to any research participants and to do beneficial research in a way that will produce valid research. Also explored are ways in which…

  20. Psychological contract breach among allied health professionals.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Allied health professionals are vital for effective healthcare yet there are continuing shortages of these employees. Building on work with other healthcare professionals, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of psychological contract (PC) breach and types of organisational justice on variables important to retention among allied health professionals: mental health and organisational commitment. The potential effects of justice on the negative outcomes of breach were examined. Multiple regressions analysed data from 113 allied health professionals working in a medium-large Australian healthcare organisation. The main negative impacts on respondents' mental health and commitment were from high PC breach, low procedural and distributive justice and less respectful treatment from organisational representatives. The interaction between procedural justice and breach illustrates that breach may be forgivable if processes are fair. Surprisingly, a betrayal or "aggravated breach effect" may occur after a breach when interpersonal justice is high. Further, negative affectivity was negatively related to respondents' mental health (affective outcomes) but not commitment (work-related attitude). Healthcare organisations should ensure the fairness of decisions and avoid breaking promises within their control. If promises cannot reasonably be kept, transparency of processes behind the breach may allow allied health professionals to understand that the organisation did not purposefully fail to fulfil expectations. This study offers insights into how breach and four types of justice interact to influence employee mental health and work attitudes among allied health professionals.

  1. The development and validation of a psychological contract of safety scale.

    PubMed

    Walker, Arlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper builds on previous research by the author and describes the development and validation of a new measure of the psychological contract of safety. The psychological contract of safety is defined as the beliefs of individuals about reciprocal safety obligations inferred from implicit and explicit promises. A psychological contract is established when an individual believes that perceived employer and employee safety obligations are contingent on each other. A pilot test of the measure is first undertaken with participants from three different occupations: nurses, construction workers, and meat processing workers (N=99). Item analysis is used to refine the measure and provide initial validation of the scale. A larger validation study is then conducted with a participant sample of health care workers (N=424) to further refine the measure and to determine the psychometric properties of the scale. Item and correlational analyses produced the final employer and employee obligations scales, consisting of 21 and 17 items, respectively. Factor analyses identified two underlying dimensions in each scale comparable to that previously established in the organizational literature. These transactional and relational-type obligations provided construct validity of the scale. Internal consistency ratings using Cronbach's alpha found the components of the psychological contract of safety measure to be reliable. The refined and validated psychological contract of safety measure will allow investigation of the positive and negative outcomes associated with fulfilment and breach of the psychological contract of safety in future research. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The changing psychological contract at work and employee burnout.

    PubMed

    Malach Pines, Ayala

    2002-01-01

    Today we stand in a vortex of technological, economic, and cultural changes that altered dramatically the world of labor and with it the psychological contract between employers and employees. While the effects of the changed contract at work are usually addressed from an organizational, social or economic perspective, the current article addresses it from a psychological perspective from which one noteworthy cost of the changed psychological contract is employee burnout. The article describes burnout, differentiates it from stress, and proposes an existential perspective to explain its underlying dynamic, using the results of a cross-cultural study of Israeli and American managers as an example. Recent studies on gender differences in management are used to point in the recommended for preventing employee burnout, despite the new psychological contract, namely--a democratic, egalitarian management style.

  3. Personality, preterm labor contractions, and psychological consequences.

    PubMed

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Freund, Yael; Carmiel, Naama; Ashwal, Eran; Peled, Yoav

    2016-03-01

    Research of psychological factors associated with imminent preterm labor (PTL) is sparse, compared with considerable research of preterm birth. We explored state and trait psychological variables associated with PTL, both pre- and postpartum. During 2012-2014, 56 women hospitalized due to PTL, and 33 pregnant women without PTL, responded during gestational week 20-33, to a demographic questionnaire, the Big-Five Inventory (BFI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Fear of Childbirth Questionnaire, and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Inventory (MFAS). At 4-6 weeks postpartum, 35 and 23 of the women in the respective groups responded online to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother to Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Compared to women without PTL, women with PTL scored higher on neuroticism, openness to experience, and MFAS (p < 0.01 each), scored lower on consciousness and agreeableness (p < 0.01 each), and showed greater fear of childbirth (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not found in the postpartum variables of EPDS and MIBS. In the PTL group, MFAS (β = 0.36, p < 0.01), but not fear of childbirth (β = 0.08, p = NS), remained higher, after controlling for demographic variables and neuroticism. PTL was associated with personality variables, but not with psychological consequences, other than elevated prepartum attachment to the fetus.

  4. An Investigation of Leadership Styles and Psychological Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether a statistically significant relationship exists between the leadership styles of managers and employee psychological contracts, as perceived by the employees. The findings indicated that the employees' perception of leadership style significantly affected satisfaction levels of employee psychological…

  5. Teacher Views on Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between secondary school teachers' view regarding Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation. The study conducted with relational screening model included 230 secondary school teachers employed in Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year. Perceived Organizational Support Scale…

  6. Student Satisfaction with Online Learning: Is It a Psychological Contract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles; Moskal, Patsy; Thompson, Jessica; Kramer, Lauren; DeCantis, Genevieve; Hermsdorfer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the possible relationship between student satisfaction with online learning and the theory of psychological contracts. The study incorporates latent trait models using the image analysis procedure and computation of Anderson and Rubin factors scores with contrasts for students who are satisfied, ambivalent, or dissatisfied with…

  7. Teachers' Psychological Contract Perceptions and Person-Environment Fit Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Modern management approaches attach great importance to both the informal and the economic aspects of the organizations. Identifying teachers' psychological contract types and fit levels of a work environment in terms of variables such as seniority, educational degree, and school type will lead to discovery of the motivational…

  8. MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS. PART I. PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, * PSYCHOLOGY , PERSONALITY , MEASUREMENT, PERSONALITY , TEST CONSTRUCTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, BACKGROUND, SCALE, FACTOR...ANALYSIS, MATRICES(MATHEMATICS), ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), REACTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), RESPONSE, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), BEHAVIOR, EMOTIONS, FEAR.

  9. Mutuality and reciprocity in the psychological contracts of employees and employers.

    PubMed

    Dabos, Guillermo E; Rousseau, Denise M

    2004-02-01

    The authors assessed the joint perceptions of the employee and his or her employer to examine mutuality and reciprocity in the employment relationship. Paired psychological contract reports were obtained from 80 employee-employer dyads in 16 university-based research centers. On the basis of in-depth study of the research setting, research directors were identified as primary agents for the university (employer) in shaping the terms of employment of staff scientists (employees). By assessing the extent of consistency between employee and employer beliefs regarding their exchange agreement, the present study mapped the variation and consequences of mutuality and reciprocity in psychological contracts. Results indicate that both mutuality and reciprocity are positively related to archival indicators of research productivity and career advancement, in addition to self-reported measures of Met Expectations and intention to continue working with the employer. Implications for psychological contract theory are presented.

  10. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  11. Testing the Differential Effects of Changes in Psychological Contract Breach and Fulfillment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Neil; Guest, David; Trenberth, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Rousseau (1989 and elsewhere) argued that a defining feature of psychological contract breach was that once a promise had been broken it could not easily be repaired and therefore that the effects of psychological contract breach outweighed those of psychological contract fulfillment. Using two independent longitudinal surveys, this paper…

  12. The Role of Future Time Perspective in Psychological Contracts: A Study among Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment…

  13. Testing the Differential Effects of Changes in Psychological Contract Breach and Fulfillment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Neil; Guest, David; Trenberth, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Rousseau (1989 and elsewhere) argued that a defining feature of psychological contract breach was that once a promise had been broken it could not easily be repaired and therefore that the effects of psychological contract breach outweighed those of psychological contract fulfillment. Using two independent longitudinal surveys, this paper…

  14. The Role of Future Time Perspective in Psychological Contracts: A Study among Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment…

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION. PART I. BACKGROUND FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, BEHAVIOR, INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY , INTELLIGENCE TESTS, MENTAL DISORDERS, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PERSONALITY , PSYCHIATRY...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , VERBAL BEHAVIOR, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, CRIMINOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE).

  16. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C; Lam, Simon S K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relationships among psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors (generating, spreading, implementing innovative ideas at work) over a 6-month period. Results indicate that the effects of psychological contract breaches on employees are not static. Specifically, perceptions of psychological contract breaches strengthened over time and were associated with decreased levels of affective commitment over time. Further, increased perceptions of psychological contract breaches were associated with decreases in innovation-related behaviors. We also found evidence that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between psychological contract breaches and innovation-related behaviors. These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective.

  17. Psychological contract types as moderator in the breach-violation and violation-burnout relationships.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Amber; Raja, Usman; Darr, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relationships between perceived psychological contract breach, felt violation, and burnout in a sample (n = 361) of employees from various organizations in Pakistan. The moderating role of contract types in these relationships was also tested. Findings supported a positive association between perceived psychological contract breach and felt violation and both were positively related to burnout. Transactional and relational contracts moderated the felt violation-burnout relationship. Scores on relational contract type tended to be higher than for transactional contract type showing some contextual influence.

  18. Raising the Curtain: Exploring Dancers’ Perceptions of Obligation through the Psychological Contract Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanway, Alicia R.; Bordia, Sarbari; Fein, Erich C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study takes an exploratory approach to investigate which situational factors influence perceptions of psychological contracts, as well as the content that comprises psychological contracts in the dance training industry. Semi-structured interviews ("n"?=?10) were conducted with students enrolled in a higher education…

  19. Promised and Delivered Inducements and Contributions: An Integrated View of Psychological Contract Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2011-01-01

    The reciprocal exchange of employees' work for pay that is central to employment relationships is viewed here through the lens of the psychological contract. A psychological contract involves promised inducements, promised contributions, delivered inducements, and delivered contributions: How an employee cognitively integrates these 4 elements is…

  20. Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

  1. What Does the Student Psychological Contract Mean? Evidence from a UK Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskina, Aikaterini

    2013-01-01

    Much has been written about psychological contracts in organisational contexts but very little in educational settings, especially within higher education. Using an exploratory single case study this article provides qualitative empirical evidence about the ways in which the psychological contract is perceived by a group of postgraduate students…

  2. Raising the Curtain: Exploring Dancers’ Perceptions of Obligation through the Psychological Contract Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanway, Alicia R.; Bordia, Sarbari; Fein, Erich C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study takes an exploratory approach to investigate which situational factors influence perceptions of psychological contracts, as well as the content that comprises psychological contracts in the dance training industry. Semi-structured interviews ("n"?=?10) were conducted with students enrolled in a higher education…

  3. What Does the Student Psychological Contract Mean? Evidence from a UK Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskina, Aikaterini

    2013-01-01

    Much has been written about psychological contracts in organisational contexts but very little in educational settings, especially within higher education. Using an exploratory single case study this article provides qualitative empirical evidence about the ways in which the psychological contract is perceived by a group of postgraduate students…

  4. Do promises matter? An exploration of the role of promises in psychological contract breach.

    PubMed

    Montes, Samantha D; Zweig, David

    2009-09-01

    Promises are positioned centrally in the study of psychological contract breach and are argued to distinguish psychological contracts from related constructs, such as employee expectations. However, because the effects of promises and delivered inducements are confounded in most research, the role of promises in perceptions of, and reactions to, breach remains unclear. If promises are not an important determinant of employee perceptions, emotions, and behavioral intentions, this would suggest that the psychological contract breach construct might lack utility. To assess the unique role of promises, the authors manipulated promises and delivered inducements separately in hypothetical scenarios in Studies 1 (558 undergraduates) and 2 (441 employees), and they measured them separately (longitudinally) in Study 3 (383 employees). The authors' results indicate that breach perceptions do not represent a discrepancy between what employees believe they were promised and were given. In fact, breach perceptions can exist in the absence of promises. Further, promises play a negligible role in predicting feelings of violation and behavioral intentions. Contrary to the extant literature, the authors' findings suggest that promises may matter little; employees are concerned primarily with what the organization delivers.

  5. Attempting measurement of psychological attributes.

    PubMed

    Salzberger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predictions; and content validity becomes a matter of highly subjective judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.

  6. Identifying psychological contract breaches to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

    PubMed

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Desselle, Shane P; Draugalis, JoLaine R; Spies, Alan R; Davis, Tamra S; Bolino, Mark

    2012-08-10

    To identify pharmacy faculty members' perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development.

  7. Identifying Psychological Contract Breaches to Guide Improvements in Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Desselle, Shane P.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Spies, Alan R.; Davis, Tamra S.; Bolino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify pharmacy faculty members’ perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. Methods. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. Conclusion. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development. PMID:22919084

  8. Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, M.; Tamaddon Jahromi, H. R.; Stading, M.; Webster, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for

  9. Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, M.; Tamaddon Jahromi, H. R.; Stading, M.; Webster, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for

  10. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  11. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  12. [Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies].

    PubMed

    Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. "Seinfeld," Professor of Organizational Behavior: The Psychological Contract and Systems Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Eric B.

    2001-01-01

    Explains how television programs such as "Seinfeld" illustrate the organizational behavior concepts of the social psychological contract and the interdependence aspect of systems thinking. Describes to use "Seinfeld" in the management classroom. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  14. Toward a better understanding of psychological contract breach: a study of customer service employees.

    PubMed

    Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D; Walsh, Janet T

    2006-01-01

    Experiences of psychological contract breach have been associated with a range of negative behavior. However, much of the research has focused on master of business administration alumni and managers and made use of self-reported outcomes. Studying a sample of customer service employees, the research found that psychological contract breach was related to lower organizational trust, which, in turn was associated with perceptions of less cooperative employment relations and higher levels of absenteeism. Furthermore, perceptions of external market pressures moderated the effect of psychological contract breach on absenteeism. The study indicated that psychological contract breach can arise when employees perceive discrepancies between an organization's espoused behavioral standards and its actual behavioral standards, and this can affect discretionary absence.

  15. The psychological contract: enhancing productivity and its implications for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    When hired, a new employee is usually given a job description and an explanation of benefits. In addition, the employee will also have a psychological contract with the organization. This contract, often unstated, reflects the main source of the employee's motivation to work hard. This is true of all groups of employees, including long-term care staff. Common examples of psychological contracts for long-term care administrative staff include autonomy, social acceptance, and being in the forefront of cutting-edge research. An awareness of these psychological contracts can result in better "fits" between employee aspirations and relevant long-term care organization tasks so that productivity is enhanced. This article outlines the steps necessary to create these good fits in ways that benefit both the organization and its employees. These recommendations are of particular relevance to administrators and supervisors in long-term carefacilities.

  16. The psychological contract: is the UK National Health Service a model employer?

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sandra; Whiting, Fiona

    2007-05-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employment relationship by both parties. The employment relationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high.

  17. Psychological contracts: a new strategy for retaining reduced-hour physicians.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Jennifer K

    2010-01-01

    As a retention strategy, healthcare organizations offer reduced-hour schedules to physicians seeking better work-family balance. However, this quantitative study of 94 full-time and reduced-hour female physicians in the Boston area found that working fewer hours helps physicians achieve better balance but does not improve their burnout or career satisfaction, or impact their intention to quit or leave the field of medicine. Instead, the findings demonstrate that psychological contract fulfillment, which reflects the subjective nature of the employment relationship, is more important than work hours, an objective job condition, in predicting intention to quit and these other outcomes. A fine-grained analysis is initiated uncovering the multidimensionality of the psychological contract construct. To integrate successful reduced-hour arrangements for physicians, medical managers are directed to the importance of understanding the composition of reduced-hour physicians' psychological contracts, specifically, their need to do challenging work, receive high levels of supervisor support, and promotion opportunities.

  18. Measuring School Psychology Trainee Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Adam B.; Mcclure, John; Sealander, Karen; Baker, Courtney N.

    2017-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for school psychology training programs to demonstrate their ability to produce competent practitioners. One method of addressing this need is through the assessment of self-efficacy. However, little research on self-efficacy in school psychology exists likely due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of…

  19. Measurement of peak discharge at width contractions by indirect methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthai, Howard Frederick

    1967-01-01

    This chapter describes procedures for measuring peak discharges using open-channel width contractions. Field and office procedures limited to this method are described. The discharge equation based on the continuity and energy equations between an approach cross section and the contracted section under a bridge or contraction is given. Contractions are classified into four geometric types. Discharge coefficients and computation procedures are given with a complete facsimile example of computation of a contracted-opening measurement. Additional procedures are given for multiple-opening contractions.

  20. Can You Get a Better Deal Elsewhere? The Effects of Psychological Contract Replicability on Organizational Commitment over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on psychological contracts has focused on whether or not employees feel their employers have fulfilled the promises made to them. Instead, here we examine how perceptions of the external labor market, particularly about whether present psychological contracts could be replicated elsewhere, influence employees' attachment to their…

  1. The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2006-01-01

    This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…

  2. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  3. Left Unsaid: The Role of Work Expectations and Psychological Contracts in Faculty Careers and Departure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Bennett, Jessica Chalk; Neihaus, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Early career faculty bring many expectations to the door-steps of their new academic homes. Yet such expectations are often left unsaid. Unfortunately, what is left unsaid can be a major factor in faculty departure. This study makes a distinct contribution to the departure literature by examining the psychological contracts and work expectations…

  4. The Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Employee Deviance: The Moderating Role of Hostile Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Su-Fen; Peng, Jei-Chen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects and the interaction effects of psychological contract breach and hostile attributional style on employee deviance (i.e., interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance). Data were collected from 233 employees and their supervisors in eight electronic companies in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that…

  5. Promised and delivered inducements and contributions: an integrated view of psychological contract appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2011-07-01

    The reciprocal exchange of employees' work for pay that is central to employment relationships is viewed here through the lens of the psychological contract. A psychological contract involves promised inducements, promised contributions, delivered inducements, and delivered contributions: How an employee cognitively integrates these 4 elements is a central question in psychological contract theory. Three alternative approaches for integrating the 4 elements were drawn from discrepancy theory, from equity theory, and from need theories of satisfaction, respectively. Experimental findings disconfirmed the discrepancy and equity approaches. Findings were consistent with the premise of the needs model, which is that appraisal is driven by how psychological contract elements facilitate or hinder an employee's effort to fulfill personal needs. Results showed that promised and delivered pay and work contribute uniquely to appraisal but that they vary in their influence on appraisal. These findings were consistent with the needs model principle that elements proximal to need satisfaction matter more than distal elements. That is, what is delivered (for pay and for work) matters more than what is promised, and pay matters more than work.

  6. The Changing Contours of the Psychological Contract: Unpacking Context and Circumstances of Breach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a processual framework of psychological contract breach, which maps holistically the interactions among concepts drawn from the trust and justice literature. However, the price of a holistic picture is frequently a lack of depth of analysis of any single variable, and consequently the second part of…

  7. Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect

    PubMed Central

    Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; Pepermans, Roland; Griep, Yannick; Hofmans, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term. PMID:27171275

  8. The Psychological Contract and Individual Differences: The Role of Exchange and Creditor Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Neuman, Joel H.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines exchange and creditor ideologies (two dispositional characteristics that are strongly related to exchange relationships) and their moderating effects on the psychological contract. Five hundred public-sector employees were studied over a 3-year period. Respondents' were surveyed as to their perceptions of what they…

  9. The Changing Contours of the Psychological Contract: Unpacking Context and Circumstances of Breach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a processual framework of psychological contract breach, which maps holistically the interactions among concepts drawn from the trust and justice literature. However, the price of a holistic picture is frequently a lack of depth of analysis of any single variable, and consequently the second part of…

  10. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  11. Training Opportunities and Employee Exhaustion in Call Centres: Mediation by Psychological Contract Fulfilment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Castanheira, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse psychological contract fulfilment as a mechanism through which training affects stress in call centres. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 412 call centre operators, using structural equation modelling to analyse their survey responses. Our results demonstrated that training is negatively related to…

  12. Training Opportunities and Employee Exhaustion in Call Centres: Mediation by Psychological Contract Fulfilment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Castanheira, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse psychological contract fulfilment as a mechanism through which training affects stress in call centres. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 412 call centre operators, using structural equation modelling to analyse their survey responses. Our results demonstrated that training is negatively related to…

  13. Left Unsaid: The Role of Work Expectations and Psychological Contracts in Faculty Careers and Departure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Bennett, Jessica Chalk; Neihaus, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Early career faculty bring many expectations to the door-steps of their new academic homes. Yet such expectations are often left unsaid. Unfortunately, what is left unsaid can be a major factor in faculty departure. This study makes a distinct contribution to the departure literature by examining the psychological contracts and work expectations…

  14. The Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Employee Deviance: The Moderating Role of Hostile Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Su-Fen; Peng, Jei-Chen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects and the interaction effects of psychological contract breach and hostile attributional style on employee deviance (i.e., interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance). Data were collected from 233 employees and their supervisors in eight electronic companies in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that…

  15. The Importance of the Beginning Teachers' Psychological Contract: A Pathway toward Flourishing in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollansky, Tracy D.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the profession with notions about what their school organization will provide for them and what they will give their organization, in exchange. Psychological contracts, as defined by Schein exist between beginning teachers and their organization. I contend, with the use of a conceptual framework, that if the implicit terms…

  16. The Importance of the Beginning Teachers' Psychological Contract: A Pathway toward Flourishing in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollansky, Tracy D.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the profession with notions about what their school organization will provide for them and what they will give their organization, in exchange. Psychological contracts, as defined by Schein exist between beginning teachers and their organization. I contend, with the use of a conceptual framework, that if the implicit terms…

  17. Investigating the Role of Psychological Contract Breach on Career Success: Convergent Evidence from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Bordia, Prashant; Bordia, Sarbari

    2011-01-01

    The current study extends past research by examining leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between employee reports of psychological contract breach and career success. In addition, we tested a competing perspective in which we proposed that performance mediators (i.e., in-role performance and organizational citizenship…

  18. Review of the Literature on the Changing Psychological Contract: Implications on Career Management and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessner, Ryan; Akdere, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    The changing psychological contract has become a focus for organizational development, especially as job roles within organizations continue to change. This literature review examines the evolving employee-employer relationship and how this relationship has impacted career management and organizations for over the past century. The paper…

  19. Influence of Organizational Culture on the Relationship Between Psychological Contracts and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    employers make to the other party, and (b) understand and effectively manage psychological contracts (Rousseau, 2004). Background The concept of the...Rousseau & Schalk, 2000; Rousseau & Shperling, 2003; Rousseau & Tijoriwala, 1998) have revitalized the study of the concept . Through these efforts...have been demonstrated, the theoretical mechanisms triggering these effects are less clear. Some have argued that macro- concepts like society shape

  20. Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect.

    PubMed

    Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; Pepermans, Roland; Griep, Yannick; Hofmans, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.

  1. On the conceptual foundations of psychological measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maul, Andrew; Wilson, Mark; Torres Irribarra, David

    2013-09-01

    Measurement has long been an important element of epistemology in the physical sciences and natural philosophy. More recently, the psychological sciences have developed a variety of techniques that purport to be instances of measurement as well. However, it is not clear how the understanding of measurement invoked in psychological science applications accords with the understanding of measurement found in other scientific disciplines. A sharper focus on conceptual clarity and coherence across the psychological and physical sciences has the potential to add a great deal to efforts to improve such practices. In this paper, we argue that it is possible to formulate a philosophically coherent account of how measurement works in both the physical and the human sciences.

  2. Conscientiousness and reactions to psychological contract breach: a longitudinal field study.

    PubMed

    Orvis, Karin A; Dudley, Nicole M; Cortina, Jose M

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the role of employee conscientiousness as a moderator of the relationships between psychological contract breach and employee behavioral and attitudinal reactions to the breach. They collected data from 106 newly hired employees within the 1st month of employment (Time 1), 3 months later (Time 2), and 8 months after Time 1 (Time 3) to observe the progression through contract development, breach, and reaction. Results suggest that conscientiousness is a significant moderator for 4 of the 5 contract breach-employee reaction relationships examined (turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, job satisfaction, and 1 of 2 facets of job performance). Specifically, employees who were lower in conscientiousness had more negative reactions to perceived breach with respect to turnover intentions, organizational loyalty, and job satisfaction. In contrast, employees who were higher in conscientiousness reduced their job performance to a greater degree in response to contract breach. Future research directions are discussed.

  3. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees' Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB.

  4. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees’ Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB. PMID:28536550

  5. Leader--member exchange, differentiation, and psychological contract fulfillment: a multilevel examination.

    PubMed

    Henderson, David J; Wayne, Sandy J; Shore, Lynn M; Bommer, William H; Tetrick, Lois E

    2008-11-01

    Prior integrations of the leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract literatures have not clarified how within-group LMX differentiation influences employees' attitudes and behaviors in the employment relationship. Therefore, using a sample of 278 members and managers of 31 intact work groups at 4 manufacturing plants, the authors examined how LMX operating at the within-group level (relative LMX, or RLMX) and the group level influenced perceptions of psychological contract fulfillment and employee-level outcomes. Controlling for individual-level perceptions of LMX quality, results indicated a positive relationship between RLMX and fulfillment, which was strengthened as group-level variability in LMX quality increased. Perceptions of fulfillment mediated the relationship between RLMX and performance and sportsmanship behaviors. The importance of conceptualizing LMX as simultaneously operating at multiple levels is highlighted.

  6. Social comparison and perceived breach of psychological contract: their effects on burnout in a multigroup analysis.

    PubMed

    Cantisano, Gabriela Topa; Domínguez, J Francisco Morales; García, J Luis Caeiro

    2007-05-01

    This study focuses on the mediator role of social comparison in the relationship between perceived breach of psychological contract and burnout. A previous model showing the hypothesized effects of perceived breach on burnout, both direct and mediated, is proposed. The final model reached an optimal fit to the data and was confirmed through multigroup analysis using a sample of Spanish teachers (N = 401) belonging to preprimary, primary, and secondary schools. Multigroup analyses showed that the model fit all groups adequately.

  7. Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    This volume presents a systematic review and evaluation of the major empirical measures of social psychological attitudes. It is hoped that the form of presentation adopted in this work (which includes actual scale items and scoring instructions) will help the reader to make his or her own judgments about the current state of the art in social…

  8. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  9. Measures of psychological acculturation: a review.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Tomomi

    2006-09-01

    This article reviews conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of psychological acculturation. The major issues involve the question of dimensionality and the assessment of specific domains of cultural change. Bidimensional scales that cover both overt and internal domains are more informative for the assessment of general levels of psychological acculturation. The validity of such scales must be examined in terms of the actual exposure of individuals to and involvement in each culture, and the influence of sociocultural factors on the course of acculturation. The parallel application of qualitative and quantitative methods may be useful for validity studies. The complementary use of emic and etic approaches will enhance the psychometric soundness of acculturation scales.

  10. Why e-return services fail: a psychological contract violation approach.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Ling

    2012-12-01

    This study elucidates why and how e-return services (e-RS) fail, representing a preliminary attempt to explain the critical role of psychological contract violation (PCV) and explore its antecedents and outcomes in e-RS research. Based on marketing, psychology, and information systems-related studies, a theoretical framework is developed to correlate perceived fairness (PF), causal attribution (CA), and magnitude of negative outcome (MNO) with customers' PCV. Additionally, based on trust (TR), exactly how PCV further influences customers' stickiness intention (SI) is examined as well. Analysis results indicate that PF, CA, and MNO influence customers during both the evaluation stage and the customer receipt of e-RS, subsequently deriving PCV. These factors contribute to the subsequent success of e-RS, especially, customers' TR and SI. Furthermore, recommendations are made on how firms should evaluate PCV and its influencing factors to prevent e-RS failure.

  11. Direct measurement of Vorticella contraction force by micropipette deflection.

    PubMed

    France, Danielle; Tejada, Jonathan; Matsudaira, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The ciliated protozoan Vorticella convallaria is noted for its exceptionally fast adenosine triphosphate-independent cellular contraction, but direct measurements of contractile force have proven difficult given the length scale, speed, and forces involved. We used high-speed video microscopy to image live Vorticella stalled in midcontraction by deflection of an attached micropipette. Stall forces correlate with both distance contracted and the resting stalk length. Estimated isometric forces range from 95 to 177 nanonewtons (nN), or 1.12 nN·μm(-1) of the stalk. Maximum velocity and work are also proportional to distance contracted. These parameters constrain proposed biochemical/physical models of the contractile mechanism.

  12. When employees strike back: investigating mediating mechanisms between psychological contract breach and workplace deviance.

    PubMed

    Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Tang, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    In this article, psychological contract breach, revenge, and workplace deviance are brought together to identify the cognitive, affective, and motivational underpinnings of workplace deviance. On the basis of S. L. Robinson and R. J. Bennett's (1997) model of workplace deviance, the authors proposed that breach (a cognitive appraisal) and violation (an affective response) initiate revenge seeking. Motivated by revenge, employees then engage in workplace deviance. Three studies tested these ideas. All of the studies supported the hypothesized relationships. In addition, self-control was found to be a moderator of the relationship between revenge cognitions and deviant acts; the relationship was weaker for people high in self-control.

  13. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience. PMID:25741300

  14. Interpretation of 2-probe turbulence measurements in an axisymmetric contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marion-Moulin, C.; Tan-Atichat, J.; Nagib, H. M.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the streamwise and radial velocity components at two points, one on and one off the centerline with variable radial separation, were digitally recorded and processed at several stations along a four to one contraction with controlled upstream turbulence conditions. Various statistical quantities are presented including spectra and coherence functions. The integral L sub ux, L sub um, L sub vx, L sub vm were also estimated and their variation along the contraction is examined.

  15. Collaboration in Action: Measuring and Improving Contracting Performance in the University of California Contracting Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Tam; Bowman-Carpio, LeeAnna; Buscher, Nate; Davidson, Pamela; Ford, Jennifer J.; Jenkins, Erick; Kalay, Hillary Noll; Nakazono, Terry; Orescan, Helene; Sak, Rachael; Shin, Irene

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, the University of California, Biomedical Research, Acceleration, Integration, and Development (UC BRAID) convened a regional network of contracting directors from the five University of California (UC) health campuses to: (i) increase collaboration, (ii) operationalize and measure common metrics as a basis for performance improvement…

  16. Measuring Air Force Contracting Customer Satisfaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    customers to determine the kind and quality of services they want and their level of satisfaction with existing services ; (c) post service ...Contracting’s customer service chain. A. WHAT IS A CUSTOMER ? Prior to developing a customer satisfaction measurement tool, it is necessary to define what...by servicing organizations to evaluate a customer’s experience. Correspondingly, organizations often use customer satisfaction

  17. The moderating role of overcommitment in the relationship between psychological contract breach and employee mental health.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Mareike

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated whether the association between perceived psychological contract breach (PCB) and employee mental health is moderated by the cognitive-motivational pattern of overcommitment (OC). Linking the psychological contract approach to the effort-reward imbalance model, this study examines PCB as an imbalance in employment relationships that acts as a psychosocial stressor in the work environment and is associated with stress reactions that in turn negatively affect mental health. The analyses were based on a sample of 3,667 employees who participated in a longitudinal linked employer-employee survey representative of large organizations (with at least 500 employees who are subject so social security contributions) in Germany. Fixed-effects regression models, including PCB and OC, were estimated for employee mental health, and interaction effects between PCB and OC were assessed. The multivariate fixed-effects regression analyses showed a significant negative association between PCB and employee mental health. The results also confirmed that OC does indeed significantly increase the negative effect of PCB on mental health and that OC itself has a significant and negative effect on mental health. The results suggest that employees characterized by the cognitive-motivational pattern of OC are at an increased risk of developing poor mental health if they experience PCB compared with employees who are not overly committed to their work. The results of this study support the assumption that psychosocial work stressors play an important role in employee mental health.

  18. The moderating role of overcommitment in the relationship between psychological contract breach and employee mental health

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated whether the association between perceived psychological contract breach (PCB) and employee mental health is moderated by the cognitive-motivational pattern of overcommitment (OC). Linking the psychological contract approach to the effort-reward imbalance model, this study examines PCB as an imbalance in employment relationships that acts as a psychosocial stressor in the work environment and is associated with stress reactions that in turn negatively affect mental health. Methods: The analyses were based on a sample of 3,667 employees who participated in a longitudinal linked employer-employee survey representative of large organizations (with at least 500 employees who are subject so social security contributions) in Germany. Fixed-effects regression models, including PCB and OC, were estimated for employee mental health, and interaction effects between PCB and OC were assessed. Results: The multivariate fixed-effects regression analyses showed a significant negative association between PCB and employee mental health. The results also confirmed that OC does indeed significantly increase the negative effect of PCB on mental health and that OC itself has a significant and negative effect on mental health. Conclusions: The results suggest that employees characterized by the cognitive-motivational pattern of OC are at an increased risk of developing poor mental health if they experience PCB compared with employees who are not overly committed to their work. The results of this study support the assumption that psychosocial work stressors play an important role in employee mental health. PMID:27488041

  19. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J.; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L.; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation. PMID:28713315

  20. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  1. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  2. Scour measurements at contracted highway crossings in Minnesota, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Hitchcock, Harry A.

    1998-01-01

    During record flooding in the Minnesota River basin in April 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, collected real-time scour measurements at contracted bridge openings and provided data collection assistance to the Minnesota Department of Transportation bridge inspectors. Weather and flood plain vegetation restricted data collection to what could be collected from the bridge deck at many sites. The data collected from the bridge deck provided only a marginal description of the reference surface for contraction scour and of the flow distribution in the stream and flood plains upstream from the bridge. However, the measurements reflect the contributions of both local and contraction scour, thus providing the streambed geometry resulting from the total scour.

  3. The Psychological Contract of Science Students: Social Exchange with Universities and University Staff from the Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Paddy; Prince, Nike

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been undertaken involving the student experience and depicting undergraduate students as consumers of education. This construction of the relationship between students and universities is based primarily on notions of economic exchange. In this paper, using the construct of the psychological contract, we show that social…

  4. The Psychological Contract of Science Students: Social Exchange with Universities and University Staff from the Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Paddy; Prince, Nike

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been undertaken involving the student experience and depicting undergraduate students as consumers of education. This construction of the relationship between students and universities is based primarily on notions of economic exchange. In this paper, using the construct of the psychological contract, we show that social…

  5. Post-"Psychological Contract" Violation: The Durability and Transferability of Employee Perceptions. The Case of TimTec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Judy; Malone, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 20 employees 5 years after a factory closure explored pre- and postlayoff experiences and perceptions of current employers. The experience of the violation of the psychological contract affected perceptions of loyalty, commitment, and trust that were transferred to the current employer. (SK)

  6. Full-Time versus Part-Time Employees: Understanding the Links between Work Status, the Psychological Contract, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Neil; Briner, Rob B.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of psychological contract variables (affective and continuance commitment, intention to quit, well-being, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior)was conducted on two samples: 1,608 banking employees (71% part time) and 366 supermarket employees (65% part time). Part- and full-time workers had different attitudes; fulfilment…

  7. Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tightening of your uterus muscles at irregular intervals or a squeezing sensation in your lower abdomen ... beginning of childbirth. These contractions come at regular intervals, usually move from the back to the lower ...

  8. Heart cell contractions measured using a micromachined polysilicon force transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Gisela; Pister, Kristofer S. J.; Roos, Kenneth P.

    1995-09-01

    A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) force transducer, with a volume less than one cubic millimeter, is being developed to measure forces generated by living, isolated cardiac muscle cells in order to resolve the complex mechanisms of muscle contraction. The force transducer consists of two movable clamps facing each other. Each clamp contains two vertical, parallel hinged polysilicon plates attached to a moveable shuttle, and the entire structure is suspended 2 micrometers above the substrate via support beams attached to the substrate at one end. Each end of a living rat heart cell is glued between a pair of vertical plates. Calcium is then introduced into the cell's nutrient bath and stimulates the cell to contract. Upon contraction the support beams bend, and the amount of deflection is translated to force via the known spring constant in the beams. Typcially the 70 micrometers long central portion of a 120 micrometers long cell will contract approximately 6-7 micrometers in full activating solution, resulting in forces up to 16 (mu) N. The average value obtained for Fmax per cross-sectional area was 21.8mN/mm2 which is comparable to the value found in other laboratories using standard transducer technology.

  9. Psychological stress measurement through voice output analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Audio tape recordings of selected Skylab communications were processed by a psychological stress evaluator. Strip chart tracings were read blind and scores were assigned based on characteristics reported by the manufacturer to indicate psychological stress. These scores were analyzed for their empirical relationships with operational variables in Skylab judged to represent varying degrees of situational stress. Although some statistically significant relationships were found, the technique was not judged to be sufficiently predictive to warrant its use in assessing the degree of psychological stress of crew members in future space missions.

  10. The male orgasm: pelvic contractions measured by anal probe.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, J G; Held, J P; Sanderson, M O

    1980-12-01

    Pelvic muscle contractions during sexual response can be monitored conveniently by the anal probe method described. Eleven young adult male subjects were each recorded for three sessions of masturbation to orgasm. Electrical signals from an anal pressure probe were automatically digitized by computer. Orgasmic contractions were easily distinguished from voluntary contractions by the steadily increasing intervals and complete muscle relaxation between orgasmic contractions. At orgasm each subject produced a characteristic series of contractions starting abruptly at an intercontraction interval of about 0.6 seconds, and continued for 10 to 15 contractions at an increasing increment of about 0.1 second per contraction. Pressure amplitude, representing the force of contractions, increased from the beginning of the regular series to a maximum at the seventh or eighth contraction. Area under the pressure curve, reflecting muscular exertion during contraction, generally increased throughout the regular series. Each man's pattern of contractions was very similar from one session to the next and distinguished his records from others'. Individuals' patterns could be grouped into three types, based chiefly on the location of the regular contraction series within the subjective span of orgasm. The most common type was a simple series of regular contractions. It had the shortest duration and fewest contractions. The next most common pattern began with the regular series, followed by a number of irregular contractions. This type was longest in duration. One man with a third type of intermediate duration, had a number of preliminary contractions before the series of regular contractions began in midorgasm.

  11. Management practices and performance of mergers and acquisitions in Pakistan: mediating role of psychological contract.

    PubMed

    Bari, Muhammad Waseem; Fanchen, Meng; Baloch, Muhammad Awais

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effect of management practices (procedural justice, coordination approach, communication system, integration strategy, and coping programs) on merger and acquisition (M&A) performance in the Pakistan banking industry. Psychological contract (PC) acts as a mediator between Management practices and M&A performance. The Present study distributes a structured questionnaire to 700 bank employees of different management cadres. The useful response rate is 76 % (536 employees). It uses PLS-SEM technique for data analysis. (1) procedural justice is a key strategy which has highly significant direct and indirect effect on M&A performance; however integration strategy and the communication system have an only direct effect. (2) PC performs partial mediation at different levels between management practices and M&A financial and non-financial performance. This study provides an effective solution to solve the soft issues during and post-M&A process. This is one of the few studies which effectively integrate the five constructs into a single framework to study their effects on M&A performance. Limitations and future research directions are presented in the last section of the study.

  12. Psychological contract breach and outcomes: Combining meta-analysis and structural equation models.

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco; Depolo, Marco

    2008-08-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between psychological contract perceived breach and certain outcome variables, such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB). Our review of the literature generated 41 independent samples in which perceived breach was used as a predictor of these personal and organizational outcomes. A medium effect size (ES) for desirable outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust, OCB and performance) was obtained (r=-.35). For undesirable outcomes (neglect in role duties and intention to leave), ES were also medium (r=.31). When comparing attitudinal (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust) and behavioural outcomes (OCB, neglect in role duties and performance), a stronger ES was found for attitudinal (r=-.24) than for behavioural outcomes (r=-.11). Potential moderator variables were examined, and it was found that they explained only a percentage of variability of primary studies. Structural equation analysis of the pooled meta-analytical correlation matrix indicated that the relationships of perceived breach with satisfaction, OCB, intention to leave and performance are fully mediated by organizational trust and commitment. Results are discussed in order to suggest theoretical and empirical implications.

  13. The relationships between perceived organizational support, affective commitment, psychological contract breach, organizational citizenship behaviour and work engagement.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Agarwal, Upasna A; Khatri, Naresh

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the factors that mediate and moderate the relationships of perceived organizational support with work engagement and organization citizenship behaviour. Specifically, affective commitment is posited to mediate and psychological contract breach to moderate the above relationships. Nurses play a critical role in delivering exemplary health care. For nurses to perform at their best, they need to experience high engagement, which can be achieved by providing them necessary organizational support and proper working environment. Data were collected via a self-reported survey instrument. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 750 nurses in nine large hospitals in India during 2013-2014. Four hundred and seventy-five nurses (63%) responded to the survey. Hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis of the moderated-mediation model. Affective commitment was found to mediate the positive relationships between perceived organizational support and work outcomes (work engagement, organizational citizenship behaviour). The perception of unfulfilled expectations (psychological contract breach) was found to moderate the perceived organizational support-work outcome relationships adversely. The results of this study indicate that perceived organizational support exerts its influence on work-related outcomes and highlight the importance of taking organizational context, such as perceptions of psychological contract breach, into consideration when making sense of the influence of perceived organizational support on affective commitment, work engagement and citizenship behaviours of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Measurement in Psychology: Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    The imagined existences of "quantity" in psychology is a prerequisite for measurement. Any person (researcher or subject) may imagine homogeneous concepts as quantities, for example, (perceived) redness, loudness or heaviness of different kinds of objects or events. Conversely, heterogeneous concepts may be merged to imagined quantities such as intelligence or personality, which both are constructed from agreed upon sets of theoretical concepts. Measurement in physics, psychophysics and psychology will be contemplated, comparatively.

  15. Examination of Psychological Type and Preferred Negotiation Tactics and Strategies of Contract Negotiators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    16 Jung’s Theory of Psychological Types ............. 16 Personality Type Theory ....................... 17 Perception...noted psychologist Carl G. Jung published the book Psychological Types. Within this publication, Jung detailed his theory of personality types which...Jung. Myers and Briggs expanded Jung’s psychological type theory by adding an attitude preference which will again double the number of personality

  16. Perceived Control and Psychological Contract Breach as Explanations of the Relationships Between Job Insecurity, Job Strain and Coping Reactions: Towards a Theoretical Integration.

    PubMed

    Vander Elst, Tinne; De Cuyper, Nele; Baillien, Elfi; Niesen, Wendy; De Witte, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to further knowledge on the mechanisms through which job insecurity is related to negative outcomes. Based on appraisal theory, two explanations-perceived control and psychological contract breach-were theoretically integrated in a comprehensive model and simultaneously examined as mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Different categories of outcomes were considered, namely work-related (i.e. vigour and need for recovery) and general strain (i.e. mental and physical health complaints), as well as psychological (i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and behavioural coping reactions (i.e. self-rated performance and innovative work behaviour). The hypotheses were tested using data of a heterogeneous sample of 2413 Flemish employees by means of both single and multiple mediator structural equation modelling analyses (bootstrapping method). Particularly, psychological contract breach accounted for the relationship between job insecurity and strain. Both perceived control and psychological contract breach mediated the relationships between job insecurity and psychological coping reactions, although the indirect effects were larger for psychological contract breach. Finally, perceived control was more important than psychological contract breach in mediating the relationships between job insecurity and behavioural coping reactions. This study meets previous calls for a theoretical integration regarding mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. What is the best measure of psychological reactance? An empirical test of two measures.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    This study examines two measures of psychological reactance. In search of identifying the best measure, each is compared vis-à-vis the other with respect to reliability and validity by placing each in a nomothetic network with a freedom threat, attitude, motivation, and source appraisal. The results are discussed with an emphasis on future practices regarding the best approach to measure psychological reactance.

  18. A Psychological Measurement of Student Testing Design Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, P. K.; Bruno, James

    An analytical technique from the field of market research called conjoint analysis was applied to a psychological measurement of student testing design preferences. Past concerns with testing design are reviewed, and a newer approach to testing is identified--the modified confidence weighted-admissible probability measurement (MCW-APM) test…

  19. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  20. Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

  1. Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education, 8th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndike, Robert M.; Thorndike-Christ, Tracy M.

    2010-01-01

    In this classic introduction to educational and psychological measurement, Thorndike and Thorndike-Christ provide all of the pertinent information future professionals need to know in order to develop the skills to use test information wisely. Incorporating standard measurement concepts as they apply to both educational and psychological…

  2. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  3. Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

  4. Perceptions of employment relations and permanence in the organization: mediating effects of affective commitment in relations of psychological contract and intention to quit.

    PubMed

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José

    2012-06-01

    Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations.

  5. Psychological Measurement for Specialists in Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent articles in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" have discussed credibility indicators for quantitative and qualitative studies (Asner-Self, 2009; Rubel & Villalba, 2009). This article extends upon these contributions by discussing measurement issues that are relevant to producers and consumers of quantitative group research. This…

  6. Psychological Measurement for Specialists in Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent articles in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" have discussed credibility indicators for quantitative and qualitative studies (Asner-Self, 2009; Rubel & Villalba, 2009). This article extends upon these contributions by discussing measurement issues that are relevant to producers and consumers of quantitative group research. This…

  7. Psychological Screening for Weapons Use: A Clinical Validation of Measures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, *MILITARY PERSONNEL, *PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), *COMBAT READINESS, *WEAPONS CARRIERS, PERSONALITY TESTS, BEHAVIOR, ATTITUDES... PSYCHOLOGY ), SCORING, INSTRUMENTATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY ), MODELS, VALIDATION, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, SYMPOSIA

  8. Measurement of Psychological Disorders Using Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Jonathan L.; Henson, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models are constrained (multiple classification) latent class models that characterize the relationship of questionnaire responses to a set of dichotomous latent variables. Having emanated from educational measurement, several aspects of such models seem well suited to use in psychological assessment and diagnosis. This article…

  9. How Should We Measure Psychological Resilience in Sport Performers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2013-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must constantly withstand a wide range of pressures to attain and sustain high performance. To advance psychologists' understanding of this area, there exists an urgent need to develop a sport-specific measure of resilience. The purpose of this article is to review psychometric…

  10. The Crisis in Measurement Literacy in Psychology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    Issues associated with the lack of statistical skills among educational and psychological researchers are discussed. Issues are associated with accreditation standards, faculty positions for psychometric specialists, measurement curricula, and licensing organizations. The Test User Qualification Working Group has produced a model test user…

  11. Measurement of Emotional/Psychological Child Maltreatment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Draca, Jasminka; Crain, Jennifer; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Emotional/psychological child maltreatment (ECM) is a major public health problem with serious consequences including emotional and behavioral problems. Nevertheless, ECM is an understudied area. Objectives: The aims of this review are to identify measures of ECM and to evaluate their psychometric properties and utilities. We provide a…

  12. Measurement of Psychological Disorders Using Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Jonathan L.; Henson, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models are constrained (multiple classification) latent class models that characterize the relationship of questionnaire responses to a set of dichotomous latent variables. Having emanated from educational measurement, several aspects of such models seem well suited to use in psychological assessment and diagnosis. This article…

  13. How Should We Measure Psychological Resilience in Sport Performers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2013-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must constantly withstand a wide range of pressures to attain and sustain high performance. To advance psychologists' understanding of this area, there exists an urgent need to develop a sport-specific measure of resilience. The purpose of this article is to review psychometric…

  14. Examining the effects of turnover intentions on organizational citizenship behaviors and deviance behaviors: A psychological contract approach.

    PubMed

    Mai, Ke Michael; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Christian, Jessica Siegel; Porter, Christopher O L H

    2016-08-01

    Although turnover intentions are considered the most proximal antecedent of organizational exit, there is often temporal separation between thinking about leaving and actual exit. Using field data from 2 diverse samples of working adults, we explore a causal model of the effects of turnover intentions on employee behavior while they remain with the organization, focusing specifically on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and deviance behaviors (DBs). Utilizing expectancy theory as an explanatory framework, we argue that turnover intentions result in high levels of transactional contract orientation and low levels of relational contract orientation, which in turn lead to a decrease in the incidence of OCBs and an increase in the incidence of DBs. We first used a pilot study to investigate the direction of causality between turnover intentions and psychological contract orientations. Then, in Study 1, we tested our mediated model using a sample of employees from a large drug retailing chain. In Study 2, we expanded our model by arguing that the mediated effects are much stronger when the organization is deemed responsible for potential exit. We then tested our full model using a sample of employees from a large state-owned telecommunications corporation in China. Across both studies, results were generally consistent and supportive of our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings for future theory, research, and practice regarding the management of both the turnover process and discretionary behaviors at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Incorporating measurement error in n = 1 psychological autoregressive modeling

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Noémi K.; Houtveen, Jan H.; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement error is omnipresent in psychological data. However, the vast majority of applications of autoregressive time series analyses in psychology do not take measurement error into account. Disregarding measurement error when it is present in the data results in a bias of the autoregressive parameters. We discuss two models that take measurement error into account: An autoregressive model with a white noise term (AR+WN), and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. In a simulation study we compare the parameter recovery performance of these models, and compare this performance for both a Bayesian and frequentist approach. We find that overall, the AR+WN model performs better. Furthermore, we find that for realistic (i.e., small) sample sizes, psychological research would benefit from a Bayesian approach in fitting these models. Finally, we illustrate the effect of disregarding measurement error in an AR(1) model by means of an empirical application on mood data in women. We find that, depending on the person, approximately 30–50% of the total variance was due to measurement error, and that disregarding this measurement error results in a substantial underestimation of the autoregressive parameters. PMID:26283988

  16. Incorporating measurement error in n = 1 psychological autoregressive modeling.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Noémi K; Houtveen, Jan H; Hamaker, Ellen L

    2015-01-01

    Measurement error is omnipresent in psychological data. However, the vast majority of applications of autoregressive time series analyses in psychology do not take measurement error into account. Disregarding measurement error when it is present in the data results in a bias of the autoregressive parameters. We discuss two models that take measurement error into account: An autoregressive model with a white noise term (AR+WN), and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. In a simulation study we compare the parameter recovery performance of these models, and compare this performance for both a Bayesian and frequentist approach. We find that overall, the AR+WN model performs better. Furthermore, we find that for realistic (i.e., small) sample sizes, psychological research would benefit from a Bayesian approach in fitting these models. Finally, we illustrate the effect of disregarding measurement error in an AR(1) model by means of an empirical application on mood data in women. We find that, depending on the person, approximately 30-50% of the total variance was due to measurement error, and that disregarding this measurement error results in a substantial underestimation of the autoregressive parameters.

  17. A Measure of Psychological Realism on a Visual Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Everett; Petitt, John

    1977-01-01

    A FUNDAMENTAL question of simulation technology is how to determine if an aircraft simulation is creating the proper psychological space necessary to assess manned-system performance. The standard approach to this problem for visual simulators is to measure how well pilots can make approaches and landings on the simulator. Experiments of this type generally show that simulator performance is worse than actual landing performance and that there is an excessive amount of training required to reach acceptable performance. Unfortunately, in these experiments it is difficult to sort out the inadequacies of the visual subsystem from possible inadequacies in other simulator subsystems, such as the motion subsystem. This synoptic presents the results from one of a series of five experiments which attempted to provide direct measures of the psychological realism on a computer graphics night visual flight attachment. These experiments used experimental procedures and methodologies that psychologists have developed in their attempts to determine how people perceived visual space in the real world.

  18. A Measure of Psychological Realism on a Visual Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Everett; Petitt, John

    1977-01-01

    A FUNDAMENTAL question of simulation technology is how to determine if an aircraft simulation is creating the proper psychological space necessary to assess manned-system performance. The standard approach to this problem for visual simulators is to measure how well pilots can make approaches and landings on the simulator. Experiments of this type generally show that simulator performance is worse than actual landing performance and that there is an excessive amount of training required to reach acceptable performance. Unfortunately, in these experiments it is difficult to sort out the inadequacies of the visual subsystem from possible inadequacies in other simulator subsystems, such as the motion subsystem. This synoptic presents the results from one of a series of five experiments which attempted to provide direct measures of the psychological realism on a computer graphics night visual flight attachment. These experiments used experimental procedures and methodologies that psychologists have developed in their attempts to determine how people perceived visual space in the real world.

  19. A novel collagen gel-based measurement technique for quantitation of cell contraction force

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tianrong; Li, Li; Siow, Richard C. M.; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Cell contraction force plays an important role in wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis. This study describes a novel method to quantify single cell contraction force in vitro using human aortic adventitial fibroblasts embedded in a collagen gel. The technique is based on a depth sensing nano-indentation tester to measure the thickness and elasticity of collagen gels containing stimulated fibroblasts and a microscopy imaging system to estimate the gel area. In parallel, a simple theoretical model has been developed to calculate cell contraction force based on the measured parameters. Histamine (100 µM) was used to stimulate fibroblast contraction while the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 (25 µM) was used to inhibit cell contraction. The collagen matrix used in the model provides a physiological environment for fibroblast contraction studies. Measurement of changes in collagen gel elasticity and thickness arising from histamine treatments provides a novel convenient technique to measure cell contraction force within a collagen matrix. This study demonstrates that histamine can elicit a significant increase in contraction force of fibroblasts embedded in collagen, while the Young's modulus of the gel decreases due to the gel degradation. PMID:25977960

  20. A novel collagen gel-based measurement technique for quantitation of cell contraction force.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tianrong; Li, Li; Siow, Richard C M; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-05-06

    Cell contraction force plays an important role in wound healing, inflammation,angiogenesis and metastasis. This study describes a novel method to quantify single cell contraction force in vitro using human aortic adventitial fibroblasts embedded in a collagen gel. The technique is based on a depth sensing nano-indentation tester to measure the thickness and elasticity of collagen gels containing stimulated fibroblasts and a microscopy imaging system to estimate the gel area. In parallel, a simple theoretical model has been developed to calculate cell contraction force based on the measured parameters. Histamine (100 mM) was used to stimulate fibroblast contraction while the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 (25 mM) was used to inhibit cell contraction. The collagen matrix used in the model provides a physiological environment for fibroblast contraction studies. Measurement of changes in collagen gel elasticity and thickness arising from histamine treatments provides a novel convenient technique to measure cell contraction force within a collagen matrix. This study demonstrates that histamine can elicit a significant increase in contraction force of fibroblasts embedded in collagen,while the Young's modulus of the gel decreases due to the gel degradation.

  1. Identification and measurement of work-related psychological injury: piloting the psychological injury risk indicator among frontline police.

    PubMed

    Winwood, Peter C; Tuckey, Michelle R; Peters, Roger; Dollard, Maureen F

    2009-09-01

    To develop a self-report measure of work-related psychological injury, the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI), with a comparable level of accuracy and reliability to individual clinical assessment by a skilled clinical psychologist. Two pilot studies investigated the responses of a) 34 frontline police officers completing the PIRI measure who were also examined by a highly experienced clinical psychologist and b) 217 officers who completed the PIRI measure and also the General Health Questionnaire 12 measure. The PIRI scale identified both the presence and the level of psychological injury in the clinical group with a remarkably high level of correspondence to concurrent clinical assessment (r = 0.80). The PIRI scale can be used both for the individual assessment of psychological injury and as a potential online screening tool. Its latter use is that it could enable the early identification of evolving psychological injury among workers, facilitating timely and career-preserving intervention.

  2. Reviewing the Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Psychological Contract and Their Impact on Employee Attitude and Behaviours: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Upasana; Bhargava, Shivganesh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for…

  3. Reviewing the Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Psychological Contract and Their Impact on Employee Attitude and Behaviours: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Upasana; Bhargava, Shivganesh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for…

  4. Relationships between functional capacity measures and baseline psychological measures in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Robert B; Fishbain, David A; Steele-Rosomoff, Renee; Rosomoff, Hubert L

    2003-12-01

    The extent to which baseline psychological measures, pain, and compensation status are related to admission and posttreatment functional capacity and employment outcome was investigated. Four pass/fail functional capacity tests based on the DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles) classification system and previously shown to be predictive of treatment outcome in chronic pain patients were analyzed in relation to baseline measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, and perceived stress. Statistical tests of all measures with employment level at admission to treatment, 1 month follow-up and at long-term follow-up were also performed. The results showed that pain level and/or compensation status were the primary predictors of functional capacity and employment status at follow-up. Admission functional capacity measures were also predictors of employment outcome. Depression scores at admission predicted some admission functional capacity results, however, psychological scores were not as significantly related to discharge functional capacity tests. One functional capacity test, the crouching test, was an independent predictor of short- and long-term employment outcome. Trait anxiety was the only psychological factor that was independently predictive of long-term employment outcome. In conclusion, these results suggest that psychological variables are related to measures of functional capacity measured at admission. However, psychological measures at admission are not good predictors of later functional capacity measures. Functional capacity measures are important predictors of follow-up employment outcome, but return to work cannot be predicted without taking pain into account.

  5. Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria for contract performance measurement. Summary description

    SciTech Connect

    1985-10-01

    This document provides an overview of the DOE CSCSC approach for contract performance measurement. It has been prepared to assist both DOE and contractor personnel in understanding and using the CSCSC approach properly.

  6. Evaluating psychological debriefing: are we measuring the right outcomes?

    PubMed

    Deahl, M P; Srinivasan, M; Jones, N; Neblett, C; Jolly, A

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) and psychological debriefing (PD) following potentially traumatising events has recently been challenged after a number of recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) failed to demonstrate that CISD or PD prevents or reduces the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These studies have used measures of PTSD as the principal outcome and have generally not measured comorbid psychopathology, behavioral or social dysfunction. In a recent RCT of group debriefing amongst British soldiers returning from peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, PD had a significant effect in reducing a worrying level of alcohol misuse in the sample. The findings of this study suggest that that it is premature to conclude that debriefing is ineffective and that a broader range of outcome measures should be employed in future trials of debriefing.

  7. Instruments to measure behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Rianne M; Stephan, Blossom C M; Dening, Tom; Brayne, Carol

    2014-03-01

    Reliable and valid measurement of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is important for research and clinical practice. Here we provide an overview of the different instruments and discuss issues involved in the choice of the most appropriate instrument to measure BPSD in research. A list of BPSD instruments was generated. For each instrument Pubmed and SCOPUS were searched for articles that reported on their use or quality. Eighty-three instruments that are used to measure BPSD were identified. Instruments differ in length and detail, whether the interview is with participants, informants or by observation, the target sample and the time frames for use. Reliability and validity is generally good, but reported in few independent samples. When choosing a BPSD instrument for research the research question should be carefully scrutinised and the symptoms of interest, population, quality, detail, time frame and practical issues should be considered.

  8. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Family Measures

    PubMed Central

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Cutuli, J. J.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Goldbeck, Lutz; Chambers, Christine T.; Abad, Mona; Spetter, Dante; Patterson, Joän

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide a review of the evidence base of family measures relevant to pediatric psychology. Method Twenty-nine family measures were selected based upon endorsement by Division 54 listserv members, expert judgment, and literature review. Spanning observational and self-report methods, the measures fell into three broad assessment categories: Family functioning, Dyadic family relationships, and Family functioning in the context of childhood chronic health conditions. Measures were categorized as: “Well-established”, “Approaching well-established”, or “Promising.” Results Nineteen measures met “well-established” criteria and the remaining ten were “approaching well-established.” “Well-established” measures were documented for each of the broad assessment categories named above. Conclusions Many measures deemed “well-established” in the general population are proving to be reliable and useful in pediatric samples. More evidence of the validity of family measures is needed in this context. This review should prove helpful to clinicians and researchers as they strive to make evidence-based decisions regarding family measures. PMID:17905801

  9. Psychological acute stress measurement using a wireless adhesive biosensor.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Nandakumar

    2015-01-01

    Stress management is essential in this modern civilization to maintain one's stress level low and reduce health risks, since stress is one of the primary causes leading to major chronic health disorders. The present study investigates the validity of stress index (SI) metric that objectively quantifies the psychological acute stress using a disposable adhesive biosensor worn on the chest called as HealthPatch(®). Eleven healthy volunteers (n=11) were attached with one HealthPatch sensor at left pectoralis major muscle along the cardiac axis to record modified Lead-II ECG. The subjects carried out a standard Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) protocol. During the study, the subjects filled out state anxiety form-Y1 of the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire (sSTAI); salivary samples were obtained for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol (sC) measurements; and the HealthPatch sensor data were wirelessly acquired. The data analyses revealed that sSTAI scores were significantly increased (P<0.001) due to TSST compared to the baseline. But, the changes in both sAA and sC measurements were not significant (P=0.281 and P=0.792, respectively). On the other hand, SI metric of HealthPatch showed significant (P<0.001) increase (~50%) during TSST, and shown to be sensitive to objectively track acute changes in psychological stress. Thus, HealthPatch biosensor can be valuable for continuous monitoring of psychological health and effective management of stress leading to healthy life.

  10. Measurement of psychological disorders using cognitive diagnosis models.

    PubMed

    Templin, Jonathan L; Henson, Robert A

    2006-09-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models are constrained (multiple classification) latent class models that characterize the relationship of questionnaire responses to a set of dichotomous latent variables. Having emanated from educational measurement, several aspects of such models seem well suited to use in psychological assessment and diagnosis. This article presents the development of a new cognitive diagnosis model for use in psychological assessment--the DINO (deterministic input; noisy "or" gate) model--which, as an illustrative example, is applied to evaluate and diagnose pathological gamblers. As part of this example, a demonstration of the estimates obtained by cognitive diagnosis models is provided. Such estimates include the probability an individual meets each of a set of dichotomous Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text revision [DSM-IV-TR]; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria, resulting in an estimate of the probability an individual meets the DSM-IV-TR definition for being a pathological gambler. Furthermore, a demonstration of how the hypothesized underlying factors contributing to pathological gambling can be measured with the DINO model is presented, through use of a covariance structure model for the tetrachoric correlation matrix of the dichotomous latent variables representing DSM-IV-TR criteria.

  11. Measuring Satisfaction in the Program Manager, Procuring Contracting Officer Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    44 5. Attaining Customer Satisfaction * 44 6. Inhibitors of Customer Satisfaction 45 Vlll 7. Measuring Customer Satisfaction 47 a. Preconditions...customer satisfaction issues, there has been little research to determine the optimal method for measuring customer satisfaction in the PM - PCO...business. As a result, for Executive departments of the Federal Government, measuring customer satisfaction is no longer the exception but the rule

  12. Obtaining reliable measurements of knee extensor torque produced during maximal voluntary contractions: an experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Kues, J M; Rothstein, J M; Lamb, R L

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a protocol that could be used to obtain reliable measurements of knee extensor torque produced during maximal voluntary contractions. On each of 3 days, 10 subjects performed six consecutive maximal voluntary contractions, in the same randomized order, for each of the following 10 conditions: concentric isokinetic contractions at velocities of 30 degrees, 90 degrees, 120 degrees, and 180 degrees/s; eccentric isokinetic contractions at velocities of 30 degrees, 90 degrees, 120 degrees, and 180 degrees/s; and isometric contractions at 40 and 60 degrees of knee flexion. The peak torques produced were examined to determine on which day and during which contraction subjects produced the greatest torques for each condition. This information was used to develop a practice protocol. Fifteen different subjects were tested following this protocol. Subjects participated in two practice sessions, a test session, and a retest session. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to determine the degree of agreement between torques for the test and retest sessions. The ICCs ranged from .87 to .98. The protocol developed appears to be useful for obtaining reliable measurements of knee extensor torque.

  13. Measuring, Monitoring and Managing the Psychological Well-Being of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Barkham, Michael; Bradley, Margaret; Audin, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    This paper profiles the psychological well-being of students in their initial year of university. There were three aims: to measure the impact of arrival at university on the psychological well-being of first year students, to monitor (i.e. profile) the shape of psychological well-being across the first year, and to investigate how students manage…

  14. Measuring, Monitoring and Managing the Psychological Well-Being of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Barkham, Michael; Bradley, Margaret; Audin, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    This paper profiles the psychological well-being of students in their initial year of university. There were three aims: to measure the impact of arrival at university on the psychological well-being of first year students, to monitor (i.e. profile) the shape of psychological well-being across the first year, and to investigate how students manage…

  15. Scoring and modeling psychological measures in the presence of multidimensionality.

    PubMed

    Reise, Steven P; Bonifay, Wes E; Haviland, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analytic studies of psychological measures showing item responses to be multidimensional do not provide sufficient guidance for applied work. Demonstrating that item response data are multifactorial in this way does not necessarily (a) mean that a total scale score is an inadequate indicator of the intended construct, (b) demand creating and scoring subscales, or (c) require specifying a multidimensional measurement model in research using structural equation modeling (SEM). To better inform these important decisions, more fine-grained psychometric analyses are necessary. We describe 3 established, but seldom used, psychometric approaches that address 4 distinct questions: (a) To what degree do total scale scores reflect reliable variation on a single construct? (b) Is the scoring and reporting of subscale scores justified? (c) If justified, how much reliable variance do subscale scores provide after controlling for a general factor? and (d) Can multidimensional item response data be represented by a unidimensional measurement model in SEM, or are multidimensional measurement models (e.g., second-order, bifactor) necessary to achieve unbiased structural coefficients? In the discussion, we provide guidance for applied researchers on how best to interpret the results from applying these methods and review their limitations.

  16. Work of Adhesion Measurements of Silicone Networks Using Contract Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Benkoski, J.; Emerson, J.A.; Miller, G.V.; Pearson, R.A.

    1999-04-21

    Work of adhesion (Wa) measurements are being studied for several types of polymer/metal combinations in order to obtain a better understanding of the adhesive failure mechanisms for systems containing encapsulated and bonded components. A primary concern is whether studies of model systems can be extended to systems of technological interest. One study performed in our laboratory involved the determination of Wa between silicone (PDMS) and Al surfaces in order to establish potential adhesive failure mechanisms. Our initial work with PDMS was based on Dow Corning 170 Sylgard. PDMS hemispheres were synthesized following the procedure outlined by Chaudhury and Whitesides where the filler was stripped from the commercial silicone by centrifuging. Wa between PDMS surfaces was determined using the JKR method. Our results for the Wa of PDMS were in agreement with those reported by Chaudhury and Whitesides. However, further JKR studies using these PDMS hemispheres on flat Al surfaces were fraught with difficulty. We could not discriminate hydrogen-bonding effects between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydroxyl groups in the PDMS and other possible bonding mechanisms. It was suggested that commercial systems contain inhibitors and additives that interfere with understanding the PMDS/Al interface. Therefore, the current study uses pure PDMS networks synthesized in our lab. Also, two contact mechanics methods were deployed to measure the Wa--JKR method using two hemispheres and a LEFM method using a cylinder containing a circumferential crack. This paper contains a description of the synthesis of the PDMS used for these studies and the determination of Wa between PDMS surfaces using the JKR method, contact angle measurements, and a LEFM method that consists of a cylinder containing a circumferential crack.

  17. River bed transport measurements show bed dilation and contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    A new study of bed load transport—the movement of the gravel or other grains on a stream bed—has turned up a previously undetected effect. Marquis and Roy used several different methods to monitor bed load activity in a gravel bed river, Beard Creek in Quebec, Canada. They examined streamfow, bed load, and bed morphology before, during, and after 20 food events. The researchers found that two of the methods—measuring changes in bed topography between successive foods and surveying bed activity—gave inconsistent results. Changes in elevation of the bed did not always correspond to movement of bed load.

  18. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Jade; Wirz, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.

  19. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life. PMID:27965973

  20. Measuring the Role of Psychological Inflexibility in Trichotillomania

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David C.; Compton, Scott N.; Twohig, Michael P.; Saunders, Stephen M.; Franklin, Martin E.; Neal-Barnett, Angela M.; Ely, Laura; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological Inflexibility (PI) is a construct that has gained recent attention as a critical theoretical component of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). PI is typically measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II). However, the AAQ-II has shown questionable reliability in clinical populations with specific diagnoses, leading to the creation of content-specific versions of the AAQ-II that show stronger psychometric properties in their target populations. A growing body of literature suggests that PI processes may contribute to hair pulling, and the current study sought to examine the psychometric properties and utility of a Trichotillomania-specific version of the AAQ-II, the AAQ-TTM. A referred sample of 90 individuals completed a battery of assessments as part of a randomized clinical trial of Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania. Results showed that the AAQ-TTM has two intercorrelated factors, adequate reliability, concurrent validity, and incremental validity over the AAQ-II. Furthermore, mediational analysis between emotional variables and hair pulling outcomes provides support for using the AAQ-TTM to measure therapeutic process. Implications for the use of this measure will be discussed, including the need to further investigate the role of PI processes in Trichotillomania. PMID:25155941

  1. Applying Bifactor Statistical Indices in the Evaluation of Psychological Measures.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Anthony; Reise, Steven P; Haviland, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a set of rarely reported psychometric indices that, nevertheless, are important to consider when evaluating psychological measures. All can be derived from a standardized loading matrix in a confirmatory bifactor model: omega reliability coefficients, factor determinacy, construct replicability, explained common variance, and percentage of uncontaminated correlations. We calculated these indices and extended the findings of 50 recent bifactor model estimation studies published in psychopathology, personality, and assessment journals. These bifactor derived indices (most not presented in the articles) provided a clearer and more complete picture of the psychometric properties of the assessment instruments. We reached 2 firm conclusions. First, although all measures had been tagged "multidimensional," unit-weighted total scores overwhelmingly reflected variance due to a single latent variable. Second, unit-weighted subscale scores often have ambiguous interpretations because their variance mostly reflects the general, not the specific, trait. Finally, we review the implications of our evaluations and consider the limits of inferences drawn from a bifactor modeling approach.

  2. Dynamic clinical measurements of voluntary vaginal contractions and autonomic vaginal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Broens, Paul M A; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M

    2014-12-01

    The vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists and might be involved in the pathophysiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of a canalicular vaginal "sphincter mechanism" by measuring intravaginal pressure at different levels of the vaginal canal during voluntary pelvic floor contractions and during induced reflexive contractions. Sixteen nulliparous women, without sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor trauma, were included in the study. High-resolution solid-state circumferential catheters were used to measure intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions at different levels in the vaginal canal. Voluntary intravaginal pressure measurements were performed in the left lateral recumbent position only, while reflexive intravaginal pressure measurements during slow inflation of a vaginal balloon were performed in the left lateral recumbent position and in the sitting position. Intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions were the main outcome measures. In addition, a general demographic and medical history questionnaire was administered to gain insight into the characteristics of the study population. Fifteen out of the sixteen women had deep and superficial vaginal high-pressure zones. In one woman, no superficial high-pressure zone was found. The basal and maximum pressures, as well as the duration of the autonomic reflexive contractions significantly exceeded the pressures and the duration of the voluntary contractions. There were no significant differences between the reflexive measurements obtained in the left lateral recumbent and the sitting position. The two high-pressure zones found in this study, as a result of voluntary contractions and, even more pronounced

  3. Velocity measurement of clay intrusion through a sudden contraction step using a tagging pulse sequence.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Shohji; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Suekane, Tetsuya; Hirai, Shuichiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Nakasuji, Yoshizumi

    2003-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a spatial tagging sequence was used to measure the velocity distribution of clay that was forced past a sudden contraction. A spatial tagging sequence provided magnetic resonance images of clay that allowed measurement of the velocity distribution in the clay, which can provide profound insights on the deformation process of clay during the intrusion process. The experiments were conducted using a specially-designed vessel that could operate at up to 30 MPa. The vessel offers a rectangle test section with a sudden contraction step that had a ratio of contraction of 2:1. The vessel was installed into a commercial magnetic resonance imaging equipment and then the fluid motion of clay flowing into the narrow contracted channel was quantitatively investigated to examine behaviors of flowing clay as non-Newtonian fluid. MRI results are compared with those obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation. Velocity distributions obtained from each tag displacement did not well agree with those predicted by CFD results near the contraction step where the fluid accelerated rapidly. However, a post-processing on calculation results, in which virtual tag displacement is calculated, gave better agreement with experiment and enabled us to compare MRI results with CFD results.

  4. Design and Preliminary Experimental Investigation of a Capsule for Measuring the Small Intestine Contraction Pressure.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengbo; Kothari, Vishal; Terry, Benjamin S

    2015-11-01

    A tethered pressure measurement capsule was developed for measuring the small intestine contraction pressure to assist in locating capsules within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and quantifying the contact force between the capsule and the small intestine lumen. The capsule was calibrated statically and dynamically in depth-controlled water at body temperature (37-38 °C). In vitro tests were performed on an intestinal simulator to verify the measurement function of the capsule. To perform a preliminary evaluation of its pressure measuring capabilities, the capsule was tested at a single location in a live pig model. The pressure signal from the live animal test was analyzed in the time domain, and then, the empirical mode decomposition and fast Fourier transformation were applied to analyze the contraction pressure and ambient pressure in the frequency domain. The contraction rate was 9.4 to 11.0 times per minute. The peak value of the contraction pressure was 0.24 ± 0.05 kPa. The successful test of this prototype lays the groundwork for a future untethered, swallowable version of the capsule, which will be capable of measuring dynamic pressures while in transit.

  5. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  6. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  7. Commentary on Stiers and colleagues' guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Robert L

    2015-05-01

    Comments on the article, "Guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training," by Stiers et al. (see record 2014-55195-001). Stiers and colleagues have provided a thorough and well-conceived set of guidelines that lay out the competencies expected for graduates of postdoctoral residencies in rehabilitation psychology, accompanied by a set of more specific, observable indicators of the residents' competence level. This work is an important aspect of the broader project of the Rehabilitation Psychology Specialty Council (APA Division 22, the American Board of Rehabilitation Psychology, the Foundation for Rehabilitation Psychology, the Academy of Rehabilitation Psychology, and the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdocotral Training Programs) to develop overall guidelines for programs providing postdoctoral training in this field (Stiers et al., 2012).

  8. The Effect of Positive Peer Reinforcement on Psychological Measures and Guitar Songleading Performance in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of positive peer reinforcement on self-reported psychological measures and songleading performance in beginning guitar students. No differences were found between the control group (n = 21) and the experimental group (n = 20) concerning psychological measures of self-esteem, stress, and…

  9. The Effect of Positive Peer Reinforcement on Psychological Measures and Guitar Songleading Performance in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of positive peer reinforcement on self-reported psychological measures and songleading performance in beginning guitar students. No differences were found between the control group (n = 21) and the experimental group (n = 20) concerning psychological measures of self-esteem, stress, and…

  10. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  11. Simultaneous Measurement of Contraction and Calcium Transients in Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahola, A; Pölönen, R-P; Aalto-Setälä, K; Hyttinen, J

    2017-10-03

    Induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) provide a powerful platform for disease modeling and drug development in vitro. Traditionally, electrophysiological methods or fluorescent dyes (e.g. calcium) have been used in their functional characterization. Recently, video microscopy has enabled non-invasive analysis of CM contractile motion. Simultaneous assessments of motion and calcium transients have not been generally conducted, as motion detection methods are affected by changing pixel intensities in calcium imaging. Here, we present for the first time a protocol for simultaneous video-based measurement of contraction and calcium with fluorescent dye Fluo-4 videos without corrections, providing data on both ionic and mechanic activity. The method and its accuracy are assessed by measuring the effect of fluorescence and background light on transient widths and contraction velocity amplitudes. We demonstrate the method by showing the contraction-calcium relation and measuring the transient time intervals in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia patient specific iPSC-CMs and healthy controls. Our validation shows that the simultaneous method provides comparable data to combined individual measurements, providing a new tool for measuring CM biomechanics and calcium simultaneously. Our results with calcium sensitive dyes suggest the method could be expanded to use with other fluorescent reporters as well.

  12. Storage and Retrieval of Information on Psychological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Ki-Tack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Information overproduction and the lack of an adequate system for its storage and retrieval have frustrated integrative efforts and hindered orderly progress in the area of psychological testing. Describes a prototype repository system to handle and service the mass of information produced. (Authors)

  13. Faking in Interest Measurement: A Social-Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroger, Rolf O.

    1974-01-01

    This study proposes a social-psychological hypothesis of test faking which postulates that faking involves the enacting of a social role appropriate to the given testing situation. Subtle manipulations of the test-taking environment, designed to induce subjects to adopt given social roles, produced substantial role-specific changes in test scores.…

  14. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  15. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  16. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  17. Thin-film dielectric elastomer sensors to measure the contraction force of smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araromi, O.; Poulin, A.; Rosset, S.; Favre, M.; Giazzon, M.; Martin-Olmos, C.; Liley, M.; Shea, H.

    2015-04-01

    The development of thin-film dielectric elastomer strain sensors for the characterization of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction is presented here. Smooth muscle disorders are an integral part of diseases such as asthma and emphysema. Analytical tools enabling the characterization of SMC function i.e. contractile force and strain, in a low-cost and highly parallelized manner are necessary for toxicology screening and for the development of new and more effective drugs. The main challenge with the design of such tools is the accurate measurement of the extremely low contractile cell forces expected as a result of SMC monolayer contraction (as low as ~ 100 μN). Our approach utilizes ultrathin (~5 μm) and soft elastomer membranes patterned with elastomer-carbon composite electrodes, onto which the SMCs are cultured. The cell contraction induces an in-plane strain in the elastomer membrane, predicted to be in the order 1 %, which can be measured via the change in the membrane capacitance. The cell force can subsequently be deduced knowing the mechanical properties of the elastomer membrane. We discuss the materials and fabrication methods selected for our system and present preliminary results indicating their biocompatibility. We fabricate functional capacitive senor prototypes with good signal stability over the several hours (~ 0.5% variation). We succeed in measuring in-plane strains of 1 % with our fabricated devices with good repeatability and signal to noise ratio.

  18. Measuring psychological flexibility in medical students and residents: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Christie L; Ange, Brittany; Richardson, Deborah S; Casillas, Rhonda; Decker, Matt; Gillies, Ralph A; House, Amy; Rollock, Michael; Salazar, William H; Waller, Jennifer L; Zeidan, Ronnie; Stepleman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Psychological flexibility involves mindful awareness of our thoughts and feelings without allowing them to prohibit acting consistently with our values and may have important implications for patient-centered clinical care. Although psychological flexibility appears quite relevant to the training and development of health care providers, prior research has not evaluated measures of psychological flexibility in medical learners. Therefore, we investigated the validity of our learners' responses to three measures related to psychological flexibility. Methods Fourth-year medical students and residents (n=275) completed three measures of overlapping aspects of psychological flexibility: (1) Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II); (2) Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ); and (3) Mindful Attention and Awareness Questionnaire (MAAS). We evaluated five aspects of construct validity: content, response process, internal structure, relationship with other variables, and consequences. Results We found good internal consistency for responses on the AAQ (α=0.93), MAAS (α=0.92), and CFQ (α=0.95). Factor analyses demonstrated a reasonable fit to previously published factor structures. As expected, scores on all three measures were moderately correlated with one another and with a measure of life satisfaction (p<0.01). Conclusion Our findings provide preliminary evidence supporting validity of the psychological flexibility construct in a medical education sample. As psychological flexibility is a central concept underlying self-awareness, this work may have important implications for clinical training and practice.

  19. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  20. Fast Horizontal Contraction without Vertical Strain: Puzzling Interseismic Geodetic Measurements in the Ventura Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, S. T.; Phillips, J. R., III; Funning, G.; Owen, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing contraction related to the regional-scale left step in the San Andreas fault, (i.e. the Big Bend) has resulted in a complex network of oblique-reverse slip faults that now accommodate shortening across the Ventura basin. Continuous GPS sites from the Plate Boundary Observatory measure horizontal contraction rates across the Ventura basin of approximately 7 mm/yr oriented north-northwest with rates decreasing to the west and east. Inversion of horizontal GPS velocities highlights a zone of localized fast horizontal contraction rates that roughly follow the Ventura basin where seismic velocity models show low modulus sediments. This pattern of localized horizontal contraction can be explained with simple models creeping reverse faults (edge dislocations) at depth; however, such models predict significant uplift gradients that are not observed in the GPS or InSAR data. In fact, the GPS and InSAR show almost no vertical strains in the regions that exhibit fast horizontal strains. Thus, the outstanding unanswered question in the region is: how can interseismic deformation in a contractional setting produce localized horizontal contraction with little to no uplift gradients? To assess whether the simple models are inadequate in their fault geometry, we use a complex interseismic mechanical model incorporating three-dimensional, nonplanar, and geologically constrained fault surfaces from the Southern California Earthquake Center's Community Fault Model (CFM). This model produces very little vertical strains, but cannot match the magnitudes and localization of fast horizontal strains, likely due to the modeled homogeneous rock stiffness. In the end, we suggest that it is possible that a significant portion of the horizontal strains are due to strain localization in the low modulus sediments of the Ventura basin, which may not be released in a future earthquake and potentially mask the interseismic deformation due to faulting. Additionally, the CFM-based model

  1. Reliability of mechanomyographic amplitude measurements for trunk muscles during maximal voluntary isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Ng, How Hing; Lin, Wen-Yen; Lei, Kin Fong; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Jeng, Shiau-Chian; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2017-05-05

    Mechanomyography (MMG) has been used to investigate mechanical characteristics of muscle contraction in clinical and experimental settings. The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) measurements as a tool for measuring the maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) of trunk muscles in healthy participants. There were ten young adults participating in this study. Accelerometers were used to detect surface MMG signals from three trials of 5-s MVICs of the rectus abdominis, external obliques, erector spinae, and multifidus in the vertical, transverse, and longitudinal directions. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimum detectable change were calculated. Good to excellent test-retest reliability of mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) measurements was achieved for all MVICs of trunk muscles in healthy participants, as indicated by ICCs ranging from 0.99 to 0.64 for MMGRMS of the trunk muscles during MVIC. This study demonstrates that MMG is a reliable measurement to detect the activation amplitudes of trunk muscles during MVIC.

  2. Measurement of the fetal isovolumetric contraction time in the fetus with a left ventricular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yasuyuki; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Yumoto, Yasuo; Morihana, Eiji; Fukushima, Kotaro; Wake, Norio

    2012-03-01

    We present a case of an antenatally diagnosed congenital aneurysm of the left ventricle in which fetal cardiac contractility was evaluated by measuring the fetal isovolumetric contraction time (ICT). The workup of the fetus at 26 weeks' gestation led to the identification of a left ventricle aneurysm. Initially, the value of ICT of the left ventricle indicated adequate cardiac function. However, the fetal ICT was gradually prolonged, suspecting deteriorated cardiac contractility. Following an uncomplicated term delivery, a postnatal echocardiogram showed normal cardiac function. It is considered that because of the hypokinesis of the wall of the left ventricular aneurysm, the ICT did not fully predict cardiac function in this setting.

  3. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Implementation guide. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for implementation of the DOE Order 2250.1, Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) for Contract Performance Measurement. Its purpose is to assist both DOE and contractor representatives in fulfilling their responsibilities for meeting CSCSC requirements. Compliance with the contractual requirements for work definition, cost and schedule control, and performance reporting should provide increased assurance that a contractor's progress is sufficiently visible to indicate status reliably and to provide the basis for timely and meaningful management decisions. 8 figures. (RWR)

  4. Implementation guide. Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria for Contract Performance Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This document provides guidance for implementation of DOE Order 2250.1B, Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) for Contract Performance Measurement. Its use assists DOE and contractor representatives in fulfilling their responsibilities for meeting CSCSC requirements. The CSCSC are designed to avoid the necessity for imposition of specific management control systems on contractors. Implementation of the CSCSC consistent with this guidance and compliance with the contractual requirements for work definition, cost and schedule control, and performance reporting provide DOE assurance that a contractor's cost and schedule progress is sufficiently visible to provide a reliable basis for timely and meaningful management decisions.

  5. Image correlation method for measuring flow and diameter changes in contracting mesenteric microlymphatics in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, J. Brandon; Cote, Gerard; Gashev, Anatoly; Greiner, Steven; Moore, James; Zawieja, David

    2006-02-01

    Collecting microlymphatics play a vital role in promoting lymph flow from the initial lymphatics in the interstitial spaces to the large transport lymph ducts. In most tissues, the primary mechanism for producing this flow is the spontaneous contractions of the lymphatic wall. Individual units, known as lymphangion, are separated by valves that help prevent backflow when the vessel contracts, thus promoting flow through the lymphatic network. Lymphatic contractile activity is inhibited by flow in isolated lymphatics, however there are virtually no in situ measurements of lymph flow in these vessels. One of the difficulties associated with obtaining such measurements is the time consuming methods of manual particle tracking used previously by our group. Using an in situ preparation with mesenteric microlymphatics (~ 100 μm in diameter) and a high speed imaging system (500 fps), we have developed an image correlation method to measure lymphatic flow with a standard error of prediction of 0.3 mm/sec when compared with manual particle tracking.

  6. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynne D; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; 'Limited Exposure,' '(in)Compatibility,' 'Validity,' and 'Tokenistic Qualitative Component'; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs.

  7. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  8. Can Neck Strength be Measured Using a Single Maximal Contraction in a Simulated Contact Position?

    PubMed

    Salmon, Danielle M; Handcock, Phil; John Sullivan, S; Rehrer, Nancy J; Niven, Brian

    2017-03-13

    Neck strengthening has been postulated to potentially reduce the incidence/severity of concussions and neck injuries in collision based sports. A quick and reliable method to assess neck strength would permit identification of those at risk and tracking of progress following injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if neck strength could be reliably assessed in a simulated contact posture using a single maximal contraction. During a single session 30 healthy male university students performed 3 maximal voluntary contractions of the neck musculature in each of the following directions: extension (Ext), flexion (Flx), left (LtFlx), and right lateral flexion (RtFlx). To evaluate the reliability of these measures intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. The findings revealed a significant effect for direction (p<0.01), where Ext (234.8N) tested stronger than Flx (141.0N), LtFlx (134.5N) and RtFlx (123.0N). Additionally flexion tested stronger than RtFlx (p= 0.03). No other differences were observed between LtFlx and RtFlx. When the combined means of the trials (1: 151.6N, 2: 160.0N, 3: 163.5N) and the interaction contrast were compared these were not significant (p= 0.08-1.0), indicating no changes in peak force occurred over the 3 trials. The ICC values for Ext, RtFlx, and LtFlx were all 'excellent' (0.91-0.94), while Flx demonstrated 'good' reliability (0.86). In a simulated contact posture, a reliable measure of peak force was obtained using a single maximal contraction. This may have practical applications for the quick and reliable assessment of contact sport athletes in a position that has functional relevance to their sports.

  9. [Cytomechanics of oscillatory contractions. Measurement of active mechanical properties of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium strands].

    PubMed

    Il'iasov, F E; Morozov, M A; Teplov, V A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this series of studies is to elucidate the role of mechanical stresses in the processes of cell activation. The experiments were done with a huge unicellular organism, the Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, which is a classical object in studies of the nonmuscle motility. The contractile properties of this amoeboid cell were investigated with the help of an inexpensive electronic-mechanical measuring system. A short description of this device is presented, which allows one to maintain a given kinetics of either the length or the load of the object and to measure either its tension force or deformation, respectively, as a response. Some examples of the longitudinal dynamics of the plasmodial strand and its activation under periodic switching of regimes of measurement in certain phases of the contraction-relaxation cycle are shown.

  10. Psychological Measurement Needs Units, Ratios, and Real Quantities: A Commentary on Humphry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyngdon, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral scientists have struggled with units of measurement for as long as they have struggled with measurement itself. Psychology's sole attempt at an explicit unit of measurement--the Lexile Framework for Reading (Stenner, Burdick, Sanford, & Burdick, 2006)--has been and continues to be ignored by the psychometric "cognoscenti."…

  11. Psychological Measurement Needs Units, Ratios, and Real Quantities: A Commentary on Humphry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyngdon, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral scientists have struggled with units of measurement for as long as they have struggled with measurement itself. Psychology's sole attempt at an explicit unit of measurement--the Lexile Framework for Reading (Stenner, Burdick, Sanford, & Burdick, 2006)--has been and continues to be ignored by the psychometric "cognoscenti."…

  12. Psychometric Properties of Scores on a New Measure of Psychological Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts. The most popular measure of types has been the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (K. Briggs and I. Myers). This measure has been criticized for dichotomous scoring, forced-choice response formats, and differential gender…

  13. Psychological impact and recovery after involvement in a patient safety incident: a repeated measures analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Gerven, Eva; Bruyneel, Luk; Panella, Massimiliano; Euwema, Martin; Sermeus, Walter; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine individual, situational and organisational aspects that influence psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident on physicians, nurses and midwives. Design Cross-sectional, retrospective surveys of physicians, midwives and nurses. Setting 33 Belgian hospitals. Participants 913 clinicians (186 physicians, 682 nurses, 45 midwives) involved in a patient safety incident. Main outcome measures The Impact of Event Scale was used to retrospectively measure psychological impact of the safety incident at the time of the event and compare it with psychological impact at the time of the survey. Results Individual, situational as well as organisational aspects influenced psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident. Psychological impact is higher when the degree of harm for the patient is more severe, when healthcare professionals feel responsible for the incident and among female healthcare professionals. Impact of degree of harm differed across clinicians. Psychological impact is lower among more optimistic professionals. Overall, impact decreased significantly over time. This effect was more pronounced for women and for those who feel responsible for the incident. The longer ago the incident took place, the stronger impact had decreased. Also, higher psychological impact is related with the use of a more active coping and planning coping strategy, and is unrelated to support seeking coping strategies. Rendered support and a support culture reduce psychological impact, whereas a blame culture increases psychological impact. No associations were found with job experience and resilience of the health professional, the presence of a second victim support team or guideline and working in a learning culture. Conclusions Healthcare organisations should anticipate on providing their staff appropriate and timely support structures that are tailored to the healthcare professional involved in the incident and to the specific

  14. Reliability of the functional measures of the corticospinal pathways to dorsiflexor muscles during maximal voluntary contractions.

    PubMed

    Souron, Robin; Farabet, Adrien; Millet, Guillaume Y; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the intra- and inter-day reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-related measurements recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Thirteen healthy young men and women (23±4years) performed 3 testing sessions to assess intra- (i.e., two sessions performed the same day) and inter-day (i.e. two sessions performed one week apart) reliability of (i) dorsiflexion cortical maximal voluntary activation level (VATMS), (ii) TA corticospinal excitability assessed through the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials (MEP) recorded during 100, 75 and 50% maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), and (iii) intracortical inhibition investigated via the cortical silent period (CSP) recorded at the same % MVC. Absolute (i.e., coefficient of variation (CV) and standard error of the mean (SEM)), and relative (i.e., intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)) reliability parameters were calculated. VATMS demonstrated excellent intra- and inter-day reliabilities (ICC: 0.80 and 0.99; CV: 1.7 and 0.8%, respectively). MEPs and CSPs presented moderate to excellent intra- and inter-day reliabilities, while input-output curves extracted parameters presented highly variable outcomes. These results suggest that most TA corticospinal measurements during voluntary contractions can be used to quantify corticospinal adaptations after acute (e.g. fatigue) or long term (e.g. training) interventions.

  15. Guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training.

    PubMed

    Stiers, William; Barisa, Mark; Stucky, Kirk; Pawlowski, Carey; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Turner, Aaron P; Hibbard, Mary; Caplan, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    This study describes the results of a multidisciplinary conference (the Baltimore Conference) that met to develop consensus guidelines for competency specification and measurement in postdoctoral training in rehabilitation psychology. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, persons involved in medical education practice and research, and consumers of training programs (students). Consensus education and training guidelines were developed that specify the key competencies in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training, and structured observation checklists were developed for their measurement. This study continues the development of more than 50 years of thinking about education and training in rehabilitation psychology and builds on the existing work to further advance the development of guidelines in this area. The conference developed aspirational guidelines for competency specification and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training (i.e., for studying the outcomes of these training programs). Structured observation of trainee competencies allows examination of actual training outcomes in relation to intended outcomes and provides a methodology for studying how program outcomes are related to program structures and processes so that program improvement can occur. Best practices in applying program evaluation research methods to the study of professional training programs are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Measuring psychological insulin resistance: barriers to insulin use.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Mary E; Capasso, Virginia A; Chen, Chien-Lin; Mahoney, Ellen K; Hazard, Barbara; Cagliero, Enrico; Nathan, David M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes that contribute to psychological insulin resistance (PIR) in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify predictors of PIR. A prospective study using 2 self-report surveys and incorporating demographic and health variables was conducted to determine the prevalence of PIR among a sample of 100 adult, insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes at an outpatient diabetes center in a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Thirty-three percent of patients with type 2 diabetes were unwilling to take insulin. The most commonly expressed negative attitudes were concern regarding hypoglycemia, permanent need for insulin therapy, less flexibility, and feelings of failure. Less than 40% expressed fear of self-injection or thought that injections were painful. However, compared with willing subjects, unwilling subjects were more likely to fear injections and thought injections would be painful, life would be less flexible, and taking insulin meant health would deteriorate (P< .005 for all comparisons). Poorer general health and higher depression scores also correlated with PIR. The results of the surveys, which were generally consistent, identified several remediable misconceptions regarding insulin therapy and suggest targets for educational interventions.

  17. Understanding Collective Discontents: A Psychological Approach to Measuring Zeitgeist

    PubMed Central

    van der Bles, Anne Marthe; Postmes, Tom; Meijer, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, several countries around the world developed a collective sense of doom and gloom: Their Zeitgeist could be characterized as one of decline. Paradoxically, in some countries, such as the Netherlands, this collective discontent with society seems to exist despite high levels of individual well-being. Current psychological research informs us about why individuals would feel unduly optimistic, but does not account for a collective sense of decline. The present research develops a novel operationalization of Zeitgeist, referred to as a general factor Z. We conceptualize Zeitgeist as a collective global-level evaluation of the state (and future) of society. Three studies confirm that perceptions of the same societal problems at the personal and collective level differed strongly. Across these studies we found support for a hypothesized latent factor Z, underlying collective-level perceptions of society. This Z-factor predicted people’s interpretation of new information about society that was presented through news stories. These results provide a first step in operationalizing and (ultimately) understanding the concept of Zeitgeist: collectively shared ideas about society. Implications for policy are discussed. PMID:26114943

  18. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - Stigma (AAQ-S): Developing a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael E; Luoma, Jason B; Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C; Vilardaga, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to develop and test the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - Stigma (AAQ-S), a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed an online survey, which included an initial pool of 43 AAQ-S items as well as measures related to psychological flexibility and stigma. Expert judge ratings and factor analysis were used to identify and refine two distinct subscales; psychological flexibility and psychological inflexibility relating to stigmatizing thoughts. Analyses indicated that the AAQ-S psychological flexibility and inflexibility subscales, as well as a combined total score, correlate with other measures of psychological flexibility and stigma in expected ways, and are more predictive of stigma than a general measure of psychological flexibility. Overall, the results suggest that the AAQ-S could be a useful measure in conducting future stigma research.

  19. Measuring Psychological Capital: Construction and Validation of the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12)

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Beer, Clemens; Pütz, Jan; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    With the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) being the standard measure to assess psychological capital (PsyCap) in the context of organizations, this paper aims to broaden this domain-specific approach by introducing a measure with universal claim. Two studies were conducted to create and validate a German self-report scale (CPC-12) measuring PsyCap. We performed confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other positive psychological constructs on the data of two German samples (N1 = 321; N2 = 202). The twelve-item CPC-12 exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap. PMID:27035437

  20. Conceptualization and measurement of the spiritual and psychological dimensions of wellness in a college population.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Bezner, J R; Drabbs, M E; Zambarano, R J; Steinhardt, M A

    2000-01-01

    Wellness is commonly conceptualized as having many dimensions, but little effort has been made to evaluate how spiritual and psychological dimensions are related to overall wellness. To explore the relationship between measures of spiritual and psychological wellness and perceived wellness in a college student population, the authors administered a series of survey instruments to 112 undergraduate students under quiet classroom conditions. They used the Life Attitude Profile to measure spiritual wellness, the Life Orientation Test and the Sense of Coherence Scale to measure psychological wellness, and the Perceived Wellness Survey to measure overall wellness. Path analysis performed with a proposed theoretical model revealed that the effect of life purpose on perceived wellness was mediated by optimism and sense of coherence, which had independent effects on perceived wellness beyond that of life purpose. The findings suggested that an optimistic outlook and sense of coherence must be present for life purpose to enhance a sense of overall well-being.

  1. Measuring Psychological Capital: Construction and Validation of the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12).

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Beer, Clemens; Pütz, Jan; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    With the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) being the standard measure to assess psychological capital (PsyCap) in the context of organizations, this paper aims to broaden this domain-specific approach by introducing a measure with universal claim. Two studies were conducted to create and validate a German self-report scale (CPC-12) measuring PsyCap. We performed confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with other positive psychological constructs on the data of two German samples (N1 = 321; N2 = 202). The twelve-item CPC-12 exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap.

  2. Stress, anticipatory stress, and psychologic measures related to sleep bruxism.

    PubMed

    Pierce, C J; Chrisman, K; Bennett, M E; Close, J M

    1995-01-01

    This study examined (1) the relationships between electromyographic-measured nocturnal bruxism, self-reported stress, and several personality variables, and (2) the relationship between belief in a stress-bruxism relationship and self-reported stress. One hundred adult bruxers completed a battery of personality questionnaires, indicated whether they believed in a stress-bruxism relationship, presented for a dental examination, and had dental impressions taken. Subsequently, electromyographic measurements of bruxing frequency and duration were recorded for fifteen consecutive nights. Prior to each night's measurements, subjects indicated their levels of stress for the immediately preceding 24 hours. No overall relationship was established between electromyographic measures and the personality variables nor between electromyographic measures and self-reported stress. Correlations between electromyographic measures and self-reported stress were statistically significant for eight individual subjects. Further, subjects with high levels of stress reported more anxiety, irritability, and depression, and less denial. Subjects who believed in a stress-bruxism relationship reported greater stress.

  3. A portable method for assessing gastrointestinal motility by simultaneously measuring transit time and contraction frequency.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Yan, G

    2008-01-01

    To portably monitor the motility of the total GI tract, a method for assessing GI motility by simultaneously measuring transit time and contraction frequency is put forward. The portable monitoring system is composed of a swallowable telemetric capsule, a portable recorder, magnetizing coils deposited in vitro, and workstation for data processing. The transit time and contraction frequency of the GI tract are deduced by analysing the variation of the position and orientation angles of a telemetric capsule in time domain and frequency domain. AC electromagnetic localization method is used to determine the position and orientation of the telemetric capsule in vivo. In the paper, the localization model based on a quasi-static magnetic field, the method of monitoring GI motility and the set-up of the monitoring system are detailed. Then from static and dynamic experiments, the performances of the system including the accuracy and dynamic response are evaluated. Finally, the electromagnetic safety of the system is verified by simulating electromagnetic radiation to the human body.

  4. The Social Context of Urban Classrooms: Measuring Student Psychological Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Stacy L.; Mehta, Tara G.; Atkins, Marc S.; Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip D.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Kim, Jong Bae; Chapman, Jason E.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Cua, Grace; Ogle, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms are unique and complex work settings in which teachers and students both participate in and contribute to classroom processes. This article describes the measurement phase of a study that examined the social ecology of urban classrooms. Informed by the dimensions and items of an established measure of organizational climate, we designed…

  5. The Social Context of Urban Classrooms: Measuring Student Psychological Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Stacy L.; Mehta, Tara G.; Atkins, Marc S.; Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip D.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Kim, Jong Bae; Chapman, Jason E.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Cua, Grace; Ogle, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms are unique and complex work settings in which teachers and students both participate in and contribute to classroom processes. This article describes the measurement phase of a study that examined the social ecology of urban classrooms. Informed by the dimensions and items of an established measure of organizational climate, we designed…

  6. Measurements of Modulus of Elasticity and Thermal Contraction of Epoxy Impregnated Niobium-Tin and Niobium-Titanium Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, K.P.; Millos, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    In the high field magnet program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, accelerator magnet prototypes are designed with epoxy impregnated niobium-tin and niobium-titanium superconductor. Accurate mechanical property values are essential for magnet mechanical design and prediction of conductor performance. Two key mean property values are measured on coil samples: modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) and mean thermal contraction. Measurements are made in compression and are conducted in three orthogonal directions. Modulus of elasticity measurements are currently conducted at room temperature and the mean thermal contraction is measured from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. Room temperature values are compared with values estimated using the individual coil components.

  7. ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

    EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

  8. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  9. The Improvement of Measurement in Education and Psychology: Contributions of Latent Trait Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearritt, Donald, Ed.

    Educational and psychological measurement has been a main area of work for the Australian Council for Educational (ACER) since its inception. The theoretical and practical contributions of latent trait measurement and commentary on the relatively recent use of these models in Australia were the focus of a seminar celebrating the 50th anniversary…

  10. Psychological assessment and AIDS research with intravenous drug users: challenges in measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, K H; Watters, J K; Case, P

    1988-01-01

    The instruments used for psychological assessment have been under close scrutiny for many years. In particular, ethnic and racial minorities have pointed out that misapplication of instruments standardized to White middle-class norms can result in incorrect assessments. An analogous situation exists with IVDUs. In the work of the present authors with IVDUs, they were found to be a very diverse group. Contrary to common wisdom, they differ by race, ethnicity, age, and drug use profiles. However, their economic circumstances and social stigma make them a special case in terms of psychological assessment. Given the unique characteristics of IVDUs, it behooves researchers to carefully examine the standardized instruments that are available for psychological evaluation. Too often, measures standardized on White middle-class samples lack the value neutrality that makes them applicable across disparate groups. In addition, many such measures are designed with certain presumptions that do not necessarily hold true with this population (e.g., willingness and/or ability to communicate intimate information about one's feelings and psychological states). This article briefly describes some of the challenges encountered in examining standardized instruments for use in the study of IVDUs, their health psychology and AIDS-related behavior. Concerns with self-report biases, literacy, attentional focus, measurement constructs, and drug states confounding psychological states all pose challenges to psychological research with this heterogeneous population. While the need for direct intervention on the sexual and needle-sharing behaviors of IVDUs remains paramount in the combat against the spread of AIDS, researchers must also continue with the further development of basic measurement tools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Measurement of human rotation behavior for psychological and neuropsychological investigations.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Kaspar; Hofmann, Reto; Brugger, Peter; Gassert, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The investigation of rotation behavior in human beings enjoys a longstanding and enduring interest in laterality research. While in animal studies the issue of accurately measuring the number of rotations has been solved and is widely applied in practice, it is still challenging to assess the rotation behavior of humans in daily life. We propose a robust method to assess human rotation behavior based on recordings from a miniature inertial measurement unit that can be worn unobtrusively on a belt. We investigate the effect of different combinations of low-cost sensors-including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers-on rotation measurement accuracy, propose a simple calibration procedure, and validate the method on data from a predefined path through and around buildings. Results suggest that a rotation estimation based on the fusion of accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer measurements outperforms methods based solely on earth magnetic field measurements, as proposed in previous studies, by a drop in error rate of up to 32 %. We further show that magnetometer signals do not significantly contribute to measurement accuracy in short-term measurements, and could thus be omitted for improved robustness in environments with magnetic field disturbances. Results also suggest that our simple calibration procedure can compete with more complex approaches and reduce the error rate of the proposed algorithm by up to 38 %.

  12. Protective measures, personal experience, and the affective psychology of time.

    PubMed

    Peters, E; Kunreuther, H; Sagara, N; Slovic, P; Schley, D R

    2012-12-01

    We examined the role of time and affect in intentions to purchase a risk-protective measure (Studies 1 and 2) and explored participant abilities to factor time into the likelihood judgments that presumably underlie such intentions (Study 3). Participants worried more about losing their possessions and were more likely to purchase a protective measure given a longer term lease than a short-term lease, but only if their belongings were described in affect-poor terms. If described instead as being particularly special and affect-rich, participants neglected time and were about equally likely to purchase a risk-protective measure for shorter and longer term leases. However, and consistent with prior literature, the cognitive mechanism underlying this time-neglect-with-affect-richness effect seemed to be the greater use of the affect heuristic in the shorter term than the longer term. Study 2 results demonstrated that prior experience with having been burglarized amplified the interactive effect of time and affect. Greater deliberation did not attenuate this effect as hypothesized whether deliberation was measured through numeracy or manipulated through instructions. The results of Study 3 indicated that few participants are able to calculate correctly the risk numbers necessary to take time into account. Two possible solutions to encourage more purchases of protective measures in the long term are discussed. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. The CES-D as a Measure of Psychological Distress Among International Students: Measurement and Structural Invariance Across Gender.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hanna; van Nuenen, Marieke; Rice, Kenneth G

    2017-10-01

    Detecting psychological distress among international students can be challenging given diverse languages, cultural backgrounds, and lack of refined measurement properties of measures tailored to international students. Despite the challenges, ensuring that a psychological distress measure works effectively has considerable potential value for assessment purposes. The current study evaluates the measurement properties of a short 10-item version of Radloff's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Grounded in long-standing evidence on gender differences in depressive symptoms, specific attention was given to examining measurement invariance of the CES-D Short-form across women and men. Based on a large, two-cohort sample of international students ( N = 468), and through multiple analyses evaluating factor structure and measurement invariance, we derived an even briefer, seven-item single-factor form of the CES-D (CES-D Short-form International) that can be used with international students.

  14. Image correlation algorithm for measuring lymphocyte velocity and diameter changes in contracting microlymphatics.

    PubMed

    Dixon, J Brandon; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Zawieja, David C; Moore, James E; Coté, Gerard L

    2007-03-01

    Efforts have recently been made to estimate wall shear stress throughout the contractile cycle of mesenteric rat lymphatics with a high speed video microscopy system. This was prompted by reports in the literature that lymphatic pumping is related to wall shear stress. While one can estimate wall shear stress by tracking lymphocyte velocity, it is prohibitively tedious to manually track particles over a reasonable time frame for a good number of experiments. To overcome this, an image correlation method similar to digital particle imaging velocimetry was developed and tested on contracting lymphatics to measure both vessel diameter and fluid velocity. The program tracked temporal fluctuations in spatially averaged velocity with a standard error of prediction of 0.4 mm/s. From these studies we have measured velocities ranging from -2 to 4 mm/s. Diameter changes were also measured with a standard error of 7 microm. These algorithms and techniques could be beneficial for investigating various changes in contractile behavior as a function of changes in velocity and wall shear stress.

  15. Coherent source and connectivity analysis on simultaneously measured EEG and MEG data during isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, M; Hellriegel, H; Hoogenboom, N; Anwar, A R; Mideksa, K G; Krause, H; Schnitzler, A; Raethjen, J; Deuschl, G

    2014-01-01

    The most well-known non-invasive electric and magnetic field measurement modalities are the electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). The first aim of the study was to implement the recently developed realistic head model which uses an integrative approach for both the modalities. The second aim of this study was to find the network of coherent sources and the modes of interactions within this network during isometric contraction (ISC) at (15-30 Hz) in healthy subjects. The third aim was to test the effective connectivity revealed by both the modalities analyzing them separately and combined. The Welch periodogram method was used to estimate the coherence spectrum between the EEG and the electromyography (EMG) signals followed by the realistic head modelling and source analysis method dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) to find the network of coherent sources at the individual peak frequency within the beta band in healthy subjects. The last step was to identify the effective connectivity between the identified sources using the renormalized partial directed coherence method. The cortical and sub-cortical network comprised of the primary sensory motor cortex (PSMC), secondary motor area (SMA), and the cerebellum (C). The cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the isometric contraction was similar in both the modalities when analysing them separately and combined. The SNR was not significantly different between the two modalities separately and combined. However, the coherence values were significantly higher in the combined modality in comparison to each of the modality separately. The effective connectivity analysis revealed plausible additional connections in the combined modality analysis.

  16. Vulnerability to psychological distress: empirical and conceptual distinctions between measures of neuroticism and negative affect.

    PubMed

    McLennan, J; Bates, G W

    1993-12-01

    In two studies, 97 and 176 individuals (47 men and 50 women, M age 34.2 yr.; and 88 men and 88 women, M age 34.8) known to have experienced a recent period of psychological distress were compared with otherwise similar individuals who reported no such experience on measures of neuroticism, extraversion, and positive and negative affect. In both studies, the neuroticism measure was a significant independent discriminator between the groups while the negative affect measure was not. This suggests that (a) measures of neuroticism tap factors additional to those tapped by scales measuring only levels of characteristic negative affect and (b) these factors are related to individual differences in vulnerability to psychological distress.

  17. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  18. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: a review of imagery measures and a guiding framework.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David G; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Holmes, Emily A

    2013-02-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment.

  19. Conceptualization and Measurement of the Spiritual and Psychological Dimensions of Wellness in a College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy B.; Bezner, Janet R.; Drabbs, Mary E.; Zambarano, Robert J.; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    2000-01-01

    Explored the relationship between measures of spiritual and psychological wellness and perceived wellness among college students. Student surveys indicated that life purpose, optimism, and sense of coherence related to perceived wellness. The effect of life purpose on perceived wellness was mediated by optimism and sense of coherence, which had…

  20. Research Use of Clinical Measures for Anxiety in the Recent Psychological Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Gallant, Natoshia

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on recent trends in the psychological research literature on the use of measures in the assessment of anxiety. An analysis of PsycINFO, from 2000-2005, showed that the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index had the highest hit rates. The results indicate that many anxiety instruments that are popular in…

  1. Multidimensional Adaptive Testing in Educational and Psychological Measurement: Current State and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) and evaluates its applicability in educational and psychological testing. The approach of Segall (1996) is described as a general framework for MAT. The main advantage of MAT is its capability to increase measurement efficiency. In simulation studies conceptualizing situations…

  2. Attempting to Predict Withdrawal from Higher Education Using Demographic, Psychological and Educational Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, John P.; Barrow, Corinne; Hornby-Atkinson, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Demographic, psychological and secondary level examination measures were obtained at the start of undergraduate courses in an attempt to predict first-year higher education (HE) withdrawal. As usual, withdrawal was greatest for males. Overall, intrinsic motivation and independent study expectations were better predictors of withdrawal than…

  3. Internet pornography use: perceived addiction, psychological distress, and the validation of a brief measure.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Volk, Fred; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to validate a brief measure of perceived addiction to Internet pornography refined from the 32-item Cyber Pornography Use Inventory, report its psychometric properties, and examine how the notion of perceived addiction to Internet pornography might be related to other domains of psychological functioning. To accomplish this, 3 studies were conducted using a sample of undergraduate psychology students, a web-based adult sample, and a sample of college students seeking counseling at a university's counseling center. The authors developed and refined a short 9-item measure of perceived addiction to Internet pornography, confirmed its structure in multiple samples, examined its relatedness to hypersexuality more broadly, and demonstrated that the notion of perceived addiction to Internet pornography is very robustly related to various measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the relation between psychological distress and the new measure persisted, even when other potential contributors (e.g., neuroticism, self-control, amount of time spent viewing pornography) were controlled for statistically, indicating the clinical relevance of assessing perceived addiction to Internet pornography.

  4. Psychometrics of the Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Screener: A Brief Measure of Youth's Bidimensional Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Bolognino, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the psychometric defensibility of the Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Screener (PWDS), which is a 10-item self-report behavior rating scale for measuring youth's bidimensional (also known as dual-factor or two-continua) mental health. The PWDS was developed using preexisting items within the Health Behavior in…

  5. Assessing the Psychological Changes of Gifted Students Attending a Residential High School with an Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of…

  6. A systematic review of the relationship between objective measurements of the urban environment and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Palmer, Stephen; Gallacher, John; Marsden, Terry; Fone, David

    2016-11-01

    The urban environment has become the main place that people live and work. As a result it can have profound impacts on our health. While much of the literature has focused on physical health, less attention has been paid to the possible psychological impacts of the urban environment. In order to understand the potential relevance and importance of the urban environment to population mental health, we carried out a systematic review to examine the associations between objective measurements of the urban environment and psychological distress, independently of the individual's subjective perceptions of the urban environment. 11 peer-reviewed papers published in English between January 2000 and February 2012 were identified. All studies were cross-sectional. Despite heterogeneity in study design, the overall findings suggested that the urban environment has measurable associations with psychological distress, including housing with deck access, neighbourhood quality, the amount of green space, land-use mix, industry activity and traffic volume. The evidence supports the need for development of interventions to improve mental health through changing the urban environment. We also conclude that new methods for measuring the urban environment objectively are needed which are meaningful to planners. In particular, future work should look at the spatial-temporal dynamic of the urban environment measured in Geographical Information System (GIS) in relation to psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the Psychological Changes of Gifted Students Attending a Residential High School with an Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of…

  8. Quantum Models for Psychological Measurements: An Unsolved Problem

    PubMed Central

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina; Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a strong recent interest in applying quantum theory (QT) outside physics, including in cognitive science. We analyze the applicability of QT to two basic properties in opinion polling. The first property (response replicability) is that, for a large class of questions, a response to a given question is expected to be repeated if the question is posed again, irrespective of whether another question is asked and answered in between. The second property (question order effect) is that the response probabilities frequently depend on the order in which the questions are asked. Whenever these two properties occur together, it poses a problem for QT. The conventional QT with Hermitian operators can handle response replicability, but only in the way incompatible with the question order effect. In the generalization of QT known as theory of positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs), in order to account for response replicability, the POVMs involved must be conventional operators. Although these problems are not unique to QT and also challenge conventional cognitive theories, they stand out as important unresolved problems for the application of QT to cognition. Either some new principles are needed to determine the bounds of applicability of QT to cognition, or quantum formalisms more general than POVMs are needed. PMID:25343581

  9. In-vivo measurement of muscle tension: dynamic properties of the MC sensor during isometric muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Srđan; Tomažič, Sašo; Narici, Marco; Pišot, Rado; Meglič, Andrej

    2014-09-25

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal. A key function of skeletal muscle is force generation. Non-invasive and selective measurement of muscle contraction force in the field and in clinical settings has always been challenging. The aim of our work has been to develop a sensor that can overcome these difficulties and therefore enable measurement of muscle force during different contraction conditions. In this study, we tested the mechanical properties of a "Muscle Contraction" (MC) sensor during isometric muscle contraction in different length/tension conditions. The MC sensor is attached so that it indents the skin overlying a muscle group and detects varying degrees of tension during muscular contraction. We compared MC sensor readings over the biceps brachii (BB) muscle to dynamometric measurements of force of elbow flexion, together with recordings of surface EMG signal of BB during isometric contractions at 15° and 90° of elbow flexion. Statistical correlation between MC signal and force was very high at 15° (r = 0.976) and 90° (r = 0.966) across the complete time domain. Normalized SD or σN = σ/max(FMC) was used as a measure of linearity of MC signal and elbow flexion force in dynamic conditions. The average was 8.24% for an elbow angle of 90° and 10.01% for an elbow of angle 15°, which indicates high linearity and good dynamic properties of MC sensor signal when compared to elbow flexion force. The next step of testing MC sensor potential will be to measure tension of muscle-tendon complex in conditions when length and tension change simultaneously during human motion.

  10. Measurement of cardiac contractility using fetal isovolumetric contraction time in fetal tachyarrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yasuyuki; Athayde, Neil; Tokunaga, Shoji; Trudinger, Brian

    2011-02-01

    The isovolumetric contraction time (ICT) is known to be an index of cardiac contractility. In this study, we examined the relationship between the fetal ICT and fetal heart rate (FHR) and evaluated the usefulness of ICT in the assessment of fetal cardiac contractility in cases with fetal tachyarrhythmia. Seven cases with fetal tachyarrhythmia between 32 and 40 weeks' gestation were included in this study. The fetal ICT was measured using a continuous Doppler device and digital filters. The relationship between the fetal ICT and FHR was analyzed using the Spearman's rank correlation test in each fetus. Based on the FHR and ultrasound findings of hydrops at the measurement of ICT, the obtained data were divided into three groups: normal, tachyarrhythmia only and hydrops. The clinical usefulness of ICT was assessed using the random effect model. In 7 fetuses, a total of 60 data points were obtained. A significant correlation between fetal ICT and FHR was not noted in each fetus. The ICT of the hydrops group was significantly prolonged compared with those of the normal and tachyarrhythmia-only groups (p < 0.01). An association between the fetal ICT and FHR is not noted and the fetal ICT might have some utility to detect impaired fetal cardiac contractility even in fetuses with tachyarrhythmia.

  11. Tendency to conform: a new measure and its relationship to psychological reactance.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Ronald E; Clark, Ronald A; Lafferty, Barbara A

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between two important constructs in social psychology, conformity and psychological reactance, which are suggested to be negatively related, i.e., a person higher in the tendency to conform will score lower on psychological reactance and vice versa. The two constructs were measured by multi-item self-report scales, the Therapeutic Reactance Scale of Dowd, et al. and a new tendency to conform scale constructed for this study. Data from a survey of 423 undergraduate students were used to test the hypothesis that scores on the scales were negatively correlated. The hypothesized relationship was positively supported by a significant but only moderately sized correlation (r =-.32, p <.001).

  12. Before the measurement of prejudice: early psychological and sociological papers on prejudice.

    PubMed

    Webster, Russell J; Saucier, Donald A; Harris, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Given its renown, many psychologists and sociologists likely consider the publication of Gordon Allport's (1954/1979) seminal book The Nature of Prejudice as the inauguration of the psychological study of prejudice. However, we have uncovered rarely-cited, published papers (starting in 1830) that provide a wealth of speculation on prejudice even before psychologists/sociologists attempted to measure it (circa 1925). Thus, this paper intends to discuss early published work on prejudice in psychology and sociology by focusing on three key questions: a) when did psychologists/sociologists recognize prejudice as a psychological phenomenon, b) when did psychologists/sociologists recognize prejudice as a phenomenon in need of study, and c) what were the historical and personal conditions that gave rise to the interest in prejudice? In short, the seeds of prejudice research were maturing for some time before Allport's seminal book and the first attitudinal studies on prejudice, although these earlier works are seldom cited.

  13. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Measures of Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Thill, Azure Welborn; Bachanas, Pamela; Garber, Judy; Miller, Karen Bearman; Abad, Mona; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Jandasek, Barbara; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean E.; O’Mahar, Kerry; Zukerman, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an evidence-based review of measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology, with a specific focus on their use in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods As part of a larger survey of pediatric psychologists from the Society of Pediatric Psychology e-mail listserv (American Psychological Association, APA, Division 54), 37 measures were selected for this psychometric review. Measures that qualified for the review fell into one of the following three categories: (a) internalizing or externalizing rating scales, (b) broad-band rating scales, and (c) self-related rating scales. Results Psychometric characteristics (i.e., three types of reliability, two types of validity) were strong for the majority of measures reviewed, with 34 of the 37 measures meeting “well-established” evidence-based assessment (EBA) criteria. Strengths and weaknesses of existing measures were noted. Conclusions Recommendations for future work in this area of assessment are presented, including suggestions that more fine-grained EBA criteria be developed and that evidence-based “profiles” be devised for each measure. PMID:17728305

  14. Development and Validation of Participation and Positive Psychologic Function Measures for Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Rita K.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Butt, Zeeshan; Stallings, Jena; Taylor, Caitlin; Rowe, Morgan; Roth, Elliot J.

    2013-01-01

    Bode RK, Heinemann AW, Butt Z, Stallings J, Taylor C, Rowe M, Roth EJ. Development and validation of participation and positive psychologic function measures for stroke survivors. Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of Neurologic Quality of Life (NeuroQOL) item banks that assess quality-of-life (QOL) domains not typically included in poststroke measures. Design Secondary analysis of item responses to selected NeuroQOL domains. Setting Community. Participants Community-dwelling stroke survivors (n=111) who were at least 12 months poststroke. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Five measures developed for 3 NeuroQoL domains: ability to participate in social activities, satisfaction with participation in social activities, and positive psychologic function. Results A single bank was developed for the positive psychologic function domain, but 2 banks each were developed for the ability-to-participate and satisfaction-with-participation domains. The resulting item banks showed good psychometric properties and external construct validity with correlations with the legacy instruments, ranging from .53 to .71. Using these measures, stroke survivors in this sample reported an overall high level of QOL. Conclusions The NeuroQoL-derived measures are promising and valid methods for assessing aspects of QOL not typically measured in this population. PMID:20801251

  15. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  16. Anisotropy of human muscle via non invasive impedance measurements. Frequency dependence of the impedance changes during isometric contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashuri, Hektor

    In this thesis we present non invasive muscle impedance measurements using rotatable probes extending the work done by Aaron et al. (1997) by measuring not only the real part of the impedance but the imaginary part as well. The results reveal orientations of underlying muscle fibers via minima in resistance and reactance versus angle curves, suggesting this method as potentially useful for studying muscle properties in clinical and physiological research. Calculations of the current distribution for a slab of material with anisotropic conductivity show that the current distribution depends strongly on the separation of two current electrodes and as well as on its conducting anisotropy. Forearm muscle impedance measurements at 50 kHz done by Shiffman et al. (2003) had shown that both resistance (R) and reactance (X) increase during isometric contraction. We have extended these measurements in the 3 to 100 kHz range and we found that resistance (R) and reactance (X) both increase and their changes increased or decreased at frequency dependent rates. Analysis based on circuit models of changes in R and X during the short contraction pulses showed that the extra cellular fluid resistance increased by 3.9 +/- 1.4 %, while the capacitance increased by 5.6 +/- 2 %. For long contraction pulses at very low frequencies: (1) there was practically no change in R during contraction, which implies that these changes are due to cellular membrane or intracellular effects with the extra cellular water component not participating, and (2) in post contraction stage there were no morphological changes which means that drifts in R can only be due to physiological changes. Following Shiffman et al. (2003) we measured impedance changes of R and X during a triangular shaped pulse of force generated via isometric forearm muscle contraction at 50 kHz. We measured these changes in 3-100 kHz frequency range for a stair case pulse of forces and the results showed that they are frequency

  17. Variability of Measurement of Patellofemoral Indices with Knee Flexion and Quadriceps Contraction: An MRI-Based Anatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Laugharne, Edward; Bali, Navi; Purushothamdas, Sanjay; Almallah, Faris; Kundra, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of varying knee flexion and quadriceps activity on patellofemoral indices measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods MRI of the knee was performed in 20 patients for indications other than patellar or patellofemoral pathology. Axial and sagittal sequences were performed in full extension of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, full extension of the knee with the quadriceps contracted, 30° flexion of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, and 30° flexion with the quadriceps contracted. Bisect offset, patella tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were measured. Results With the knee flexed to 30° and quadriceps relaxed, the mean values of patellar tilt angle, bisect offset, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were all within normal limits. With the knee extended and quadriceps contracted, the mean patellar tilt angle (normal value, <15°) was 14.6° and the bisect offset (normal value, <65%) was 65%, while the Caton-Deschamps index was 1.34 (normal range, 0.6 to 1.3). With the knee extended and quadriceps relaxed, the mean Caton-Deschamps index was 1.31. Conclusions MRI scanning of the knee in extension with the quadriceps contracted leads to elevated patellofemoral indices. MRI taken with the knee in 30° of flexion allows more reliable assessment of the patellofemoral joint and minimises the confounding effect of quadriceps contraction. PMID:27894177

  18. Biological and psychological correlates of self-reported and objective sleep measures.

    PubMed

    Jackowska, Marta; Ronaldson, Amy; Brown, Jennie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Objective and self-reported sleep are only moderately correlated and it is uncertain if these two types of sleep measures are associated with distinct biological and psychological outcomes. Participants were 119 healthy women aged 26years on average. Cortisol and blood pressure assessed over one day were the measures of biological function. Psychological variables included optimism, life satisfaction, positive and negative affect as well as emotional distress. Sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Quality Index (PSQI), wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries. Global sleep ratings on the PSQI were unrelated to objective sleep efficiency, duration or latency. Sleep duration derived from sleep diaries was highly correlated with objective duration but was unrelated to the PSQI measure. More disturbed sleep on the PSQI was associated with lower psychological wellbeing, as indicated by reduced levels of optimism, life satisfaction and positive affect as well as greater negative affect and emotional distress. Objective sleep efficiency was reduced among participants with lower positive and higher negative affect but there were no other associations between objective sleep indicators and psychological variables tested in our study. Participants with poorer self-reported sleep had lower cortisol awakening response while those with longer objective sleep latency had higher diastolic blood pressure, independently of covariates. Our study reveals that self-reported and objective sleep measures, in particular those regarding sleep quality, are weakly associated but have different psychological and biological correlates. This suggests that findings relating self-reported sleep may not necessarily be corroborated by objective sleep indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring contraction propagation and localizing pacemaker cells using high speed video microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna V.; Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Zawieja, David C.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the ability of many lymphatic vessels to contract phasically to pump lymph. Every lymphangion can act like a heart with pacemaker sites that initiate the phasic contractions. The contractile wave propagates along the vessel to synchronize the contraction. However, determining the location of the pacemaker sites within these vessels has proven to be very difficult. A high speed video microscopy system with an automated algorithm to detect pacemaker location and calculate the propagation velocity, speed, duration, and frequency of the contractions is presented in this paper. Previous methods for determining the contractile wave propagation velocity manually were time consuming and subject to errors and potential bias. The presented algorithm is semiautomated giving objective results based on predefined criteria with the option of user intervention. The system was first tested on simulation images and then on images acquired from isolated microlymphatic mesenteric vessels. We recorded contraction propagation velocities around 10 mm/s with a shortening speed of 20.4 to 27.1 μm/s on average and a contraction frequency of 7.4 to 21.6 contractions/min. The simulation results showed that the algorithm has no systematic error when compared to manual tracking. The system was used to determine the pacemaker location with a precision of 28 μm when using a frame rate of 300 frames per second.

  20. Relationship between ultrasonography and electromyography measurement of abdominal muscles when activated with and without pelvis floor muscles contraction.

    PubMed

    Tahan, N; Arab, A M; Arzani, P; Rahimi, F

    2013-12-01

    The importance of the abdominal musculature in spine stability, has promoted the development of a variety of studies. Ultrasound imaging (UI) is a valuable tool which, when applied appropriately, has the potential to provide significant insight into abdominal muscle contraction. Limited studies have been taken place regarding the relationship between ultrasound measures of muscle thickening and electromyography (EMG) measures of activation. Inconsistent results, however, have been reported. Based on previous studies association between abdominal muscle activation and thickening may be affected by contraction level. The aims of this study were to measure the relationship between abdominal muscle thickness and abdominal muscles amplitude in different levels of abdominal muscles contraction. The research was carried on with a convenience sampling at the Physical Therapy Department of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Thirty healthy participants volunteered for this study. Muscle thickness right transversus abdominis (TrA) and obliqus internus (OI) muscles in abdominal hallowing maneuvers with and without pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction has been measured. Additionally, surface EMG of the right TrA/IO muscles was recorded. A hardware electrical part that acts as trigger system was used to record the activities of abdominal muscles in UI and EMG synchronously. Thickness change, normalized thickness and maximum amplitude abdominal muscles were used for statistical analysis. Correlations between the thickness change and amplitude measures were -0.03 -- 0.38 for TrA/IO. The Correlations between the normalized thickness and amplitude measures were -0.04--0.26 for TrA/IO. There is not clear relationship between increases in abdominal muscle activation and corresponding measures of thickening during abdominal muscle contraction. Changes in thickness of deep abdominal muscle cannot be used to indicate changes in the electrical activity in this

  1. Organization Analytics: Taking Cost-per-Dollar-Obligated (CPDO) Measures to the Next Level in Defense Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    measures should be further studied. The differences may be attributable to the high percentage of “Below the SAT” transactions or other portfolio...organizations. Trends were identified in various U.S. regions and in different military services. Efficiency measures were then compared to performance measures...proportion of contracting officer warrants, percentage of military personnel, and average civilian pay level. This study provides acquisition leaders with

  2. Customer relationship management in the contract pharmaceutical industry: an exploratory study for measuring success.

    PubMed

    Kros, John F; Nadler, Scott; Molis, Justin

    2007-01-01

    Managing customer relationships is a very important issue in business-to-business markets. This research investigates the growing number of available resources defining Customer Relationship Management (CRM) efforts, and how they are being applied within the Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industry. Exploratory study results using face-to-face and telephone questionnaires based on four criteria for rating a company's CRM efforts are presented. Data was collected from large Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing companies in the US market. The results and conclusions are discussed relating how the Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industry is implementing CRM including some potential steps to take when considering a CRM initiative.

  3. In Vivo Sarcomere Length Measurement in Whole Muscles during Passive Stretch and Twitch Contractions.

    PubMed

    Young, Kevin W; Kuo, Bill P-P; O'Connor, Shawn M; Radic, Stojan; Lieber, Richard L

    2017-02-28

    Muscle force is dictated by micrometer-scale contractile machines called sarcomeres. Whole-muscle force drops from peak force production to zero with just a few micrometers of sarcomere length change. No current technology is able to capture adequate dynamic sarcomere data in vivo, and thus we lack fundamental data needed to understand human movement and movement disorders. Methods such as diffraction, endoscopy, and optical coherence tomography have been applied to muscle but are prohibitively invasive, sensitive to motion artifact, and/or imprecise. Here, we report dynamic sarcomere length measurement in vivo using a combination of our recently validated resonant reflection spectroscopy method combined with optical frequency domain interferometry. Using a 250-μm-wide fiber optic probe, we captured nanometer sarcomere length changes from thousands of sarcomeres on the sub-millisecond timescale during whole-muscle stretch and twitch contraction. We believe that this demonstrates the first large-scale sensing of sarcomere dynamics in vivo, which is a necessary first step to understand movement disorders and to create patient-specific surgical interventions and rehabilitation.

  4. Psychological outcomes and measurement of maternal posttraumatic stress disorder during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Jennifer L; Borja, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    For many parents, labor, delivery, and/or the perinatal and neonatal periods present significant stressors that result in clinically significant parental feelings of psychological distress or trauma. This review article identifies known preexisting risk, and protective, factors for such distress, focusing on individual variables and familial or other social support networks. Research describing the full range of possible psychological reactions is also presented, loosely categorized as representing psychological outcomes of resiliency or growth, externalized distress, and internalized distress. These outcomes are viewed as neither linear nor mutually exclusive, and specific implications for each outcome are presented. The primary focus of this review is on the most well understood internalizing distress outcome during the perinatal period, maternal posttraumatic stress reactions. The utility of a brief, freely available measure quantifying such distress is also overviewed, including standards for its usage. Healthcare and particularly nursing staff are encouraged to attend to the range of possible psychological outcomes that may emerge during the perinatal period, identifying distressed mothers, so that they may be referred for care. The review concludes by presenting recommended future directions for research regarding the measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder in parents.

  5. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Systems review/surveillance guide

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    When the Department of Energy (DOE) Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) are applied to a contract in accordance with DOE 2250.1B, the contractor's management control systems are reviewed by DOE to determine their initial and continuing compliance with the CSCSC. This document provides guidance to DOE personnel responsible for applying the CSCSC requirements on contracts, reviewing contractor implementation of the requirements, and surveillance to assure continuing compliance with the CSCSC.

  6. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Quaresima, Valentina; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    We examine the test-retest reliability of biceps brachii tissue oxygenation index (TOI) parameters measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during a 10-s sustained and a 30-repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contraction task at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (30% MVC) and maximal (100% MVC) intensities. Eight healthy men (23 to 33 yr) were tested on three sessions separated by 3 h and 24 h, and the within-subject reliability of torque and each TOI parameter were determined by Bland-Altman+/-2 SD limits of agreement plots and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant (P>0.05) differences between the three sessions were found for mean values of torque and TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated tasks at both contraction intensities. All TOI parameters were within+/-2 SD limits of agreement. The CVs for torque integral were similar between the sustained and repeated task at both intensities (4 to 7%) however, the CVs for TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated task were lower for 100% MVC (7 to 11%) than for 30% MVC (22 to 36%). It is concluded that the reliability of the biceps brachii NIRS parameters during both sustained and repeated isometric contraction tasks is acceptable.

  7. Measuring contraction propagation and localizing pacemaker cells using high speed video microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Tony J.; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna V.; Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Zawieja, David C.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the ability of many lymphatic vessels to contract phasically to pump lymph. Every lymphangion can act like a heart with pacemaker sites that initiate the phasic contractions. The contractile wave propagates along the vessel to synchronize the contraction. However, determining the location of the pacemaker sites within these vessels has proven to be very difficult. A high speed video microscopy system with an automated algorithm to detect pacemaker location and calculate the propagation velocity, speed, duration, and frequency of the contractions is presented in this paper. Previous methods for determining the contractile wave propagation velocity manually were time consuming and subject to errors and potential bias. The presented algorithm is semiautomated giving objective results based on predefined criteria with the option of user intervention. The system was first tested on simulation images and then on images acquired from isolated microlymphatic mesenteric vessels. We recorded contraction propagation velocities around 10 mm∕s with a shortening speed of 20.4 to 27.1 μm∕s on average and a contraction frequency of 7.4 to 21.6 contractions∕min. The simulation results showed that the algorithm has no systematic error when compared to manual tracking. The system was used to determine the pacemaker location with a precision of 28 μm when using a frame rate of 300 frames per second. PMID:21361700

  8. In-Vivo Measurement of Muscle Tension: Dynamic Properties of the MC Sensor during Isometric Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Srđan; Tomažič, Sašo; Narici, Marco; Pišot, Rado; Meglič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue structure in our body and plays an essential role for producing motion through integrated action with bones, tendons, ligaments and joints, for stabilizing body position, for generation of heat through cell respiration and for blood glucose disposal. A key function of skeletal muscle is force generation. Non-invasive and selective measurement of muscle contraction force in the field and in clinical settings has always been challenging. The aim of our work has been to develop a sensor that can overcome these difficulties and therefore enable measurement of muscle force during different contraction conditions. In this study, we tested the mechanical properties of a “Muscle Contraction” (MC) sensor during isometric muscle contraction in different length/tension conditions. The MC sensor is attached so that it indents the skin overlying a muscle group and detects varying degrees of tension during muscular contraction. We compared MC sensor readings over the biceps brachii (BB) muscle to dynamometric measurements of force of elbow flexion, together with recordings of surface EMG signal of BB during isometric contractions at 15° and 90° of elbow flexion. Statistical correlation between MC signal and force was very high at 15° (r = 0.976) and 90° (r = 0.966) across the complete time domain. Normalized SD or σN = σ/max(FMC) was used as a measure of linearity of MC signal and elbow flexion force in dynamic conditions. The average was 8.24% for an elbow angle of 90° and 10.01% for an elbow of angle 15°, which indicates high linearity and good dynamic properties of MC sensor signal when compared to elbow flexion force. The next step of testing MC sensor potential will be to measure tension of muscle-tendon complex in conditions when length and tension change simultaneously during human motion. PMID:25256114

  9. Psychology of the scientist: LXXXI. Professional school and traditional program graduates: comparison on measures of achievement in clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Templer, D I; Tomeo, M E; Pointkowski, S R; Mitroff, D; Niederhauser, R N; Siscoe, K

    2000-06-01

    Clinical psychologists who graduated from traditional programs and those who graduated from professional schools were compared on both scientifically and professionally oriented criteria of achievement and recognition. Upon controlling for year of graduation from a doctoral program, the professional school graduates were less likely to be APA fellows, less likely to be on the editorial board of specified research oriented journals in clinical psychology, less likely to have diplomate status in the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), less likely to have been president of state psychological associations, and less likely to have been APPIC internship directors.

  10. The use of an immunization information system to establish baseline childhood immunization rates and measure contract objectives.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Stephanie L; Maerz, Thomas R; Hurie, Marjorie B; Gabor, Gerald W; Flynn, John M; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2009-01-01

    Measuring progress toward national immunization objectives at the local level, although difficult, is becoming more feasible owing to statewide immunization information systems. This article describes how a state immunization program expanded the scope of immunization service contracts with local health departments (LHDs) to address the immunization rates among children living within their jurisdictions using the Wisconsin Immunization Registry (WIR) to measure achievement of population-based objectives. By contract year (CY) 2008, 99 percent of Wisconsin LHDs selected population-based contract objectives. In late 2008, the Wisconsin Immunization Program assessed all children at 24 months of age for completeness of the 4:3:1:3:3:1 (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/poliovirus/measles-containing vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b/hepatitis B/varicella) series by county for each of four CYs, using the WIR. From CY 2005 to CY 2008, LHDs in 61 (86%) of the 71 counties demonstrated increased series completeness rates for the series, and the overall statewide series completeness increased from 58 percent to 64 percent. However, the increases we observed cannot be attributed solely to LHDs' acceptance of population-based objectives because controlling for other factors known to influence immunization coverage levels was outside the scope of this case study. We found the WIR to be a powerful tool that can measure immunization coverage among local populations independent of the immunization provider, assess improvement toward contract objectives, and target resources toward pockets of need.

  11. Measuring life quality, physical function and psychological well-being in neurological illness.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Lorna Jane; Hickey, Anne; Hardiman, Orla

    2010-10-01

    There is little in the literature comparing experiences of patients with disabling and uniformly terminal illness (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and illness characterized by episodic disability and prognostic uncertainty (e.g. multiple sclerosis). This study aimed to compare experiences of disability, quality of life (QoL) and psychological well-being in ALS and MS. One hundred patients with ALS and MS were interviewed at baseline and at six months. Variables measured included function, health related QoL, individualized QoL and psychological distress. Despite the divergent illness experiences of ALS and MS patients, groups did not differ on individualized QoL or mental well-being, and distress was in the normal range. Despite marked deterioration in ALS patients' health, there was no change in mental well-being and QoL. Psychological well-being appeared more important in maintaining QoL (individualized QoL and mental aspects of health related QoL) than physical factors. At the individual level, there was evidence of psychological adaptation to deteriorating function, which underlined the role of specific illness related challenges in determining perceived life quality and emotional well-being. In conclusion, the complex interplay between psychosocial and illness specific factors such as certainty with regard to prognosis has considerable implications for well-being and life quality. Recognizing such factors is essential when designing clinical interventions to promote adjustment and self-management among patients with neurological conditions.

  12. Treating the insomniac patient - General measures and psychological and pharmacological treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kales, A.; Bixler, E. O.; Kales, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general preliminary measures for treating insomnia include moderate physical exercise several hours before bedtime, and the relaxation of complex mental activity before bedtime. A case history concerning a woman with marital troubles is offered as evidence that insomnia may be caused by deeply rooted psychological and situational problems. Another case history illustrates how prior pharmacological treatment may complicate the process of clinically evaluating an insomniac.

  13. Field Test of a Computer-Driven Tool to Measure Psychological Characteristics of Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Jacqueline Bonney. Without their willingness to work odo hours, to give up weekends with their families, and to dedicate their efforts to help aircrew... Butcher (5) reported that at least one US airline uses the MMPI as an adjunctive tool in employee selection. In a counter-balanced, repeated-measures...administration of the diagnostic interview schedule. Psychiatry Res 1988; 23:335-344. 4. Butcher J.N. Commercially Available Computerized Psychological

  14. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement: contractor reporting/data analysis guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The DOE Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) require that a contractor's management control systems include methods and procedures designed to ensure that they will accomplish, in addition to other requirements, a summarization of data elements to the level of reporting to DOE specified in the contract under separate clause. Reports provided to DOE must relate contract cost, schedule, and technical accomplishment to a baseline plan, within the framework of both the contract Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the contractor's organizational structure. This Guide describes the reports available from contractors, with emphasis on the Cost Performance Report (CPR), and provides a framework for using the reported data as a basis for decision making. This Guide was developed to assist DOE Project Managers in assessing contractor performance through proper use of the CPR and supporting reports.

  15. Psychological Versus Generic Critical Thinking as Predictors and Outcome Measures in a Large Undergraduate Human Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.; Oliver, Renee; Stockdale, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the differential status of psychological critical thinking and generic critical thinking as predictors of test performance and as outcome measures in a large human development course. Psychological critical thinking proved to be the better predictor of test performance and more responsive to instructional procedures in the…

  16. Psychological maltreatment, coping strategies, and mental health problems: A brief and effective measure of psychological maltreatment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2017-06-01

    Psychological maltreatment is an important social and public health problem and associated with a wide range of short and long-term outcomes in childhood to adulthood. Given the importance of investigating mitigating factors on its effect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health- internalizing and externalizing- problems in adolescents. Participants of the study consisted of 783 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M=15.57, SD=0.88), with 52.9% female and 47.1% male. Several structural equation models were conducted to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies on the effect of psychological maltreatment on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings from mediation analyses demonstrated the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health problems. The outcomes support adolescents use more avoidant coping strategies and fewer active coping strategies in the face of psychological maltreatment experiences, and this affects their mental health. Taken together, these results should contribute to the design of prevention and intervention services in order to promote mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological collectivism: a measurement validation and linkage to group member performance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christine L; Colquitt, Jason A; Wesson, Michael J; Zapata-Phelan, Cindy P

    2006-07-01

    The 3 studies presented here introduce a new measure of the individual-difference form of collectivism. Psychological collectivism is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct with the following 5 facets: preference for in-groups, reliance on in-groups, concern for in-groups, acceptance of in-group norms, and prioritization of in-group goals. Study 1 developed and tested the new measure in a sample of consultants. Study 2 cross-validated the measure using an alumni sample of a Southeastern university, assessing its convergent validity with other collectivism measures. Study 3 linked scores on the measure to 4 dimensions of group member performance (task performance, citizenship behavior, counterproductive behavior, and withdrawal behavior) in a computer software firm and assessed discriminant validity using the Big Five. The results of the studies support the construct validity of the measure and illustrate the potential value of collectivism as a predictor of group member performance. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The importance of risk-aversion as a measurable psychological parameter governing risk-taking behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the "motivational density", to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion.

  19. Reliability of the ultrasound measurements of abdominal muscles activity when activated with and without pelvic floor muscles contraction.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Nahid; Rasouli, Omid; Arab, Amir Massoud; Khademi, Khosro; Samani, Elham Neisani

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been shown in literature. Some studies have assessed the reliability of ultrasound measures of the abdominal muscles. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of ultrasound measurements of transverses abdominis (TrA) and obliquus internus (OI) muscles during different conditions (PFM contraction, abdominal hollowing manoeuvre (AHM) with and without PFM contraction) in participants with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). 21 participants (9 with LBP, 12 healthy) participated in the study. The reliability of thickness measurements at rest and during each condition and thickness changes and percentage of this changes at different conditions were assessed. The results showed high reliability of the thickness measurement at rest and during each condition of TrA and OI muscles, moderate to substantial reliability for the thickness change and percentage of thickness change of TrA, and fair to moderate reliability of the thickness change and percentage of thickness change of OI in both groups. Ultrasound imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscle activity with and without PFM contraction.

  20. Psychological empowerment among urban youth: measure development and relationship to psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Emily J; Schotland, Marieka

    2011-08-01

    Although there are an increasing number of youth development programs that aim to empower young people, there is a dearth of psychometrically sound measures that can be used to assess flexible youth-led organizing and participatory research approaches that tackle a wide range of social and community problems. This study developed and tested measures of psychological empowerment (PE) and self-efficacy for research and action among a sample of 439 ethnically diverse adolescents primarily recruited from public high schools in an urban center. Items for the PE measure were generated through an iterative combination of conducting formative research with our target population while also drawing on existing theory and measures in the field. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the PE measure, testing four factors: adolescents' motivation to influence their school and community settings; participatory behavior; sociopolitical skills; and perceived control. Psychometric analyses for the PE scales and their correlation with adolescents' report of self-esteem, academic achievement, caring relationships with adults at school, and social support from peers are reported; the implications of the present study for research and practice in the youth development and adolescent psychology field are considered.

  1. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2017-01-24

    Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m(2), respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm(3)), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.

  2. Exploiting the relationship between birefringence and force to measure airway smooth muscle contraction with PS-OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, David C.; Hariri, Lida P.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to observe airway dynamics is fundamental to forming a complete understanding of pulmonary diseases such as asthma. We have previously demonstrated that Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can be used to observe structural changes in the airway during bronchoconstriction, but standard OCT lacks the contrast to discriminate airway smooth muscle (ASM) bands- ASM being responsible for generating the force that drives airway constriction- from the surrounding tissue. Since ASM in general exhibits a greater degree of birefringence than the surrounding tissue, a potential solution to this problem lies in the implementation of polarization sensitivity (PS) to the OCT system. By modifying the OCT system so that it is sensitive to the birefringence of tissue under inspection, we can visualize the ASM with much greater clarity and definition. In this presentation we show that the force of contraction can be indirectly measured by an associated increase in the birefringence signal of the ASM. We validate this approach by attaching segments of swine trachea to an isometric force transducer and stimulating contraction, while simultaneously measuring the exerted force and imaging the segment with PS-OCT. We then show how our results may be used to extrapolate the force of contraction of closed airways in absence of additional measurement devices. We apply this technique to assess ASM contractility volumetrically and in vivo, in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic human volunteers.

  3. Feeling disrespected by parents: refining the measurement and understanding of psychological control.

    PubMed

    Barber, Brian K; Xia, Mingzhu; Olsen, Joseph A; McNeely, Clea A; Bose, Krishna

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated parental psychological control of adolescents when construed as disrespect of individuality. First, 120 adolescents from 5 cultures were interviewed and asked to identify specific parental behaviors that communicated to them that they were disrespected as individuals. The interview data were coded and 8 new survey items were constructed to reflect key content. These items were then administered to 2100 adolescents in the same cultures along with a traditional measure of psychological control (PCS). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that model fit was better when the two scales were kept separate, across culture and sex of parent. In structural equation models, the new scale - labeled Psychological Control - Disrespect - accounted for all and more of the variance in youth depression and antisocial behavior than the PCS did. The discussion centers on the validation the study makes of the construct and offers several suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship of anthropometric measurements with psychological criteria in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Cangur, Sengul; Yaman, Cetin; Ercan, Ilker; Yaman, Metin; Tok, Serdar

    2017-03-01

    Sports and exercise settings as well as other socio-cultural environments emphasize a thin and physically fit female body. However, there is a clear need for a better understanding of the physical and psychological correlates of social physique anxiety and body image dissatisfaction in female athletes. This study aimed to examine the association of the social physique anxiety, body image satisfaction, and personality with the anthropometric measurements in female college athletes according to their sport type using the Co-Plot technique. The sample included 63 female athletes ranging in age from 18 to 26. Results of the Co-Plot analysis revealed a significant association among social physique anxiety, personality and anthropometric measurements. This means that certain physical measurements may lead to greater social physique anxiety and body image dissatisfaction in female athletes. It was found that females having higher levels of social physique anxiety and thus, lower levels of body image satisfaction may be less emotionally stable and more negatively perfectionist. In conclusion, the results of the present study provided evidence to the claim that both physical self-perception and anthropometric measurements may be closely associated with psychological criteria in female athletes.

  5. Defining and Measuring the Success of Services Contracts in the United States Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    would also like to thank the major contributors from the contracting commands at the Fleet Logistics Center (FLC) Philadelphia, FLC Jacksonville, FLC...Houston in 1998 with a degree in kinesiology . She was commissioned as a surface warfare officer through the Officer Candidate School in 2000 and was...Definitions of Success Across Major Stakeholders .........................................62  Figure 33.  Major Stakeholder Ranking of Definitions of

  6. Toward Alternative Metrics for Measuring Performance within Operational Contracting Squadrons: An Application of Benchmarking Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Cooper (1991), state the sampling technique selected should depend upon the requirements of the project, its objectives, and the availability of funds...it was drawn (Emory, 1991:275). Quota sampling is a form of nonprobability sampling in which certain criteria are imposed. For this study, the...CONTRACTING SQUADRONS: AN APPLICATION OF BENCHMARKING TECHNIQUES THESIE Mark W. Fahrenkamp Mark P. Garst Captain, USAF Captain, USAF AFIT/GCM/LSM/93S-4 94

  7. The measurement of psychological constructs in people with osteoarthritis of the knee: a psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Nadina; Moreton, Bryan; Turner, Katie; Walsh, David

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To examine the measurement properties of measures of psychological constructs in people with knee osteoarthritis. Method Participants with osteoarthritis of the knee completed the beck depression inventory (BDI-II), state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), arthritis helplessness index (AHI), fatigue severity scale (FSS), coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ), beliefs about pain control questionnaire (BPCQ), illness perceptions questionnaire-revised (IPQ-R), pain self-efficacy questionnaire (PSEQ) at home as part of a set of measures covering different aspects of osteoarthritis pain. The questionnaires were returned by pre-paid envelope. Rasch analysis was used to check the psychometric properties of the scales in people with osteoarthritis. Results The STAI-SF was an acceptable measure of anxiety and the revised FSS an acceptable measure of fatigue, with removal of items 1 and 2. The BDI subscales were acceptable for measuring negative thoughts and behaviours related to depressive symptomatology with some modifications to the scale. The helplessness scale of the AHI was acceptable as a measure of helplessness. The PSEQ was an acceptable measure of self-efficacy and the CSQ as a measure of cognitive coping strategies. The BPCQ and IPQ-R did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions These findings indicate that questionnaires need to be checked for their ability to measure psychological constructs in the clinical groups to which they will be applied. Implications for Rehabilitation For people with osteoarthritis, the STAI-SF is an acceptable measure of anxiety and the revised FSS an acceptable measure of fatigue with removal of items 1 and 2. The BDI subscales, but not the total score, are acceptable for measuring depressive symptomatology with some modifications to the scoring of the scale. And helplessness can be measured using the Helplessness subscale of the AHI. The PSEQ was an acceptable measure of self-efficacy and cognitive coping strategies can be measured

  8. The Criterion A problem revisited: controversies and challenges in defining and measuring psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Frank W; Keane, Terence M

    2007-04-01

    The Criterion A problem in the field of traumatic stress refers to the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves a number of fundamental issues regarding the definition and measurement of psychological trauma. These issues first emerged with the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and continue to generate considerable controversy. In this article, the authors provide an update on the Criterion A problem, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the DSM definition of the stressor criterion and the ongoing debate regarding broad versus narrow conceptualizations of traumatic events.

  9. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    PubMed

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  10. The Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure Study (InterGEN): Design and Methods for Recruitment and Psychological Measures.

    PubMed

    Crusto, Cindy A; Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Connell, Christian M; Sun, Yan V; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y

    2016-01-01

    Although studies show that genomics and environmental stressors affect blood pressure, few studies have examined their combined effects, especially in African Americans. We present the recruitment methods and psychological measures of the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure (InterGEN) study, which seeks to investigate the individual and combined effects of genetic (G) and environmental (E) (psychological) stressors on blood pressure in African American mother-child dyads. Genetic methods are presented elsewhere, but here we present the recruitment methods, psychological measures, and analysis plan for these environmental stressors. This longitudinal study will enroll 250 mother-child dyads (N = 500). Study participation is restricted to women who (a) are ≤21 years of age, (b) self-identify as African American or Black, (c) speak English, (d) do not have an identified mental illness or cognitive impairment, and (e) have a biological child between 3 and 5 years old. The primary environmental stressors assessed are parenting stress, perceived racism and discrimination, and maternal mental health. Covariates include age, cigarette smoking (for mothers), and gender (for children). The study outcome variables are systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The main analytic outcome is genetic-by-environment interaction analyses (G × E); however, main effects (G) and (E) will be individually assessed first. Genetic (G) and interaction analyses (G × E) are described in a companion paper and will include laboratory procedures. Statistical modeling of environmental stressors on blood pressure will be done using descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation models. The methodology presented here includes the study rationale, community engagement and recruitment protocol, psychological variable measurement, and analysis plan for assessing the association of environmental stressors and blood pressure. This study may

  11. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  12. Number and measure: Hermann von Helmholtz at the crossroads of mathematics, physics, and psychology.

    PubMed

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2003-09-01

    In 1887 Helmholtz discussed the foundations of measurement in science as a last contribution to his philosophy of knowledge. This essay borrowed from earlier debates on the foundations of mathematics (Grassmann/Du Bois), on the possibility of quantitative psychology (Fechner/Kries, Wundt/Zeller), and on the meaning of temperature measurement (Maxwell,Mach.). Late nineteenth-century scrutinisers of the foundations of mathematics (Dedekind, Cantor, Frege, Russell) made little of Helmholtz's essay. Yet it inspired two mathematicians with an eye on physics (Poincaré and Hölder), and a few philosopher-physicists (Mach, Duhem,Campbell). The aim of the present paper is to situate Helmholtz's contribution in this complex array of nineteenth-century philosophies of number, quantity, and measurement. 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Development and validation of a new measure to evaluate psychological resistance to insulin treatment.

    PubMed

    Petrak, Frank; Stridde, Elmar; Leverkus, Friedhelm; Crispin, Alexander A; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    To develop a psychometric questionnaire to measure psychological barriers to insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Scale development was based on principal component analyses in two cross-sectional studies of insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. The structure of the questionnaire was developed in the first sample of 448 patients and subsequently cross-validated in an independent sample of 449 patients. Analyses in the first sample yielded five components that accounted for 74.5% of the variance based on 14 items and led to the following subscales: fear of injection and self-testing, expectations regarding positive insulin-related outcomes, expected hardship from insulin treatment, stigmatization by insulin injections, and fear of hypoglycemia. In addition, an overall sum score of all values was calculated. The structure of the questionnaire was cross-validated in the second sample, with almost identical component loadings and an explained variance of 69.4%. An additional confirmatory factor analysis also indicated an acceptable to good model fit with root mean square error of approximation equal to 0.04 and comparative fit index equal to 0.97. Coefficients of reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.62-0.85 and 0.78 for overall sum score) were acceptable, considering the very small number of items for each scale. The Barriers to Insulin Treatment Questionnaire appears to be a reliable and valid measure of psychological insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. This short instrument is easy to administer and may be used by both clinicians and researchers to assess the psychological barriers to insulin treatment.

  14. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering.

    PubMed

    Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.

  15. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint

  16. Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services Contract for Logistics Support of Stryker Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-18

    Report No. DODIG-2012-102 June 18, 2012 Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services...Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Services Contract for Logistics Support of Stryker Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY, AND LOGISTICS AUDITOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: Better Cost-Control Measures Are Needed on the Army’s Cost

  17. Comparison of the CADRI and CTS2 for Measuring Psychological and Physical Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization.

    PubMed

    Cascardi, Michele; Blank, Sean; Dodani, Vikash

    2016-10-19

    Advancing dating violence (DV) research requires consistent conceptualization and measurement. However, empirical sudies on the measurement of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization are uncommon. There were three aims of the current study: (a) to examine the construct validity of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization on the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI) and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) using factor analysis; (b) to compare empirically derived DV scales with ones using face valid definitions of psychological and physical DV within each measure; and (c) to compare results obtained from the CADRI with those obtained from the CTS2. A diverse sample of undergraduates (N = 512; 63.9% female, 50.0% White, 16.2% Black, and 22.9% Latino) completed an online survey. There were two-factor solutions for each survey and DV perpetration and victimization: moderate psychological DV and severe psychological/physical DV on the CADRI; and moderate psychological and physical DV and severe psychological and physical DV on the CTS2. Multiple regression analyses showed that results were similar for empirically and rationally derived scoring methods with one exception: On the CTS2, risk factors associated with moderate DV were not the same as those associated with psychological DV. Moreover, the unique contribution of risk factors to each form of DV depended on which survey was used. In multivariate studies of risk factors associated with psychological and physical DV, the CADRI and CTS2 do not appear to be interchangeable, and may lead to different conclusions about the relative importance of risk factors.

  18. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Results Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. Conclusions These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. PMID:24117697

  19. Measuring the academic, social, and psychological effects of academic service learning on middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacalone, Valarie A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an academic service learning project on ninth-grade students' science achievement and attitudes. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used with four classes of one teacher in a rural school. The treatment was an Energy Fair service project. Two treatment classes that were chosen by random assignment (n = 58) were compared to two control classes (n = 64), who performed an alternative assignment. The Energy Fair was conducted for the elementary school students and on a limited basis for fellow students (peers). The academic effect was measured by a teacher-designed end-of-unit ecology test, with a subset of the questions on energy use. Psychological effects were measured by a self-esteem questionnaire, which measured both self-esteem and the satisfaction felt about one's self-esteem. Social effects were measured by three semantic differentials, one each for "adults," "peers," and "elementary students." The teacher was interviewed regarding her observations about the project. Written reflections from both the treatment and control groups were coded and analyzed. Pretest results were divided into thirds of high, medium, and low for all variables to search for the possibility of an attribute-treatment interaction. Analysis of covariance was used to reduce the possibility of pretest bias, to test for significant effects, and to test for a level by treatment interaction. Although the posttest means favored the experimental group, no statistically significant difference was found for academic results. No significant effect was found for either of the psychological measures. No change was found for the social results regarding "adults." A statistically significant effect was found for social results in the categories of "elementary students" and "peers." No statistically significant level by treatment interaction was found. Further research on the effects of academic service learning projects is needed at

  20. Individual and work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude and the use of antihypertensive medication.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, S; Andersen, J H; Grynderup, M B; Stokholm, Z A; Rugulies, R; Hansen, Å M; Kærgaard, A; Mikkelsen, S; Bonde, J P; Thomsen, J F; Christensen, K L; Kolstad, H A

    2015-04-01

    To analyse whether psychological demands and decision latitude measured on individual and work-unit level were related to prescription of antihypertensive medication. A total of 3,421 women and 897 men within 388 small work units completed a questionnaire concerning psychological working conditions according to the job strain model. Mean levels of psychological demands and decision latitude were computed for each work unit to obtain exposure measures that were less influenced by reporting bias. Dispensed antihypertensive medication prescriptions were identified in The Danish National Prescription Registry. Odds ratios (OR) comparing the highest and lowest third of the population at individual and work-unit level, respectively, were estimated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounders. Psychological demands and decision latitude were tested for interaction. Supplementary analyses of 21 months follow-up were conducted. Among women, increasing psychological demands at individual (adjusted OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.02-2.33) and work-unit level (adjusted OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04-1.90) was significantly associated with purchase of antihypertensive medication. No significant association was found for decision latitude. Follow-up results supported an association with psychological demands but they were not significant. All results for men showed no association. Psychological demands and decision latitude did not interact. High psychological work demands were associated with the purchase of prescribed antihypertensive medication among women. This effect was present on both the work-unit and the individual level. Among men there were no associations. The lack of interaction between psychological demands and decision latitude did not support the job strain model.

  1. Measuring psychological resilience to disasters: are evidence-based indicators an achievable goal?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite rising interest on the concept of societal resilience and its measurement, little has been done to provide operational indicators. Importantly, an evidence-based approach to assess the suitability of indicators remains unexplored. Furthermore few approaches that exist do not investigate indicators of psychological resilience, which is emerging as an important component of societal resilience to disasters. Disasters are events which overwhelm local capacities, often producing human losses, injury and damage to the affected communities. As climate hazards and disasters are likely to increase in the coming decades, strengthening the capacity of societies to withstand these shocks and recover quickly is vital. In this review, we search the Web of Knowledge to summarize the evidence on indicators of psychological resilience to disasters and provided a qualitative assessment of six selected studies. We find that an evidence-based approach using features from systematic reviews is useful to compile, select and assess the evidence and elucidate robust indicators. We conclude that strong social support received after a disaster is associated with an increased psychological resilience whereas a female gender is connected with a decrease in the likelihood of a resilient outcome. These results are consistent across disaster settings and cultures and are representative of approximately 13 million disaster-exposed civilians of adult age. An approach such as this that collects and evaluates evidence will allow indicators of resilience to be much more revealing and useful in the future. They will provide a robust basis to prioritize indicators to act upon through intersectoral policies and post-disaster public health interventions. PMID:24359448

  2. Measuring psychological resilience to disasters: are evidence-based indicators an achievable goal?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Vos, Femke; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2013-12-20

    Despite rising interest on the concept of societal resilience and its measurement, little has been done to provide operational indicators. Importantly, an evidence-based approach to assess the suitability of indicators remains unexplored. Furthermore few approaches that exist do not investigate indicators of psychological resilience, which is emerging as an important component of societal resilience to disasters. Disasters are events which overwhelm local capacities, often producing human losses, injury and damage to the affected communities. As climate hazards and disasters are likely to increase in the coming decades, strengthening the capacity of societies to withstand these shocks and recover quickly is vital. In this review, we search the Web of Knowledge to summarize the evidence on indicators of psychological resilience to disasters and provided a qualitative assessment of six selected studies. We find that an evidence-based approach using features from systematic reviews is useful to compile, select and assess the evidence and elucidate robust indicators. We conclude that strong social support received after a disaster is associated with an increased psychological resilience whereas a female gender is connected with a decrease in the likelihood of a resilient outcome. These results are consistent across disaster settings and cultures and are representative of approximately 13 million disaster-exposed civilians of adult age. An approach such as this that collects and evaluates evidence will allow indicators of resilience to be much more revealing and useful in the future. They will provide a robust basis to prioritize indicators to act upon through intersectoral policies and post-disaster public health interventions.

  3. Assessing Psychological Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: a Critical Comparison of Measures.

    PubMed

    Holmes-Truscott, E; Pouwer, F; Speight, J

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably between measures. Assessment of PIR should focus on the identification of negative and positive attitudes towards insulin use. Actual or hypothetical insulin refusal may be better conceptualised as a potential consequence of PIR, as its assessment overlooks the attitudes that may prevent insulin use. This paper provides guidance on the selection of questionnaires for clinical or research purpose and the development of new, or improvement of existing, questionnaires.

  4. Measurement Properties of the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roe, C; Myhre, K; Marchand, G H; Lau, B; Leivseth, G; Bautz-Holter, E

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) and the domains of demand, control and support. The Rasch analysis (RUMM 2030) was based on responses from 226 subjects with back pain who completed the QPS Nordic dimensions of demand, control, and social support (30 items) at one year follow up. The Rasch analysis revealed disordered thresholds in a total of 25 of the 30 items. The domains of demand, control and support fit the Rasch model when analyzed separately. The demand domain was well targeted, whereas patients with current neck and back pain had lower control and higher support than reflected by the questions. Two items revealed DIF by gender, otherwise invariance to age, gender, occupation and sick-leave was documented. The demand, control support domains of QPS Nordic comprised unidimensional constructs with adequate measurement properties.

  5. The Basic Psychological Needs at Work Scale: Measurement Invariance between Canada and France.

    PubMed

    Brien, Maryse; Forest, Jacques; Mageau, Geneviève A; Boudrias, Jean-Sébastien; Desrumaux, Pascale; Brunet, Luc; Morin, Estelle M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Basic Psychological Needs at Work Scale (BPNWS) in French, but items are also provided in English in the article. The BPNWS is a work-related self-report instrument designed to measure the degree to which the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as identified by Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), are satisfied at work. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the first study examines the structure of the BPNWS in a group of 271 workers. The second study tests the measurement invariance of the scale in a group of 851 teachers from two different cultures, Canada and France. Results support the three-factor structure and show adequate internal consistency, as well as nomological validity across samples.

  6. A Measure of Severe Psychological Abuse Normed on a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were…

  7. Psychological Skills Development and Maintenance in Professional Soccer Players: An Experimental Design with Follow Up Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miçoogullari, Bülent Okan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological skills training and Psychological well-being (PWB) are two essential concepts not only for general mental health but also for athletic performance in sport settings. However, the effects of problems in Sport Training Scale (PSTS) on sport performance and general psychological well-being have not been systematically examined through…

  8. A Measure of Severe Psychological Abuse Normed on a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were…

  9. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Robert M; Urzua, Sergio S

    2009-09-01

    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest.

  10. Three-dimensional geometrical changes of the human tibialis anterior muscle and its central aponeurosis measured with three-dimensional ultrasound during isometric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Andrew G.; Lichtwark, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscles not only shorten during contraction to perform mechanical work, but they also bulge radially because of the isovolumetric constraint on muscle fibres. Muscle bulging may have important implications for muscle performance, however quantifying three-dimensional (3D) muscle shape changes in human muscle is problematic because of difficulties with sustaining contractions for the duration of an in vivo scan. Although two-dimensional ultrasound imaging is useful for measuring local muscle deformations, assumptions must be made about global muscle shape changes, which could lead to errors in fully understanding the mechanical behaviour of muscle and its surrounding connective tissues, such as aponeurosis. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were (a) to determine the intra-session reliability of a novel 3D ultrasound (3DUS) imaging method for measuring in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis deformations and (b) to examine how contraction intensity influences in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis strains during isometric contractions. Methods. Participants (n = 12) were seated in a reclined position with their left knee extended and ankle at 90° and performed isometric dorsiflexion contractions up to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. 3DUS scans of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle belly were performed during the contractions and at rest to assess muscle volume, muscle length, muscle cross-sectional area, muscle thickness and width, fascicle length and pennation angle, and central aponeurosis width and length. The 3DUS scan involved synchronous B-mode ultrasound imaging and 3D motion capture of the position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer, while successive cross-sectional slices were captured by sweeping the transducer along the muscle. Results. 3DUS was shown to be highly reliable across measures of muscle volume, muscle length, fascicle length and central aponeurosis length (ICC ≥ 0.98, CV < 1%). The TA remained isovolumetric

  11. Measures of psychological stress and physical health in family caregivers of stroke survivors: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Saban, Karen L; Sherwood, Paula R; DeVon, Holli A; Hynes, Denise M

    2010-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the stress of family caregiving places caregivers at risk for developing depression, poor quality of life, and health problems. The purpose of this review was to identify the ways in which variables are operationalized in studies addressing psychological stressors and physical health of family caregivers of stroke survivors. The adapted Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center model provides the organizing conceptual framework for this literature review. A literature search for relevant articles was conducted using Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and Ovid Nursing Database for the period of July 1999 through June 2009 using the following search terms: caregiver (or family caregiver), stroke, stress, and health. Articles were included if they met the following inclusionary criteria: (a) written in English, (b) published in peer-reviewed journal, (c) focused on adults who were caring for an adult who experienced stroke, (d) included measures of stress and physical health or health-related quality of life, and (e) primarily used quantitative research methods. Twenty-four articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings related to the variables included in the adapted Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center model are discussed. Variables were not well defined, a wide array of measurement instruments were used, and measures were taken at broadly divergent time frames following stroke. Future research guided by a theoretical framework, consistent measures of variables, and standardized measurement time points would allow for better comparison of findings across studies, thus enabling clinicians to better understand the health risks of family caregivers.

  12. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  13. The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing. Buros-Nebraska Symposium on Measurement and Testing (3rd, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1985). Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Royce R., Ed.; And Others

    The 1985 Buros-Nebraska Symposium was devoted to the broad issue of the influence of cognitive psychology on testing and measurement. The (1) "Introduction: The Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Testing" (Royce R. Ronning et. al.) lists four major issues addressed by the symposium--cognitive psychology as a basis for questioning some…

  14. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  15. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  16. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  17. An in situ optical imaging system for measuring lipid uptake, vessel contraction, and lymph flow in small animal lymphatic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassis, Timothy; Weiler, Michael J.; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    All dietary lipids are transported to venous circulation through the lymphatic system, yet the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain unclear. Understanding how the lymphatics functionally respond to changes in lipid load is important in the diagnosis and treatment of lipid and lymphatic related diseases such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and lymphedema. Therefore, we sought to develop an in situ imaging system to quantify and correlate lymphatic function as it relates to lipid transport. A custom-built optical set-up provides us with the capability of dual-channel imaging of both high-speed bright-field video and fluorescence simultaneously. This is achieved by dividing the light path into two optical bands. Utilizing high-speed and back-illuminated CCD cameras and post-acquisition image processing algorithms, we have the potential quantify correlations between vessel contraction, lymph flow and lipid concentration of mesenteric lymphatic vessels in situ. Local flow velocity is measured through lymphocyte tracking, vessel contraction through measurements of the vessel walls and lipid uptake through fluorescence intensity tracking of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid analogue, Bodipy FL C16. This system will prove to be an invaluable tool for both scientists studying lymphatic function in health and disease, and those investigating strategies for targeting the lymphatic system with orally delivered drugs.

  18. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  19. The Meaning of Validity in the New "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing": Implications for Measurement Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of validity in the newest edition of "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" is quite different from coverage in earlier editions of the Standards and in most measurement textbooks. The view of validity in the 1999 Standards is discussed, and suggestions for instructors of measurement courses are offered. (Contains 56…

  20. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale as a Positive Psychology Measure for People with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Mayu; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Catalano, Denise; Hunter, Celeste; Bengtson, Kevin; Rahimi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the measurement structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) as a positive psychology measure for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) using confirmatory factor analysis. The participants consisted of 274 Canadians with SCI living in the community. The result indicated that the…

  1. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  2. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale as a Positive Psychology Measure for People with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Mayu; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Catalano, Denise; Hunter, Celeste; Bengtson, Kevin; Rahimi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the measurement structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) as a positive psychology measure for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) using confirmatory factor analysis. The participants consisted of 274 Canadians with SCI living in the community. The result indicated that the…

  3. Placebo and Nocebo Effects: The Advantage of Measuring Expectations and Psychological Factors.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Nicole; Colloca, Luana

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have explored the predictability of placebo and nocebo individual responses by investigating personality factors and expectations of pain decreases and increases. Psychological factors such as optimism, suggestibility, empathy and neuroticism have been linked to placebo effects, while pessimism, anxiety and catastrophizing have been associated to nocebo effects. We aimed to investigate the interplay between psychological factors, expectations of low and high pain and placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. We studied 46 healthy participants using a well-validated conditioning paradigm with contact heat thermal stimulations. Visual cues were presented to alert participants about the level of intensity of an upcoming thermal pain. We delivered high, medium and low levels of pain associated with red, yellow and green cues, respectively, during the conditioning phase. During the testing phase, the level of painful stimulations was surreptitiously set at the medium control level with all the three cues to measure placebo and nocebo effects. We found both robust placebo hypolagesic and nocebo hyperalgesic responses that were highly correlated with expectancy of low and high pain. Simple linear regression analyses showed that placebo responses were negatively correlated with anxiety severity and different aspects of fear of pain (e.g., medical pain, severe pain). Nocebo responses were positively correlated with anxiety sensitivity and physiological suggestibility with a trend toward catastrophizing. Step-wise regression analyses indicated that an aggregate score of motivation (value/utility and pressure/tense subscales) and suggestibility (physiological reactivity and persuadability subscales), accounted for the 51% of the variance in the placebo responsiveness. When considered together, anxiety severity, NEO openness-extraversion and depression accounted for the 49.1% of the variance of the nocebo responses. Psychological factors per se did not

  4. Placebo and Nocebo Effects: The Advantage of Measuring Expectations and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, Nicole; Colloca, Luana

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have explored the predictability of placebo and nocebo individual responses by investigating personality factors and expectations of pain decreases and increases. Psychological factors such as optimism, suggestibility, empathy and neuroticism have been linked to placebo effects, while pessimism, anxiety and catastrophizing have been associated to nocebo effects. We aimed to investigate the interplay between psychological factors, expectations of low and high pain and placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. We studied 46 healthy participants using a well-validated conditioning paradigm with contact heat thermal stimulations. Visual cues were presented to alert participants about the level of intensity of an upcoming thermal pain. We delivered high, medium and low levels of pain associated with red, yellow and green cues, respectively, during the conditioning phase. During the testing phase, the level of painful stimulations was surreptitiously set at the medium control level with all the three cues to measure placebo and nocebo effects. We found both robust placebo hypolagesic and nocebo hyperalgesic responses that were highly correlated with expectancy of low and high pain. Simple linear regression analyses showed that placebo responses were negatively correlated with anxiety severity and different aspects of fear of pain (e.g., medical pain, severe pain). Nocebo responses were positively correlated with anxiety sensitivity and physiological suggestibility with a trend toward catastrophizing. Step-wise regression analyses indicated that an aggregate score of motivation (value/utility and pressure/tense subscales) and suggestibility (physiological reactivity and persuadability subscales), accounted for the 51% of the variance in the placebo responsiveness. When considered together, anxiety severity, NEO openness-extraversion and depression accounted for the 49.1% of the variance of the nocebo responses. Psychological factors per se did not

  5. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology.

    PubMed

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-02-01

    While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation *

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Urzua, Sergio S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest. PMID:20436953

  7. The Power of Food Scale. A new measure of the psychological influence of the food environment.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Butryn, Meghan L; Didie, Elizabeth R; Annunziato, Rachel A; Thomas, J Graham; Crerand, Canice E; Ochner, Christopher N; Coletta, Maria C; Bellace, Dara; Wallaert, Matthew; Halford, Jason

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the psychometric evaluation of a new measure called the Power of Food Scale (PFS). The PFS assesses the psychological impact of living in food-abundant environments. It measures appetite for, rather than consumption of, palatable foods, at three levels of food proximity (food available, food present, and food tasted). Participants were 466 healthy college students. A confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor solution found previously by Capelleri et al. [Capelleri, J. C., Bushmakin, A. G., Gerber, R. A., Leidy, N. K., Sexton, C., Karlsson, J., et al. (in press). Discovering the structure of the Power of Food Scale (PFS) in obese patients. International Journal of Obesity, 11, A165]. The PFS was found to have adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The PFS and the Restraint Scale were regressed on four self-report measures of overeating. The PFS was independently related to all four whereas the Restraint Scale was independently related to two. Expert ratings of items suggested that the items are an acceptable reflection of the construct that the PFS is designed to capture. The PFS may be useful as a measure of the hedonic impact of food environments replete with highly palatable foods.

  8. Psychological factors and use of antiepileptic drugs: pilot work using an objective measure of adherence.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Steven; Feely, Morgan; Hay, Alastair; Wild, Heather; Cooper, Cathryn

    2007-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on the "concordance" prescribing model, a study was designed to determine the influence of patients' beliefs about epilepsy, beliefs about medication and a range of neuroepilepsy variables on drug adherence among a sample of epilepsy patients. A special feature of the study was the use of a credible objective measure of drug adherence. Psychological health was also assessed. Thirty-seven patients were recruited from a local epilepsy clinic. Beliefs about epilepsy (illness representations), beliefs about epilepsy medication, anxiety, depression, neuroepilepsy status and adherence were all measured. Data were collected via clinical interview and questionnaire methods. Adherence with drug treatment was determined by an objective measure using low-dose phenobarbital as an indicator of adherence and, or, measurement of antiepileptic drug levels. Neither illness representations nor beliefs about epilepsy drugs were related to adherence. With the exception of time since last seizure, which was positively related to adherence, neuroepilepsy variables were unrelated to adherence. A number of significant associations between cognitive representations of epilepsy and mood were found.

  9. Measuring psychological trauma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Pace, Natalie; Heinemann, Allen W.; Choi, Seung W.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a Psychological Trauma item bank with patient and provider focus groups, cognitive interviews, and item response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a 31-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Veterans Administration hospital. Participants A total of 716 individuals with SCI completed the trauma items Results The 31 items fit a unidimensional model (CFI=0.952; RMSEA=0.061) and demonstrated good precision (theta range between 0.6 and 2.5). Nine items demonstrated negligible DIF with little impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank contains 19 items Conclusion The SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank is a psychometrically robust measurement tool from which a short form and a computer adaptive test (CAT) version are available. PMID:26010967

  10. Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior, Obesity, and Psychological Well-Being: A Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Mano, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-04-01

    Sedentary behaviors (SB) are associated with health indicators; however, there are currently very few studies that have examined these associations, especially in conjunction with psychological factors, in children. The current study examined the independent relationship between objectively assessed SB, and indicators of obesity and psychological well-being, among Japanese children. A total of 967 elementary-school children completed a cross-sectional survey. SB was measured with accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Psychological well-being data (eg, anxiety and behavior problems) were collected via a self-report questionnaire. To determine the relationship of SB with degree of obesity and psychological well-being, linear regression analyses were conducted to relate the indicators of obesity and psychological well-being on SB, adjusted by gender, grade, percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day, duration spent wearing the accelerometer, and degree of obesity. SB was significantly related to behavioral/emotional problems (β = .280, P = .010, R(2) = .015). There was a statistically significant relationship between SB and anxiety (β = .206, P = .059, R(2) = .007). No significant association with degree of obesity was found. Excess SB relates higher levels of behavioral/emotional problems and anxiety. These results can inspire the development of interventions that promote well-being and enhance psychological health, by focusing on SB in Japanese children.

  11. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance-Based Contracts Version 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    Document outlines the Federal Energy Management Program's standard procedures and guidelines for measurement and verification (M&V) for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

  12. Measuring Work Engagement, Psychological Empowerment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among Health Care Aides.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Liane; Berta, Whitney; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Rohit Dass, Adrian; Laporte, Audrey; Reid, R Colin; Squires, Janet; Taylor, Deanne

    2016-04-01

    Health care aides (HCAs) provide most direct care in long-term care (LTC) and home and community care (HCC) settings but are understudied. We validate three key work attitude measures to better understand HCAs' work experiences: work engagement (WEng), psychological empowerment (PE), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB-O). Data were collected from 306 HCAs working in LTC and HCC, using survey items for WEng, PE, and OCB-O adapted for HCAs. Psychometric evaluation involved confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Predictive validity (correlations with measures of job satisfaction and turnover intention) and internal consistency reliability were examined. CFA supported a one-factor model of WEng, a four-factor model of PE, and a one-factor model of OCB-O. HCC workers scored higher than LTC workers on Self-determination (PE) and lower on Impact, demonstrating concurrent validity. WEng and PE correlated with worker outcomes (job satisfaction, turnover intention, and OCB-O), demonstrating predictive validity. Reliability and validity analyses indicated sound psychometric properties overall. Study results support psychometric properties of measures of WEng, PE, and OCB-O for HCAs. Knowledge of HCAs' work attitudes and behaviors can inform recruitment programs, incentive systems, and retention/training strategies for this vital group of care providers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Glycemic outcome not predicted by baseline psychological measures in a diabetes management program.

    PubMed

    Graco, Marnie; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Barker, Anna; Lawlor, Vicki; Wong, Rita; Fourlanos, Spiros

    2012-06-01

    The Northern Health Diabetes Hospital Admission Risk Program is a chronic disease management program that aims to improve the glycemic management of patients with diabetes. The aim of this project was to determine if there was any relationship between psychological characteristics and glycemic outcome in a diabetes management program. A prospective study of patients attending the diabetes management program investigated validated measures of cognition, stage of change, locus of control, self-efficacy, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. The study investigated 86 type 2 diabetes patients (mean age 59 years, 49% female). Glycemic control (HbA1c) was measured at baseline and after 12 months in the program. Glycemic control was poor on admission to the service with a mean HbA1c of 8.9%. The measures of cognition, self-efficacy, locus of control, mental health, and quality of life were not associated with improvements in HbA1c. Those participants with shorter duration of disease and more contacts with the service were significantly more likely to experience improvements in HbA1c. Psychometric data were not predictive of glycemic outcome. Rather, in this chronic disease management program, glycemia improved more in patients who were seen earlier in their disease course and managed more intensively, regardless of their psychometric status.

  14. Assessment tools in obesity - psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Beechy, Laura; Galpern, Jennie; Petrone, Andrew; Das, Sai Krupa

    2012-08-20

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology all pose tremendous challenges to the assessment of an obese person. There is little published research regarding what tools can be used with confidence. This review is designed to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to the current and emerging measurement tools specifically associated with obesity research and practice. Section 1 addresses psychological measures of well being. Sections 2, 3, and 4 focus on the assessment of food intake, activity, and body composition. All sections address basic challenges involved in the study and management of obesity, and highlight methodological issues associated with the use of common assessment tools. The best available methods for use in the obese both in research and clinical practice are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of Positive Psychology Outcome Measures for Chronic Illness, Traumatic Brain Injury and Older Adults: Adaptability in Dementia?

    PubMed

    Stoner, Charlotte R; Orrell, Martin; Spector, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite positive psychology being increasingly recognised as an important agent in well-being, there is a lack of standardised outcome measures for psychosocial dementia research. This review assessed positive psychology outcome measures using standardised criterion in populations that were identified as having shared characteristics. It aimed to identify robust measures that were suitable for potential adaption or use within a dementia population. The review identified 16 positive psychology outcome measures (and 8 further psychometric assessments of these) within the constructs of resilience, self-efficacy, religiousness/spirituality, life valuation, sense of coherence, autonomy, resourcefulness and a combined measure (CASP-19). Scale development studies were subject to a quality assessment, and most were found to be lacking information on reproducibility and responsiveness. A wide range of measures within the constructs of positive psychology was identified as having potential utility for psychosocial research within a dementia population. Examples included the CD-RISC, GSWB, SWLS, MPAQ, RSOA and CASP-19. It is recommended that such scales are further adapted or validated for people with dementia. Underreporting of appropriate psychometric analyses hampered this review, and it is recommended that future authors endeavour to report such analyses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Implementing the water framework directive: contract design and the cost of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2007-10-01

    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures.

  17. Additional effects of the cervical length measurement in women with preterm contractions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vis, Jolande Y; Kuin, Rosanna A; Grobman, William A; Mol, Ben Willem J; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Opmeer, Brent C

    2011-09-01

    Transvaginal cervical length measurement in women with symptoms of preterm labor has been used to decide if treatment is necessary. Cervical length measurement may also have additional effects on patients, such as providing reassurance, although the evidence to support this is unclear. We explored and summarized to what extent additional effects of cervical length measurement in women with threatened preterm labor have been reported in the clinical literature and what the magnitude of these effects was. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify articles reporting on cervical length measurements in women with symptoms of preterm labor. We assessed whether these articles reported patient outcomes other than preterm delivery. The electronic and hand search resulted in 764 articles, of which 172 met initial criteria for further eligibility assessment. We found 12 articles that reported additional effects of cervical length measurement in symptomatic women, such as the reassurance or the sensory consequences related to the transvaginal procedure. None of the articles quantified such additional effects. There appears to be a gap between the presumed effects of cervical length measurement on patient outcomes, such as patients' reassurance, and the actual assessment of these effects during test evaluations. We suggest that future evaluations of prognostic preterm labor tests include a comprehensive assessment of patient outcomes.

  18. Brief scales for measurement of functional social support and psychological resources in French-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Bovier, Patrick A; Chamot, Eric; Perneger, Thomas V

    2002-01-01

    Psychological resources and social support are important determinants of health, but brief and validated scales measuring these dimensions in French are lacking. Instruments measuring self-esteem and mastery, and affective and confident social support were administered by mail to 1257 university students. Factor analysis, internal consistency statistics, and correlations with related variables were used to derive abbreviated scales and confirm their validity. Factor analysis and item reduction yielded four brief scales: mastery (4 items), self-esteem (4 items), affective social support (2 items), and problem-solving social support (4 items). All four scales had few missing items and adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70). All scores were associated with self-reported general health, and with visits to mental health specialists. Scores of self-esteem and mastery were also associated with physician visits (inversely), and confidence in finishing studies and finding a job. Scores of affective and confident social support correlated with the intensity of social activities and the number of people the respondent could count on. The abbreviated scales retained adequate psychometric properties and may be usefully applied in health research among similar French-speaking populations.

  19. Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM): a voice-based evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM) was developed, which consists of 1) speech recording, 2) removal of speckle noise, 3) a Fourier Transform to extract the F0-signal, and 4) the determination of SD F0. After a pilot study in which six participants mimicked emotions by their voice, the core experiment was conducted to see whether EPM is successful. Twenty-five patients suffering from a panic disorder with agoraphobia participated. Two methods (story-telling and reliving) were used to trigger anxiety and were compared with comparable but more relaxed conditions. This resulted in a unique database of speech samples that was used to compare the EPM with the Subjective Unit of Distress to validate it as measure for anxiety/stress. The experimental manipulation of anxiety proved to be successful and EPM proved to be a successful evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

  20. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  1. The Psychology of Confidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-11

    affect predictions? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 1981, 41, 671-680. Summary One of the most fundamental and recurrent judgment tasks...pseudo-diagnosticity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , in press. Summary Five experiments contrasted subjects’ intuitive evaluation of...COpY SEP 1 1 1984 Final Report PFTR-1092-83-1 Contract Number:, N00014-80-C-0140 Work Unit Number: -N197-064 DTIO0 ELECTEl odD THE PSYCHOLOGY OF

  2. For Better or for Worse: Using an Objective Program Assessment Measure to Enhance an Undergraduate Psychology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Beverly; Kelley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe how an objective form of measurement can be used to promote curriculum review, resulting in enhancements to curriculum and pedagogy. During a 4-year period, senior psychology majors took the ETS Major Field Test, and we systematically compared these results to SAT scores, grade point averages, and credits completed. Although diligent,…

  3. An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rosemary A.; Ploubidis, George B.; Huppert, Felicia A.; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effective measurement range of Ryff's Psychological Well-being scales (PWB). It applies normal ogive item response theory (IRT) methodology using factor analysis procedures for ordinal data based on a limited information estimation approach. The data come from a sample of 1,179 women participating in a…

  4. An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rosemary A.; Ploubidis, George B.; Huppert, Felicia A.; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effective measurement range of Ryff's Psychological Well-being scales (PWB). It applies normal ogive item response theory (IRT) methodology using factor analysis procedures for ordinal data based on a limited information estimation approach. The data come from a sample of 1,179 women participating in a…

  5. The Theory and Measurement of Interorganizational Collaborative Capacity in the Acquisition and Contracting Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    Ed.). Homewood, IL: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Kaplan , R.S., & Norton , D.P. (1992). The balanced scorecard —measures that drive performance. Harvard Business...develop (i.e., leading factors) and which subsystem domains will be allowed to lag (i.e., lagging factors) and be changed in the future ( Kaplan & Norton

  6. Product definition for healthcare contracting: an overview of approaches to measuring hospital output with reference to the UK internal market.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, N

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--In many industrialised countries, health care third party payers are moving towards contracted provision arrangements with suppliers of hospital care. Essential to such a process is a standard approach to quantifying the care provided. This paper aims to outline the possible approaches to hospital product definition for the UK National Health Service, and recommends appropriate further research. METHODS--All published and unpublished studies on hospital output measurement in the NHS since 1980 were sought for the purposes of the review. This included both discursive and empirical work, and no exclusion criteria were applied. Most empirical reports on this topic, however, come from the United States. Consequently, the published reports since 1980 from the USA, accessed from the Medline and Healthplan CD-ROM databases, have also been included in the overview. CONCLUSIONS--Where data are sufficient, the true casemix approach offers advantages over other methods of output measurement. In the UK NHS, two systems--diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) and healthcare resource groups (HRGs)--are the only casemix measures that have achieved any significant degree of attention. DRGs have been extensively evaluated internationally, and explain variations in resource use in the UK slightly better than do HRGs. As a local product, HRGs can be more easily adapted to the specific needs of the NHS internal market, however, and will thus probably emerge as a better measure for the UK in the long term. In both cases, locally derived cost weights are unavailable, and their development constitutes a major requirement for use in contracting. Adaptations for long stay and outpatient hospital episodes would enhance the usefulness of hospital casemix systems in the NHS. Existing approaches, such as specialty based classifications, are neither standardised nor predictive of resource use, and would be better replaced by casemix systems. Other countries facing similar choices between

  7. Discord of Biological and Psychological Measures in a Group of Depressed African American and White Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Amy Y

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined racial differences in the self-report of depressive symptoms by reference to biological states. Methods: The study used a convenience sample of 20 depressed cancer patients (CES-D ≥16) (15 African Americans and 5 Whites). Subjects completed depression assessment on a battery of psychological measures and provided blood and saliva samples. Laboratory tests were performed on biomarkers (serotonin, cortisol and IL-6). T-test was computed to examine racial differences on biological and psychological measures. Results: Depressed Whites had a significantly higher cortisol level than depressed African Americans, but no significant group difference was found on any self-reported psychological measures of depression. There was a trend that African Americans reported fewer depressive symptoms on psychological measures but exceeded Whites on the domain of somatization; however, such group differences did not approach statistic significance in this small sample. Conclusion: African Americans did not appear to underreport depression in consideration of their biological states, but had a tendency to report more somatic symptoms than Whites; this may be attributable to non-depression diseases or reporting behavior rather than somatic sensitivity. African Americans exhibited more mistrust in the health care system, which could affect the self-report of depression. There is a discord between biological and psychological measures of depression. Biomarkers prove to be useful for evaluating racial difference in the self-report of depression. Implication for Nursing: Nurses should be cautious of somatic complaints when assessing African American cancer patient’s depression. Establishing trust is essential for an accurate assessment of depression in African American cancer patients. PMID:22135714

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Symptoms in Chinese Doctors as Measured with the SCL-90-R: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Baoquan; Sun, Hong; Li, Zhanzhan; Shen, Liangfang; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-01

    Poor mental health in doctors appears to be a global phenomenon, but there are limited data on changes in doctors' psychological symptoms over time in mainland China. Through a detailed meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies, our aim was to examine the prevalence of psychological symptoms in Chinese physicians as measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) and to explore the factors associated with doctors' mental health. A comprehensive search was performed in major English and Chinese databases. Thirty studies involving a total of 6,099 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of psychological symptoms including somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal-sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation among doctors were significantly higher than those in the general population. Only psychoticism was similar in prevalence to Chinese population norms. The prevalence increased with the study year but decreased with physicians' increasing age. Doctors from central and western China experienced more mental health symptoms than those from eastern China. Psychiatrists scored significantly less favorably than other doctors on most subscales of the SCL-90-R. Doctors' mental health may be associated with age discrepancy, quantitative workload, effort-reward ratio, doctor-patient relationships, professional identity, and individual traits. To minimize the risk of poor mental health in doctors, screening and professional intervention services should be provided at early career stages to raise physicians' awareness about the importance of maintaining psychological well-being and to reduce the prevalence of psychological symptoms.

  9. Evaluation of Sleeping Comfort of Bed Mattresses using Physiological and Psychological Response Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, Masataka; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    The purpose of this study is to create a method of evaluating the quality of sleep based on the elastic properties of bed mattresses through measurement of physiological and psychological responses while sleeping. We gathered Profile of Mood States (POMS) results before and after sleep, and investigated changes in subjects' moods according to sleep. A total of 4 bed mattresses with different degrees of elasticity were prepared. They were all pocket coil mattresses. We conducted polysomnography (PSG) testing on subjects with a bioamplifier while they slept in each bed mattress, so that sleeping depth indicating the quality of sleep could be estimated. PSG is a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. As a result, the sleep depth of bed mattress with a high degree of elasticity increased in the PSG evaluation. Because the hip sinks in deeply from the waist, it is not easy to turn over on mattresses with a low degree of elasticity. We have therefore considered that the sleep depth of the subjects became shallow as a result. We have concluded that it is possible to estimate the quality of sleep through analysis of PSG and POMS results.

  10. Static deflection measurements of cantilever arrays reveal polymer film expansion and contraction.

    PubMed

    Snow, David; Weeks, Brandon L; Kim, Dae Jung; Loui, Albert; Hart, Bradley R; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J

    2007-12-15

    An optical static method of detection is used to interpret surface stress induced bending related to cantilevers coated on one side with poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate), and poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate-co-2-hydroxypropyl acrylate), or respectively, PVA, PVB, and PVC, and exposed to various solvent vapors. Results indicate that the adsorption and surface interactions of the different solvent vapors that cause polymer swelling and shrinking lead to rearrangements, which have been shown to change the elastic properties of the polymer film, and subsequently, the spring constant of the polymer coated cantilever. Static deflection measurements allow the direction of cantilever bending to be determined, which adds a new dimension of usefulness for surface functionalized cantilevers as transducers in the development of novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  11. Psychological measurement in Brazil in the 1920s and 1930s.

    PubMed

    Jacó-Vilela, Ana Maria

    2014-08-01

    This article deals with the initial applications of psychological tests in Brazil during the 1920s and 1930s, and it is focused on their use in education under the influence of the New School and the Mental Hygiene movements. Thus, the objective is to highlight the implication of psychology as a "social science" (Rose, 1996), a support to the legitimacy of racial theories in force during that period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Psychological, neural, endocrine, and immune study of stress in tinnitus patients: any correlation between psychometric and biochemical measures?

    PubMed

    Savastano, Marina; Aita, Maria; Barlani, Federico

    2007-02-01

    The present study was carried out in tinnitus patients in order to study the psychological distress and the biochemical measures of this stressful condition. Psychological features were compared to immune and neuroendocrine parameters in order to verify in these subjects the possible presence of psychological and somatic responses to stress. We studied 85 tinnitus patients who underwent hematochemical immune tests: lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3; CD4; CD3+CD4; CD8; CD19; CD16NK; CD3+CD16+CD56; and CD4/CD8), cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, beta-endorphin, prolactin, and urinary catecholamine. Clinically, significant scores were obtained for hysteria, depression, paranoia, hypochondrias, and social introversion; and high scores were obtained for anxiety, depression, care for health, difficulty of treatment, low self-esteem, family and work difficulties, and social discomfort. There was a low to medium level of self-perception of stress. The less a subject felt stressed, the higher was his or her satisfaction level in the areas of psychological and physical functioning. The scores on the tests and the biochemical measures did not show a significant correlation, but there was a tendency to correlation for the lymphocytes CD19 and CD16NK and for adrenocorticotropic hormone. The comparison between the psychometric and biochemical variables did not reveal any significant correlation among stress perception, daily satisfaction, and the biochemical parameters of stress.

  13. The development and preliminary psychometric properties of two positive psychology outcome measures for people with dementia: the PPOM and the EID-Q.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Charlotte R; Orrell, Martin; Long, Maria; Csipke, Emese; Spector, Aimee

    2017-03-21

    Positive psychology research in dementia care has largely been confined to the qualitative literature because of the lack of robust outcome measures. The aim of this study was to develop positive psychology outcome measures for people with dementia. Two measures were each developed in four stages. Firstly, literature reviews were conducted to identify and operationalise salient positive psychology themes in the qualitative literature and to examine existing measures of positive psychology. Secondly, themes were discussed within a qualitative study to add content validity for identified concepts (n = 17). Thirdly, draft measures were submitted to a panel of experts for feedback (n = 6). Finally, measures were used in a small-scale pilot study (n = 33) to establish psychometric properties. Salient positive psychology themes were identified as hope, resilience, a sense of independence and social engagement. Existing measures of hope and resilience were adapted to form the Positive Psychology Outcome Measure (PPOM). Due to the inter-relatedness of independence and engagement for people with dementia, 28 items were developed for a new scale of Engagement and Independence in Dementia Questionnaire (EID-Q) following extensive qualitative work. Both measures demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = .849 and α = .907 respectively) and convergent validity. Two new positive psychology outcome measures were developed using a robust four-stage procedure. Preliminary psychometric data was adequate and the measures were easy to use, and acceptable for people with dementia.

  14. Relative importance of various measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological outcomes among children affected by HIV

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative importance of four different measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological problems among children affected by HIV in rural China. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 orphans (i.e., children who lost one or both of their parents to HIV), 466 vulnerable children (children who were living with HIV-infected parents), and 404 comparison children who were from the same community and did not have HIV-related illness or death in their families. Four HIV-related stigma measures include perceived public stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), perceived public stigma against children affected by HIV (orphans and vulnerable children), personal stigmatizing attitudes against PLWHA, and enacted stigma among children affected by HIV. Psychological problems included depression and adjustment problems. Results Various measures of HIV-related stigma independently and differentially contribute to children psychological problems. Enacted stigma and children's perceived public stigma against PLWHA or children affected by HIV are generally stronger predictors of psychological problems than their own feelings or attitudes towards PLWHA. Conclusion Various aspects of HIV-related stigma are important for us to understand the perception, attitudes, and experience of children affected by HIV, including both children experiencing HIV-related parental illness and death in their own family and children who were living in the communities hardly hit by HIV. Future health promotion and psychological care efforts for children affected by HIV need to consider the effect of various forms of HIV-related stigma on these children's psychosocial well-being and mobilize the community resources to mitigate the negative effect of HIV-related stigma on PLWHA and their children. PMID:21681458

  15. Tying the Contract Knot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    An informal survey of state superintendent associations and lawyers representing superintendents reveals little change in top executives' contracts over the past decade. Mandatory evaluations and renewable (non-"evergreen") contracts are becoming common; pay-for-performance measures are emerging, yet limited. Contractual and job-leaving…

  16. Interactional Psychology and Organizational Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    7 A0-A113 1132 MI1CHIGAN STATE UNIV EAST LANSING DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY F/6 5/10 INTERACTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHA VIOR. (U) FEB 82 8...j INTERACTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Benjamin Schneider Research Report No. 82.1 February 1982 The writing of this paper was...supported in part by the Organizational Effectiveness Research Programs, Psychological Sciences Division, Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N00014

  17. [Psychological harassment].

    PubMed

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  18. Exploring the relationship between measures of self-esteem and psychological adjustment among adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard

    2008-07-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four quantitative measures examining self-competencies, social approval, anxiety, depression and self-worth. Findings revealed significant group differences: the adolescents with Asperger syndrome perceived themselves to be less competent in social and athletic domains, and to receive less peer approval. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the variables studied were particularly relevant in distinguishing group differences and worked together in predicting group membership. Indeed the variables in the final model accurately predicted group membership for all individuals in the sample. Exploratory hierarchical multiple regression analyses suggested that the two groups had different patterns of relationships between measures of self-competencies, social approval and psychological outcomes.

  19. Rotation of the lever arm of Myosin in contracting skeletal muscle fiber measured by two-photon anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Borejdo, J; Shepard, A; Akopova, I; Grudzinski, W; Malicka, J

    2004-12-01

    The rotation of the lever arm of myosin cross-bridges is believed to be responsible for muscle contraction. To resolve details of this rotation, it is necessary to observe a single cross-bridge. It is still impossible to do so in muscle fiber, but it is possible to investigate a small population of cross-bridges by simultaneously activating myosin in a femtoliter volume by rapid release of caged ATP. In earlier work, in which the number of observed cross-bridges was limited to approximately 600 by confocal microscopy, we were able to measure the rates of cross-bridge detachment and rebinding. However, we were unable to resolve the power stroke. We speculated that the reason for this was that the number of observed cross-bridges was too large. In an attempt to decrease this number, we used two-photon microscopy which permitted observation of approximately 1/2 as many cross-bridges as before with the same signal/noise ratio. With the two-photon excitation, the number of cross-bridges was small enough to resolve the beginning of the power stroke. The results indicated that the power stroke begins approximately 170 ms after the rigor cross-bridge first binds ATP.

  20. How religious status shapes psychological well-being: cultural consonance as a measure of subcultural status among Brazilian Pentecostals.

    PubMed

    François Dengah, H J

    2014-08-01

    Research on subjective social status has long recognized that individuals occupy multiple social hierarchies, with socioeconomic status (SES) being but one. The issue, as such, has been to identify culturally meaningful measures of social status. Through cognitive anthropological theory and methods, I show that it is possible to identify multiple cultural models of "status," and objectively measure an individual's level of adherence, or consonance, with each-effectively placing them within the multidimensional space of social hierarchies. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative study of 118 Brazilian Pentecostals carried out from 2011 to 2012, I show that dominant and limitedly-distributed cultural models of status operate simultaneously and concurrently in the lives of those who hold them. Importantly, each marker of cultural status moderates the other's association with psychological well-being. I argue that the importance of a given social hierarchy is framed by cultural values. For Brazilian Pentecostals, their limitedly distributed model of religious status alters the influence of more dominant societal indicators on psychological well-being. The interaction between religious and secular lifestyle statuses on psychological health is stronger than the association of SES, effectively explaining 51% of the variance. This finding suggests that among some populations, limitedly distributed cultural models of status may be a dominant force in shaping measures of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Award Fees and Their Relationship to Contract Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    relationship exists between award fee contracts and contract success as measured by earned value management (EVM) or contractor performance ratings. Data...whether a relationship exists between award fee contracts and contract success as measured by earned value management (EVM) or contractor performance...using associated measures of contract success, such as earned value management (EVM) or contractor performance ratings. Award fee contracts are

  2. Impact of pay-for-performance contracts and network registry on diabetes and asthma HEDIS measures in an integrated delivery network.

    PubMed

    Levin-Scherz, Jeffrey; DeVita, Nicole; Timbie, Justin

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews the experience of a large, heterogeneous integrated delivery network that incorporated physician quality metrics into pay-for-performance contracts. The authors present criteria for including measures in pay-for-performance contracts and offer a practical approach to determining withhold return or bonus distribution based on improvement and performance. They demonstrate interventions undertaken to improve performance, including the development of a claims-based registry. Empirical data show that the network performance improved more than the comparable state and national performance during the period of this observational study. The authors conclude that pay-for-performance contracts led to development of medical management programs including a claims-based registry and nonphysician interventions, which helped significantly improve selected HEDIS scores.

  3. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  4. Evaluation of Psychological Measures Used in the Health Examination Survey of Children Ages 6-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, S. B.

    In this report the psychological procedures used in the Health Examination Survey conducted between June 1963 and December 1965 for children ages 6 through 11 are critically evaluated. In his analysis, the author combines his own professional competence with the information obtained in an extensive survey of literature pertaining to the four…

  5. Some New and Some Unusual Psychological and Educational Measures: Description and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.

    1983-01-01

    New psychological and educational tests designed for more valid assessment of handicapped children are described and evaluated. The instruments reviewed include the Diagnostic Spelling Potential Test, Language Inventory for Teachers, Test of Language Development: Primary, Neuropsychological Questionnaire, Nonverbal Test of Cognitive Skills, and…

  6. Wellness Assessment: A Rationale, A Measure, and Physical/Psychological Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffield, Gilda; Dana, Richard H.

    Wellness, or holistic health, represents a positive attitude toward the integration of physical and psychological aspects of lifestyle. There have been few attempts to assess wellness that contain more than questionnaire items across several component areas. This paper describes a test battery that includes physical (nutrition, cardiorespiratory…

  7. Of Helping and Measuring for Early Childhood Intervention: Reflections on Issues and School Psychology's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the topic of early identification and intervention to accelerate learning for young children. It presents the author's reflections on issues and school psychology's role in early care childhood care and education. It focuses on four central themes or issues which require resolution about early childhood care and education…

  8. Development of a Scale to Measure Residents' Psychological Empowerment in Chinese Urban Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The present study combined the literature analysis with the empirical study and proposed a Chinese local conception of psychological empowerment, which was defined as a process of personality-oriented, self-motivated, and proactive control with the aim of community members' citizen participation. Its basic dimension comprised an inclination to…

  9. Development of a Scale to Measure Residents' Psychological Empowerment in Chinese Urban Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The present study combined the literature analysis with the empirical study and proposed a Chinese local conception of psychological empowerment, which was defined as a process of personality-oriented, self-motivated, and proactive control with the aim of community members' citizen participation. Its basic dimension comprised an inclination to…

  10. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  11. Feeling Disrespected by Parents: Refining the Measurement and Understanding of Psychological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Brian K.; Xia, Mingzhu; Olsen, Joseph A.; McNeely, Clea A.; Bose, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated parental psychological control of adolescents when construed as disrespect of individuality. First, 120 adolescents from 5 cultures were interviewed and asked to identify specific parental behaviors that communicated to them that they were disrespected as individuals. The interview data were coded and 8 new survey items…

  12. Development and Validation of a Brief Measure of Psychological Resilience: An Adaptation of the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Johnston, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    Resilience helps determine how people respond to stress. The Response to Stressful Events Scale (RSES) is an existing 22-item measure of resilience. We investigate the psychometric properties of the RSES and develop a 4-item measure of resilience using the most discriminating items from the RSES. Among two samples of military personnel presenting to mental health clinics, we see that the abbreviated resilience measure displays comparable internal consistency and test-retest reliability (versus the existing RSES). Among a sample of deployed military personnel, the abbreviated scale relates to validated measures of psychological strain. The 4-item abbreviated RSES measure is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of resilience. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Architect's Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    An actual contract form used for architectural services is presented. Fees, duties, and services are included. Services are listed in the following phases--(1) schematic design, (2) design development, (3) contract document, and (4) construction. Extra services are listed, and owner's responsibility with regard to cost estimates is given.…

  14. The female orgasm: pelvic contractions.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, J G; Held, J P; Sanderson, M O; Ahlgren, A

    1982-10-01

    Eleven nulliparous women manually self-stimulated to orgasm, each on three separate occasions. Pelvic contraction pressure was measured by an anal probe and a vaginal probe simultaneously. Near the perceived start of orgasm, a series of regular contractions began in nine of the women. Anal and vaginal contraction waveforms were synchronized with each other, and the same number of orgasmic contractions occurred in each lumen. Anal pressure had a higher resting baseline and greater amplitude contractions than vaginal pressure. The perceived start of orgasm did not correspond precisely with the onset of regular contractions. Mean intercontraction intervals increased linearly at an increment of about 0.1 second through the series of regular contractions. Amplitudes of contraction pressure waveforms, representing pelvic muscular force, were initially low, increased through the first half of the regular series, and then decreased. Area and net area of the pressure waveforms, reflecting pelvic muscular exertion (force x time), increased during the regular orgasmic contractions. Three of the women's orgasms consistently included only a series of regular contractions (orgasm type I). For six other women, orgasms consistently continued beyond the regular series with additional irregular contractions (orgasm type II). Types I and II had been identified previously in men. Two women had no regular contractions during reported orgasms. This pattern, type IV, had not been recorded in men. Women of different types showed marked differences in orgasm duration and number of contractions. Identification of these types in subjects is important for meaningful comparison of contraction parameters in different studies.

  15. Identifying psychological distress at key stages of the cancer illness trajectory: a systematic review of validated self-report measures.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lucy; Hill, Kate; Neilly, Liz; Bennett, Michael I; Higginson, Irene J; Murray, Scott A; Stark, Dan

    2011-03-01

    To enable study of psychological distress along the cancer journey, we need to be able to select and map validated measures through the cancer trajectory. To examine the performance of self-report measures for identifying clinically significant levels of psychological distress across the cancer patient trajectory. Electronic searches of Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, EmBase, The Cochrane Library, AMED, BNI, ASSIA, and Web of Science were undertaken. Only studies of self-report measures that used validated diagnostic tools for psychiatric diagnosis as the criterion measure were included. We then further limited our focus to those papers that specified a trajectory stage. Forty-eight different self-report measures were reported in the 85 papers identified. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was the most frequently reported measure (23 times). Several other measures were reported between two and four times, but most (37) measures were reported only once. Twenty-two of the 85 included papers reported measure performance by trajectory stage. Best performing measures based on validation data available could be identified for each trajectory stage: for pretreatment, the HADS for identifying depression; during treatment, the HADS and Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5) together for identifying clinically significant distress; post-treatment, the HADS for identifying depression; and at recurrence and during the palliative phase, the Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale (BEDS) for identifying depression. No single measure had evidence to support use throughout the illness trajectory in a longitudinal study, but the HADS, in combination with the MHI-5, was supported during the cancer treatment phase, and BEDS in the palliative care phase. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The measurement of time and its instruments: the program of experimental psychology of Gabriele Buccola].

    PubMed

    Degni, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Gabriele Buccola is remembered as the first Italian psychologist to have developed a rigorous program of laboratory research. The careful examination of the instruments and experimental planning of his psychochronometric investigations reveals the indissoluble bond between theory and experimentation that defines a scientific conception of psychology on the basis of a differential methodology. For Buccola it is important to demonstrate that there exist "laws" that govern the mental processes, and that there exists a time that regulates human reactions and behaviour, considering however the individual differences and various factors that can bear influence to increase or decrease it. The use of 'intelligent' instruments proves to be fundamental within a model of experimentation directed towards pointing out individual differences and not just identifying the general laws of mental functioning. Buccola in this way imparts a psychological characterization to the study of mental illness--placing him as an initiator of experimental psychopathology, which will have a significant development in Europe thanks precisely to the work of Kraepelin--along with a differential and clinical-experimental bent to the emerging Italian scientific psychology. Lastly, the attention directed to the study of complex mental processes leads Buccola to lay the foundation in Italy for the study of the subjective experience of time.

  17. Measuring mental toughness in sport: a psychometric examination of the psychological performance inventory-a and its predecessor.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2012-01-01

    Touted as a multidimensional measure of mental toughness in sport, this study explored the psychometric properties of the Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI; Loehr, 1986 ) and its successor the Psychological Performance Inventory-A (PPI-A; Golby, Sheard, & Van Wersch, 2007 ). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine the extent to which data collected with 333 Australian footballers aged between 15 and 18 years (M = 16.88, SD = .71) fitted the a priori measurement models of both inventories. The results did not support the psychometric properties of the PPI both in terms of model fit and internal consistency. Although model fit data for the PPI-A were encouraging, inadequate levels of internal consistency were evidenced. Convergent validity analyses involving measures of achievement goals and global mental toughness generally supported the validity of the PPI and PPI-A subscales. Taken together with previous research (e.g., Middleton et al., 2004 ), caution is urged when considering the use of the PPI as a measure of mental toughness in sport. Although the empirical data were generally supportive of the psychometric properties of the PPI-A, conceptual (e.g., lack of conceptual underpinnings) and methodological (i.e., revalidated a flawed inventory) concerns become important factors when considering the PPI-A as a measure of mental toughness.

  18. The Psychological Importance of Collective Assembly: Development and Validation of the Tendency for Effervescent Assembly Measure (TEAM).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Shira; Valenti, Jennifer; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Young, Ariana F

    2017-03-06

    Although previous research suggests that connection to large, mostly anonymous groups is important for the fulfillment of psychological needs and a sense of psychological well-being, no measure exists to assess individual differences in this area. In 5 studies, we developed and provided support for the validity of the Tendency for Effervescent Assembly Measure (TEAM). Utilizing data from student and community samples, we conducted exploratory factor analyses to guide item selection for the scale (Study 1), evaluated the structure of the scale in an independent sample (Study 2), examined the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the scale (Study 3), and assessed measurement invariance of the scale across different demographic groups (Study 4). Study 5 explored the role of social needs fulfillment in effervescent assembly, as well as examined the relationship of the scale with recent collective effervescence experiences. Results revealed that our final 11-item scale was unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency and good test-retest reliability over 2 months. Measurement invariance was established across gender, ethnicity, and religion, providing support for the validity of the measure across demographic subgroups. Importantly, the TEAM predicted decreased loneliness, increased positive feelings, a sense of meaning in one's life, self-awareness, and spiritual transcendence, above and beyond the effects of the big 5 factors of personality and collective and relational interdependence. Furthermore, results suggested that positive outcomes associated with the TEAM are because of social need fulfillment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Relationship between physiologic and psychological measures of autonomic activation in operating room teams during a simulated airway emergency.

    PubMed

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca D; Hemingway, Maureen W; Pian-Smith, May C M; Petrusa, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stability is important for individual and team performance during operating room (OR) emergencies. We compared physiologic and psychological anxiety assessments in OR teams during simulated events. Twenty-two teams participated in a "cannot intubate/cannot ventilate" simulation. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and wore a galvanic skin response (GSR) sensor. Differences in State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores and GSR levels were analyzed. Anxiety scores were correlated with GSR levels. Resident physicians had significantly higher trait anxiety than the nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and surgical technicians (43.9 ± 9.9 vs 38.3 ± 9.3, P < .01). Senior practitioners had significantly higher trait anxiety than junior practitioners (43.7 ± 9.6 vs 40.0 ± 9.9, P = .03). All groups showed significant increases in GSR. Psychological and physiologic data did not correlate. Senior practitioners and residents have higher levels of baseline trait anxiety for unclear reasons. Also, OR team training results in physiological signs of anxiety that do not correlate to self-reported psychological measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral evaluation of the psychological welfare and environmental requirements of agricultural research animals: theory, measurement, ethics, and practical implications.

    PubMed

    King, Lesley A

    2003-01-01

    The welfare of agricultural research animals relies not only on measures of good health but also on the presence of positive emotional states and the absence of aversive or unpleasant subjective states such as fear, frustration, or association with pain. Although subjective states are not inherently observable, their interaction with motivational states can be measured through assessment of motivated behavior, which indicates the priority animals place on obtaining or avoiding specific environmental stimuli and thus allows conclusions regarding the impact of housing, husbandry, and experimental procedures on animal welfare. Preference tests and consumer demand models demonstrate that animal choices are particularly valuable when integrated with other behavioral and physiological measurements. Although descriptive assessments of apparently abnormal behavior such as stereotypies and "vacuum behaviors" provide indications of potentially impoverished environments, they should be used with some caution in drawing welfare conclusions. The development of stereotypies may in some cases be linked to psychiatric dysfunction and reflect underlying neurophysiological impairments, which have implications for the ability to perform flexible behavior and thus the quality of research data provided by this kind of behavioral measurement (e.g., in pharmaceutical research). Environmental modifications, commonly termed "enrichment," can have diverse consequences for cognitive function, physiological responses, health, psychological welfare, and research data. Simple practical modifications of housing, husbandry, and experimental design are suggested to improve the psychological welfare of agricultural research animals in accordance with the principles of refining, reducing, and replacing (the "3Rs"), which underlie US Public Health Service Policy, and prevailing public ethics.

  1. What Sources Contribute to Variance in Observer Ratings? Using Generalizability Theory to Assess Construct Validity of Psychological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2013-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of generalizability theory (GT) as a conceptual framework that encourages psychological researchers to address this question and as a flexible set of analytic tools that can provide answers to inform both substantive theory and measurement practice. To illustrate these capabilities, we analyze observer ratings of 27 caregiver–child dyads, focusing on the importance of situational (contextual) factors as sources of variance in observer ratings of caregiver–child behaviors. Cross-situational consistency was relatively low for the categories of behavior analyzed, indicating that dyads vary greatly in their interactional patterns from one situation to the next, so that it is difficult to predict behavioral frequencies in one context from behaviors observed in a different context. Our findings suggest that single-situation behavioral measures may have limited generalizability, either to behavior in other contexts or as measures of global interaction tendencies. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and measurement design in developmental psychology. PMID:25009444

  2. Comparison of an accelerometer and a condenser microphone for mechanomyographic signals during measurement of agonist and antagonist muscles in sustained isometric muscle contractions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kwang; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Iwanaga, Koichi; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the force tremor (FT) on mechanomyographic (MMG) signals recorded by a condenser microphone (MIC) and an accelerometer (ACC) during measurement of agonist and antagonist muscles in sustained isometric contractions. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals and MMG signals by MIC (MMG-MIC) and ACC (MMG-ACC) were recorded simultaneously on biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB). Following determination of the isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), 10 male subjects were asked to perform sustained elbow flexion and extension contractions at 30% MVC until exhaustion. We analyzed the root mean square (RMS) for all signals and compared the sum of the power spectrum (SPA) for 3-6 Hz and 8-12 Hz and the ratio of the sum of SPA for 3-6 Hz and 8-12 Hz in SPA for 3-100 Hz (SPA-FT/SPA-(3-100 Hz)) between MMG-MIC and MMG-ACC. During all sustained muscle contractions, the RMS of EMG and MMG-(MIC) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in antagonistic muscle pairs, while the increase was more noticeable for the agonist than for the antagonist. In addition, the antagonist had a significantly (p<0.05) smaller amplitude than the agonist muscle. The RMS of MMG-ACC, however, showed no significant (p>0.05) difference in RMS amplitude and slope between agonist and antagonist muscles during flexion. In extension, the MMG-ACC-RMS amplitude showed a tendency to be higher in the antagonist than in the agonist, while their slopes showed no significant (p>0.05) difference. The SPA for 3-6 Hz and 8-12 Hz in MMG-(MIC) showed a tendency to be higher in the agonist than the antagonist, and the slopes of the agonist were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the antagonist in all contractions. In MMG-ACC, SPA and slopes for 3-6 Hz and 8-12 Hz tended not to differ between agonist and antagonist. The SPA-FT/SPA-(3-100 Hz) in MMG-ACC showed that the antagonist was higher than that of the agonist in all contractions. The MMG

  3. [Evaluation on the Chinese version of adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scale and its reliability and validity].

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Xianhong; Wu, Xian; Gu, Fang; Qu, Xuping; Xu, Liangwen

    2014-03-01

    To develop a suitable fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales for the Chinese adolescents and evaluate its validity and reliability. According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle, a total of 3 600 junior students were recruited from the classes in 12 selected high schools in Hangzhou, Wuhan and Xi'an from March to May, 2012. Based on introducing and translating the original scale abroad, Chinese version of adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales was utilized in field investigations. The reliability was assessed, using Cronbach's α and split-half reliability; while exploratory factor analysis used to test its validity, with entries-dimension correlation coefficient (IIC), correlation coefficient between the scores and the dimension, and the dimension of correlation coefficient test content validity. The valid subject of the study was 3 448(of whom males were 52.4% (1 806/3 448) and female were 47.6% (1 642/3 448)), while the mean age was (14.85 ± 1.46) years old. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) for total scale score and four domains were 0.922,0.933, 0.660, 0.773 and 0.869 respectively, whose split-efficacy reliability were separately 0.927, 0.933, 0.790, 0.624 and 0.889. Data from the exploratory factor analysis revealed the following dimensions:the entries were all inclusive, with the cumulative contribution rate at 59.453%, 56.062% and 52.668%, respectively. The results of IIC showed that in the four dimensions, the contained entries between Spearman correlation coefficient have statistically significant, with the r value range of 0.584-0.793, 0.665-0.818, 0.654-0.765 and 0.622-0.747 severely, while other dimensions from weak to moderate relationships, the r value ranged from -0.028 to 0.614. The reliability and validity of the adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales (Chinese version) were good, and could be used to measure the fat intake behavior of

  4. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  5. Association Between Patient-Reported Measures of Psychological Distress and Patient Satisfaction Scores in a Spine Surgery Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, A.M.; Brodke, D.S.; Lawrence, B.D.; Zhang, C.; Spiker, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Update This article was updated on June 10, 2015, because of previous errors. The title had previously read “Association Between Patient-Reported Measures of Psychological Distress and Patient Satisfaction Scores After Spine Surgery.” It has been changed to “Association Between Patient-Reported Measures of Psychological Distress and Patient Satisfaction Scores in a Spine Surgery Patient Population” to reflect the fact that not all patients had undergone surgery when they completed their questionnaires. The last sentence in the Background paragraph of the Abstract had previously read “The goal of this study was to determine whether psychological distress influences outpatient satisfaction scores following spine surgery.” It now reads “The goal of this study was to determine whether psychological distress influences outpatient satisfaction scores in a spine surgery patient population.” The last sentence before the Materials and Methods section, which previously read “Our aim in conducting this study was to determine whether psychological distress, as measured with the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) questionnaire, influences outpatient satisfaction scores following spine surgery,” now reads: “Our aim in conducting this study was to determine whether psychological distress, as measured with the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) questionnaire, influences outpatient satisfaction scores in a spine surgery patient population.” Finally, the second sentence in the Materials and Methods section, “Every patient who completed both a patient satisfaction survey and a DRAM questionnaire for the same encounter at any point during the study period was included in this study,” has been changed to “Every patient who completed both a patient satisfaction survey and a DRAM questionnaire for the same encounter, before or after the surgery, at any point during the study period was included in this study.” An erratum has been published

  6. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  7. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  8. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  9. Relationship of purported measures of pathological and nonpathological dissociation to self-reported psychological distress and fantasy immersion.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ross; Spei, Ekaterina

    2004-06-01

    In order to investigate both the psychometric structure of the Dissociative Experiences Survey (DES) and the discriminant validity of the DES-Taxon (Waller, Putnam, & Carlson, 1996) as a specific marker of pathological dissociation, 376 non-clinical community based respondents completed the DES and a battery of psychopathology and imaginative involvement self-report measures. The DES was scored for both the Taxon and the DES-Absorption subscale. A DES subscale purported to tap normative dissociative processes. The two DES subscales demonstrated substantial overlap, both with each other (r = .80) and with the self-report measures with both DES scales comparably associated with high levels of psychological distress. Both DES subscales were also associated with elevated levels of "normative" imaginative involvement (fantasy proneness, absorption, daydreaming immersion). We conclude that both DES scales are largely indistinguishable from each other in relation to other self-report measures of psychopathology and fantasy access.

  10. Propensity score techniques and the assessment of measured covariate balance to test causal associations in psychological research

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use and evaluation. This study gives an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and PS application. It also provides a way to help compare PS techniques, using the resulting measured covariate balance as the criterion for selecting between techniques. The empirical example for this study involves the potential causal relationship linking early-onset cannabis problems and subsequent negative mental health outcomes, using data from a prospective cohort study. PS techniques are described and evaluated based on their ability to balance the distributions of measured potentially confounding covariates for individuals with and without early-onset cannabis problems. This paper identifies the PS techniques that yield good statistical balance of the chosen measured covariates within the context of this particular research question and cohort. PMID:20822250

  11. Sensitivity of three widely used questionnaires for measuring psychological distress among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tan, L S M; Khoo, E Y H; Tan, C S; Griva, K; Mohamed, Amir; New, Michelle; Lee, Y S; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E S; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although a range of generic and diabetes-specific instruments are available to assess emotional distress, no studies have evaluated sensitivity in relation to sample size requirement. The present study sets out to compare the sensitivity among the Diabetes Health Profile Psychological Distress scale (DHP-PD), Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) and Kessler-10 Psychological Distress scale (K10). We hypothesized that the diabetes-specific measures (DHP-PD and PAID) would require smaller sample sizes than the generic measure (K10), yet remain specific. A total of 208 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 45.2 (12.4) years; 63.1 % males, 45.8 % Chinese, 11.3 % Malay and 26.6 % Indian), recruited from a Singapore tertiary hospital diabetes clinic, completed the English DHP-PD, PAID and K10. Clinical information derived from medical records and HbA1c was recorded. Effect sizes (ES), ratio of ES and sample size requirement relative to the most sensitive questionnaire were computed. A comparison of patients with good versus poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.0) revealed that using K10 will require 4 times the sample size of a study using the PAID in order to detect the same level of psychological distress. The DHP-PD and PAID had similar sensitivity when comparing between patients with good versus poor glycaemic control. As hypothesized, sample size requirement is largest for K10 and remarkably similar for PAID and DHP-PD. This information is useful for designing clinical trials and studies.

  12. Simulation Systems for Cognitive Psychology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    the deve )pment of SNOBOL). 5.1 The First Generation Of Psychological Simulation Languages Therefore, the first generatiov’ of specialized languages...SIMULATION SYSTEMS FOR COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Robert Neche University of Pittsburgh. August 1982 Technical Report No. UPITT/LRDC/ONR/APS-12 This...research was sponsored by the Personnel and Training Research Programs, Psychological Sciences Division, Office of Naval Research, under Contract No. N00014

  13. Measurement equivalence: A non-technical primer on categorical multi-group confirmatory factor analysis in school psychology.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Laura L; von der Embse, Nathaniel; Kilgus, Stephen P; Eklund, Katie R

    2017-02-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have become a central component of school psychology research and practice, but EBIs are dependent upon the availability and use of evidence-based assessments (EBAs) with diverse student populations. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is an analytical tool that can be used to examine the validity and measurement equivalence/invariance of scores across diverse groups. The objective of this article is to provide a conceptual and procedural overview of categorical MG-CFA, as well as an illustrated example based on data from the Social and Academic Behavior Risk Screener (SABRS) - a tool designed for use in school-based interventions. This article serves as a non-technical primer on the topic of MG-CFA with ordinal (rating scale) data and does so through the framework of examining equivalence of measures used for EBIs within multi-tiered models - an understudied topic. To go along with the illustrated example, we have provided supplementary files that include sample data, Mplus input code, and an annotated guide for understanding the input code (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2016.11.002). Data needed to reproduce analyses in this article are available as supplemental materials (online only) in the Appendix of this article. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The life closure scale: additional psychometric testing of a tool to measure psychological adaptation in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct additional psychometric testing on an instrument designed to measure psychological adaptation in end-of-life populations across a wide spectrum of terminal illnesses. A sample of 20 participants completed initial testing of the Life Closure Scale (LCS); however, its usefulness was limited by the small sample size. A larger sample of 113 home hospice individuals who met established criteria and who gave informed consent completed the 27-item LCS for additional psychometric testing. Cronbach's alphas and correlation coefficients were computed, and factor analysis was conducted to establish internal consistency reliability, theoretical clarity, and criterion-related validity. The number of scale items was reduced to 20, with a total alpha of.87. Cronbach's alphas for the two subscales were.80 (self-reconciled) and.82 (self-restructuring). Item-total correlations for the subscales ranged from a low of.37 to a high of.68, with confirmatory factor analysis yielding two loadings. These findings lend credence to the usefulness of the LCS in measuring psychological adaptation in dying persons.

  15. The Psychology of Teaching Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osaze, Jana D.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that psychology instructors should capitalize upon students' eagerness for self-disclosure and that course material should be channeled toward meeting this need. Examines the use of specific personality inventory tests measuring memory, motivation, creativity, and emotion as a link between course material and the students' personal…

  16. Simultaneous pressure and /sup 19/F NMR pH measurements of smooth muscle cells of intact hog carotid arteries at rest and during contractions with norepinephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Grieder, T.A.; Evans, C.A.; Greenberg, S.S.; Diecke, F.P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Using /sup 19/F NMR we have measured the intracellular pH of the vascular smooth muscle cells of hog carotid arteries at rest and during contractions induced with norepinephrine. Experiments were performed on single, intact arteries closed at both ends, superfused from the lumen and loaded with the /sup 19/F NMR pH indicator ..cap alpha..-difluoromethylalanine. At rest, luminal pressure was maintained at 100 +/-2 mm Hg and intracellular pH was 7.12 +/- 0.04. Contractions elicited with 10/sup -5/ M norepinephrine were associated with a pressure increase of 18 +/-6 mm Hg and a decrease in pH of 0.04 +/- 0.02 units.

  17. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  18. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  19. Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-10-28

    A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were positively related to psychological distress and

  20. Comorbidity Structure of Psychological Disorders in the Online e-PASS Data as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment Measures: Psychological Distress, Adequate Social Support, Self-Confidence, Quality of Life, and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-01-01

    Background A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. Objective This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). Methods A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. Results A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image–eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression–sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were

  1. Contracts and Contracting: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Terra, Sandra M; Zimmerling, John

    2016-01-01

    The underlying guiding principles of case management services and practices of the Case Management Body of Knowledge include the following: "Case managers must possess the education, skills, knowledge, competencies, and experiences needed to effectively render appropriate, safe, and quality services to clients/support systems" and "Case management services are offered according to the clients' benefits as stipulated in their health insurance plans (http://www.cmbodyofknowledge.com/content/case-management-knowledge-2). Fulfilling these principles requires that the case manager engage in negotiating and contract execution.This article explores the concepts of negotiation and some of the many ways case managers contribute to the contracting process. Acute care hospitals, individual practice, managed care. Case managers can provide valuable information during the contracting process, in many settings. In the managed care arena, case management can help identify the types of services needed by the population the organization serves. The same understanding of data can assist during the payer contracting process in the acute care setting and ensure that the hospital is fairly reimbursed by third party payers. The independent practitioners will, undoubtedly, face the need to negotiate for themselves as well as their clients. The case manager, regardless of the setting, benefits from an understanding of the principles and processes associated with negotiation and contracting.

  2. Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    This study examines bed load transport processes in a small gravel-bed river (Béard Creek, Québec) using three complementary methods: bed elevation changes between successive floods, bed activity surveys using tags inserted into the bed, and bed load transport rates from bed load traps. The analysis of 20 flood events capable of mobilizing bed material led to the identification of divergent results among the methods. In particular, bed elevation changes were not consistent with the bed activity surveys. In many cases, bed elevation changes were significant (1 to 2 times the D50) even if the bed surface had not been activated during the flood, leading to the identification of processes of bed dilation and contraction that occurred over 10% to 40% of the bed surface. These dynamics of the river bed prevent accurate derivation of bed load transport rates from topographic changes, especially for low magnitude floods. This paper discusses the mechanisms that could explain the dilation and contraction of particles within the bed and their implications in fluvial dynamics. Bed contraction seems to be the result of the winnowing of the fine sediments under very low gravel transport. Bed dilation seems to occur on patches of the bed at the threshold of motion where various processes such as fine sediment infiltration lead to the maintenance of a larger sediment framework volume. Both processes are also influenced by flood history and the initial local bed state and in turn may have a significant impact on sediment transport and morphological changes in gravel-bed rivers.

  3. The Impostor Phenomenon in Psychology Graduate Students: A Measure of the Prevalence, in Which Year It Is Most Prevalent, and the Psychological Symptoms Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The impostor phenomenon (IP) is a psychological condition in which people are unable to internalize their achievements. Sufferers of the impostor phenomenon experience an overwhelming sense of being a phony, despite much evidence that they have to the contrary. Those afflicted with the impostor phenomenon feel that they are not deserving of their…

  4. The Impostor Phenomenon in Psychology Graduate Students: A Measure of the Prevalence, in Which Year It Is Most Prevalent, and the Psychological Symptoms Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The impostor phenomenon (IP) is a psychological condition in which people are unable to internalize their achievements. Sufferers of the impostor phenomenon experience an overwhelming sense of being a phony, despite much evidence that they have to the contrary. Those afflicted with the impostor phenomenon feel that they are not deserving of their…

  5. Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

    This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

  6. The Reading Grade Level of Common Measures in Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Scott A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide easily accessible readability information for 49 parent- and 35 child- and adolescent-report measures commonly used by clinicians and researchers. There is a great deal of variability in reading ability required across measures. The majority of parent-report measures (65%) required reading ability above…

  7. Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Series in Applied Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T., Ed.; Salas, Eduardo, Ed.; Prince, Carolyn, Ed.

    This volume presents thoughts on measuring team performance written by experts currently working with teams in fields such as training, evaluation, and process consultation. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview of Team Performance Measurement" (Michael T. Brannick and Carolyn Prince); (2) "A Conceptual Framework for Teamwork Measurement" (Terry L.…

  8. The psychological measurement of childhood sexual development in Western societies: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Hanneke; Rademakers, Jany

    2011-03-01

    Children can display sexual behavior or have sexual experiences. Different psychological research methods are available for studying these kinds of behaviors and feelings, such as interviewing or observing children (direct methods), asking adolescents or adults to retrospectively report their childhood memories or using intermediaries to observe children (indirect methods). Each of these methods has its own advantages and limitations. Based on a review of the literature, this work answers three questions: (a) What research methods are generally used to study childhood sexual development? (b) What insight do these methods give into the sexual behaviors or feelings of children? and (c) What are the advantages and limitations of each of these research methods in this research domain? Almost all studies on childhood sexual behavior and feelings use either observational or retrospective methods. In both types of studies, only behavior that is considered to be sexual from an adult perspective is reported. To gain insight into the child's perspective, one has to rely on methods other than observations or retrospective research, such as interviews with children that match their developmental limitations and competencies.

  9. The effects measurement of hand massage by the autonomic activity and psychological indicators.

    PubMed

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Kumi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Tanioka, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of hand massage on autonomic activity, anxiety, relaxation and sense of affinity by performing it to healthy people before applying the technic in actual clinical practice. Findings were showed below: 1) the significant increase in the pNN50 and the significant decrease in the heart rate meant the intervention of massage increased the autonomic nervous activity, improved the parasympathetic nerve activity and reduced the sympathetic nerve activity. This means the subjects were considered to be in a state of relaxation. 2) Salivary α amylase has been reported as a possible indicator for sympathetic nerve activity. In this study, there was no significant difference in the salivary α amylase despite a decrease after massage. 3) State anxiety score is temporal situational reactions while being in the state of anxiety and this score decreased significantly after massage. 4) The level of willingness to communicate with other person and the sense of affinity toward the massage-performer had a positive change of 70 percent. From this, it can be considered that a comfortable physical contact between a patient and a nursing profession, who are in a supported-supportive relationship, leads to an effect of shortening the gap in their psychological distance.

  10. Effect of attending childbirth education classes on psychological distress in pregnant women measured by means of the General Health Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jakubiec, Dorota; Jagielska, Katarzyna; Karmowski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Katarzyna; Karmowski, Andrzej; Sobiech, Krzysztof A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy brings about many changes in a woman's life in somatic, psychological and social spheres. Therefore, many women decide to participate in childbirth education classes. The aim of study was to determine the differences in emotional distress between women who participated in childbirth education classes and these who did not. Seventy first-time mothers after labor were examined. Based on a survey carried out, the women were divided into two equal groups. Group I consisted of women who had participated in childbirth education classes and Group II of women who had not. The data was gathered by means of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) adapted to Polish conditions. There were no differences either in age or in BMI rates among the examined women. The level of education and knowledge about labor was significantly higher among the participants of childbirth classes. The results of the GHQ-12 revealed that women from Group I had a better mental status than women from Group II. Significant differences were observed in terms of sleep deprivation, overcoming difficulties and in the ability to enjoy daily activities. Participation in childbirth classes has a significant influence on psychological well-being in pregnant women as measured by the GHQ-12.

  11. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  12. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  13. Assessment of voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction in continent and incontinent women using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing and vaginal squeeze pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Judith A; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Briffa, N Kathryn; Neumann, Patricia

    2006-11-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to assess women performing voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, on initial instruction without biofeedback teaching, using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing, and perineometry and (2) to assess for associations between the different measurements of PFM function. Sixty continent (30 nulliparous and 30 parous) and 60 incontinent (30 stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 30 urge urinary incontinence (UUI)) women were assessed. Bladder neck depression during attempts to perform an elevating pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction occurred in 17% of continent and 30% of incontinent women. The UUI group had the highest proportion of women who depressed the bladder neck (40%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.060). The continent women were stronger on manual muscle testing (p=0.001) and perineometry (p=0.019) and had greater PFM endurance (p<0.001) than the incontinent women. There was a strong tendency for the continent women to have a greater degree of bladder neck elevation than the incontinent women (p=0.051). There was a moderate correlation between bladder neck movement during PFM contraction measured by ultrasound and PFM strength assessed by manual muscle testing (r=0.58, p=0.01) and perineometry (r=0.43, p=0.01). The observation that many women were performing PFM exercises incorrectly reinforces the need for individual PFM assessment with a skilled practitioner. The significant correlation between the measurements of bladder neck elevation during PFM contraction and PFM strength measured using MMT and perineometry supports the use of ultrasound in the assessment of PFM function; however, the correlation was only moderate and, therefore, indicates that the different measurement tools assess different aspects of PFM function. It is recommended that physiotherapists use a combination of assessment tools to evaluate the different aspects of PFM function that are important for continence

  14. The Influence of Urban Natural and Built Environments on Physiological and Psychological Measures of Stress—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Beil, Kurt; Hanes, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Environments shape health and well-being, yet little research has investigated how different real-world environmental settings influence the well-known determinant of health known as stress. Using a cross-over experimental design; this pilot study investigated the effect of four urban environments on physiological and psychological stress measures. Participants (N = 15) were exposed on separate days to one of the four settings for 20 min. These settings were designated as Very Natural; Mostly Natural; Mostly Built and Very Built. Visitation order to the four settings was individually randomized. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase; as well as self-report measures of stress; were collected before and after exposure to each setting. Gender was included as a variable in analysis; and additional data about environmental self-identity, pre-existing stress, and perceived restorativeness of settings were collected as measures of covariance. Differences between environmental settings showed greater benefit from exposure to natural settings relative to built settings; as measured by pre-to-post changes in salivary amylase and self-reported stress; differences were more significant for females than for males. Inclusion of covariates in a regression analysis demonstrated significant predictive value of perceived restorativeness on these stress measures, suggesting some potential level of mediation. These data suggest that exposure to natural environments may warrant further investigation as a health promotion method for reducing stress. PMID:23531491

  15. Social desirability and the measurement of psychological well-being in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, L L; Cone, J D

    1983-11-01

    The discriminant validity of two commonly used measures of life satisfaction was investigated. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, the Life Satisfaction Index-B, and two theoretically unrelated self-report measures were completed by 60 alumni of West Virginia University, aged 66 to 86 years. Convergent validity of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index-B was established (r = .64, p less than .0001), but both also correlated significantly with a measure of social desirability (r = .70 and .58, respectively, p less than .0001). The need for more basic work on measurement of life satisfaction in elderly persons was discussed.

  16. Measurement Invariance Conventions and Reporting: The State of the Art and Future Directions for Psychological Research

    PubMed Central

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement invariance assesses the psychometric equivalence of a construct across groups or across time. Measurement noninvariance suggests that a construct has a different structure or meaning to different groups or on different measurement occasions in the same group, and so the construct cannot be meaningfully tested or construed across groups or across time. Hence, prior to testing mean differences across groups or measurement occasions (e.g., boys and girls, pretest and posttest), or differential relations of the construct across groups, it is essential to assess the invariance of the construct. Conventions and reporting on measurement invariance are still in flux, and researchers are often left with limited understanding and inconsistent advice. Measurement invariance is tested and established in different steps. This report surveys the state of measurement invariance testing and reporting, and details the results of a literature review of studies that tested invariance. Most tests of measurement invariance include configural, metric, and scalar steps; a residual invariance step is reported for fewer tests. Alternative fit indices (AFIs) are reported as model fit criteria for the vast majority of tests; χ2 is reported as the single index in a minority of invariance tests. Reporting AFIs is associated with higher levels of achieved invariance. Partial invariance is reported for about one-third of tests. In general, sample size, number of groups compared, and model size are unrelated to the level of invariance achieved. Implications for the future of measurement invariance testing, reporting, and best practices are discussed. PMID:27942093

  17. Measurement Invariance Conventions and Reporting: The State of the Art and Future Directions for Psychological Research.

    PubMed

    Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2016-09-01

    Measurement invariance assesses the psychometric equivalence of a construct across groups or across time. Measurement noninvariance suggests that a construct has a different structure or meaning to different groups or on different measurement occasions in the same group, and so the construct cannot be meaningfully tested or construed across groups or across time. Hence, prior to testing mean differences across groups or measurement occasions (e.g., boys and girls, pretest and posttest), or differential relations of the construct across groups, it is essential to assess the invariance of the construct. Conventions and reporting on measurement invariance are still in flux, and researchers are often left with limited understanding and inconsistent advice. Measurement invariance is tested and established in different steps. This report surveys the state of measurement invariance testing and reporting, and details the results of a literature review of studies that tested invariance. Most tests of measurement invariance include configural, metric, and scalar steps; a residual invariance step is reported for fewer tests. Alternative fit indices (AFIs) are reported as model fit criteria for the vast majority of tests; χ(2) is reported as the single index in a minority of invariance tests. Reporting AFIs is associated with higher levels of achieved invariance. Partial invariance is reported for about one-third of tests. In general, sample size, number of groups compared, and model size are unrelated to the level of invariance achieved. Implications for the future of measurement invariance testing, reporting, and best practices are discussed.

  18. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    PubMed

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Family caregiver burden caused by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: measurement with a new original scale].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keiko; Ito, Mikiko; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the caregiver burden caused by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (CBBD) using an originally developed scale and to estimate the CBBD scores in a large sample of family caregivers of elderly people. The subjects were 1,818 users of the public Long-term Care Insurance, randomly stratified and sampled in Higashi-osaka city, Osaka prefecture. Data were collected through mailed, anonymous self-report questionnaires. The survey was conducted in October 2003. We created a 10-item CBBD scale based on previous studies on caregivers of dementia. The CBBD scale was applied to all caregivers regardless of dementia symptoms, and we also collected the following information: demographic data of the care-recipients and caregivers, the level of cognitive disorders of the care-recipient and the overall subjective caregiver burden. All items of the CBBD scale were selected at higher percentages by caregivers of care-recipients with cognitive disorders than caregivers of care-recipients without cognitive disorders. In particular, the relative risk and odds ratio of caregivers of care-recipients with cognitive disorder was higher in items such as 'the caregiver feels fear and anxiety about the care-recipient's unpredictable behavior', 'the care-recipient doesn't understand what the caregiver says', 'the caregiver feels irritated with incomprehensible care-recipient's behavior' which pose psychological stress or pressure on caregivers. On the other hand, the relative risk and odds ratio of the overall subjective caregiver burden was lower than that of any item of the CBBD scale. Furthermore, all CBBD items were related to symptoms of dementia (aroused/paranoid behavior, memory disorder, cognitive dysfunction, pica behavior). The CBBD scale had sensitivity for the care-recipient's cognitive disorder. In addition, it can detect more precisely the caregiver burden such as psychological stress or pressure due to the care

  20. Measurement equivalence of four psychological questionnaires in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants, and native-born Russians.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Oliver; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Bachmann, Viktoria

    2013-07-01

    Psychological constructs depend on cultural context. It is therefore important to show the equivalence of measurement instruments in cross-cultural research. There is evidence that in Russian-speaking immigrants, cultural and language issues are important in health care. We examined measurement equivalence of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the Hamburg Self-Care Questionnaire (HamSCQ), and the questionnaire on communication preferences of patients with chronic illness (KOPRA) in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants living in Germany, and native-born Russians living in the former Soviet Union (FSU). All four questionnaires fulfilled requirements of measurement equivalence in confirmatory factor analyses and analyses of differential item functioning. The Russian translations can be used in Russian-speaking immigrants and native-born Russians. This offers further possibilities for cross-cultural research and for an improvement in health care research in Russian-speaking immigrants in Germany. The most pronounced differences occurred in the KOPRA, which point to differences in German and Russian health care systems.

  1. Propensity score techniques and the assessment of measured covariate balance to test causal associations in psychological research.

    PubMed

    Harder, Valerie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Anthony, James C

    2010-09-01

    There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use, and evaluation. In this study, the authors give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and PS application. They also provide a way to help compare PS techniques, using the resulting measured covariate balance as the criterion for selecting between techniques. The empirical example for this study involves the potential causal relationship linking early-onset cannabis problems and subsequent negative mental health outcomes and uses data from a prospective cohort study. PS techniques are described and evaluated on the basis of their ability to balance the distributions of measured potentially confounding covariates for individuals with and without early-onset cannabis problems. This article identifies the PS techniques that yield good statistical balance of the chosen measured covariates within the context of this particular research question and cohort.

  2. Development of an Instrument to Measure Noctcaelador: Psychological Attachment to the Night-Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 150) participated in a study developing a 10-item scale (the Noctcaelador Inventory; NI) to measure noctcaelador: adoration and attachment to the night-sky. The NI demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, normality, and preliminary validity. The scale significantly correlated with self-reported…

  3. Measuring individuals' response quality in self-administered psychological tests: an introduction to Gendre's functional method

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Capel, Roland; Gendre, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The functional method is a new test theory using a new scoring method that assumes complexity in test structure, and thus takes into account every correlation between factors and items. The main specificity of the functional method is to model test scores by multiple regression instead of estimating them by using simplistic sums of points. In order to proceed, the functional method requires the creation of hyperspherical measurement space, in which item responses are expressed by their correlation with orthogonal factors. This method has three main qualities. First, measures are expressed in the absolute metric of correlations; therefore, items, scales and persons are expressed in the same measurement space using the same single metric. Second, factors are systematically orthogonal and without errors, which is optimal in order to predict other outcomes. Such predictions can be performed to estimate how one would answer to other tests, or even to model one's response strategy if it was perfectly coherent. Third, the functional method provides measures of individuals' response validity (i.e., control indices). Herein, we propose a standard procedure in order to identify whether test results are interpretable and to exclude invalid results caused by various response biases based on control indices. PMID:26136693

  4. Psychological Empowerment among Urban Youth: Measure Development and Relationship to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Emily J.; Schotland, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    Although there are an increasing number of youth development programs that aim to empower young people, there is a dearth of psychometrically sound measures that can be used to assess flexible youth-led organizing and participatory research approaches that tackle a wide range of social and community problems. This study developed and tested…

  5. Resisting the Seduction of the Global Education Measurement Industry: Notes on the Social Psychology of PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The question I raise in this paper is why measurement systems such as PISA have gained so much power in contemporary education policy and practice. I explore this question from the bottom up by asking what might contribute to the ways in which people invest in systems such as PISA, that is, what are the beliefs, assumptions and desires that lead…

  6. Development of an Instrument to Measure Noctcaelador: Psychological Attachment to the Night-Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 150) participated in a study developing a 10-item scale (the Noctcaelador Inventory; NI) to measure noctcaelador: adoration and attachment to the night-sky. The NI demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, normality, and preliminary validity. The scale significantly correlated with self-reported…

  7. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  8. Assessment tools in obesity- psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...

  9. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  10. Resisting the Seduction of the Global Education Measurement Industry: Notes on the Social Psychology of PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The question I raise in this paper is why measurement systems such as PISA have gained so much power in contemporary education policy and practice. I explore this question from the bottom up by asking what might contribute to the ways in which people invest in systems such as PISA, that is, what are the beliefs, assumptions and desires that lead…

  11. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  12. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. A quantitative comparison of psychological and emotional health measures in 360 plastic surgery candidates: is there a difference between aesthetic and reconstructive patients?

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Clarke, Alex; White, Paul; Sivakumar, Bran; Ong, Juling; Butler, Peter E M

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the utility of the aesthetic and reconstructive categorization for making treatment decisions in patients seeking facial surgery. A total of 360 patients with aesthetic or combined functional aesthetic deficits were included. Validated psychological scales were used as outcome measures. All subjects showed clinically significant levels of appearance-related distress, with highest levels in the aesthetic and lowest levels in the functionally impaired group. Significant gender differences were not found on any psychological measures. A small negative correlation was found between age and distress. These findings challenge the validity of restricting treatment on the basis of an aesthetic distinction, since this is the group demonstrating the highest level of need. Neither age nor gender is a reliable discriminator. Subjective assessment of noticeability of disfigurement and associated psychological distress may be more useful in prioritizing treatment in systems with limited resources.

  14. The STarT back screening tool and individual psychological measures: evaluation of prognostic capabilities for low back pain clinical outcomes in outpatient physical therapy settings.

    PubMed

    Beneciuk, Jason M; Bishop, Mark D; Fritz, Julie M; Robinson, Michael E; Asal, Nabih R; Nisenzon, Anne N; George, Steven Z

    2013-03-01

    Psychologically informed practice emphasizes routine identification of modifiable psychological risk factors being highlighted. The purpose of this study was to test the predictive validity of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) in comparison with single-construct psychological measures for 6-month clinical outcomes. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Patients (n=146) receiving physical therapy for low back pain were administered the SBT and a battery of psychological measures (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity scale and work scale [FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively], Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], 11-item version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11], and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) at initial evaluation and 4 weeks later. Treatment was at the physical therapist's discretion. Clinical outcomes consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Prediction of 6-month clinical outcomes was assessed for intake SBT and psychological measure scores using multiple regression models while controlling for other prognostic variables. In addition, the predictive capabilities of intake to 4-week changes in SBT and psychological measure scores for 6-month clinical outcomes were assessed. Intake pain intensity scores (β=.39 to .45) and disability scores (β=.47 to .60) were the strongest predictors in all final regression models, explaining 22% and 24% and 43% and 48% of the variance for the respective clinical outcome at 6 months. Neither SBT nor psychological measure scores improved prediction of 6-month pain intensity. The SBT overall scores (β=.22) and SBT psychosocial scores (β=.25) added to the prediction of disability at 6 months. Four-week changes in TSK-11 scores (β=-.18) were predictive of pain intensity at 6 months. Four-week changes in FABQ-PA scores (β=-.21), TSK-11 scores (β=-.20) and SBT overall scores (β=-.18) were predictive of disability at 6 months. Physical therapy treatment was

  15. The STarT Back Screening Tool and Individual Psychological Measures: Evaluation of Prognostic Capabilities for Low Back Pain Clinical Outcomes in Outpatient Physical Therapy Settings

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.; Fritz, Julie M.; Robinson, Michael E.; Asal, Nabih R.; Nisenzon, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychologically informed practice emphasizes routine identification of modifiable psychological risk factors being highlighted. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the predictive validity of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) in comparison with single-construct psychological measures for 6-month clinical outcomes. Design This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Methods Patients (n=146) receiving physical therapy for low back pain were administered the SBT and a battery of psychological measures (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity scale and work scale [FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively], Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], 11-item version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11], and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) at initial evaluation and 4 weeks later. Treatment was at the physical therapist's discretion. Clinical outcomes consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Prediction of 6-month clinical outcomes was assessed for intake SBT and psychological measure scores using multiple regression models while controlling for other prognostic variables. In addition, the predictive capabilities of intake to 4-week changes in SBT and psychological measure scores for 6-month clinical outcomes were assessed. Results Intake pain intensity scores (β=.39 to .45) and disability scores (β=.47 to .60) were the strongest predictors in all final regression models, explaining 22% and 24% and 43% and 48% of the variance for the respective clinical outcome at 6 months. Neither SBT nor psychological measure scores improved prediction of 6-month pain intensity. The SBT overall scores (β=.22) and SBT psychosocial scores (β=.25) added to the prediction of disability at 6 months. Four-week changes in TSK-11 scores (β=−.18) were predictive of pain intensity at 6 months. Four-week changes in FABQ-PA scores (β=−.21), TSK-11 scores (β=−.20) and SBT overall scores (β=−.18) were predictive of

  16. A Developmental Examination of the Psychometric Properties and Predictive Utility of a Revised Psychological Self-Concept Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ, Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-aged children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower-order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor Analysis revealed three latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., Sociability, Control, and Assurance) from the lower-order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for Sociability and Assurance, not for Control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the three latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Short Form (SCBE-SF, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in Sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in Control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in Assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. PMID:26098231

  17. Assessment of left ventricular contraction and relaxation by systolic and diastolic time intervals measured from the first derivative of apexcardiogram in cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kolev, N; Cserhalmi, L; Palik, I; Romoda, T

    1981-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of the time intervals obtained from the first derivative of apexcardiogram (dA/dt) in assessing contraction and relaxation in cardiomyopathy, 11 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and 9 patients with congestive cardiomyopathy (COCM) with hemodynamically and angiographically documented diagnosis were studied. As a control group 50 normal subjects were used. Since contraction and relaxation is dependent on preload and afterload, the time interval from R wave of electrocardiogram to the positive peak of dA/dt (R to dA/dt) and 2 relaxation parameters derived from negative peak dA/dt, early relaxation index (ERI) and total relaxation index (TRI) were investigated. In HOCM the R to dA/dt were shortened (55 +/- 13 msec versus 76 +/- 14 msec in controls, P less than 0.01) and both ERI and TRI were augmented (ERI: 12.5 +/- 9 versus 4.3 +/- 5 in controls, p less than 0.001; TRI: 147 +/- 29 versus 70 +/- 18 in controls, p less than 0.02). In COCM the R to dA/dt were elongated (124 +/- 14 msec versus 76 +/- 14 msec in controls, P less than 09.001) and both ERI and TRI were decreased (ERI: 2.1 +/- 4 versus 4.3 +/- 5 in controls, p less than 0.005; TRI: 41 +/- 17 versus 70 +/- 18 in controls, p less than 0.002)., Significant correlation between these indices and some internal parameters of myocardial performance were observed. These findings indicate that systolic and diastolic time intervals measured from the first derivative of apexcardiogram may be used as a reliable indices for evaluation of contraction and relaxation independently of preload and afterload.

  18. Employee absenteeism measures reflecting current work practices may be instrumental in a re-evaluation of the relationship between psychological distress/mental health and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Michael F; Sheridan, Judith; Cleary, Catherine M; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2009-01-01

    Absenteeism rates are the cornerstone metrics guiding corporate policy for health care investment in employees. However, traditional absenteeism measures do not reflect the contemporary workplace milieu. It is accepted practice that employees work evenings or weekends to makeup time. Using a hours-based absenteeism measure, that accounts for time made-up as well as time lost, this paper evaluates the impact of psychological distress on employee absenteeism.Psychological distress and absenteeism data were collected from 54,264 full-time employees. Consistent with traditional approaches, employees indicated how many days they were absent. Hours based absenteeism was formulated from the ratio of how many hours the employees worked and how many hours were they expected to work in the past seven-days.Concordant with previous concinnous evidence, traditional absenteeism computation indicated that elevated psychological distress is associated with increasing absenteeism. Using the hours-based method psychological distress did not significantly influence absenteeism.Traditional calculations of absenteeism do not reflect the current work practices of the majority of employees. Employees with psychological distress may take time off work but it appears that they make up for lost time possibly to stay up to speed with task driven occupations and avoid performance review.

  19. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, *HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY , EDUCATION, TRAINING, SCIENTISTS, TECHNICIANS, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN...INSTRUMENTATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, SELECTION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, SIMULATION, TRAINING DEVICES, ABSTRACTS, USSR.

  20. Military Psychology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY , COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS....MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS

  1. Modelling and measuring the irrational behaviour of agents in financial markets: Discovering the psychological soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhesi, Gurjeet; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Following a Geometrical Brownian Motion extension into an Irrational Fractional Brownian Motion model, we re-examine agent behaviour reacting to time dependent news on the log-returns thereby modifying a financial market evolution. We specifically discuss the role of financial news or economic information positive or negative feedback of such irrational (or contrarian) agents upon the price evolution. We observe a kink-like effect reminiscent of soliton behaviour, suggesting how analysts' forecasts errors induce stock prices to adjust accordingly, thereby proposing a measure of the irrational force in a market.

  2. Psychological impact of short-term isolation measures in hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Wassenberg, M W M; Severs, D; Bonten, M J M

    2010-06-01

    Unintended negative effects, such as anxiety and depression, have been demonstrated in patients subjected to infection control strategies, such as isolation for long periods. Yet isolation precautions are mostly short-term. We therefore determined levels of anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients exposed to short-term isolation. In a cross-sectional matched cohort study, performed in a single university hospital, patients isolated for infection control were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS-A (Anxiety) and HADS-D (Depression)], Visual Analogue Scale of EQ-5D (EQ VAS) and an isolation evaluation questionnaire within 24-48 h after start of isolation. Two matched controls were selected for each isolated patient. Isolated patients (N=42) and control patients (N=84) had comparable HADS-A (4.5 vs 5.0), HADS-D (4.0 vs 5.0) and EQ VAS (65 vs 62) scores. In multiple regression analysis comorbidity was associated with EQ VAS outcome (P=0.005), whereas all other variables, including being in isolation, were unrelated to HADS and EQ VAS scores. Patients reported positive associations with isolation measures. The quality of care provided by physicians and nurses, as perceived by isolated patients, was not negatively affected in 74% and 71% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, short-term infection control measures do not influence hospitalised patients' levels of anxiety and depression and quality of life. Isolated patients had a positive attitude towards the precautions taken.

  3. Smartphone-based point-of-care testing of salivary α-amylase for personal psychological measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Wentao; Yang, Yuankui; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-11-07

    Here we report a smartphone-based potentiometric biosensor for point-of-care testing of salivary α-amylase (sAA), which is one of the most sensitive indices of autonomic nervous system activity, and therefore a promising non-invasive biomarker for mental health. The biosensing system includes a smartphone having a sAA-detection App, a potentiometric reader and a sensing chip with preloaded reagents. The saliva sample wicks into the reaction zone on the sensing chip so that the sAA reacts with the preloaded reagents, resulting in conversion of an electron mediator Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-). The sensing chip is then pressed by fingers to push the reaction mixture into the detection zone for the potentiometric measurement. The potential measured by the smartphone-powered potentiometric reader is sent to the smartphone App via the USB port, and converted into sAA concentration based on a calibration curve. Using our method, sAA in real human sample is quantitatively analyzed within 5 min. The results are in good agreement with that obtained using a reference method, and correlated to psychological states of the subjects.

  4. TopoToolbox: Using Sensor Topography to Calculate Psychologically Meaningful Measures from Event-Related EEG/MEG

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David; Huber, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The open-source toolbox “TopoToolbox” is a suite of functions that use sensor topography to calculate psychologically meaningful measures (similarity, magnitude, and timing) from multisensor event-related EEG and MEG data. Using a GUI and data visualization, TopoToolbox can be used to calculate and test the topographic similarity between different conditions (Tian and Huber, 2008). This topographic similarity indicates whether different conditions involve a different distribution of underlying neural sources. Furthermore, this similarity calculation can be applied at different time points to discover when a response pattern emerges (Tian and Poeppel, 2010). Because the topographic patterns are obtained separately for each individual, these patterns are used to produce reliable measures of response magnitude that can be compared across individuals using conventional statistics (Davelaar et al. Submitted and Huber et al., 2008). TopoToolbox can be freely downloaded. It runs under MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and supports user-defined data structure as well as standard EEG/MEG data import using EEGLAB (Delorme and Makeig, 2004). PMID:21577268

  5. Psychology of computer use: XXIX. Measuring computer users' stress: the Computer Hassles Scale.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, R A; Brown, S R; Jones, T M

    1993-12-01

    Measurement of computer users' stress was based on the Computer Hassles Scale. 65 questionnaires were returned from 113 mailed to users of accounting information systems who worked for manufacturing companies. Correlations were calculated for the total sample and subsamples divided by gender. The analysis indicated that persons with college degrees experienced greater computer users' stress than those who were without. Those persons who reported more computer hassles experienced more somatic complaints which indicated that the computer hassles were stressful. There were no significant mean differences between women and men on computer hassles or somatic complaints. The correlations of computer hassles with somatic complaints differed by gender. Women's computer hassles were significantly correlated .61 with somatic complaints, but men's computer hassles were not significantly correlated (r = .18) with somatic complaints. The gender differences suggest that there is a complex relationship between stressors (computer hassles) and stress reactions (somatic complaints).

  6. Use of measurement theory for operationalization and quantification of psychological constructs in systems dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitkov-Norris, Elena; Yeghiazarian, Ara

    2016-11-01

    The analytical tools available to social scientists have traditionally been adapted from tools originally designed for analysis of natural science phenomena. This article discusses the applicability of systems dynamics - a qualitative based modelling approach, as a possible analysis and simulation tool that bridges the gap between social and natural sciences. After a brief overview of the systems dynamics modelling methodology, the advantages as well as limiting factors of systems dynamics to the potential applications in the field of social sciences and human interactions are discussed. The issues arise with regards to operationalization and quantification of latent constructs at the simulation building stage of the systems dynamics methodology and measurement theory is proposed as a ready and waiting solution to the problem of dynamic model calibration, with a view of improving simulation model reliability and validity and encouraging the development of standardised, modular system dynamics models that can be used in social science research.

  7. The effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various psychological measures during submaximal cycling.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Hankey, Joanne

    2013-05-27

    Caffeine containing energy drinks is commonly consumed in the belief that it will enhance the quality of an exercise session and enhance mood. However, studies examining their efficacy are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a caffeinated energy drink on leg pain perception, perceived exertion, mood state and readiness to invest effort pre, during and post 60 min cycling exercise. Fourteen active individuals (7 males, 7 females, mean age ± S.D.=23.5 ± 3.5 years), completed two 60 min cycling trials at an intensity of 60% VO2 max preceded by ingestion of solutions containing either a caffeinated energy drink or placebo using a double-blind, deceptive, crossover design. During exercise, RPE (6-20 scale), leg pain (0-10 scale), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (Bla) were recorded. Participants also completed measures of mood state and readiness to invest physical effort (RTIPE) pre- and post-exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in all variables and across time and treatments, with gender used as a between subjects variable. Results indicate that HR was significantly higher (P=.002) from 30 to 60 min and RPE (P=.0001) and pain perception (P=.0001) were significantly lower from 20 to 60 min in the energy drink condition compared to placebo. Bla was significantly higher (P=.021) in the last 15 min of the energy drink trial and RTIPE (P=.001) increased significantly more from pre-ingestion to pre-exercise post-ingestion in the energy drink condition compared to placebo. No gender differences were evident (P>.05). The data revealed positive effects of energy drink ingestion on perception of exertion, leg muscle pain perception and readiness to invest effort during submaximal cycling in active adults.

  8. Construct Validity in Psychological Measurement; Proceedings of a Colloquium on Theory and Application in Education and Employment (Henry Chauncey Conference Center, Princeton, New Jersey, October 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

    The stimulus for this colloquium was the convergence of several significant developments bearing on the construct validation of standardized tests and other assessment methods. Of these developments, some were fundamental to psychology as a science; others reflected socio-political pressures on measurement in education and employment. The ten…

  9. Reports on Some Salient Topics and/or Issues in Educational Psychology, Measurement and Research as Presented by Doctoral Students. A Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolsby, Thomas M., Jr., Comp.

    Papers are presented that resulted from a doctoral seminar in the Department of Educational Psychology, Measurement and Research at the University of Georgia. Integration-desegregation, ethics, behavior modification, and accountability are the general areas treated. The papers are: (1) "Segregation--Alias: 'Special Education'" by Margaret C.…

  10. Validation of the Long- and Short-Form of the Ethical Values Assessment (EVA): A Questionnaire Measuring the Three Ethics Approach to Moral Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura Maria; Jensen, Lene Arnett

    2016-01-01

    Moral psychology has been moving toward consideration of multiple kinds of moral concepts and values, such as the Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity. While these three ethics have commonly been measured qualitatively, the current study sought to validate the long and short forms of the Ethical Values Assessment (EVA), which is a…

  11. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT: The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study.

    PubMed

    Schurink, M M; Braber, T L; Prakken, N H J; Doevendans, P A F M; Backx, F J G; Grobbee, D E; Rienks, R; Nathoe, H M; Bots, M L; Velthuis, B K; Mosterd, A

    2017-04-01

    Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a coronary artery calcium score ≥100 Agatson units and/or ≥50% luminal stenosis on contrast-enhanced cardiac CT. Psychological impact was measured with the Impact of Event Scale (IES) (seven items) on a six-point scale (grade 0-5). A sum score ≥19 indicates clinically relevant psychological distress. A Likert scale was used to assess overall experiences and impact on sports and lifestyle. A total of 275 participants (86.5% response rate, 95% CI 83-90%) with a mean age of 54.5 ± 6.4 years completed the questionnaires, 48 (17.5%, 95% CI 13-22%) of whom had CAD. The median IES score was 1 (IQR 0-2, [0-23]). IES was slightly higher in those with CAD (mean rank 175 vs. 130, p < 0.001). One participant (with CAD) experienced clinically relevant psychological distress (IES = 23). Participants reported numerous benefits, including feeling safer exercising (58.6%, 95% CI 53-65%) and positive lifestyle changes, especially in those with CAD (17.2 vs. 52.1%, p < 0.001). The majority were satisfied with their participation (93.8%, 95% CI 91-97%). Cardiovascular PPS, including cardiac CT, causes no relevant psychological distress in older sportsmen. Psychological distress should not be a reason to forego screening in sportsmen.

  12. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Psychosis: Measuring Psychological Change Using Repertory Grids.

    PubMed

    Randal, Chloe; Bucci, Sandra; Morera, Tirma; Barrett, Moya; Pratt, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    There are an increasing, but limited, number of studies investigating the benefits of mindfulness interventions for people experiencing psychosis. To our knowledge, changes following mindfulness for psychosis have not yet been explored from a personal construct perspective. This study had two main aims: (i) to explore changes in the way a person construes their self, others and their experience of psychosis following a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) group; and (ii) to replicate the findings of other studies exploring the feasibility and potential benefits of MBCT for psychosis. Sixteen participants, with experience of psychosis, completed an 8-week MBCT group. Participants completed pre-group and post-group assessments including a repertory grid, in addition to a range of outcome measures. There was some evidence of changes in construing following MBCT, with changes in the way participants viewed their ideal self and recovered self, and an indication of increased self-understanding. Improvements were found in participants' self-reported ability to act with awareness and in recovery. This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefits of MBCT groups for people experiencing psychosis. Furthermore, it provides some evidence of changes in construal following MBCT that warrant further exploration. Large-scale controlled trials of MBCT for psychosis are needed, as well as studies investigating the mechanisms of change. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Experimental Robot Psychology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-05

    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be...05 NOV 1985 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-11-1985 to 00-11-1985 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Robot Psychology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 21 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE

  14. Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Leona S; West, Stephen G; Millsap, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD programs (86%) participated. This survey replicated and extended a previous survey (L. S. Aiken, S. G. West, L. B. Sechrest, & R. R. Reno, 1990), permitting examination of curriculum development. Most training supported laboratory and not field research. The median of 1.6 years of training in statistics and measurement was mainly devoted to the modally 1-year introductory statistics course, leaving little room for advanced study. Curricular enhancements were noted in statistics and to a minor degree in measurement. Additional coverage of both fundamental and innovative quantitative methodology is needed. The research design curriculum has largely stagnated, a cause for great concern. Elite programs showed no overall advantage in quantitative training. Forces that support curricular innovation are characterized. Human capital challenges to quantitative training, including recruiting and supporting young quantitative faculty, are discussed. Steps must be taken to bring innovations in quantitative methodology into the curriculum of PhD programs in psychology.

  15. Method and Apparatus for Determining Changes in Intracranial Pressure Utilizing Measurement of the Circumferential Expansion or Contraction of a Patient's Skull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yos, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) utilizing the variation of the surface wave propagation parameters of the patient's skull to determine the change in ICP. In one embodiment, the method comprises the steps of transmitting an ultrasonic bulk compressional wave onto the surface of the skull at a predetermined angle with respect to the skull so as to produce a surface wave, receiving the surface wave at an angle with respect tn the skull which is substantially the same as the predetermined angle and at a location that is a predetermined distance from where the ultrasonic bulk compressional wave was transmitted upon the skull, determining the retardation or advancement in phase of the received surface wave with respect to a reference phase, and processing the determined retardation or advancement in phase to determine circumferential expansion or contraction of the skull and utilizing the determined circumferential change to determine the change in intracranial pressure.

  16. Transducer and base compliance alter the in situ 6 dof force measured from muscle during an isometric contraction in a multi-joint limb.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Thomas G; Yeo, Sang Hoon; Pai, Dinesh K; Tresch, Matthew C

    2012-04-05

    Although musculoskeletal models are commonly used, validating the muscle actions predicted by such models is often difficult. In situ isometric measurements are a possible solution. The base of the skeleton is immobilized and the endpoint of the limb is rigidly attached to a 6-axis force transducer. Individual muscles are stimulated and the resulting forces and moments recorded. Such analyses generally assume idealized conditions. In this study we have developed an analysis taking into account the compliances due to imperfect fixation of the skeleton, imperfect attachment of the force transducer, and extra degrees of freedom (dof) in the joints that sometimes become necessary in fixed end contractions. We use simulations of the rat hindlimb to illustrate the consequences of such compliances. We show that when the limb is overconstrained, i.e., when there are fewer dof within the limb than are restrained by the skeletal fixation, the compliances of the skeletal fixation and of the transducer attachment can significantly affect measured forces and moments. When the limb dofs and restrained dofs are matched, however, the measured forces and moments are independent of these compliances. We also show that this framework can be used to model limb dofs, so that rather than simply omitting dofs in which a limb does not move (e.g., abduction at the knee), the limited motion of the limb in these dofs can be more realistically modeled as a very low compliance. Finally, we discuss the practical implications of these results to experimental measurements of muscle actions.

  17. Measuring Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Winwood, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI) and to validate its psychometric properties. Methods. Workers from 24 small companies were invited to self-complete the PIRI before undergoing their routine medical examination at the workplace. All participants (841 out of 845, 99.6%) were also asked to report occupational injuries and episodes of violence that had occurred at the workplace in the previous 12 months and were given the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) to complete. Results. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure, “sleep problems,” “recovery failure,” “posttraumatic stress symptoms,” and “chronic fatigue,” which were the same subscales observed in the original version. The internal consistency was excellent (alpha = 0.932). ROC curve analysis revealed that the PIRI was much more efficient than GHQ12 in diagnosing workers who had suffered trauma (workplace violence or injury) in the previous year, as it revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.679 (95% CI: 0.625–0.734) for the PIRI, while for the GHQ12 the AUC was 0.551 (not significant). Conclusions. This study, performed on a large population of workers, provides evidence of the validity of the Italian version of the PIRI. PMID:25839055

  18. Measuring psychological trauma in the workplace: psychometric properties of the Italian version of the psychological injury risk indicator-a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Magnavita, Nicola; Garbarino, Sergio; Winwood, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI) and to validate its psychometric properties. Workers from 24 small companies were invited to self-complete the PIRI before undergoing their routine medical examination at the workplace. All participants (841 out of 845, 99.6%) were also asked to report occupational injuries and episodes of violence that had occurred at the workplace in the previous 12 months and were given the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) to complete. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure, "sleep problems," "recovery failure," "posttraumatic stress symptoms," and "chronic fatigue," which were the same subscales observed in the original version. The internal consistency was excellent (alpha = 0.932). ROC curve analysis revealed that the PIRI was much more efficient than GHQ12 in diagnosing workers who had suffered trauma (workplace violence or injury) in the previous year, as it revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.679 (95% CI: 0.625-0.734) for the PIRI, while for the GHQ12 the AUC was 0.551 (not significant). This study, performed on a large population of workers, provides evidence of the validity of the Italian version of the PIRI.

  19. Prevalence of psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6), and related factors in Japanese employees.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Masahito; Saito, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Kudo, Yasutsugu; Seki, Masayuki; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and related factors for psychological distress among employees. The employees in Akita prefecture, Japan, were invited to complete the Kessler 6 (K6). A value of 13 or higher on the K6 scale indicated high psychological distress. Furthermore, we identified the relationships among the prevalence of high psychological distress, socio-demographic status, and employment-related variables. The data of 1,709 employees indicated that 10.8% of the employees had high psychological distress; the proportion of psychological distress found in the present study was high compared to that found in previous studies. The identified socio-demographic and occupation-related factors included young age groups associated with a high risk and clerical or administrative tasks associated with a low risk of psychological distress. The data of this study can be used as K6 benchmark values, which enhance the significance of future corporate health risk appraisal surveys.

  20. Characterization of Involuntary Contractions after Spinal Cord Injury Reveals Associations between Physiological and Self-Reported Measures of Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Meagan; DeForest, Bradley A.; Castellanos, Mabelin; Thomas, Christine K.

    2017-01-01

    Correlations between physiological, clinical and self-reported assessments of spasticity are often weak. Our aims were to quantify functional, self-reported and physiological indices of spasticity in individuals with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI; 3 women, 9 men; 19–52 years), and to compare the strength and direction of associations between these measures. The functional measure we introduced involved recording involuntary electromyographic activity during a transfer from wheelchair to bed which is a daily task necessary for function. High soleus (SL) and tibialis anterior (TA) F-wave/M-wave area ratios were the only physiological measures that distinguished injured participants from the uninjured (6 women, 13 men, 19–67 years). Hyporeflexia (decreased SL H/M ratio) was unexpectedly present in older participants after injury. During transfers, the duration and intensity of involuntary electromyographic activity varied across muscles and participants, but coactivity was common. Wide inter-participant variability was seen for self-reported spasm frequency, severity, pain and interference with function, as well as tone (resistance to imposed joint movement). Our recordings of involuntary electromyographic activity during transfers provided evidence of significant associations between physiological and self-reported measures of spasticity. Reduced low frequency H-reflex depression in SL and high F-wave/M-wave area ratios in TA, physiological indicators of reduced inhibition and greater motoneuron excitability, respectively, were associated with long duration SL and biceps femoris (BF) electromyographic activity during transfers. In turn, participants reported high spasm frequency when transfers involved short duration TA EMG, decreased co-activation between SL and TA, as well as between rectus femoris (RF) vs. BF. Thus, the duration of muscle activity and/or the time of agonist-antagonist muscle coactivity may be used by injured individuals to count spasms

  1. Characterization of Involuntary Contractions after Spinal Cord Injury Reveals Associations between Physiological and Self-Reported Measures of Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Meagan; DeForest, Bradley A; Castellanos, Mabelin; Thomas, Christine K

    2017-01-01

    Correlations between physiological, clinical and self-reported assessments of spasticity are often weak. Our aims were to quantify functional, self-reported and physiological indices of spasticity in individuals with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI; 3 women, 9 men; 19-52 years), and to compare the strength and direction of associations between these measures. The functional measure we introduced involved recording involuntary electromyographic activity during a transfer from wheelchair to bed which is a daily task necessary for function. High soleus (SL) and tibialis anterior (TA) F-wave/M-wave area ratios were the only physiological measures that distinguished injured participants from the uninjured (6 women, 13 men, 19-67 years). Hyporeflexia (decreased SL H/M ratio) was unexpectedly present in older participants after injury. During transfers, the duration and intensity of involuntary electromyographic activity varied across muscles and participants, but coactivity was common. Wide inter-participant variability was seen for self-reported spasm frequency, severity, pain and interference with function, as well as tone (resistance to imposed joint movement). Our recordings of involuntary electromyographic activity during transfers provided evidence of significant associations between physiological and self-reported measures of spasticity. Reduced low frequency H-reflex depression in SL and high F-wave/M-wave area ratios in TA, physiological indicators of reduced inhibition and greater motoneuron excitability, respectively, were associated with long duration SL and biceps femoris (BF) electromyographic activity during transfers. In turn, participants reported high spasm frequency when transfers involved short duration TA EMG, decreased co-activation between SL and TA, as well as between rectus femoris (RF) vs. BF. Thus, the duration of muscle activity and/or the time of agonist-antagonist muscle coactivity may be used by injured individuals to count spasms. Intense

  2. Single-item measures for depression and anxiety: Validation of the Screening Tool for Psychological Distress in an inpatient cardiology setting.

    PubMed

    Young, Quincy-Robyn; Nguyen, Michelle; Roth, Susan; Broadberry, Ann; Mackay, Martha H

    2015-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are common among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and confer significant cardiac risk, contributing to CVD morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, due to the lack of screening tools that address the specific needs of hospitalized patients, few cardiac inpatient programs offer routine screening for these forms of psychological distress, despite recommendations to do so. The purpose of this study was to validate single-item measures for depression and anxiety among cardiac inpatients. Consecutive inpatients were recruited from the cardiology and cardiac surgery step-down units at a university-affiliated, quaternary-care hospital. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included: (a) demographics, (b) single-item-measures for depression and anxiety (from the Screening Tool for Psychological Distress (STOP-D)), and (c) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). One hundred and five participants were recruited with a wide variety of cardiac diagnoses, having a mean age of 66 years, and 28% were women. Both STOP-D items were highly correlated with their corresponding validated measures and demonstrated robust receiver-operator characteristic curves. Severity scores on both items correlated well with established severity cut-off scores on the corresponding subscales of the HADS. The STOP-D is a self-administered, self-report measure using two independent items that provide severity scores for depression and anxiety. The tool performs very well compared with other previously validated measures. Requiring no additional scoring and being free, STOP-D offers a simple and valid method for identifying hospitalized cardiac patients who are experiencing psychological distress. This crucial first step triggers initiation of appropriate monitoring and intervention, thus reducing the likelihood of the adverse cardiac outcomes associated with psychological distress. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  3. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  4. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Jeremy W.; King, Kevin M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth. PMID:27347358

  5. Duration of general practitioner contracts.

    PubMed

    Abelsen, Birgit; Gaski, Margrete; Brandstorp, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The regular GP scheme is intended to promote continuity in the relationship between doctor and patient. The duration of GP contracts is therefore a key factor in the success of the scheme. This study examines how long the GP contracts last and whether their duration varies according to doctors' gender and age, municipality size and list size. The study encompasses 7,359 GP contracts throughout Norway, entered into between municipalities and doctors in the period 1 May 2001 - 1 May 2014. Duration is measured as the time from which the contract was signed until its expiry or the end of the study period. The material was analysed with measures of central tendencies and dispersion, Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. Median duration of a GP contract at the time of the study was 5.91 years. It varied between 2.75 years in the smallest municipalities and 8.37 years in the largest ones. The duration of a GP contract increased significantly if the doctor was a woman, or with the doctor's age at the start of the contract, increased municipality size and increased list size. If it is assumed that continuity in the doctor-patient relationship provides a qualitatively better GP service, the results indicate that patients in small municipalities are generally offered a lower-quality service than patients in large municipalities.

  6. Psychological Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS The cause of irritable ... used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), ... hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments ...

  7. Interrelationships among various measures of upper body strength assessed by different contraction modes. Evidence for a general strength component.

    PubMed

    Hortobagyi, T; Katch, F I; LaChance, P F

    1989-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in 83 college men to determine the degree of generality of individual differences in upper body muscular strength assessed by different testing modes. In study 1 (N = 43), correlations were computed between four measures of upper body strength using the bench press movement, maximal isokinetic (0.09 rad.s-1), maximal fast (0.126 m.s-1) and slow (0.037 m.s-1) hydraulic, and one repetition maximum (1-RM) free weight bench press (BP). Compared to free weight BP, maximal strength during isokinetic and slow hydraulic BP was approximately 29% and approximately 8% larger, and fast hydraulic BP strength was approximately 63% lower (p less than 0.05). Simple linear regression of isokinetic BP on 1-RM BP yielded r = 0.79, error of prediction (SE) = 12%, and generality = 81%. The corresponding averaged values for the regression of slow and fast hydraulic BP on free weight 1-RM BP were r = 0.77, SE = 13.5%, and generality = 84%. In Study 2 (N = 40), testing included maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension at 0.524, 1.570, and 2.094 rad.s-1. The ratio of concentric to eccentric torque at the 3 speeds averaged 0.68 (flexion) and 0.70 (extension), and eccentric torques were 32% and 30% greater than concentric torques (p less than 0.05). The linear regression between concentric vs. eccentric flexion and extension torques at the three velocities yielded an average r = 0.80, SE = 13.7%, and generality = 73%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0214 Psychological Dimensions of Cross- Cultural Differences Saucier, Gerard University of Oregon May...Psychological Dimensions of Cross- Cultural Differences Grant Research Final Performance Report – February 2013 prepared by Gerard Saucier, Principal...Psychological Dimensions of Cross- Cultural Differences Contract/Grant Number: FA9550-09-1-0398 Reporting period: June 1, 2009 to November 30, 2012

  9. Pharmaceutical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Donna

    1979-01-01

    Defines areas that could comprise pharmaceutical psychology. The discussion includes a review of literature, outline of areas in pharmacy in which psychologists could become involved, description of a project involving the application of psychology to pharmacy, and analysis of the concept of pharmaceutical psychology. A 99-item bibliography is…

  10. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  11. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  12. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  13. Propensity Score Techniques and the Assessment of Measured Covariate Balance to Test Causal Associations in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use, and evaluation. In this study, the authors give an overview of available…

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Measures of Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Measures of Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…

  16. Propensity Score Techniques and the Assessment of Measured Covariate Balance to Test Causal Associations in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use, and evaluation. In this study, the authors give an overview of available…

  17. What Sources Contribute to Variance in Observer Ratings? Using Generalizability Theory to Assess Construct Validity of Psychological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Cronbach and Meehl ("Psychol. Bull." 1955; 52:281-302) stated that the key question to be addressed when assessing construct validity is "What sources contribute to variance in test performance?" We illustrate the utility of generalizability theory (GT) as a conceptual framework that encourages psychological researchers to…

  18. Assessing Contract Management Maturity: U.S. Army Joint Munitions and Lethality Contracting Center, Army Contracting Command, Picatinny Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    under the Army Contracting Command As a metric to measure the results of the CMMM, an analysis of the results of recent Procurement Management Reviews...and potentially with other centers within the Army Contracting Command. The successful application of the assessment tool and appropriate analysis ...under the Army Contracting Command As a metric to measure the results of the CMMM, an analysis of the results of recent Procurement Management

  19. The Hipp chronoscope versus the d'Arsonval chronometer: laboratory instruments measuring reaction times that distinguish German and French orientations of psychology.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Thompson, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Chronoscopes and chronographs were commonly used instruments that measured reaction times (RTs) in the first psychology laboratories. The Hipp chronoscope is commonly associated with the emergence of psychological laboratories in the late 19th century. This instrument is considered the key apparatus for the study of scientific psychology. Although German and American psychologists preferred the Hipp chronoscope, French psychologists of late 19th century favored another chronometer built by Jacques Arsène d'Arsonval (1851-1940). Unlike German and American psychologists, French psychologists demanded less precision in most experimental situations because they claimed that individual differences are very pronounced in a variety of situations. The advantage of the d'Arsonval chronometer was its portability and its simplicity. This article presents this chronometer and its advantages and drawbacks. The Hipp chronoscope and the d'Arsonval chronometer were the most commonly used apparatuses in Europe for the measurement of RTs until World War II, as is demonstrated by the catalogues of the time (Zimmermann and Boulitte).

  20. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes.

  1. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  2. Measurement of the oil holdup for a two-phase oil-water flow through a sudden contraction in a horizontal pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, L. P. M.; Guilizzoni, M.; Sotgia, G. M.; Bortolotti, S.; Pavan, L.

    2014-04-01

    Oil-water two-phase flow experiments were conducted in a horizontal duct made of Plexiglas® to determine the holdup of oil by means of the quick closing valves technique, using mineral oil (viscosity: 0.838 Pa s at 20 °C density: 890 kg m-3) and tap water. The duct presents a sudden contraction, with contraction ratio of 0.64. About 200 tests were performed by varying the flow rates of the phases. Flow patterns were investigated for both the up- and downstream pipe. Due to the relatively high value of the contraction ratio, it was not observed any relevant variation of the flow patterns across the sudden contraction. Data were then compared with predictions of a specific correlation for oil-water flow and some correlations for gas-water flow. A drift-flux model was also applied to determine the distribution parameter. The results agree quite well with flow pattern visualization.

  3. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society.

  4. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  5. Service profiling and outcomes benchmarking using the CORE-OM: toward practice-based evidence in the psychological therapies. Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measures.

    PubMed

    Barkham, M; Margison, F; Leach, C; Lucock, M; Mellor-Clark, J; Evans, C; Benson, L; Connell, J; Audin, K; McGrath, G

    2001-04-01

    To complement the evidence-based practice paradigm, the authors argued for a core outcome measure to provide practice-based evidence for the psychological therapies. Utility requires instruments that are acceptable scientifically, as well as to service users, and a coordinated implementation of the measure at a national level. The development of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is summarized. Data are presented across 39 secondary-care services (n = 2,710) and within an intensively evaluated single service (n = 1,455). Results suggest that the CORE-OM is a valid and reliable measure for multiple settings and is acceptable to users and clinicians as well as policy makers. Baseline data levels of patient presenting problem severity, including risk, are reported in addition to outcome benchmarks that use the concept of reliable and clinically significant change. Basic quality improvement in outcomes for a single service is considered.

  6. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    PubMed

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES IN GAMBLING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GROUP DYNAMICS, *DECISION MAKING, *SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), GAME THEORY, MOTIVATION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, BEHAVIOR, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), RECALL, PROBABILITY, SOCIOMETRICS.

  8. Measuring the positive psychological well-being of people with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional validation of the subjective vitality scale.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Peter C; Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, Jet J J C S; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Yu, Chen-an; Kitas, George D; Duda, Joan L

    2015-11-05

    People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) frequently suffer from compromised physical and psychological health, however, little is known about positive indicators of health, due to a lack of validated outcome measures. This study aims to validate a clinically relevant outcome measure of positive psychological well-being for people with RA. The first study examined the reliability and factorial validity of the Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS), whilst study 2 tested the instruments convergent validity. In study 1, National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society members (N = 333; M age = 59.82 years SD = 11.00) completed a postal questionnaire. For study 2, participants (N = 106; M age = 56 years, SD = 12 years) were those recruited to a randomized control trial comparing two physical activity interventions who completed a range of health-related questionnaires. The SVS had a high level of internal consistency (α = .93, Rho = .92). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the uni-dimensional factor structure of the questionnaire among RA patients [χ = 1327 (10), CFI = 1.0, SRMSR = .01 and RMSEA = .00 (.00 - .08)]. Support for the scales convergent validity was revealed by significant (p < .05) relationships, in expected directions, with health related quality of life (r = .59), physical function (r = .58), feelings of fatigue (r = -.70), anxiety (r = -.57) and depression (r = -.73). Results from two studies have provided support for the internal consistency, factorial structure and convergent validity of the Subjective Vitality Scale. Researchers and healthcare providers may employ this clinically relevant, freely available and brief assessment with the confidence that it is a valid and reliable measure of positive psychological well-being for RA patients. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN04121489 . Registered 5 September 2012.

  9. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  11. Award Fees and Their Relationship to Contract Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    relationship exists between award fee contracts and contract success as measured by earned value management (EVM) or contractor performance ratings. Data...is to determine if a relationship exists between award fee contracts and contract success as measured by earned value management (EVM) or 3... measured by earned value management (EVM) or contractor performance ratings. To determine if a relationship existed, we attempted to answer the

  12. The Joy of Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Kevin

    This paper is a practical guide that explains and illustrates contracts between libraries and vendors for computerized circulation systems. It describes the elements of a typical contract to include the equipment and services that should be specified in the contract and establishes scheduling and acceptance testing needs. Included in a contract…

  13. Multiple Option Grade Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible, point contract system is described which maximizes the advantages of a criterion-referenced contract system while eliminating some of the disadvantages of standard grade contracts. This model has been used by the author in a variety of high school and college courses. (Author/SJL)

  14. Teaching about Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  15. Teacher Collective Bargaining in Washington State: Assessing the Internal Validity of Partial Independence Item Response Measures of Contract Restrictiveness. CEDR Working Paper No. 2012 3.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Lavery, Lesley; Theobald, Roddy; D'Entremont, Dylan; Fang, Yangru

    2012-01-01

    Recent research (Strunk and Reardon forthcoming) applies Partial Independence Item Response (PIIR) models to teacher bargaining agreements in California to calculate the latent restrictiveness of these contracts. Further research (Strunk and Grissom 2010; Strunk forthcoming) tests the external validity of these estimates. Given that much research…

  16. Teacher Collective Bargaining in Washington State: Assessing the Internal Validity of Partial Independence Item Response Measures of Contract Restrictiveness. CEDR Working Paper No. 2012 3.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Lavery, Lesley; Theobald, Roddy; D'Entremont, Dylan; Fang, Yangru

    2012-01-01

    Recent research (Strunk and Reardon forthcoming) applies Partial Independence Item Response (PIIR) models to teacher bargaining agreements in California to calculate the latent restrictiveness of these contracts. Further research (Strunk and Grissom 2010; Strunk forthcoming) tests the external validity of these estimates. Given that much research…

  17. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Khadija; Kiani, Muhammad Rizwan Bash; Ayyub, Aisha; Khan, Atif Ahmed; Osama, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD=6.76) with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%). The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P=0.011). The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P=0.392).

  18. Measuring self-esteem in context: the importance of stability of self-esteem in psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Kernis, Michael H

    2005-12-01

    In this article, I report on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning. Stability of self-esteem refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations that people experience in their current, contextually based feelings of self-worth. In contrast, level of self-esteem refers to representations of people's general, or typical, feelings of self-worth. A considerable amount of research reveals that self-esteem stability has predictive value beyond the predictive value of self-esteem level. Moreover, considering self-esteem stability provides one way to distinguish fragile from secure forms of high self-esteem. Results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.

  19. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  20. Whither Psychology.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  1. Clinical assessment of uterine contractions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Wayne R

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of uterine contractions is important in clinical decision-making, but the precise role for appraising contractions remains controversial. Four clinical approaches to assessing contractions are available: manual palpation; intrauterine pressure determination; external tocodynamometry; and electrohysterography. Palpation is inexpensive and harmless but requires the constant bedside presence of a trained observer. Intrauterine pressure measurement is considered the most sensitive and specific technique, and has become the standard by which other methods are judged; however, its quantitative measurements are not always precise or reproducible. Moreover, the availability of intrauterine pressure measurements does not seem to improve maternal or neonatal outcomes in most situations. External tocodynamometry is the most widely used technique. It is easy to apply and provides reasonably accurate information about the frequency and duration of contractions, but not their amplitude. It can require frequent adjustment during labor and might not work well in patients who are obese. Electrohysterography is a recently available noninvasive technology that detects uterine electrical activity using electrodes placed on the mother's abdominal wall. This approach is at least as reliable and accurate as tocodynamometry. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  3. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  4. The impact of diagnosis: measuring the psychological response to being diagnosed with serious or potentially lethal cardiac disease in young competitive athletes.

    PubMed

    Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Ewing, Alex; Rao, Ashwin L; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the psychological impact of athletes diagnosed with cardiac disease. Athletes diagnosed with cardiovascular disorders were recruited to complete the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a validated tool measuring responses to a traumatic event. IES scoring =0-88 (<12= normal, 12-32=recommend monitoring, >33=significant stress reaction). Subscales include: intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. 30 athletes (53% male, 83% Caucasian, median age 18.0, median age at diagnosis 15.7) participated. Diagnoses included: 6 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 9 Wolff Parkinson White, 4 Long QT syndrome, 3 atrial septal defect, 2 supraventricular tachycardia and 6 other. For the group, the mean IES-Revised (IES-R) score=16.6 (SD=12.1), subscales: intrusion 6.6 (SD=4.3), avoidance=7.4 (SD=6.5), hyperarousal=2.7 (SD=3.5). Higher risk individuals included: permanently disqualified athletes (p<0.01), athletes requiring daily medication (p<0.01), those with genetically inheritable conditions (p<0.01), and athletes undergoing medical management instead of definitive therapy (p<0.01). No differences were reported by gender (male=16.6, female=16.6). Higher IES-R scores were reported in more competitive athletes (college=17.8, high school=13.3; p=0.369) and African-American individuals (African-American=25.8, Caucasian=14.8 p=0.061), although not statistically significant. Athletes with cardiomyopathy (IES-R=24) and channelopathy (IES-R=28) reported the highest IES results. Athletes with high IES-R scores were most likely to psychologically respond through avoidance of feelings/situations/ideas. Athletes diagnosed with potentially lethal cardiac disorders are at risk for significant psychological distress. These athletes tend to avoid thoughts, feelings and conversations associated with their diagnosis and should be offered consistent emotional support to mitigate psychological morbidity. Currently, there are no recommendations to guide physicians on how to support an athlete that is

  5. Mechanical loading of knee articular cartilage induced by muscle contraction can be assessed by measuring electrical potentials at the surface of the knee.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Buschmann, Michael D; Savard, Pierre

    2016-02-08

    Electroarthrography (EAG) consists of recording electrical potentials on the knee surface that originate from streaming potentials within articular cartilage while the joint is undergoing compressive loading. The aim was to investigate how the contraction of specific leg muscles affects the contact force of the knee joint and, in turn, the EAG values. For six normal subjects, voluntary isometric muscle contractions were repeatedly conducted to activate four leg muscle groups while the subject was lying on his back. Two EAG signals were recorded on the medial and lateral sides of the knee, as well as four EMG signals (gastrocnemius, hamstring, quadriceps, tensor fascia latae), and the signal from a force plate fixed against the foot according to the direction of the force. The EAG and force signals were very well correlated: the median of the correlation coefficients between an EAG signal and the corresponding force signal during each loading cycle was 0.91, and 86% of the correlation coefficients were statistically significant (p<5%). Isolated muscle contraction was possible for the gastrocnemius and hamstring, but not always for the quadriceps and tensor fascia latae. Using the clinical loading protocol which consists of a one-legged stance, the quadriceps and hamstring EMGs showed minimal activity; loading cycles with increased EAG amplitude were associated with higher EMG activity from the gastrocnemius, which is involved in antero-posterior balance. These results document the role of the EAG as a "sensor" of the knee contact force and contribute to the development of clinical loading protocols with improved reproducibility.

  6. The psychology of doping.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2017-08-01

    Doping is increasingly becoming a problem in both elite and recreational sports. It is therefore important to understand the psychological factors which can explain doping behavior in order to prevent it. The present paper briefly presents evidence on the prevalence of doping use in competitive sports and the measurement approaches to assess doping behavior and doping-related variables. Furthermore, the integrative theoretical approaches used to describe the psychological processes underlying doping use are discussed. Finally, the paper provides suggestions for appropriate measurement of doping behavior and doping-related variables, key preventive efforts against doping as well as avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological stress and obesity.

    PubMed

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian; Sepa, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2008-12-01

    To examine whether there is a relationship between psychological stress in the family and obesity in 5- to 6-year-old children. A total of 7443 Swedish families reported on psychological stress across 4 domains as part of the prospective All Babies in Southeast Sweden-project (ABIS). Domains assessed included serious life events, parenting stress, lack of social support, and parental worries. These variables were summarized in cross-sectional and longitudinal composite measures of psychological stress. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for childhood obesity for psychological stress. A total of 4.2% of the children were obese according to age-adjusted international standards. Children from families that reported stress in at least 2 of the 4 domains assessed had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity, both cross-sectionally (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5; P < .01) and longitudinally (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.4, P < .01). Psychological stress in the family may be a contributing factor for childhood obesity. This finding underscores how important it is to give children with obesity and their families psychological and social support in addition to recommendations about changing life style.

  8. The physical and psychological experience of pain: the effects of labeling and cold pressor temperature on three pain measures in college women.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M S; Liebert, R M

    1998-07-01

    Using the cold pressor test, three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water temperature and labeling on three dependent measures in college women: behavioral pain tolerance (BPT), a sensory rating of the pain experience (SR) and a parallel affective rating of the experience (AR). Temperature of the cold pressor was varied as the physical factor; labels (discomfort, pain, vasoconstriction pain) were varied as the psychological factor. Experiment I varied only water temperature; colder temperatures led to significantly lower BPT scores and significantly higher SR and AR scores. Experiment 2 varied only labeling and demonstrated that BPT decreased and AR increased as labels became more painful-sounding; in contrast, SR was unaffected by labeling. In Experiment 3 both the psychological and physical factors were varied simultaneously. Results indicated significantly higher BPT scores as the water temperature increased and the pain label became more benign. In addition, both SR and AR were sensitive to changes in temperature, whereas only AR was affected by changes in labeling.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VOLUNTEER FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY ), (*ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS), PERSONALITY , MOTIVATION, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, FEAR, ANXIETY, BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , GROUP DYNAMICS

  10. Measuring the effect of an eight-week adaptive yoga program on the physical and psychological status of individuals with Parkinson's disease. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boulgarides, L K; Barakatt, E; Coleman-Salgado, B

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects muscle tone, strength, flexibility, motor control, psychological outlook, cognition, and function. Exercise has been found to improve physical ability and psychological outlook, but the effect of yoga on individuals with PD has not been well researched. The purposes of this study were to identify outcome measures that were responsive to change in individuals with PD after an 8-week adaptive yoga program and to determine appropriate sample sizes for future studies. In a repeated measures design, 10 participants with a Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2 or 3 were tested prior to and after an 8-week control phase and again after they underwent an 8-week adaptive yoga program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests revealed differences in time of measure that approached significance for the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (p = 0.008) and the 30-Second Chair Stand (TSCS) (p = 0.013). The interaction between time of measure and gender approached significance for the Sit-and-Reach Test (SRT) (p = 0.08 and 0.03, right and left respectively), with male participants improving in sit-and-reach flexibility compared with female participants after intervention. The interaction between time of measure and age approached significance for the Single-Leg Balance test (SLB) (p = 0.007), with younger participants improving in SLB time after intervention. Power calculations found that a sample size ranging from 33 to 153 would be required to achieve significance at the 0.01 level in the various outcome measures in a future study of this design. The depression subscale of the HADS, the TSCS, the SLB, and the right and left SRT were the measures that changed following the yoga intervention and are recommended as outcome measures in future studies investigating the effectiveness of yoga for individuals with PD. This preliminary study supports further investigation of adaptive yoga using a

  11. Personality psychology's comeback and its emerging symbiosis with social psychology.

    PubMed

    Swann, William B; Seyle, Conor

    2005-02-01

    Psychology's early allegiance to behaviorism and experimental methods led many to disparage personality approaches throughout much of last century. Doubts about personality psychology's viability culminated in Mischel's assertion that measures of personality account for modest amounts of variance in behavior. In the years immediately following this critique, interest in personality research waned and many psychology departments dropped their training programs in personality. Throughout the past two decades, however, personality psychology has enjoyed a resurgence. The authors discuss several possible explanations for personality's comeback and then describe the emergence of a promising symbiosis between personality psychology and its sister discipline, social psychology. The article concludes by noting that although this emerging symbiosis is likely to continue bearing considerable theoretical fruit, the traditional distinction between personal, situational, and interactional determinants of behavior continues to be useful within appropriate contexts.

  12. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-12-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed.

  13. Feedforward consequences of isometric contractions: effort and ventilation.

    PubMed

    Luu, Billy L; Smith, Janette L; Martin, Peter G; McBain, Rachel A; Taylor, Janet L; Butler, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    The onset of voluntary muscle contractions causes rapid increases in ventilation and is accompanied by a sensation of effort. Both the ventilatory response and perception of effort are proportional to contraction intensity, but these behaviors have been generalized from contractions of a single muscle group. Our aim was to determine how these relationships are affected by simultaneous contractions of multiple muscle groups. We examined the ventilatory response and perceived effort of contraction during separate and simultaneous isometric contractions of the contralateral elbow flexors and of an ipsilateral elbow flexor and knee extensor. Subjects made 10-sec contractions at 25, 50, and 100% of maximum during normocapnia and hypercapnia. For simultaneous contractions, both muscle groups were activated at the same intensities. Ventilation was measured continuously and subjects rated the effort required to produce each contraction. As expected, ventilation and perceived effort increased proportionally with contraction intensity during individual contractions. However, during simultaneous contractions, neither ventilation nor effort reflected the combined muscle output. Rather, the ventilatory response was similar to when contractions were performed separately, and effort ratings showed a small but significant increase for simultaneous contractions. Hypercapnia at rest doubled baseline ventilation, but did not affect the difference in perceived effort between separate and simultaneous contractions. The ventilatory response and the sense of effort at the onset of muscle activity are not related to the total output of the motor pathways, or the working muscles, but arise from cortical regions upstream from the motor cortex.

  14. Psychological maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem.

  15. Political psychology.

    PubMed

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reasons for Letter Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    supplies and services for the national defense. But, excessive use of letter contracts leads to charges of poor planning and may deter effective ...definitive contract. But, excessive use of letter contracts leads to charges of poor planning and may deter effective negotiation of definitized...unilateral determination because of the impact on relationships with the contractor. There are cases where, as a matter of principle, the Government must take

  17. Future Contracting for Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    performance-based logistics efforts, logistics technology development, logistics human capital development, and cross-corporate logistics business...Service Contracting (OBSC). Under the outcomes based model , a customer (Defense) contracts and pays for business results delivered by a service...provider (industry), rather than for defined activities, tasks, or assets . These types of contracts focus on the outcomes rather than piece parts or the

  18. Psychology practice: design for tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Goodheart, Carol D

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential building blocks: evidence-based practice, treatment guidelines, technology, classifications of function, diagnostic systems, outcomes measurement, and integrated health care. The goal is twofold: to make psychological services more accessible to the public and to position psychology for an increasingly major role in health care in order to serve the public weal in diverse communities.

  19. Psychological Needs, Engagement, and Work Intentions: A Bayesian Multi-Measurement Mediation Approach and Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuck, Brad; Zigarmi, Drea; Owen, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) within the engagement-performance linkage. Design/methodology/approach: Bayesian multi-measurement mediation modeling was used to estimate the relation between SDT, engagement and a proxy measure of performance (e.g. work intentions) (N =…

  20. Psychological Needs, Engagement, and Work Intentions: A Bayesian Multi-Measurement Mediation Approach and Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuck, Brad; Zigarmi, Drea; Owen, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) within the engagement-performance linkage. Design/methodology/approach: Bayesian multi-measurement mediation modeling was used to estimate the relation between SDT, engagement and a proxy measure of performance (e.g. work intentions) (N =…