Psychoneuroimmunology - psyche and autoimmunity.
Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively young field of research that investigates interactions between central nervous and immune system. The brain modulates the immune system by the endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and autoimmune disease. For several diseases, the relevance of psychoneuroimmunological findings has already been demonstrated.
A systematic review of psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions.
Moraes, Lucam J; Miranda, Márcia B; Loures, Liliany F; Mainieri, Alessandra G; Mármora, Cláudia Helena C
Psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions are used to attenuated disease progression and/or side effects of pharmacological treatment. This systematic review evaluates the different therapeutic and/or clinical psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions associated to both psychological, neuroendocrine and immunological variables. The review was conducted for all English, Portuguese and Spanish language articles published between 2005 and 2015. Independent investigators analyzed 42 studies concerning human psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions. Decreased levels of cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine (stress-related hormones) were associated to interventions like yoga, meditation, tai chi, acupuncture, mindfulness, religious/spiritual practices, cognitive behavior therapy, coping and physical exercises. Moreover, those interventions were also associated to reductions in inflammatory processes and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cancer, HIV, depression, anxiety, wound healing, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases and fibromyalgia. Despite the associations between PNI variables and clinical/therapeutic interventions, only one study evidenced significant effects on a disease progression.
Nutrition and the psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression.
Ellsworth-Bowers, E R; Corwin, E J
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a relatively common and often severe mood disorder that develops in women after childbirth. The aetiology of PPD is unclear, although there is emerging evidence to suggest a psychoneuroimmune connection. Additionally, deficiencies in n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and trace minerals have been implicated. This paper reviews evidence for a link between micronutrient status and PPD, analysing the potential contribution of each micronutrient to psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms of PPD. Articles related to PPD and women's levels of n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se were reviewed. Findings suggest that while n-3 PUFA levels have been shown to vary inversely with PPD and link with psychoneuroimmunology, there is mixed evidence regarding the ability of n-3 PUFA to prevent or treat PPD. B vitamin status is not clearly linked to PPD, even though it seems to vary inversely with depression in non-perinatal populations and may have an impact on immunity. Vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se are linked to PPD and psychoneuroimmunology by intriguing, but small, studies. Overall, evidence suggests that certain micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the development of PPD, possibly through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Developing a better understanding of these mechanisms is important for guiding future research, clinical practice and health education regarding PPD.
Psychoneuroimmunology in Health Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Studies suggest that stress, emotions, personality, and cognition can affect the immune system's response to disease. This paper argues the need for psychoneuroimmunology to be taught in health education courses and provides a brief overview of research showing the link between the mind and the immune system. (GLR)
Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: past, present and future.
Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C
To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided.
Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: Past, present and future
Darnall, Beth D.; Suarez, Edward C.
To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided. PMID:19272440
The Vaccination Model in Psychoneuroimmunology Research: A Review.
Whittaker, Anna C
This chapter explores the reasoning behind using the vaccination model to examine the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity. It then briefly discusses the mechanics of the vaccination response and the protocols used in psychoneuroimmunology vaccine research, before giving examples from the research literature of the studies examining relationships such as the association between stress and vaccination response. It also explores the ways the vaccination model can be used to answer key questions in psychoneuroimmunology, such as the following: "Does it matter when stressful life events occur relative to when the vaccine is received?" "What are the effects of prior exposure to the antigen?" "Do other psychosocial factors influence vaccine response besides stress?" Finally, it briefly considers the mechanisms underlying psychosocial factors and vaccination response associations and the future research needed to understand these better, and indeed to use current and future knowledge to improve and enhance vaccine responses in key at-risk populations.
[Conditioning mechanisms and psychoneuroimmunology].
Stockhorst, Ursula; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle
This chapter deals with the role of conditioning principles in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). We will first describe the paradigms of classical and instrumental conditioning and classify immune parameters that are subject to conditioning (chapter 1). So far, PNI research mainly uses classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning. We will summarize some of the paradigmatic studies, mainly animal studies (chapter 2) and also describe studies that support the clinical relevance of classical conditioning, i. e., in the pharmacological treatment of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and tumor chemotherapy (chapter 3). A study of our group on anticipatory immunomodulation in pediatric cancer patients is reported. Mechanisms mediating conditioned immunomodulation are summarized (chapter 4). We also describe studies that analyze the impact of instrumental conditioning contingencies on immune functioning (chapter 5). Finally, research perspectives are summarized (chapter 6).
Epigenetics and Psychoneuroimmunology: Mechanisms and Models
Mathews, Herbert L.; Janusek, Linda Witek
In this Introduction to the Named Series “Epigenetics, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity” an overview of epigenetics is provided with a consideration of the nature of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin remodeling. Illustrative examples of recent scientific developments are highlighted to demonstrate the influence of epigenetics in areas of research relevant to those who investigate phenomena within the scientific discipline of psychoneuroimmunology. These examples are presented in order to provide a perspective on how epigenetic analysis will add insight into the molecular processes that connect the brain with behavior, neuroendocrine responsivity and immune outcome. PMID:20832468
Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.
Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Substance use disorders: Psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms and new targets for therapy
Loftis, Jennifer M.; Huckans, Marilyn
An estimated 76.4 million people worldwide meet criteria for alcohol use disorders, and 15.3 million meet criteria for drug use disorders. Given the high rates of addiction and the associated health, economic, and social costs, it is essential to develop a thorough understanding of the impact of substance abuse on mental and physical health outcomes and to identify new treatment approaches for substance use disorders (SUDs). Psychoneuroimmunology is a rapidly expanding, multidisciplinary area of research that may be of particular importance to addiction medicine, as its focus is on the dynamic and complex interactions among behavioral factors, the central nervous system, and the endocrine and immune systems (Ader, 2001). This review, therefore, focuses on: 1) the psychoneuroimmunologic effects of SUDs by substance type and use pattern, and 2) the current and future treatment strategies, including barriers that can impede successful recovery outcomes. Evidence-based psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments are reviewed. Psychological factors and central nervous system correlates that impact treatment adherence and response are discussed. Several novel therapeutic approaches that are currently under investigation are introduced; translational data from animal and human studies is presented, highlighting immunotherapy as a promising new direction for addiction medicine. PMID:23631821
Psychoneuroimmunology-developments in stress research.
Straub, Rainer H; Cutolo, Maurizio
Links between the central nervous stress system and peripheral immune cells in lymphoid organs have been detailed through 50 years of intensive research. The brain can interfere with the immune system, where chronic psychological stress inhibits many functions of the immune system. On the other hand, chronic peripheral inflammation-whether mild (during aging and psychological stress) or severe (chronic inflammatory diseases)-clearly interferes with brain function, leading to disease sequelae like fatigue but also to overt psychiatric illness. In recent years, it has been observed that psychological stress can be disease permissive, as in chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic viral infections, sepsis, asthma, and others. We recognized that stress reactivity is programmed for a lifetime during a critical period between fetal life and early childhood, which then influences stress behavior and stress responses in adulthood. First phase II clinical studies, e.g., on cognitive behavioral therapy and mind-body therapies (e. g., mindfulness-based stress reduction), are available that show some benefits in stressful human diseases such as breast cancer and others. The field of psychoneuroimmunology has reached a firm ground and invites therapeutic approaches based on Good Clinical Practice phase III multicenter randomized controlled trials to influence stress responses and outcome in chronic illness.
Review of the Literature: Integrating Psychoneuroimmunology into Pediatric Chronic Illness Interventions
Nassau, Jack H.; Tien, Karen; Fritz, Gregory K.
Objective Provide an orientation to psychoneuroimmunology, a rationale for including assessments of immune function in intervention studies of pediatric chronic illness, review the current literature, and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Using electronic searches and previous reviews, selected and reviewed published studies in which immunological changes related to psychological interventions were assessed in pediatric samples. Results Eight studies were identified and included in the review. These utilized a range of interventions (e.g., disclosure and hypnosis) and included a variety of pediatric samples (e.g., those with asthma, HIV infection, or lupus). Conclusions Results suggest that psychological intervention can influence immune function in pediatric samples. Recommendations for advancing our knowledge by studying populations for whom the immune system plays an active role in disease pathophysiology, measuring disease-relevant immune mediators, studying pediatric patients under times of stress, and focusing on interventions aimed at altering the stress system are provided. PMID:17848391
Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: A decade of discovery, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations
McDonald, Paige Green; O’Connell, Mary; Lutgendorf, Susan K.
This article introduces the supplemental issue of “Cancer, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity” and outlines important discoveries, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations that have emerged in the past decade to advance mechanistic and translational understanding of biobehavioral influences on tumor biology, cancer treatment-related sequelae, and cancer outcomes. We offer a heuristic framework for research on biobehavioral pathways in cancer. The shifting survivorship landscape is highlighted and we propose that the changing demographics suggest prudent adoption of a life course perspective of cancer and cancer survivorship. We note opportunities for psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) research to ameliorate the long-term, unintended consequences of aggressive curative intent and call attention to the critical role of reciprocal translational pathways between animal and human studies. Lastly, we briefly summarize the articles included in this compilation and offer our perspectives on future research directions. HighlightsThis article introduces the National Cancer Institute sponsored special issue Cancer, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity and highlights the last decade of PNI-cancer research. PMID:23333846
Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?
Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie
The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:27629365
Psychoneuroimmunologic effects of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment.
Uebaba, Kazuo; Xu, Feng-Hao; Ogawa, Hiroko; Tatsuse, Takashi; Wang, Bing-Hong; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Venkatraman, Sonia
This study assessed the psychoneuroimmunologic changes achieved by Shirodhara, an Ayurvedic treatment, characterized by dripping oil on the forehead, in a randomized, controlled protocol involving a novel approach using a robotic system. In the first experiment for the determination of the most appropriate conditions of Shirodhara, 16 healthy females (33 +/- 9 years old) underwent a 30-minute treatment. In the second study, another 16 healthy females (39 +/- 9 years old) were assigned to either the Shirodhara treatment or control supine position for 30 minutes, with monitoring of physiologic, biochemical, immunologic, and psychometric parameters including anxiety and altered states of consciousness (ASC). The subjects receiving Shirodhara treatment showed lowered levels of state anxiety and higher levels of ASC than those in the control position. Plasma noradrenaline and urinary serotonin excretion decreased significantly more after Shirodhara treatment than in the control. Plasma levels of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, dopamine, and natural killer (NK) cell activity were different between control and Shirodhara treatment. The correlation between anxiolysis and the depth of ASC was significant in the Shirodhara treatment group (r = 0.52, p < 0.05, N = 16), while in the control no correlation was obtained (r = 0.13, p = 0.64, N = 16). The increase in foot skin temperature after Shirodhara showed a significant correlation with anxiolysis and the depth of Trance of ASC (r = 0.58, p < 0.01, r = 0.43, p < 0.01, respectively). NK cell activity after Shirodhara treatment showed a significant correlation with anxiolysis and the depth of Trance of ASC (r = 0.33, p < 0.05, r = 0.56, p < 0.01, respectively). These results indicate that Shirodhara has anxiolytic and ASC-inducing effects, and it promotes a decrease of noradrenaline and exhibits a sympatholytic effect, resulting in the activation of peripheral foot skin circulation and immunopotentiation.
Psychoneuroimmunology in Pregnancy: Immune Pathways Linking Stress with Maternal Health, Adverse Birth Outcomes, and Fetal Development
Christian, Lisa M.
It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the maternal immune system. Thus, stress-induced immune dysregulation during pregnancy has unique implications for both maternal and fetal health, particularly preterm birth. However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which stress may affect adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal health, and fetal development. PMID:21787802
The psychoneuroimmunological effects of music: a systematic review and a new model.
Fancourt, Daisy; Ockelford, Adam; Belai, Abi
There has been a growing interest over the past decade into the health benefits of music, in particular examining its psychological and neurological effects. Yet this is the first attempt to systematically review publications on the psychoneuroimmunology of music. Of the selected sixty-three studies published over the past 22 years, a range of effects of music on neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, lymphocytes, vital signs and immunoglobulins as well as psychological assessments are cataloged. Research so far points to the pivotal role of stress pathways in linking music to an immune response. However, several challenges to this research are noted: (1) there is very little discussion on the possible mechanisms by which music is achieving its neurological and immunological impact; (2) the studies tend to examine biomarkers in isolation, without taking into consideration the interaction of the biomarkers in question with other physiological or metabolic activities of the body, leading to an unclear understanding of the impact that music may be having; (3) terms are not being defined clearly enough, such as distinctions not being made between different kinds of stress and 'music' being used to encompass a broad spectrum of activities without determining which aspects of musical engagement are responsible for alterations in biomarkers. In light of this, a new model is presented which provides a framework for developing a taxonomy of musical and stress-related variables in research design, and tracing the broad pathways that are involved in its influence on the body. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Psychoneuroimmunologic Examination of Cumulative Perinatal Steroid Exposures and Preterm Infant Behavioral Follow-Up
Purdy, Isabell B.; Smith, Lynne; Wiley, Dorothy; Badr, Lina
Purpose This study’s aim was to explore relationships between preterm infant behavioral outcomes and maternal/infant glucocorticoid (dexamethasone [DEX]) treatments using a psychoneuroimmunologic approach. Research questions were (a) do relationships exist between infant cumulative perinatal steroid (PNS) exposure and child behavioral problems? and (b) do maternal/infant characteristics (e.g., immune markers and biophysiologic stressors) influence these relationships? Methods The convenience sample comprised 45 mother–child dyads in which the children (mean age 8 years ± 2.3) had been born at a mean postconceptional age of 28 weeks (± 4.2). We used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess behavior, the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) to score stress at birth, and retrospective record review to identify additional perinatal factors (PNS dosage, sepsis, and maternal and infant complete blood counts near delivery). Results Children were dichotomized into high (> 0.2mg/kg; n = 20) versus low–no (≤ 0.2 mg/kg; n = 25) PNS exposure groups. Significant relationships existed between CBCL Total Problems score and sepsis, PNS exposure, timing of initial PNS, and infant length percentile at discharge. Competence problems were significantly associated with PNS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant length percentile, CRIB score, sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, hearing deficit, and immunity markers (i.e., maternal lymphocyte percentage and infant band/seg ratio). Children in the higher PNS group exhibited more behavioral problems (e.g., withdrawn, attention, conduct, social, and rule breaking problems), but there were no significant differences. The findings are reassuring regarding long-term effects of this PNS dose on preterm infant behavioral outcomes. PMID:21900308
The Psychoneuroimmunological Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder.
Rutkofsky, Ian Hunter; Khan, Anser Saeed; Sahito, Sindhu; Kumar, Vikram
Context • Psychoneuroimmunology is the interdisciplinary study that links behavioral health with the neuroendocrinal system and investigates that link's bidirectional impact on the human immune system. Mechanistic studies have shown how omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like those found in fish oil, can modulate key pathways involved in inflammation, sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factors, and inflammatory cytokine production. Objective • The research team intended to investigate the effects that PUFAs have on the brain and the immune system, including the effects of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, and their therapeutic benefits in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, either as an alternative monotherapy or a complementary adjunct treatment. Design • A literature search was conducted through PubMed and Google Scholar, with no restrictions on the publication dates or geographically. Setting • The research occurred at research facilities in Washington, DC, and Davis, California. Results • Well-described links between inflammation and MDD and bipolar disorder have been established. Similarly, a highly inflammatory state is a contributing factor to many significant health complications, and omega-3 PUFAs can help treat those issues. Conclusions • The research team concluded that omega-3 fatty acids have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of both MDD and bipolar disorder and are effective as a monotherapy and, particularly, as an adjunct therapy. The efficacy of omega-3 supplementation is clearly useful in promoting better health overall and supplementation should be encouraged in the primary care setting. A meta-analysis exploring an adjunct treatment of supplemental eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid is likely to yield the greatest benefits to psychiatric conditions and provide an answer to proper dosing regimens. The team also created a chart of the supplements' salient
Effects of Single-Session Group Mantra-meditation on Salivary Immunoglobulin A and Affective State: A Psychoneuroimmunology Viewpoint.
Torkamani, Fatemeh; Aghayousefi, Alireza; Alipour, Ahmad; Nami, Mohammad
Based on existing psychoneuroimmunological insights, the present study aimed at investigating possible effects of a single-session group mantra-meditation on salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and affective states. A controlled pretest-posttest study enrolled 30 healthy women (mean age 44 ± 3 years) through a multi-stage random sampling method from yoga clubs in Shiraz (Feb-Dec, 2016). Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. Participants in both the groups attended a structured introductory lecture about mantra-meditation after which those in the experimental group meditated for 20min. Saliva samples were collected after the intervention, and the participants' affective states were examined by a qualified clinical psychologist blinded to the intervention using the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire at sequential time-points, i.e., baseline, post-meditation, and one hour later. Similar assessments were done for the control group subjects. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test saliva samples for the IgA titer. The s-IgA and the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) test results were statistically evaluated using an analysis of variance. The mean s-IgA titer in the experimental group at 'post-meditation' and '1-hour later' time-points were found to be statistically different from those of the control group (P < .05). In addition, results indicated a significant change in affect among experimental group subjects as compared to controls (P < .05). Our findings suggest that "group mantra-meditation" training even for a single session may positively influence some immunological components and improve affective states. As a simple and low-cost psychoneurobehavioral intervention, this method may offer mental-health benefits at nursing homes as well as group-therapies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mind-body interface: the role of n-3 fatty acids in psychoneuroimmunology, somatic presentation, and medical illness comorbidity of depression.
human. Therefore, the deficit of EPA and DHA in depression might be associated with mood disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, medical comorbidity and somatic symptoms in depression. Indeed, the role of n-3 PUFAs in immunity and mood function supports the promising psychoneuroimmunologic hypothesis of depression and provides an excellent interface shared by body and mind.
Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antoni, Michael H.; And Others
Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…
[Psychological aspects of pruritus and therapy options].
Stumpf, A; Schut, C; Schneider, G
Besides biological factors, which cause or influence chronic pruritus, more and more attention has recently also been paid to psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors which uphold the symptom. This review article gives an overview of the state of research regarding psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors and the resulting therapeutic options. The article is based on a literature search in the PubMed database. Under experimental conditions, pruritus can be induced by verbal instructions and modulated by placebo and nocebo effects. Stressful life events can also induce pruritus or its exacerbation. This can also be demonstrated on a cellular level. The knowledge that pruritus intensity is modulated by cognitions, behavioral factors, and stress is important for the development and application of psychological interventions. More research should be done regarding psychological interventions in the treatment of chronic itch and they should be applied clinically more often.
Questions of Mind Over Immunity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Discussed is the possibility of disturbed immunity among people experiencing either clinical depression or some type of severe stress. Psychoneuroimmunology, the study of psychological treatment and its ability to shore up a person's immunity and slow the spread of infectious disease, is reviewed. (KR)
A Randomized Clinical Trial of Alternative Stress Management Interventions in Persons with HIV Infection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R. K., Jr.; Robins, Jolynne W.; Tuck, Inez; Walter, Jeanne M.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney
Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stress management interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of…
Stopping the tsunami of stress in primary care.
This article provides an overview of the psychoneuroimmunologic impact of stress on illness along with a review of mind/body therapies to counteract the effects of stress. Primary care providers are encouraged to promote stress reduction and translate evidence into practice by recommending mind/body therapies.
Effects of Stress on Students' Physical and Mental Health and Academic Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.
Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…
Testing the Model: A Phase 1/2 Randomized Double Blind Placebo Control Trial of Targeted Therapeutics: Liposomal Glutathione and Curcumin
Syndrome, P. Goodnik and N.G. Klimas, eds., American Psychiatric Press, Washington, D.C., 1993. 4 2. Clinical Management of Chronic...Klimas, N. and Fletcher, M.A. Stress Management Interventions and psychosocial predictors of progression in HIV-1 infection. in K.Goodkin, ed...Fletcher, M.A. Psychoimmunology and Stress Management in HIV-1 Infection. in Update in Psychoneuroimmunology, Gorman, J.M. and Kertzner, R.M., eds
Understanding Mind/Body Medicine from Muslim Religious Practices of Salat and Dhikr.
There has been an increasing medical interest in Muslim religious practices in promoting well-being. Central to Muslim religious practices are salat (prayer) and dhikr (chanting). These two religious forms may be argued as comprising elements of mind/body medicine due to their positive effect on the psychoneuroimmunological response. The aim of this article was to further understand the mind/body aspects of Muslim salat and dhikr.
Microbes, Immunity, and Behavior: Psychoneuroimmunology Meets the Microbiome
Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F
There is now a large volume of evidence to support the view that the immune system is a key communication pathway between the gut and brain, which plays an important role in stress-related psychopathologies and thus provides a potentially fruitful target for psychotropic intervention. The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a diverse range of organisms and a sophisticated genomic structure. Bacteria within the gut are estimated to weigh in excess of 1 kg in the adult human and the microbes within not only produce antimicrobial peptides, short chain fatty acids, and vitamins, but also most of the common neurotransmitters found in the human brain. That the microbial content of the gut plays a key role in immune development is now beyond doubt. Early disruption of the host-microbe interplay can have lifelong consequences, not just in terms of intestinal function but in distal organs including the brain. It is clear that the immune system and nervous system are in continuous communication in order to maintain a state of homeostasis. Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of the gut microbiota in coordinating the immune-nervous systems dialogue. However, studies using germ-free animals, infective models, prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics have increased our understanding of the interplay. Early life stress can have a lifelong impact on the microbial content of the intestine and permanently alter immune functioning. That early life stress can also impact adult psychopathology has long been appreciated in psychiatry. The challenge now is to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms that link the gut microbiota, immune, and central nervous systems in a network of communication that impacts behavior patterns and psychopathology, to eventually translate these findings to the human situation both in health and disease. Even at this juncture, there is evidence to pinpoint key sites of communication where gut microbial interventions either with drugs or diet or perhaps fecal microbiota transplantation may positively impact mental health. PMID:27319972
Physiologic and psychobehavioral research in oncology.
Redd, W H; Silberfarb, P M; Andersen, B L; Andrykowski, M A; Bovbjerg, D H; Burish, T G; Carpenter, P J; Cleeland, C; Dolgin, M; Levy, S M
A major thrust in research in psychosocial oncology is the study of the interaction of psychologic and physiologic variables. This discussion reviews the current status and future directions of such research. Areas addressed include pain, nausea and vomiting with chemotherapy, sexuality, effects of cancer on psychologic and neuropsychologic function, impact of psychologic factors on cancer and its treatment, and psychoneuroimmunology. In addition, specific recommendations for strategies to facilitate research in these areas of psychosocial oncology are proposed.
Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, Yufang; Devadas, Satish; Greeneltch, Kristy M.; Yin, Deling; Allan Mufson, R.; Zhou, Jian-nian
Psychological and physical stressors best exemplify the intercommunication of the immune and the nervous systems. It has been shown that stress significantly impacts leukocyte cellularity and immune responses and alters susceptibility to various diseases. While acute stress has been shown to enhance immune responses, chronic stress often leads to immunosuppression. Among many criteria examined upon exposure to chronic stress, the reduction in lymphocyte mitogenic response and lymphocyte cellularity are commonly assessed. We have reported that chronic restraint stress could induce lymphocyte reduction, an effect dependent on endogenous opioids. Interestingly, the effect of endogenous opioids was found to be exerted through increasing the expression of a cell death receptor, Fas, and an increased sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptosis. Stress-induced lymphocyte reduction was not affected by adrenalectomy. In this review, based on available literature and our recent data, we will discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endogenous opioids and examine the mechanisms by which chronic stress modulates lymphocyte apoptosis.
Why sleep is important for health: a psychoneuroimmunology perspective.
Irwin, Michael R
Sleep has a critical role in promoting health. Research over the past decade has documented that sleep disturbance has a powerful influence on the risk of infectious disease, the occurrence and progression of several major medical illnesses including cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the incidence of depression. Increasingly, the field has focused on identifying the biological mechanisms underlying these effects. This review highlights the impact of sleep on adaptive and innate immunity, with consideration of the dynamics of sleep disturbance, sleep restriction, and insomnia on (a) antiviral immune responses with consequences for vaccine responses and infectious disease risk and (b) proinflammatory immune responses with implications for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depression. This review also discusses the neuroendocrine and autonomic neural underpinnings linking sleep disturbance and immunity and the reciprocal links between sleep and inflammatory biology. Finally, interventions are discussed as effective strategies to improve sleep, and potential opportunities are identified to promote sleep health for therapeutic control of chronic infectious, inflammatory, and neuropsychiatric diseases.
Psyche and soma: New insights into the connection.
Kumar, Rahul; Yeragani, Vikram K
The interaction of Psyche and Soma are well known and this interaction happens through a complex network of feedback, medication, and modulation among the central and autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine system, the immune system, and the stress system. These systems, which were previously considered pristinely independent, in fact, interact at myriad levels. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is an emerging discipline that focuses on various interactions among these body systems and provides the underpinnings of a scientific explanation for what is commonly referred to as the mind-body connection. This article reviews the relevant literature with an emphasis on Indian research.
Psyche and soma: New insights into the connection
Kumar, Rahul; Yeragani, Vikram K.
The interaction of Psyche and Soma are well known and this interaction happens through a complex network of feedback, medication, and modulation among the central and autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine system, the immune system, and the stress system. These systems, which were previously considered pristinely independent, in fact, interact at myriad levels. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is an emerging discipline that focuses on various interactions among these body systems and provides the underpinnings of a scientific explanation for what is commonly referred to as the mind-body connection. This article reviews the relevant literature with an emphasis on Indian research. PMID:21836684
Behavioural conditioning of immune functions: how the central nervous system controls peripheral immune responses by evoking associative learning processes.
Riether, Carsten; Doenlen, Raphaël; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Niemi, Maj-Britt; Engler, Andrea; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred
During the last 30 years of psychoneuroimmunology research the intense bi-directional communication between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system has been demonstrated in studies on the interaction between the nervous-endocrine-immune systems. One of the most intriguing examples of such interaction is the capability of the CNS to associate an immune status with specific environmental stimuli. In this review, we systematically summarize experimental evidence demonstrating the behavioural conditioning of peripheral immune functions. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms underlying the behavioural conditioning process and provide a theoretical framework that indicates the potential feasibility of behaviourally conditioned immune changes in clinical situations.
[Psyche and soma--Descartes in our hearts?].
The essay deals with the mind-body problem. The first part describes the different views held by philosophers from Plato up to modern times, stressing the standpoint of René Descartes for medical philosophy and dualism. The author outlines the new research field of psychoneuroimmunology, and asks whether this could be one of the keys to the mind-body problem. The concept of anomaly is discussed, taking placebo and nocebo as prominent examples. Finally the author outlines modern holistic thinking based on a general systems theory, with biology as a dynamic interplay of culture, ecology, mind, and body in an open non-lineary system.
Stress, food, and inflammation: psychoneuroimmunology and nutrition at the cutting edge.
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation, including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can affect mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen nuclear factor-kappaB activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community.
Synergistic relationships among stress, depression, and troubled relationships: insights from psychoneuroimmunology.
Jaremka, Lisa M; Lindgren, Monica E; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
Stress and depression consistently elevate inflammation and are often experienced simultaneously, which is exemplified by people in troubled relationships. Troubled relationships also elevate inflammation, which may be partially explained by their ability to engender high levels of stress and depression. People who are stressed, depressed, or in troubled relationships are also at greater risk for health problems than their less distressed counterparts. Inflammation, a risk factor for a variety of age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, Type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and frailty, may be one key mechanistic pathway linking distress to poor health. Obesity may further broaden the health implications of stress and depression; people who are stressed or depressed are often overweight, and adipose tissue is a major source of proinflammatory cytokines. Stress, depression, and troubled relationships may have synergistic inflammatory effects: loneliness, subclinical depression, and major depression enhance inflammatory responses to an acute stressful event. The relationship between distress and inflammation is bidirectional; depression enhances inflammation and inflammation promotes depression. Interesting questions emerge from this literature. For instance, some stressors may be more potent than others and thus may be more strongly linked to inflammation. In addition, it is possible that psychological and interpersonal resources may buffer the negative inflammatory effects of stress. Understanding the links among stress, depression, troubled relationships, and inflammation is an exciting area of research that may provide mechanistic insight into the links between distress and poor health. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Has bioscience reconciled mind and body?
Davies, Carmel; Redmond, Catherine; Toole, Sinead O; Coughlan, Barbara
The aim of this discursive paper is to explore the question 'has biological science reconciled mind and body?'. This paper has been inspired by the recognition that bioscience has a historical reputation for privileging the body over the mind. The disregard for the mind (emotions and behaviour) cast bioscience within a 'mind-body problem' paradigm. It has also led to inherent limitations in its capacity to contribute to understanding the complex nature of health. This is a discursive paper. Literature from the history and sociology of science and psychoneuroimmunology (1975-2015) inform the arguments in this paper. The historical and sociological literature provides the basis for a socio-cultural debate on mind-body considerations in science since the 1970s. The psychoneuroimmunology literature draws on mind-body bioscientific theory as a way to demonstrate how science is reconciling mind and body and advancing its understanding of the interconnections between emotions, behaviour and health. Using sociological and biological evidence, this paper demonstrates how bioscience is embracing and advancing its understanding of mind-body interconnectedness. It does this by demonstrating the emotional and behavioural alterations that are caused by two common phenomena; prolonged, chronic peripheral inflammation and prolonged psychological stress. The evidence and arguments provided has global currency that advances understanding of the inter-relationship between emotions, behaviour and health. This paper shows how bioscience has reconciled mind and body. In doing so, it has advanced an understanding of science's contribution to the inter-relationship between emotions, behaviour and health. The biological evidence supporting mind-body science has relevance to clinical practice for nurses and other healthcare professions. This paper discusses how this evidence can inform and enhance clinical practice directly and through research, education and policy. © 2015 John Wiley
Psychoneuroimmunology meets neuropsychopharmacology: translational implications of the impact of inflammation on behavior.
Haroon, Ebrahim; Raison, Charles L; Miller, Andrew H
The potential contribution of chronic inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression has received increasing attention. Elevated biomarkers of inflammation, including inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, have been found in depressed patients, and administration of inflammatory stimuli has been associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Data also have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines can interact with multiple pathways known to be involved in the development of depression, including monoamine metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, and neurocircuits relevant to mood regulation. Further understanding of mechanisms by which cytokines alter behavior have revealed a host of pharmacologic targets that may be unique to the impact of inflammation on behavior and may be especially relevant to the treatment and prevention of depression in patients with evidence of increased inflammation. Such targets include the inflammatory signaling pathways cyclooxygenase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor-κB, as well as the metabolic enzyme, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, which breaks down tryptophan into kynurenine. Other targets include the cytokines themselves in addition to chemokines, which attract inflammatory cells from the periphery to the brain. Psychosocial stress, diet, obesity, a leaky gut, and an imbalance between regulatory and pro-inflammatory T cells also contribute to inflammation and may serve as a focus for preventative strategies relevant to both the development of depression and its recurrence. Taken together, identification of mechanisms by which cytokines influence behavior may reveal a panoply of personalized treatment options that target the unique contributions of the immune system to depression.
Towards a theory of intention: An application of quantum mechanics within psychotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Wyck, Jennifer
This study incorporated grounded research methodology to analyze and code three fields of research: psychoneuroimmunology, psychokinesis, and guided imagery. The works of Tiller (2001, 2007) and Dyer (2004) were used as a validity check for the grounded theory results and provided further input into a final theory of intention. It was found that intention requires three elements to be most successful in producing targeted outcomes. These include consciousness, thought, and emotion. The emotional aspect of intention had previously been mentioned but never incorporated into earlier theories of intention and appears to be a new finding that has potentially strong implications. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the theory of intention can inform practice in the field of psychotherapy.
Microbiome and mental health in the modern environment.
A revolution in the understanding of the pathophysiology of mental illness combined with new knowledge about host/microbiome interactions and psychoneuroimmunology has opened an entirely new field of study, the "psychobiotics". The modern microbiome is quite changed compared to our ancestral one due to diet, antibiotic exposure, and other environmental factors, and these differences may well impact our brain health. The sheer complexity and scope of how diet, probiotics, prebiotics, and intertwined environmental variables could influence mental health are profound obstacles to an organized and useful study of the microbiome and psychiatric disease. However, the potential for positive anti-inflammatory effects and symptom amelioration with perhaps few side effects makes the goal of clarifying the role of the microbiota in mental health a vital one.
Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: a proposed model.
Argaman, Miriam; Gidron, Yori; Ariad, Shmuel
A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). IL-1beta was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1beta. Elevated cerebral IL-1beta increased cancer metastasis in animals. Inescapable shock was associated with systemic elevations of IL-1beta and peripheral IL-1beta was associated with escape from apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Involvement of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are discussed. Future studies need to identify the role of additional factors in this PNI pathway.
Yogic exercises and health--a psycho-neuro immunological approach.
Kulkarni, D D; Bera, T K
Relaxation potential of yogic exercises seems to play a vital role in establishing psycho-physical health in reversing the psycho-immunology of emotions under stress based on breath and body awareness. However, mechanism of yogic exercises for restoring health and fitness components operating through psycho-neuro-immunological pathways is unknown. Therefore, a hybrid model of human information processing-psycho-neuroendocrine (HIP-PNE) network has been proposed to reveal the importance of yogic information processing. This study focuses on two major pathways of information processing involving cortical and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) interactions with a deep reach molecular action on cellular, neuro-humoral and immune system in reversing stress mediated diseases. Further, the proposed HIP-PNE model has ample of experimental potential for objective evaluation of yogic view of health and fitness.
[General psychosomatics in children and adolescents].
Begovac, Ivan; Votava-Raić, Ana
The purpose of this study is a review of contemporary knowledge from the field of children and adolescent psychosomatics by using standard textbooks and journals. Data are chosen according to their importance and easy reference for a clinical study and scientific research. Psychosomatics can be defined as medicine of mutual relationships in the widest sense. It seems that factors of bio-psycho-social area participate in etiology and pathogenesis, i.e. complex genetic, developmental, psychodynamic, neuroanatomical, psychoneurophysiological, neurobiochemical, psychoneuroimmunological, psychoneuroendocrinal, familiar, social and probably other factors. Children and adolescent psychiatry, pediatrics are mutually complementary. In the medical-psychosomatic field there is consideration in the form of spatial-operative models that have to be amended through the concepts of unconscious and preconscious as well as through a temporal-systematic perspective. A team approach will be applied in a therapy.
The placebo is much more than a control medicine in a clinical trial. The placebo response is the largest component of any allergy treatment and consists of two components: nonspecific effects (eg, natural recovery) and a "true placebo effect" that is the psychological therapeutic effect of the treatment. Belief in the beneficial nature of the treatment is a key component of the true placebo effect, and can be enhanced by factors such as interaction with the physician and the sensory impact of the treatment. Negative beliefs can generate a nocebo effect that may explain some psychogenic illnesses; this is the basis of much research in psychoneuroimmunology. An understanding of the placebo and nocebo effects is important for general allergy practice, and harnessing the power of the true placebo effect is a major challenge to modern medicine.
Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava
Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins
[The meaning of wholeness in medical philosophy].
Meyer-Abich, Klaus Michael
Organisms are "wholes" insofar as togetherness with others is essential for their development and identity. The female egg is the first and original environment into which a human individual develops. The three main spheres of holistic togetherness in which man further becomes himself in joining the world are (1) psychic togetherness of the organs, (2) social togetherness with fellow human beings and (3) natural togetherness or connaturality, in the whole of nature. Health and disease can originate on any of these levels. On the first one psychosomatic experiences tend to be confirmed by recent results of psychoneuroimmunology. On the second level health or pathogenicity of private or professional social environments tend to be much better known in social medicine (public health) than in medical practice. Corresponding research on the third level is much less advanced. Medical care can be secondary to cultivating social and natural togetherness.
[Stress and the molecular basis of psychosomatics].
Peters, E M J
Stress and skin-an inseparable pair, this is how many of our patients perceive it and even clinicians are willing to integrate psychosomatic aspects into their recommendations if nothing from the somatic repertoire provides sufficient treatment. How the stress reaches the skin however is still an enigmatic matter to most lay people and professionals alike. Interestingly, psychoneuroimmunological research since the 1970s has produced a flood of valuable data. We now know that stressors, be it biochemical or psychoemotional, always elicit a neuroendocrine stress reaction with consequences for the immune response and therefore especially chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Here we employ allergic inflammation/atopic dermatitis and psoriasis as instructive model diseases to discuss basic mechanisms of molecular psychosomatic effects on chronic inflammation. The aim is to enhance pathogenetic understanding and open the door for the development and employment of integrated therapeutic concepts in dermatology.
Protection throughout the life span: the psychoneuroimmunologic impact of Indo-Tibetan meditative and yogic practices.
Olivo, Erin L
The Indo-Tibetan tradition claims that proficiency in the suggested longevity practices of meditation, diet, and physical exercise (yoga), will result in profound anti-aging, stress-mediating and health enhancing effects. Western biomedical research has begun to demonstrate that the psychobiological states induced and cultivated by cognitive behavioral practices which are emblematic of those contained within the Indo-Tibetan tradition (hypnosis, meditation, visualization, systematic relaxation), indeed do have a profound impact on the body's protective and regulatory systems. Although continued study is necessary, much of the early research illuminating the mechanisms responsible for the life-span extending and health-enhancing effects of these cognitive behavioral practices points to the importance of their anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, and antioxidant effects as well as their impact in enhancing the production of endogenous substances that possess general longevity-enhancing, regenerative properties.
Start making sense: Art informing health psychology
Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M
Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres – novels, films, paintings and music – are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications. PMID:29552350
Attachment Anxiety is Linked to Alterations in Cortisol Production and Cellular Immunity
Jaremka, Lisa M.; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J.; Malarkey, William B.; Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.
Although evidence suggests that attachment anxiety may increase risk for health problems, the mechanisms are not well understood. Married couples (N = 85, Mage = 38.67) provided saliva samples over three days and blood samples on two occasions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety produced more cortisol and had fewer numbers of CD3+ T-cells, CD45+ T-cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T-cells, and CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells than those with lower attachment anxiety. Higher cortisol was also related to fewer numbers of CD3+, CD45+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+, which is mechanistically consistent with research showing that cortisol alters the cellular immune response. These data suggest that attachment anxiety may have physiological costs and provide a glimpse into the pathways through which social relationships impact health. The current study also extends attachment theory in an important new direction by utilizing a psychoneuroimmunological approach to the study of attachment anxiety, stress, and health. PMID:23307944
Diet and psychological health.
This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.
Studying brain-regulation of immunity with optogenetics and chemogenetics; A new experimental platform.
Ben-Shaanan, Tamar; Schiller, Maya; Rolls, Asya
The interactions between the brain and the immune system are bidirectional. Nevertheless, we have far greater understanding of how the immune system affects the brain than how the brain affects immunity. New technological developments such as optogenetics and chemogenetics (using DREADDs; Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) can bridge this gap in our understanding, as they enable an unprecedented mechanistic and systemic analysis of the communication between the brain and the immune system. In this review, we discuss new experimental approaches for revealing neuronal circuits that can participate in regulation of immunity. In addition, we discuss methods, specifically optogenetics and chemogenetics, that enable targeted neuronal manipulation to reveal how different brain regions affect immunity. We describe how these techniques can be used as an experimental platform to address fundamental questions in psychoneuroimmunology and to understand how neuronal circuits associate with different psychological states can affect physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chronic fatigue syndrome defies the mind-body-schism of medicine. New perspectives on a multiple realisable developmental systems disorder.
The article maintains that chronic fatigue syndrome can be properly understood only by taking an integrated perspective in which evolutionary, developmental and ecological aspects are considered. The integrative approach, supplemented by a complexity theory and psychoneuroimmunological research, is capable of explaining why there are so few structural aberrations to be found in chronic fatigue syndrome and why specific treatment is so difficult to establish. A major outcome of the investigation, that all individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome are diseased in their own way, emphasises the need to study the development of personalised life histories. It also highlights an ethical dimension; personalised disease defies essentialist thinking on patient management. Another major outcome, which follows from the developmental systems perspective, is the dissolution of ontological mind-body dualism. This in turn allows for a methodological complementation of the biological and phenomenological approaches to knowledge. New research strategies that may help to resolve chronic fatigue syndrome, grounded in the revised perspective on individual development, are suggested.
Mind-body medicine: stress and its impact on overall health and longevity.
Vitetta, L; Anton, B; Cortizo, F; Sali, A
The belief that adverse life stressors and the emotional states that can lead to major negative impacts on an individual's body functions and hence health has been held since antiquity. Adverse health outcomes such as coronary heart disease, gastrointestinal distress, and cancer have been linked to unresolved lifestyle stresses that can be expressed as a negative impact on human survival and ultimately a decrease of the human life span. Psychological modulation of immune function is now a well-established phenomenon, with much of the relevant literature published within the last 50 years. Psychoneuroimmunology and psychoneuroendocrinology embrace the scientific evidence of research of the mind with that of endocrinology, neurology and immunology, whereby the brain and body communicate with each other in a multidirectional flow of information that consists of hormones, neurotransmitters/neuropeptides, and cytokines. Advances in mind-body medicine research together with healthy nutrition and lifestyle choices can have a significant impact on health maintenance and disease prevention and hence the prolongation of the human life span.
Epigenomic Susceptibility to the Social World: Plausible Paths to a "Newest Morbidity".
Boyce, W Thomas
This article-presented on the celebratory occasion of Dr Robert Haggerty's 91st birthday-describes how a 1962 article by Dr Haggerty and his colleague Dr Roger Meyer launched a previously unexplored, pediatric research enterprise by asserting that: "There are little precise data to explain why one person becomes ill with an infecting agent and another not." Noting a prospective association between family stressors and the acquisition of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, the article introduced a generation of young academic pediatricians-the author of the present article among them-to the possibility of causal linkages among children's adversity exposures, compromised immunological processes, and the development of immune-mediated, acute or chronic diseases of childhood. That research agenda has led, over the past 40 years, to the advent of psychoneuroimmunology as a field of study, to the recognition of childhood stress and adversity as potential etiologic agents among childhood morbidities, and to the discovery of differential susceptibility to social adversities within populations of children. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stress, Anxiety, and Immunomodulation: A Pharmacological Analysis.
Ray, A; Gulati, K; Rai, N
Stress and stressful events are common occurrences in our daily lives and such aversive situations bring about complex changes in the biological system. Such stress responses influence the brain and behavior, neuroendocrine and immune systems, and these responses orchestrate to increase or decrease the ability of the organism to cope with such stressors. The brain via expression of complex behavioral paradigms controls peripheral responses to stress and a bidirectional link exists in the modulation of stress effects. Anxiety is a common neurobehavioral correlate of a variety of stressors, and both acute and chronic stress exposure could precipitate anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroimmunology involves interactions between the brain and the immune system, and it is now being increasingly recognized that the immune system could contribute to the neurobehavioral responses to stress. Studies have shown that the brain and its complex neurotransmitter networks could influence immune function, and there could be a possible link between anxiogenesis and immunomodulation during stress. Physiological and pharmacological data have highlighted this concept, and the present review gives an overview of the relationship between stress, anxiety, and immune responsiveness. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The effect of therapeutic touch on postoperative patients.
Coakley, Amanda Bulette; Duffy, Mary E
Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a complementary modality that has been demonstrated to reduce psychological distress and help patients to relax. It is unclear if there is an impact of TT on biobehavioral markers such as cortisol and natural killer cells (NKCs). There is some preliminary evidence that suggests relaxation may have positive effects on the immune system. To test the efficacy of TT on pain and biobehavioral markers in patients recovering from vascular surgery. The study was grounded in a psychoneuroimmunology framework to address how complementary therapies affect pain and biobehavioral markers associated with recovery in surgical patients. This was a between-subjects intervention study. Twenty-one postoperative surgical patients. Measures of level of pain and levels of cortisol and NKCs were obtained before and after a TT treatment. Compared with those who received usual care, participants who received TT had significantly lower level of pain, lower cortisol level, and higher NKC level. Evidence supports TT as a beneficial intervention with patients. Future research on TT is still needed to learn more about how it functions. However, there is evidence to support incorporating TT into nursing practice.
Immunological research in clinical psychiatry: report on the consensus debate during the 7th Expert Meeting on Psychiatry and Immunology.
Arolt, V; Rothermundt, M; Peters, M; Leonard, B
There is convincing evidence that cytokines are involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of brain function and interact with different neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine pathways. The possible involvement of the immune system in the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie psychiatric disorders has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Thus in the last decade, numerous clinical studies have demonstrated dysregulated immune functions in patients with psychiatric disorders. Such findings formed the basis of the 7th Expert Meeting on Psychiatry and Immunology in Muenster, Germany, where a consensus symposium was held to consider the strengths and weaknesses of current research in psychoneuroimmunology. Following a general overview of the field, the following topics were discussed: (1) methodological problems in laboratory procedures and recruitment of clinical samples; (2) the importance of pre-clinical research and animal models in psychiatric research; (3) the problem of statistical vs biological relevance. It was concluded that, despite a fruitful proliferation of research activities throughout the last decade, the continuous elaboration of methodological standards including the implementation of hypothesis-driven research represents a task that is likely to prove crucial for the future development of immunology research in clinical psychiatry.
Perinatal Psychoneuroimmunology: Protocols for the Study of Prenatal Stress and Its Effects on Fetal and Postnatal Brain Development.
Frasch, Martin G; Baier, Carlos J; Antonelli, Marta C; Metz, Gerlinde A S
Prenatal stress (PS) impacts early behavioral, neuroimmune, and cognitive development. Pregnant rat models have been very valuable in examining the mechanisms of such fetal programming. A newer pregnant sheep model of maternal stress offers the unique advantages of chronic in utero monitoring and manipulation. This chapter presents the techniques used to model single and multigenerational stress exposures and their pleiotropic effects on the offspring.
Psychobiological mechanisms of exercise dependence.
Hamer, Mark; Karageorghis, Costas I
Exercise dependence (ED) is characterised by an obsessive and unhealthy preoccupation with exercise. Previous research has focused largely on identifying behavioural aspects of ED, although the biological mechanisms remain unknown and are under researched. We review various ED hypotheses including affect regulation, anorexia analogue, sympathetic arousal and beta-endorphin. We also present a novel hypothesis pertaining to ED and interleukin (IL)-6, which combines previous hypotheses with literature from the field of psycho-neuroimmunology. We explore the notion that IL-6 provides a link from the periphery to the brain, which may mediate the underlying features of ED. We propose a conceptual model indicating that, in individuals prone to ED, exercise results in a transient reduction in negative affect, but concurrently results in excessive production of IL-6 and the activation of neuroendocrine pathways, which are associated with behavioural and psychological disturbances of exercise withdrawal. Our intention is for this model to serve as a basis for further research in the area of ED, which may eventually lead to the development of successful treatment strategies. Recent developments in methods to reliably assess these biological markers from blood and saliva samples should encourage such research to be undertaken in exercise settings.
Controversies in cancer and the mind: effects of psychosocial support.
In the last decades of the twentieth century, interest in effects of consciousness on health and illness generated several lines of investigation into effects on cancer. Animal studies showed sensitivity of some cancers to hormonal and stressful influences. However, those findings did not translate into effects on humans, nor did they lead to advances in understanding of human cancer. The proposal that emotional state or stress, mediated through psycho-neuro-immunologic mechanisms would affect cancer generation or growth, resulted in conflicting information. Major surveys found no relationship. The proposal of a cancer personality (Type C) also was not confirmed. Initial observations that depression and stress affected human cancer seem to have best been explained by misinterpretations of cause and effect. By the mid 1990s, a remaining thesis--effect of psychosocial support on longevity and the course of cancer--was yet to be resolved. Initial positive results, especially findings in two popularly quoted studies, were not confirmed; they seem to have been due to inadequate numbers (chance) or to artifacts in study design or implementation. Psychosocial support may result in better adjustment and quality of life, but it does not directly affect the evolution of human cancer. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Neuroimmune mechanisms of stress: sex differences, developmental plasticity, and implications for pharmacotherapy of stress-related disease
Deak, Terrence; Quinn, Matt; Cidlowski, John A.; Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.; Sheridan, John F.
The last decade has witnessed profound growth in studies examining the role of fundamental neuroimmune processes as key mechanisms that might form a natural bridge between normal physiology and pathological outcomes. Rooted in core concepts from psychoneuroimmunology, this review utilizes a succinct, exemplar-driven approach of several model systems that contribute significantly to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which neuroimmune processes interact with stress physiology. Specifically, we review recent evidence showing that (i) stress challenges produce time-dependent and stressor-specific patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression in the CNS; (ii) inflammation-related genes exhibit unique expression profiles in males and females depending upon individual, cooperative, or antagonistic interactions between steroid hormone receptors (Estrogen and Glucocorticoid receptors); (iii) adverse social experiences incurred through repeated social defeat engage a dynamic process of immune cell migration from the bone marrow to brain and prime neuroimmune function; and (iv) early developmental exposure to an inflammatory stimulus (carageenin injection into the hindpaw) has a lasting influence on stress reactivity across the lifespan. As such, the present review provides a theoretical framework for understanding the role that neuroimmune mechanisms might play in stress plasticity and pathological outcomes, while at the same time pointing toward features of the individual (sex, developmental experience, stress history) that might ultimately be used for the development of personalized strategies for therapeutic intervention in stress-related pathologies. PMID:26176590
Neuroimmune mechanisms of stress: sex differences, developmental plasticity, and implications for pharmacotherapy of stress-related disease.
Deak, Terrence; Quinn, Matt; Cidlowski, John A; Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z; Sheridan, John F
The last decade has witnessed profound growth in studies examining the role of fundamental neuroimmune processes as key mechanisms that might form a natural bridge between normal physiology and pathological outcomes. Rooted in core concepts from psychoneuroimmunology, this review utilizes a succinct, exemplar-driven approach of several model systems that contribute significantly to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which neuroimmune processes interact with stress physiology. Specifically, we review recent evidence showing that (i) stress challenges produce time-dependent and stressor-specific patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression in the CNS; (ii) inflammation-related genes exhibit unique expression profiles in males and females depending upon individual, cooperative or antagonistic interactions between steroid hormone receptors (estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors); (iii) adverse social experiences incurred through repeated social defeat engage a dynamic process of immune cell migration from the bone marrow to brain and prime neuroimmune function and (iv) early developmental exposure to an inflammatory stimulus (carageenin injection into the hindpaw) has a lasting influence on stress reactivity across the lifespan. As such, the present review provides a theoretical framework for understanding the role that neuroimmune mechanisms might play in stress plasticity and pathological outcomes, while at the same time pointing toward features of the individual (sex, developmental experience, stress history) that might ultimately be used for the development of personalized strategies for therapeutic intervention in stress-related pathologies.
Voluntary immunomodulation: potentiality and implications for long-duration manned space-flights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The influence of psychological and neural factors on immunologic activity has been dedicated a growing interest over the past fifteen years, since the publication ofPsychoneuroimmunology by Robert Ader in 1981. Studies on this topic gave evidence for bi-directional communication between psychosocial, behavioural, neuroanatomical and neuroendocrine processes with the immune system and the detrimental effects of various stressors, physical and psychological, on immune reactions were widely investigated with reports of stress-induced changes in immune paramenters and immunocompetence. Much of the evidence support the notion that stress is associated with an increase in those diseases against which the immune system defends. Recently, several studies showed that immune functions can be influenced voluntarily and the term voluntary immunomodulation was coined to describe the use of various hypnosis-like and relaxation/imagery techniques for the self-regulation of immune activity. Alterations in the immune regulatory system are one of the most critical issues to be addressed in relation to crew health management during space missions, especially long-term ones. Providing crewmembers with a tool to enhance immunocompetence might be of great value to defend against some severe diseases, such as cancer and infectious illness, which may be elicited in outer space. In this view, a critical assessment of the potential usefulness of voluntary immunomodulation for crew health maintenance during manned space-flight is presented and discussed.
Stressor-Specific Alterations in Corticosterone and Immune Responses in Mice
Bowers, Stephanie L.; Bilbo, Staci D.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Nelson, Randy J.
Different stressors likely elicit different physiological and behavioral responses. Previously reported differences in the effects of stressors on immune function may reflect qualitatively different physiological responses to stressors; alternatively, both large and subtle differences in testing protocols and methods among laboratories may make direct comparisons among studies difficult. Here we examine the effects of chronic stressors on plasma corticosterone concentrations, leukocyte redistribution, and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and the effects of acute stressors on plasma corticosterone and leukocyte redistribution. The effects of several commonly used laboratory stressors including restraint, forced swim, isolation, and low ambient temperatures (4°C) were examined. Exposure to each stressor elevated corticosterone concentrations, with restraint (a putative psychological stressor) evoking a significantly higher glucocorticoid response than other stressors. Chronic restraint and forced swim enhanced the DTH response compared to the handled, low temperature, or isolation conditions. Restraint, low temperature, and isolation significantly increased trafficking of lymphocytes and monocytes compared to forced swim or handling. Generally, acute restraint, low temperature, isolation, and handling increased trafficking of lymphocytes and monocytes. Considered together, our results suggest that the different stressors commonly used in psychoneuroimmunology research may not activate the physiological stress response to the same extent. The variation observed in the measured immune responses may reflect differential glucocorticoid activation, differential metabolic adjustments, or both processes in response to specific stressors. PMID:17890050
Alternative medicine complements standard. Various forms focus on holistic concepts.
Seaward, B L
Western or conventional medical practices are founded on the principle of Newtonian physics; the body is viewed as a large clock whose broken parts are fixed or replaced. The placebo effect, hypnosis, psychoneuroimmunology, and spontaneous remission have recently inspired researchers to look beyond this mechanistic model toward a new paradigm of greater understanding regarding the entity we call "human beings." The premise of alternative medicine, based on the paradigm of whole systems, suggests that human beings are more than physical bodies with fixable and replaceable parts; they are a complicated network of pulsating energy frequencies often described in terms of a human aura. Western researchers now call this "the human energy field." Homeopathy, acupuncture, polarity healing, and the healing power of touch are only a few of the more common branches of holistic medicine that unite body, mind, and spirit for optimal health. The U.S. Congress has appropriated more than $2 million to the National Institutes of Health to research the validity of alternative or complementary medicines. In light of proposed changes in the healthcare system, alternative medicine may eventually be incorporated into the American structure of healthcare delivery. Proponents of holistic medicine agree that various forms of alternative medicine should be used to complement, rather than compete, with, the current accepted standard of healthcare.
Can loss and grief activate latent neoplasia? A clinical case of possible interaction between genetic risk and stress in breast cancer.
Biondi, M; Costantini, A; Parisi, A
Nineteenth-century physicians working with cancer patients frequently reported that severe emotional losses and grief occurred in some cases before cancer. Research on psychoneuroimmunology seems to reactivate this interest and could give a possible convincing background. We recently observed the case of a 45-year-old woman who developed symptoms of breast cancer (ductal infiltrating carcinoma, T1, N1, M0) 3 years after the loss of her only child. The affection for the child compensated inadequacies of her marriage, which became increasingly unstable. The child died in a dramatic accident at home, while his mother was near him but unable to help. The patient had a moderate genetic-familial risk of mammary cancer. Animal studies strongly suggest that stress, through neuroimmunomodulatory mediatory mechanisms, can significantly affect appearance and progression of mammary cancer. The patient developed long-lasting intense grief, despair and hopelessness. We discuss the case from three main standpoints: genetic and risk factors for breast cancer; findings which demonstrated a relationship between stress, neuroimmunomodulation and cancer in animals; data from autopsy studies which found foci of latent breast cancer in 20% of healthy women in the same age range. Stress does not create cancer. However we hypothesize that in this case it could have contributed by the activation of a latent neoplasia and/or by impairing immunosurveillance during a critical life phase.
Relationship of PTSD Symptoms With Combat Exposure, Stress, and Inflammation in American Soldiers.
Groer, Maureen W; Kane, Bradley; Williams, S Nicole; Duffy, Allyson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is of great concern in veterans. PTSD usually occurs after a person is exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Active duty soldiers deployed to war zones are at risk for PTSD. Psychoneuroimmunological theory predicts that PTSD, depression, and stress can lead to low-grade, chronic inflammation. We asked whether there were relationships between PTSD symptoms and chronic stress, depression and inflammation in active duty U.S. soldiers. We enrolled 52 active duty enlisted and reservist soldiers in a cross-sectional study while they participated in a week of military training in fall 2011. They completed a demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Combat Exposure Scale, and the PTSD symptom Checklist-Military version (PCL-M). Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP). Hair samples shaved from the forearm were measured for cortisol. Of the soldiers, 11 had PCL-M scores in the moderate to severe range. Regression analysis demonstrated that depression and war zone deployment were strong predictors of PTSD symptoms. CRP and hair cortisol were correlated with each other and with depression and PTSD symptoms. These results suggest relationships among war zone deployment, depression, and PTSD. Chronic stress associated with depression, PTSD, and war zone experiences may be related to inflammation in active duty soldiers. © The Author(s) 2014.
[Problems and strategies in the treatment of mental disorders in elderly patients with physical illness].
There is a high prevalence of mental disorders in the community population of older adults, especially in medical treatment facilities. Therefore, clinicians who treat geriatric patients cannot neglect the psychiatric vulnerability of the elderly population. The fragility of psychological functioning of the elderly is caused not only by psychological contributors, such as various kinds of experiences of loss, but also by biological factors such as decreases in neurotransmitters and in the number of neurons. Another point geriatric clinicians should pay attention to is the powerful mind-body connection in the elderly. Recent psychoneuroimmunological research demonstrates that depression or other types of emotional stress damages the immune system, which can induce some physical diseases. This is especially true for the elderly, who have weakened cell-mediated immune function and are more susceptible to influence by the damaged immune function caused by such psychiatric dysfunction. Also, depression in the elderly can often lead to malnutrition or dehydration, which can induce various kinds of physical illness. On the other hand, physical illness in the elderly can induce depression, because of the psychological vulnerability of the elderly. Due to the strong mind-body connection in the elderly, the availability of psychiatric care is essential. When providing psychiatric care for the elderly, the clinician should attend to all symptoms, not minimizing the importance of biological treatment, while also trying to support the elderly patients psychologically through acceptance of their need for interdependency and respect for their narcissism.
Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard
Since the early days of psychosomatic thinking, atopic disease was considered exemplary. In the 70s and 80s numerous reports stated increased anxiety, depression or ill stresscoping in atopics in correlation with enhanced disease activity. Employed patient groups however were small and diverse and controls rare. Therefore, the question remained, whether psychopathological findings in atopics were of pathogenetic relevance or an epiphenomenon of chronic inflammatory disease. Recently, the discussion has been revived and refocused by psychoneuroimmunological findings. We now know that atopic disease is characterized by an imbalance of the classical stress-axis response along the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic axis (SA). This imbalance can be found shoulder-to-shoulder with enhanced expression of newly emerging neuroendocrine stress mediators such as substance P (SP) and nerve growth factor that form up to a third stress axis (neurotrophin neuropeptide axis: NNA). Together they can alter the inflammatory as well as the neuroendocrine stress-response on several levels. In skin, the immediate inflammatory response to stress involves neuropeptide release and mast cell degranulation, in short neurogenic inflammation. Systemically, antigen-presentation and TH2 cytokine bias are promoted under the influence of cortisol and neuropeptides. Imbalanced stress-responsiveness may therefore be at the core of exacerbated allergic disease and deserves re-evaluation of therapeutic options such as neutralization of SP-signaling by antagonists against its receptor NK1, cortisol treatment as supplementation and relaxation techniques to balance the stress-response. PMID:21519408
Neuroendocrine-Immune Circuits, Phenotypes, and Interactions
Ashley, Noah T.; Demas, Gregory E.
Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions. One classic example is the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that steroid hormones act as mediators of traits important for female choice while suppressing the immune system. Reciprocally, neuroendocrine-immune pathways can promote the development of altered behavioral states, such as sickness behavior. Understanding the energetic signals that mediate neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk is an active area of research. Although the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has begun to explore this crosstalk from a biomedical standpoint, the neuroendocrine-immune-behavior nexus has been relatively underappreciated in comparative species. The field of ecoimmunology, while traditionally emphasizing the study of non-model systems from an ecological evolutionary perspective, often under natural conditions, has focused less on the physiological mechanisms underlying behavioral responses. This review summarizes neuroendocrine-immune interactions using a comparative framework to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape these complex physiological interactions. PMID:27765499
Neuroendocrine-immune circuits, phenotypes, and interactions.
Ashley, Noah T; Demas, Gregory E
Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions. One classic example is the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that steroid hormones act as mediators of traits important for female choice while suppressing the immune system. Reciprocally, neuroendocrine-immune pathways can promote the development of altered behavioral states, such as sickness behavior. Understanding the energetic signals that mediate neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk is an active area of research. Although the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has begun to explore this crosstalk from a biomedical standpoint, the neuroendocrine-immune-behavior nexus has been relatively underappreciated in comparative species. The field of ecoimmunology, while traditionally emphasizing the study of non-model systems from an ecological evolutionary perspective, often under natural conditions, has focused less on the physiological mechanisms underlying behavioral responses. This review summarizes neuroendocrine-immune interactions using a comparative framework to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape these complex physiological interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Somatoform Pain: A developmental theory and translational research review
Landa, Alla; Peterson, Bradley S.; Fallon, Brian A.
Somatoform pain is a highly prevalent, debilitating condition and a tremendous public health problem. Effective treatments for somatoform pain are urgently needed. The etiology of this condition is, however, still unknown. On the basis of a review of recent basic and clinical research, we propose one potential mechanisms of symptom formation in somatoform pain and a developmental theory of its pathogenesis. The emerging evidence from animal and human studies in developmental neurobiology, cognitive-affective neuroscience, psychoneuroimmunology, genetics, epigenetics, and clinical and treatment studies of somatoform pain all point to the existence of a shared physical and social pain neural system. Research findings also show that non-optimal early experiences interact with genetic predispositions to influence the development of this shared system and ability to regulate it in an effective way. Interpersonal affect regulation between infant and caregiver is crucial for the optimal development of these brain circuits. The aberrant development of this shared neural system during infancy, childhood and adolescence, therefore, may ultimately lead to an increased sensitivity to physical and social pain and to problems with their regulation in adulthood. The authors critically review translational research findings that support this theory and discuss its clinical and research implications. Specifically, the proposed theory and reviewed research suggest that psychotherapeutic and/or pharmacologic interventions that foster the development of affect regulation capacities in an interpersonal context will also serve to more effectively modulate aberrantly activated neural pain circuits and thus be of particular benefit in the treatment of somatoform pain. PMID:22929064
Anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms in palliative care: from neuro-psychobiological response to stress, to symptoms' management with clinical hypnosis and meditative states.
Satsangi, Anirudh Kumar; Brugnoli, Maria Paola
Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Psychosomatic medicine in palliative care, integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving diverse clinical specialties including psychiatry, psychology, neurology, internal medicine, allergy, dermatology, psychoneuroimmunology, psychosocial oncology and spiritual care. Clinical conditions where psychological processes act as a major factor affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence. Thus, the psychosomatic symptom develops as a physiological connected of an emotional state. In a state of rage or fear, for example, the stressed person's blood pressure is likely to be elevated and his pulse and respiratory rate to be increased. When the fear passes, the heightened physiologic processes usually subside. If the person has a persistent fear (chronic anxiety), however, which he is unable to express overtly, the emotional state remains unchanged, though unexpressed in the overt behavior, and the physiological symptoms associated with the anxiety state persist. This paper wants highlight how clinical hypnosis and meditative states can be important psychosocial and spiritual care, for the symptom management on neuro-psychobiological response to stress.
Religiousness, Spirituality, and Salivary Cortisol in Breast Cancer Survivorship: A Pilot Study.
Hulett, Jennifer M; Armer, Jane M; Leary, Emily; Stewart, Bob R; McDaniel, Roxanne; Smith, Kandis; Millspaugh, Rami; Millspaugh, Joshua
Psychoneuroimmunological theory suggests a physiological relationship exists between stress, psychosocial-behavioral factors, and neuroendocrine-immune outcomes; however, evidence has been limited. The primary aim of this pilot study was to determine feasibility and acceptability of a salivary cortisol self-collection protocol with a mail-back option for breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to examine relationships between religiousness/spirituality (R/S), perceptions of health, and diurnal salivary cortisol (DSC) as a proxy measure for neuroendocrine activity. This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of R/S, perceptions of health, demographics, and DSC. The sample was composed of female breast cancer survivors (n = 41). Self-collection of DSC using a mail-back option was feasible; validity of mailed salivary cortisol biospecimens was established. Positive spiritual beliefs were the only R/S variable associated with the peak cortisol awakening response (rs = 0.34, P = .03). Poorer physical health was inversely associated with positive spiritual experiences and private religious practices. Poorer mental health was inversely associated with spiritual coping and negative spiritual experiences. Feasibility, validity, and acceptability of self-collected SDC biospecimens with an optional mail-back protocol (at moderate temperatures) were demonstrated. Positive spiritual beliefs were associated with neuroendocrine-mediated peak cortisol awakening response activity; however, additional research is recommended. Objective measures of DSC sampling that include enough collection time points to assess DSC parameters would increase the rigor of future DSC measurement. Breast cancer survivors may benefit from nursing care that includes spiritual assessment and therapeutic conversations that support positive spiritual beliefs.
The influence of coping with perceived racism and stress on lipid levels in African Americans.
Mwendwa, Denee T; Sims, Regina C; Madhere, Serge; Thomas, Joneis; Keen, Larry D; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L
Lipid dysregulation is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is attributed to numerous biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Psychological stress has been examined as a predictor of lipid dysregulation; however, the role of coping with perceived racism, a stressor unique to the African American experience, has not been addressed. The current study sought to determine the impact of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism and perceived daily stress on lipid levels in African Americans. The sample consisted of 122 African American participants who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Data were collected as part of an ongoing study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease at Howard University Hospital. Through canonical analysis, distinct profiles of African American lipid function emerged with body mass index, age, and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism being associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Results from linear regression analyses showed that greater endorsement of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism items predicted higher levels of LDL (B = .24, p < .05). This relationship was not mediated by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the stress response system such as cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and IL-6. The relationship between elevated levels of LDL and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism suggests that African Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to the unique stress encountered by racism in our culture. Behavioral pathways used to counteract the negative effects of perceived discrimination may better explain this relationship. Further research is necessary to determine other biobehavioral and pathophysiological mechanisms that explain this relationship.
The Influence of Coping With Perceived Racism and Stress on Lipid Levels in African Americans
Mwendwa, Denee T.; Sims, Regina C.; Madhere, Serge; Thomas, Joneis; Keen, Larry D.; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.
Background Lipid dysregulation is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and is attributed to numerous biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Psychological stress has been examined as a predictor of lipid dysregulation; however, the role of coping with perceived racism, a stressor unique to the African American experience, has not been addressed. The current study sought to determine the impact of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism and perceived daily stress on lipid levels in African Americans. Methods The sample consisted of 122 African American participants who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Data were collected as part of an ongoing study entitled Stress and Psychoneuroimmunological Factors in Renal Health and Disease at Howard University Hospital. Results Through canonical analysis, distinct profiles of African American lipid function emerged with body mass index, age, and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism being associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively. Results from linear regression analyses showed that greater endorsement of behavioral coping responses to perceived racism items predicted higher levels of LDL (β = .24, p < .05). This relationship was not mediated by pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the stress response system such as cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and IL-6. Conclusion The relationship between elevated levels of LDL and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism suggests that African Americans may be at increased risk for CVD due to the unique stress encountered by racism in our culture. Behavioral pathways used to counteract the negative effects of perceived discrimination may better explain this relationship. Further research is necessary to determine other biobehavioral and pathophysiological mechanisms that explain this relationship. PMID
Cytokines and major depression.
Schiepers, Olga J G; Wichers, Marieke C; Maes, Michael
In the research field of psychoneuroimmunology, accumulating evidence has indicated the existence of reciprocal communication pathways between nervous, endocrine and immune systems. In this respect, there has been increasing interest in the putative involvement of the immune system in psychiatric disorders. In the present review, the role of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma, in the aetiology and pathophysiology of major depression, is discussed. The 'cytokine hypothesis of depression' implies that proinflammatory cytokines, acting as neuromodulators, represent the key factor in the (central) mediation of the behavioural, neuroendocrine and neurochemical features of depressive disorders. This view is supported by various findings. Several medical illnesses, which are characterised by chronic inflammatory responses, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, have been reported to be accompanied by depression. In addition, administration of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. in cancer or hepatitis C therapies, has been found to induce depressive symptomatology. Administration of proinflammatory cytokines in animals induces 'sickness behaviour', which is a pattern of behavioural alterations that is very similar to the behavioural symptoms of depression in humans. The central action of cytokines may also account for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity that is frequently observed in depressive disorders, as proinflammatory cytokines may cause HPA axis hyperactivity by disturbing the negative feedback inhibition of circulating corticosteroids (CSs) on the HPA axis. Concerning the deficiency in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission that is concomitant with major depression, cytokines may reduce 5-HT levels by lowering the availability of its precursor tryptophan (TRP) through activation of the TRP-metabolising enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Although the central effects of
The Clinical Neuroscience Course: Viewing Mental Health from Neurobiological Perspectives
Lambert, Kelly G.
Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies
Towards a heterarchical approach to biology and cognition.
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Giorgi, Franco
In this article we challenge the pervasive notion of hierarchy in biological and cognitive systems and delineate the basis for a complementary heterarchical approach starting from the seminal ideas of Warren McCullock and Gregory Bateson. We intend these considerations as a contribution to the different scientific disciplines working towards a multilevel integrative perspective of biological and cognitive processes, such as systems and integrative biology and neuroscience, social and cultural neuroscience, social signal transduction and psychoneuroimmunology, for instance. We argue that structures and substrates are by necessity organized hierarchically, while communication processes - and their embeddedness - are rather organized heterarchically. Before getting into the implications of the heterarchical approach and its congeniality with the semiotic perspective to biology and cognition, we introduce a set of notions and concepts in order to advance a framework that considers the heterarchical embeddedness of different layers of physiological, behavioral, affective, cognitive, technological and socio-cultural levels implicit in networks of interacting minds, considering the dynamic complementarity of bottom-up and top-down causal links. This should contribute to account for the integration, interpretation and response to complex aggregates of information at different levels of organization in a developmental context. We illustrate the dialectical nature of embedded heterarchical processes by addressing the simultaneity and circularity of cognition and volition, and how such dialectics can be present in primitive instances of proto-cognition and proto-volition, giving rise to our claim that subjectivity and semiotic freedom are scalar properties. We collate the framework with recent empirical systemic approaches to biology and integrative neuroscience, and conclude with a reflection on its implications to the understanding of the emergence of pathological
The association between breastfeeding, the stress response, inflammation, and postpartum depression during the postpartum period: Prospective cohort study.
Ahn, Sukhee; Corwin, Elizabeth J
Research suggests that exclusive breastfeeding may have a stress-protective role in postpartum depression; however, less is known about the underlying mechanisms by which this protection may occur or whether the protective relationship holds for women who mix breast and bottle feeding. To examine patterns of the stress response, inflammation, and depressive symptoms among women predominantly breastfeeding or bottle feeding their infants at 6 months postpartum. A part of a larger longitudinal study across 6 months postpartum investigating the psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) of postpartum depression. Prenatal clinics and community. One hundred nineteen postpartum women who met inclusion/exclusion criteria and followed up from the prenatal period to postpartum 6 months. Data were collected during seven home visits occurring during the 3rd trimester (weeks 32-36) and on postpartum days 7 and 14, months 1, 2, 3, and 6. Women completed stress and depression surveys and provided blood for pro- (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, and collected saliva for diurnal cortisol. Self-report of predominant breastfeeding during 6 months postpartum ranged from 91.9% at day 7 to 70.6% at month 6 postpartum. There were no associations between the pattern of feeding and depressive symptoms. Biological differences, however, existed between the groups, with levels of salivary cortisol at 8 AM and 8:30 AM at month 6 higher and levels of IL-6 at month 6 lower in women who primarily breastfed compared to those who primarily bottle fed their infants after controlling for confounding variables. Breastfeeding was not related to postpartum depression however differences in stress and inflammatory markers are apparent at month 6 postpartum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Its Effects on Psychoimmunological Factors of Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans.
Arefnasab, Zahra; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Alipour, Ahmad; Panahi, Yunes; Shams, Jamal; Riazi Rad, Farhad; Khaze, Vahid; Ghanei, Mostafa
Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a treatment program for relieving stress and coping with chronic illnesses. In recent three decades, studies have shown that MBSR has a positive effect on physical and psychological dimensions of chronic illnesses. Chemically pulmonary injured veterans have chronic pulmonary and psychological problems due to mustard gas exposure and complications of Iran-Iraq war. These stresses have negative effects on their general health and immune system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted on psychoneuroimmunology and MBSR in these patients. Forty male pulmonary injured veterans were randomly divided in two groups with 20 participants (MBSR and wait-list control). Then MBSR group received 8 weekly sessions of intervention. We tested mental health based on general health questionnaire (GHQ)-28 questionnaire, health-related quality of life (based on St. George respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) ) and immunity in MBSR groups; before and after intervention "mixed factorial analyses of variance" test was used for analyzing data fpr each dependent variable and appropriate t-tests were done in The necessary condition. Results showed that mental health and health- related quality of life, in MBSR group compared to wait-list control improved [F (1,38)=26.46, p<0.001; F (1,38)=49.52, p<0.001 respectively] significantly. Moreover, a significant increase was reported in the lymphocyte proliferation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) [F (1,38)=16.24, p<0.001], and peripheral blood IL-17 [F (1,38)=56.71, p<0.001] However, lymphocyte (CD4+, CD8+, and NK-cell) percentages were not affected significantly [F (1,38)=2.21, p=0.14] ,[F (1,38)=0.90, p=0.78] and [F (1,38)=1.79, p=0.18], respectively. This study suggests that MBSR may be a new treatment approach for improving immunity and overall health in chemically pulmonary injured veterans.
Pediatrics in 21st Century and Beyond.
Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21 st century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling
Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs
van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D. E.; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as “disease susceptibility”, in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to
Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.
van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co
An Overview of Biofield Devices
Muehsam, David; Chevalier, Gaétan; Barsotti, Tiffany
Advances in biophysics, biology, functional genomics, neuroscience, psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, and other fields suggest the existence of a subtle system of “biofield” interactions that organize biological processes from the subatomic, atomic, molecular, cellular, and organismic to the interpersonal and cosmic levels. Biofield interactions may bring about regulation of biochemical, cellular, and neurological processes through means related to electromagnetism, quantum fields, and perhaps other means of modulating biological activity and information flow. The biofield paradigm, in contrast to a reductionist, chemistry-centered viewpoint, emphasizes the informational content of biological processes; biofield interactions are thought to operate in part via low-energy or “subtle” processes such as weak, nonthermal electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or processes potentially related to consciousness and nonlocality. Biofield interactions may also operate through or be reflected in more well-understood informational processes found in electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) data. Recent advances have led to the development of a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic biofield devices, defined as physical instruments best understood from the viewpoint of a biofield paradigm. Here, we provide a broad overview of biofield devices, with emphasis on those devices for which solid, peer-reviewed evidence exists. A subset of these devices, such as those based upon EEG- and ECG-based heart rate variability, function via mechanisms that are well understood and are widely employed in clinical settings. Other device modalities, such a gas discharge visualization and biophoton emission, appear to operate through incompletely understood mechanisms and have unclear clinical significance. Device modes of operation include EMF-light, EMF-heat, EMF-nonthermal, electrical current, vibration and sound, physical and mechanical, intentionality and nonlocality
An Overview of Biofield Devices.
Muehsam, David; Chevalier, Gaétan; Barsotti, Tiffany; Gurfein, Blake T
Advances in biophysics, biology, functional genomics, neuroscience, psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, and other fields suggest the existence of a subtle system of "biofield" interactions that organize biological processes from the subatomic, atomic, molecular, cellular, and organismic to the interpersonal and cosmic levels. Biofield interactions may bring about regulation of biochemical, cellular, and neurological processes through means related to electromagnetism, quantum fields, and perhaps other means of modulating biological activity and information flow. The biofield paradigm, in contrast to a reductionist, chemistry-centered viewpoint, emphasizes the informational content of biological processes; biofield interactions are thought to operate in part via low-energy or "subtle" processes such as weak, nonthermal electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or processes potentially related to consciousness and nonlocality. Biofield interactions may also operate through or be reflected in more well-understood informational processes found in electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) data. Recent advances have led to the development of a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic biofield devices, defined as physical instruments best understood from the viewpoint of a biofield paradigm. Here, we provide a broad overview of biofield devices, with emphasis on those devices for which solid, peer-reviewed evidence exists. A subset of these devices, such as those based upon EEG- and ECG-based heart rate variability, function via mechanisms that are well understood and are widely employed in clinical settings. Other device modalities, such a gas discharge visualization and biophoton emission, appear to operate through incompletely understood mechanisms and have unclear clinical significance. Device modes of operation include EMF-light, EMF-heat, EMF-nonthermal, electrical current, vibration and sound, physical and mechanical, intentionality and nonlocality, gas and