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Sample records for psychopathological hand disorders

  1. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H

    1999-01-01

    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  2. [Psychopathological disorders in otorhinolaryngological neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Llorca, G; Derecho, J; Gómez del Castillo, M J; Martín, T; del Cañizo Fernández, A

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyze the psychopathologic disorders at the patients affected from O.R.L. cancers. They refer specially to larynx cancer, because of the significance on the loss in speech ability, if the treatment includes total laryngectomy, added to the fear characteristic of the patient with cancer. The highly incidence of alcoholism before diagnosis is also verified, what imply the addiction of psychopathologic disorders. It's estimated a well order to take part actively in their rehabilitation besides the lower incidence of alcoholism after surgery.

  3. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  4. Family patterns of psychopathology in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Osman; Boysan, Murat; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Coşkun, Salih; Özcan, Halil; Yılmaz, Ekrem; Atilla, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    Familial loading and crucial outcomes of family history of psychopathology in psychiatric disorders have long been recognized. There has been ample literature providing convincing evidence for the importance of family psychopathology in development of emotional disturbances in children as well as worse outcomes in the course of psychiatric disorders. More often, maternal psychopathology seems to have been an issue of interest rather than paternal psychopathology while effects of second-degree familiality have received almost no attention. In this study, we addressed the relations between affected first- and second-degree relatives of probands and categories of psychiatric disorders. Subjects were 350 hospitalized psychiatric inpatients, consecutively admitted to psychiatry clinics in Van, Turkey. Mean age was 34.16 (SD±12) and 51.4% of the sample consisted of male patients. Assessment of psychopathology in psychiatric probands was conducted based on DSM-IV TR. Familial loading of psychiatric disorders amongst first- and second-degree relatives of patients were initially noted primarily relying on patients' retrospective reports, and confirmed by both phone call and following official health records via the Medical Knowledge System. We analyzed the data using latent class analysis approach. We found four patterns of familial psychopathology. Latent homogeneous subsets of patients due to familial characteristics were as paternal kinship psychopathology with schizophrenia, paternal kinship psychopathology with mood disorders, maternal kinship psychopathology and core family psychopathology. Family patterns were critical to exerting variation in psychiatric disorders of probands and affected relatives. Probands with a core family pattern of psychopathology exhibited the most colorful clinical presentations in terms of variation in psychopathology. We observed a specificity of intergenerational transmission of psychiatric disorders when family patterns of

  5. Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kranick, Sarah; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Martinez, Valeria; Ameli, Rezvan; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors. Although psychological factors are of both clinical and pathophysiological relevance, very few studies to date have systematically assessed their role in psychogenic movement disorder. We sought to assess the role of previous life stress using validated quantitative measures in patients with psychogenic movement disorder compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as well as a convenience sample of patients with focal hand dystonia. Sixty-four patients with psychogenic movement disorder (72% female; mean age, 45.2 years [standard deviation, 15.2 years]), 38 healthy volunteers (74% female; mean age, 49 years [standard deviation, 13.7 years]), and 39 patients with focal hand dystonia (37% female; mean age, 48.7 years [standard deviation, 11.7 years]) were evaluated using a standardized psychological interview as well as validated quantitative scales to assess trauma and previous stressors, depression, anxiety, and personality traits. Patients with psychogenic movement disorder reported higher rates of childhood trauma, specifically greater emotional abuse and physical neglect, greater fear associated with traumatic events, and a greater number of traumatic episodes compared with healthy volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia controlled for depressive symptoms and sex (Bonferroni corrected P < .005). There were no differences in categorical psychiatric diagnoses or scores on childhood physical or sexual abuse subscales, personality traits, or the dissociative experience scale. Our findings highlight a biopsychosocial approach toward the pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorder, although the association with psychological issues is much less prominent than expected compared with the nonepileptic seizure population. A careful psychological assessment is indicated to optimize therapeutic

  6. [Disorders of the will in psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T; Broschmann, D

    2017-04-12

    At the beginning of modern psychopathology the notion of the will had a high significance. Thus, the works of Eugen Bleuler, Emil Krapelin and Karl Jaspers show an intensive study of disorders of the will, such as abulia, ambivalence or disorders of impulse control. Retrospectively, changes of the scientific paradigms in psychology could be one of the reasons for a break, which led to giving up the concept of the will in psychopathology. With increasing interest in issues of agency and free will, however, a reactivation of this central concept could close a gap in psychopathology as well as in therapeutic practice. Methodologically, a psychopathology of the will may be founded on a differential typological phenomenology. To this purpose, the article first proposes a classification along the structural components of conation, suspension and volition, then gives a temporal analysis of the predecisional, the decisional and the postdecisional phases. The aim of the article is to help identify different disorders of the will, thus also furthering a psychotherapy of will, which can be connected with both cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic approaches.

  7. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychopathology in Dancers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD.

  9. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  10. Psychopathology of panic attacks in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhuth, E H; Leon, Andrew C; Matuzas, William

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among certain subtypes of panic attacks (full vs. limited symptom; spontaneous vs. situational) and between these subtypes, panic disorder subtypes, and other characteristics of panic disorder, especially agoraphobia. Data were drawn from a large (n = 1,168) treatment study of panic disorder in which panic attacks were carefully subtyped and counted using a diary. Relationships between variables at baseline were examined primarily using non-parametric methods, and the course of improvement for panic subtypes among completers was plotted. The median number of spontaneous panic attacks per week at baseline was similar among patients with panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD), limited phobic avoidance (PDL), and agoraphobia (PDA). The median number of situational attacks and the median agoraphobia ratings rose progressively across diagnostic subtypes. Anticipatory anxiety, HAM-A, HAM-D, and disability scores were higher in PDA than in PD. Full and limited symptom panic attacks were positively correlated. The proportion of total attacks that were limited rose during the first two weeks of treatment, suggesting conversion of full to limited symptom attacks before complete disappearance. Spontaneous and situational attacks were correlated minimally or not at all. Agoraphobia ratings were more positively correlated with situational than with spontaneous panic attacks. Few of the correlations among measures at baseline were high. Full and limited symptom panic attacks differ primarily in severity. Spontaneous and situational attacks are relatively independent, and situational attacks are more closely related to agoraphobia. These findings are consistent with previous work suggesting that spontaneous attacks reflect a biological component, whereas situational attacks reflect a cognitive component in the psychopathology-- and possibly the pathogenesis-- of panic disorder. This provides a rationale for the use of combined

  11. Sleep disorders: research in psychopathology and its practical implications.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, C R; Kales, A

    1982-06-01

    This is a summary of research studies indicating a primary role of psychotherapy in the etiology of certain sleep disorders. Thus, chronic insomnia is associated with high levels of psychopathology and a personality profile characterized by internalization of emotions. Also, a greater number of stressful life events occurs at the year of onset of insomnia. Two additional sleep disorders (sleep-walking and night terrors in adults) are similarly associated with high levels of psychopathology. Although these two disorders share many common clinical and psychopathological characteristics, their psychological profiles and psychopathological correlates differ considerably. Sleepwalkers show a high incidence of personality disorders with generally active, outward behavioral patterns, whereas night terror sufferers are mostly anxious, depressed and phobic with an inhibition of outward expression of aggression. Based on these research findings a series of therapeutic recommendations is presented for the effective management of patients with insomnia, sleepwalking or night terrors.

  12. [On compulsive hand-washing--psychopathology of "touching"].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M

    1993-01-01

    Compulsive hand-washing has been well known to the psychiatrists, since Legrand du Saulle described this disorder by the name of "délire du toucher" (1866), which refers to mysophobia or contact-phobia. But its clinical significance seems to have been not fully examined, except from the psychoanalytical point of view, that has observed the repression of sexuality in its pathology. This report presents four cases of compulsive hand-washing, and explores why they exclusively wash their hands. In order to elucidate the reason for their hand-washing and its significance, this report aims to study the relation of following three elements; "Sexuality", "hand" and "touching". As the idioms using "hand" often represent the various modes of sexual life in Japanese language as well as in English, so the "touching by hand" is reasonably considered to evoke the sexual impulsions, which the hand-washers fear and wish to avoid. On the other hand, "touching" is, necessarily in nature, to be touched by the touched object. For example, one who touches the lover's hand is inevitably to be touched by hers. That is; one is forced to be an object of one's object, which becomes to be a subject. In this sense, the act of "touching" means to lose one's "being subject" and to melt oneself into the situation where the structural distinction of subject and object can disappear. So one's act of "touching" or vivid contact with the other can cause anxiety by means of losing one's ego, which may be also a critical point to introduce to create something new. A compulsive hand-washer fears and avoids this critical moment that can make him lose his "being subject", so he "washes his hands of (cuts off relation with)" the situation that can undermine his ego. This avoidance of having contact can be compared to "the lose of vivid contact with the reality (la perte du contact avec la réalité (Minkowski)" observed in schizophrenia. In their ways of life, many hand-washers are not less autistic than

  13. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  14. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  15. [Psychopathology of violent behavior in mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Sidorowicz, S

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of violent behaviour in mental hospitals has been increasing in recent years. A number of factors may be responsible. Violent and dangerous patients are sent to hospitals, quite often against their will. This may lead to conflicts and assaults against the staff members. There are many factors, both in present situation and in biography, conductive to violent behaviour: unfavourable experiences in childhood (neglect, cruelty, sexual exploitation), psychopathic structure of premorbid personality, frustrations, and eventually deformations of world perception caused by psychotic symptoms. Various mental disorders may lead to the violent behaviour, but it is most frequently observed in exacerbation of paranoid schizophrenia, in young males, particularly in cases with systemized delusions, emotional turmoil and anger. Introduction of a person (nurse, physician, family member, other patient) into psychotic world may also lead to the attack. In particular cases it is difficult to foresee violent behaviour, but some indicators are known. There are very few investigations on the role of the staff in violent behaviour of patients. The danger may be brought by criticism, refusal and rejection, compulsory drug administration, undue limitations of the patient's liberty, or the opposite--no reaction to violations of institutional regulations. Psychopathology of the staff may also encourage the violent behaviour: inability to solve the transference and countertransference, reaction formation and denial are the most important. Fear exaggerates the feeling of danger and induces the staff members to avoid the patient, diminishing the possibility of influence and control of the patient's disturbed behaviour. Recurrent violent behaviour may be connected with brain pathology, so the modern diagnostic procedures may be indicated in such cases.

  16. A Psychopathological Comparison between Delusional Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Negro, José Eduardo; Ibáñez-Casas, Inmaculada; de Portugal, Enrique; Lozano-Gutiérrez, Vanessa; Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2017-01-01

    To contribute to a better differential clinical categorisation of delusional disorder (DD) versus schizophrenia (SZ) and to add and complete evidence from previous clinical studies of DD compared to schizophrenia. A cross-sectional study using a clinical sample of 275 patients (132 patients with DD) was studied. Patients were consecutively attending public clinics located in urban and rural areas in both Andalusia and Catalonia (Spain). All participants met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for either DD or SZ. Data were gathered on sociodemographics, illness duration, Barona-Index estimation of intelligence quotient (IQ), and global functioning, along with a thorough psychopathological assessment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Comparisons between both groups were calculated using χ(2), Student t, and multivariate analysis of covariance tests. Patients with DD were older (mean [SD], 50.3 [14.6] years vs. 36.6 [11.1] years; t = 8.597; P ≤ 0.0001), were more frequently married (45.4% vs. 10.8%; χ(2) = 38.569; P ≤ 0.0001), and had a higher mean estimated premorbid IQ (111.4 vs. 105.4; t = 2.609; P ≤ 0.01). On the other hand, SZ patients were predominantly male (71.4% vs. 48.9%; χ(2) = 14.433; P ≤ 0.0001) and had greater work-related disability than DD patients (20.5% vs. 50.3%; χ(2) = 19.564; P ≤ 0.001). Overall, the DD group showed a less severe PANSS psychopathology than SZ group. Thus, total mean (SD) PANSS scores for schizophrenia and delusional disorder, respectively, were 76.2 (22.4) versus 54.1 (18.4) ( t = -8.762; P ≤ 0.0001). Moreover, patients with DD showed a better global functioning than those with SZ (62.7 [13.2] vs. 51.9 [16.9]; F = 44.114; P ≤ 0.0001). DD is a milder and distinct disorder compared to SZ in terms of psychopathology and global functionality.

  17. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  18. Preschoolers' Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers' Later Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-04-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9 years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6 years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology.

  19. Preschoolers’ Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers’ Later Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allmann, Anna E.S.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children’s temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were three and nine years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were three and six years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children’s early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  20. Thought disorder in the meta-structure of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, K. M.; Eaton, N. R.; Krueger, R. F.; Skodol, A. E.; Wall, M. M.; Grant, B.; Siever, L. J.; Hasin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dimensional models of co-morbidity have the potential to improve the conceptualization of mental disorders in research and clinical work, yet little is known about how relatively uncommon disorders may fit with more common disorders. The present study estimated the meta-structure of psychopathology in the US general population focusing on the placement of five under-studied disorders sharing features of thought disorder: paranoid, schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders, and manic episodes as well as bipolar disorder. Method Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a face-to-face interview of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults in the US general population. The meta-structure of 16 DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV), was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results We document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes. Manic episodes exhibit notable associations with both the distress subdomain of the internalizing dimension as well as the thought disorder subdomain. The structure was replicated for bipolar disorder (I or II) in place of manic episodes. Conclusions As our understanding of psychopathological meta-structure expands, incorporation of disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism grows increasingly important. Disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism may be well conceptualized, organized and measured as a subdimension of the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Manic episodes and bipolar disorder exhibit substantial co-morbidity across both distress and thought disorder domains of the internalizing dimension. Clinically, these results

  1. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  3. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans.

  4. Eating disorders and psychopathological traits in obese preadolescents and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finistrella, Viviana; Manco, Melania; Corciulo, Nicola; Sances, Beatrice; Di Pietro, Mario; Di Gregorio, Raffaella; Di SanteMarsili, Fosca; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Presaghi, Fabio; Ambruzzi, Amalia Maria

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the presence of eating disorders (ED) and psychopathological traits in obese preadolescents and adolescents compared to normal-weight peers. Overweight/obese patients aged 11 to 14 y and normal-weight peers' data collected by means of self-report questionnaires administered to parents and children. Clinical Nutrition Units in the Municipalities of Rome, Naples, Gallipoli and Atri, Italy. 376 preadolescents and adolescents. Patients were 187 (93 boys, BMI=27.9±;4.1; 94 girls, BMI=28.1±4.5); normal-weight controls were 189 subjects (94 boys, BMI=19.4±1.4; 95 girls, BMI=19.5±1.5). eating disorder behaviors, psychopathological traits and symptoms estimated by means of the eating disorders scales (EDI-2) and psychopathological scales (CBCL 4-18). Patients reached higher scores than controls in most of the eating disorders scales and psychopathological scales. Twenty-one (11.2%) patients were considered at risk of developing an eating disorder and 75 (40%) presented social problems. With regard to weight status, age-group and gender, main significant interaction effects were seen in social problems (F= 6.50; p<0.05) and ineffectiveness (F= 4.15; p<0.05). Findings from our study demonstrate that in preadolescence and adolescence, obesity is significantly associated to some traits typical of ED and to psychological problems in general. Although no inference can be made with regard to direction of causality, it is possible to conclude that overweight preadolescents and adolescents can be prone to display problematic traits more commonly associated to eating disorders and to present a high degree of mental distress.

  5. [Psychopathological Profiles of Offspring of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder].

    PubMed

    Villa, Esteban Uribe; Briceño, Paola Gutiérrez; Palacio, Juan David; García, Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has a high heritability and is more prevalent in first-degree relatives with family history. This makes the bipolar offspring (BO) an ideal study group to evaluate the natural history and the prodromal symptoms of this disorder. The main psychopathological findings for this group in various studies are described in this review. Articles comparing the psychopathology of bipolar offspring to either the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls were reviewed. The reviewed studies showed that the BO group had higher rates of affective disorders when compared to the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls. The high prevalence of anxiety disorders, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorders in this population suggest that such disorders could be considered prodromes of mood disorders. The group of BO had a significantly higher risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders besides BD. More longitudinal studies are needed to characterize this population at risk for BD and to elucidate the risk factors in the progression of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood psychopathology in children of women with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Barona, M; Nybo Andersen, A-M; Micali, N

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal eating disorders (ED) on childhood psychopathology, early delays in cognitive, motor and language development, mother and child relationship, and child temperament in a community-based cohort: the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data were obtained prospectively on 48 403 children at 18 months and 46 156 children at 7 years. Data on cognitive, motor and language development, temperament and attachment were obtained at 18 months; data on child psychopathology were obtained at 7 years of age, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of mothers with lifetime diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 931), lifetime diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 906) and both (AN & BN = 360) were compared to children of mothers without an ED (n = 46 206). Girls of women with lifetime AN had higher odds of having emotional problems, and girls of women with lifetime BN of having conduct problems compared with children of healthy women. Boys of women with lifetime AN had higher odds of total, emotional and conduct problems; boys of women with lifetime BN had higher odds of total, conduct, hyperactivity and peer difficulties compared to children of women without an ED. Boys of women with lifetime AN and BN had higher odds of total, emotional and peer problems compared to children of healthy women. Maternal ED is associated with childhood psychopathology in both boys and girls. Boys seemed at higher risk for psychopathology in this sample. Associations between emotional disorders across genders in children of mothers with lifetime AN, and hyperactivity and peer difficulties in boys of mothers with lifetime BN confirm and extend previous findings and point to possible shared risk between ED and other psychopathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dysfunctional beliefs and psychopathology in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bhar, Sunil S; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Borderline Personality Disorder subscale of the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ-BPD; Butler, Brown, Beck, & Grisham, 2002), and the relationships between the emergent factors and psychopathology. The sample comprised 184 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors relating respectively to dependency, distrust, and the belief that one should act preemptively to avoid threat. Although the three factors were significantly associated with depression, only dependency and distrust significantly correlated with hopelessness. Distrust was the sole factor that correlated significantly with suicide ideation. These findings support the dimensional structure of the PBQ-BPD. Given its multidimensional structure, the scale can be used as a measure of belief profiles associated with BPD and as an aid to conceptualizing beliefs underlying a range of psychopathology associated with patients with BPD.

  8. [Psychopathology of miscarriages and psychic disorders following fertility treatments].

    PubMed

    Leal Herrero, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the psychic disorders that frequently follow miscarriages. We specify the clinical forms under which such disorders appear and argue in favour of establishing a "Post-Abortion Syndrome" which would include the symptoms that form the basis of the psychopathological reactions that follow miscarriages. We will also study the psychological and psychopathological reactions to be found in couples -in both men and women-, who undergo fertility treatments, offering a brief description of the psychodynamic aspects that affect the couple. Furthermore, we will stress the biological and psychological risks that appear as a consequence of fertility treatments and offer an ethical evaluation of these risks, warning of the long-term consequences of human reproductive techniques.

  9. Anger expression in eating disorders: clinical, psychopathological and personality correlates.

    PubMed

    Krug, Isabel; Bulik, Cynthia M; Vall-Llovera, Olga Nebot; Granero, Roser; Agüera, Zaida; Villarejo, Cynthia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2008-11-30

    The goals of the study were to compare anger expressions in individuals with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to explore the relation among eating disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, personality traits, and impulsive behaviours. Participants comprised 135 eating disorder patients consecutively admitted to our unit and 103 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE), Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), Social Avoidance Distress Scale (SAD), Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), and other clinical and psychopathological indices. In the control group also the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was also used. Women with eating disorders obtained significantly higher mean scores than controls on all STAXI-2 scales except for Anger Control. When various purging methods were assessed independently, the frequency of laxative use was associated with anger suppression. Eating disorder symptoms and specific personality traits were positively associated with different forms of anger expression. Finally, patients with higher scores on anger suppression were more likely to report self-harming behaviors. Eating disorder patients may have inadequate anger expression and deficits in coping with anger and frustration. Furthermore, different purging methods may be related to different facets of anger.

  10. The Psychopathology and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we review research on the diagnosis, course, etiology, and pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). BD is a highly recurrent and severe illness, with high rates of suicidality and functional impairment. The disorder is heritable and appears to share susceptibility genes with schizophrenia. It is characterized by dysregulation in the dopamine and serotonin systems and by pathology in the brain systems involved in regulating emotion. Psychosocial stressors, notably life events and familial expressed emotion, significantly influence the course of the illness in the context of these vulnerabilities. Findings of randomized clinical trials indicate that psychosocial interventions enhance long-term outcomes when added to pharmacotherapy. Much remains to be clarified about the interactive contributions of genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors to the course of the disorder, and the moderators and mediators of treatment effects. PMID:17716069

  11. Emotional and psychopathological disorders in laryngectomized oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñero, Nuria; Antequera-Jurado, Rosario; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; Ibáñez-Guerra, Elena; Herrero-Salado, Tomás F; Sánchez-Gómez, Serafín

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if patients who suffer from laryngeal cancer and undergo total laryngectomy experience as much emotional shock and psychological distress as patients with cancers in other locations do. The aim of the study was to identify the incidence of emotional and psychological disorders in laryngectomized patients and describe their symptomatological nuances. A descriptive cross-sectional study of emotional and psychopathological response of 100 cancer patients undergoing total laryngectomy was performed. The patients were evaluated immediately after surgery (n=35), when initiating communicative rehabilitation (n=23) and 5 years after diagnosis (n=42), versus a control of 55 healthy subjects. Psychopathological assessment battery for anxiety, depression, intrusion, avoidance, arousal and posttraumatic stress disorder consisted of a specific interview, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Laryngectomized patients had low incidence of emotional and psychological disorders such as anxiety (6.9%), depression (5.9%) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (28.4%), but with sufficient intensity to constitute a psychopathological diagnosis. A significant level of distress was found in 57.4% of patients, with clear diffuse traumatic nature in 52.6% of them, which was more prevalent and intense in the rehabilitation group. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder during different stages after total laryngectomy are not of sufficient intensity and quality to be diagnosable clinical entities; they can be considered an adaptive disorder. The symptoms are less than those of patients with cancer in other locations and appear mostly in the rehabilitation stage, where preventive performances and psychological support should be focused. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  12. [Psychopathology in eating disorders: new trends].

    PubMed

    Dupont, Marie-Estelle; Corcos, Maurice

    2008-01-31

    Self-starvation as well as binge eating appears to be far more complex than the uniformity of eating disorders clinical features let us predict. One reason is that these "body-centred" behaviours generate severe biological effects, the complications playing a great part in the recovery process. Furthermore, these disorders which origins are likely to be multi-factorial seem to arise from physiological (ephebic modifications, gene pool...), family and sociocultural factors, psychological features predominating in a synergy always leading to a specificity that cannot be ignored. The progression towards mixed forms made the distinction between anorexia and bulimia nervosa, insufficiently accurate, leading to examine the addictive dimension these troubles have in common. Despite different theoretical surroundings, it has been suggested that an insecure style of attachment may be highly implicated in the disorders occurring. Moreover, a great number of surveys insisted on identity disturbance, and predisposition to intemperate dependency, resulting from the poor quality of internalized relationships. From that viewpoint, both fasting and binge eating appear as a form of addiction meant to mitigate the defense mechanisms failure and the flaws of the psychological organization. Impulsivity appears as a way to avoid processing affects, acting-out being here to balance the ego weakness deriving from the lack of inner security. The fluctuations in the sense of self lead them to self-damaging behaviours meant to vent their pervasive, chronic feeling of emptiness. Occurring whereas the subject still depends on his parents, puberty reactivates a vivid anguish of passivity, and generates attempts to take the control back. Therefore, these patients re-enact in their dealings with food and their body dissatisfaction the pattern of unstable relationships established with their kin, characterized by alternating between merging and rejection, engulfment and remoteness.

  13. [Explicative psychopathology in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a postrationalist viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Mannino, Gherardo

    2011-01-01

    While descriptive psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is now well-established, there is still a lack of a satisfying model of explicative psychopathology that explains the mechanisms that generate obsessive phenomenology. The main attempts to delineate such a model are based on cognitive therapy: according to this approach OCD is a consequence of dysfunctional beliefs (i.e. overestimation of the risk or of the influence of one's own mind on the reality). On the contrary, according to postrationalist cognitive approach, OCD would be based on a characteristic personality structure, which could be identified not only in patients with OCD but also in those who will never develop symptoms. In symptomatic individuals this organization ("Obsessive" Personal Meaning Organization) is more rigidly structured. In particular, there is crystallization of so-called diachronic attitude, which is the key to explain most of the symptoms.

  14. Transdiagnostic factors of psychopathology and substance use disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Carragher, Natacha; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Research on the structure of mental disorders and comorbidity indicates that many forms of psychopathology and substance use disorders are manifestations of relatively few transdiagnostic latent factors. These factors have important consequences for mental disorder research and applied practice. We provide an overview of the transdiagnostic factor literature, with particular focus on recent advances. Internalizing and externalizing transdiagnostic factors have been well characterized in terms of their structures, links with disorders, stability, and statistical properties (e.g., invariance and distributions). Research on additional transdiagnostic factors, such as thought disorder, is quickly advancing latent structural models, as are integrations of transdiagnostic constructs with personality traits. Genetically informed analyses continue to clarify the origins of transdiagnostic factor levels, and links between these factors and important environmental exposures provide promising new avenues of inquiry. Transdiagnostic factors account for the development and continuity of disorders and comorbidity over time, function as the primary links between disorders and important outcomes such as suicide, mediate associations between environmental exposures and disorders, provide an empirically supported classification system, and serve as foci for efficient, broadband intervention approaches. Overall, transdiagnostic factor research indicates the paramount importance of understanding these constructs and, thereby, broadening our understanding of mental disorder in general.

  15. Dimensional psychopathology in preschool offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Hagai; Goldstein, Tina; Axelson, David A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Fan, Jieyu; Hickey, Mary Beth; Monk, Kelly; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim S.; Brent, David; Iyengar, Satish; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to compare the dimensional psychopathology, as ascertained by parental report, in preschool offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) and offspring of community control parents. Methods 122 preschool offspring (mean age 3.3 years) of 84 parents with BP, with 102 offspring of 65 control parents (36 healthy, 29 with non-BP psychopathology), were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), the Early Childhood Inventory (ECI-4), and the Emotionality Activity Sociability (EAS) survey. Teachers’ Report Forms (TRF) were available for 51 preschoolers. Results After adjusting for confounders, offspring of parents with BP showed higher scores in the CBCL total, externalizing, somatic, sleep, aggressive, and CBCL-DP subscales; the ECI-4 sleep problem scale; and the EAS total and emotionality scale. The proportion of offspring with CBCL T-scores ≥2 SD above the norm was significantly higher on most CBCL subscales and the CBCL-DP in offspring of parents with BP compared to offspring of controls even after excluding offspring with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or oppositional defiant disorder. Compared to offspring of parents with BP-I, offspring of parents with BP-II showed significantly higher scores in total and most CBCL subscales, the ECI-4 anxiety and sleep scales and the EAS emotionality scale. For both groups of parents, there were significant correlations between CBCL and TRF scores (r = .32–.38, p-values ≤.02). Conclusions Independent of categorical axis-I psychopathology and other demographic or clinical factors in both biological parents, preschool offspring of parents with BP have significantly greater aggression, mood dysregulation, sleep disturbances, and somatic complaints compared to offspring of control parents. Interventions to target these symptoms are warranted. PMID:24372351

  16. Social Anxiety and Self-consciousness in Binge Eating Disorder: Associations with Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Sawaoka, Takuya; Barnes, Rachel D.; Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research has consistently shown that anxiety disorders are common among individuals with eating disorders. Although social phobia has been found to be highly associated with eating disorders, less is known about social anxiety in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). The present study examined associations between social anxiety and self-consciousness with BMI and eating-disorder psychopathology in BED. Methods Participants were 113 overweight or obese treatment seeking men and women with BED. Participants were administered semi-structural diagnostic clinical interviews and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results Social anxiety was positively and significantly correlated with shape- and weight-concerns, and binge eating frequency. After accounting for depressive levels, social anxiety and self-consciousness accounted for significant variance in eating-, shape-, and weight-concerns and overall eating-disorder global severity scores (Eating Disorder Examination). Social anxiety also accounted for significant variance in binge eating frequency after co-varying for depressive levels. Social anxiety and self-consciousness were not significantly associated with BMI or dietary restraint. Discussion Our findings suggest that greater social anxiety and heightened self-consciousness are associated with greater eating disorder psychopathology, most notably with greater shape- and weight-concerns and binge eating frequency in patients with BED. Social anxiety and self-consciousness do not appear to be merely functions of excess weight, and future research should examine whether they contribute to the maintenance of binge eating and associated eating-disorder psychopathology. PMID:22152497

  17. Social anxiety and self-consciousness in binge eating disorder: associations with eating disorder psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sawaoka, Takuya; Barnes, Rachel D; Blomquist, Kerstin K; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2012-08-01

    Research has consistently shown that anxiety disorders are common among individuals with eating disorders. Although social phobia has been found to be highly associated with eating disorders, less is known about social anxiety in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). The present study examined associations between social anxiety and self-consciousness with body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder psychopathology in BED. Participants were 113 overweight or obese treatment-seeking men and women with BED. Participants were administered semistructural diagnostic clinical interviews and completed a battery of self-report measures. Social anxiety was positively and significantly correlated with shape and weight concerns and binge eating frequency. After accounting for depressive levels, social anxiety and self-consciousness accounted for significant variance in eating, shape, and weight concerns and overall eating disorder global severity scores (Eating Disorder Examination). Social anxiety also accounted for significant variance in binge eating frequency after covarying for depressive levels. Social anxiety and self-consciousness were not significantly associated with BMI or dietary restraint. Our findings suggest that greater social anxiety and heightened self-consciousness are associated with greater eating disorder psychopathology, most notably with greater shape and weight concerns and binge eating frequency in patients with BED. Social anxiety and self-consciousness do not appear to be merely functions of excess weight, and future research should examine whether they contribute to the maintenance of binge eating and associated eating disorder psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fathers and mothers with eating-disorder psychopathology: Associations with child eating-disorder behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-07-01

    A limited literature suggests an association between maternal eating disorders and child feeding difficulties, and notes maternal concern about inadvertently transmitting eating disorders. Thus, parents may be an important target for eating-disorder research to guide the development of clinical programs. The current study examined differences in child eating-disorder behaviors and parental feeding practices between a sample of parents (42 fathers, 130 mothers) exhibiting core features of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder, and a matched sample of parents (n=172) reporting no eating-disorder characteristics. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology were significantly more likely than parents without eating-disorder characteristics to report child binge-eating and compulsive exercise. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology reported greater perceived feeding responsibility, greater concern about their child's weight, and more monitoring of their child's eating than parents without eating-disorder characteristics; however, they did not differ significantly in restriction of their child's diet and pressure-to-eat. Child body mass index z-scores did not differ between parents with versus without eating-disorder characteristics. Our findings suggest some important differences between parents with and without core eating-disorder psychopathology, which could augment clinical interventions for patients with eating disorders who are parents, or could guide pediatric eating-disorder prevention efforts. However, because our study was cross-sectional, findings could indicate increased awareness of or sensitivity to eating-disorder behaviors rather than a psychosocial cause of those behaviors. Longitudinal research and controlled trials examining prevention and intervention can clarify and address these clinical concerns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clandestine psychopathology: unrecognized dissociative disorders in inpatient psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Karni; Somer, Eli; Tamarkin, Gali; Kramer, Lilach

    2010-05-01

    Surveys among Israeli mental health professionals found that almost half of them doubt the validity of dissociative disorders (DD) and have no experience in either diagnosing or treating DD patients. These findings, in line with arguments that DDs are socially construed North American phenomena, call for the need to investigate it in Israel. Eighty-one psychiatric inpatients were screened for dissociative pathology. Participants categorized as having low levels of dissociation (n = 26) and those demonstrating high levels of dissociation (n = 22) were asked to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-Dissociative Disorders-Revised. One-quarter of all participants were identified as having probable dissociative psychopathology. Based on the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-Dissociative Disorders-Revised, estimates of DD range between 12 and 21%. None of the participants had any indication of a DD diagnosis in their medical records. Diagnosis of personality disorder and psychiatric comorbidity were related to the likelihood of a DD diagnosis and its severity.

  20. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  1. Is the psychopathology of acute and transient psychotic disorder different from schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders?

    PubMed

    Marneros, Andreas; Pillmann, Frank; Haring, Annette; Balzuweit, Sabine; Blöink, Raffaela

    2005-06-01

    This study explores psychopathological aspects of acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD), a diagnostic category introduced with ICD-10, to elucidate its relationship with schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses. We recruited all consecutive inpatients fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria of ATPD (F23) during a 5-year period as well as control groups with "positive" schizophrenia (PS) and bipolar schizoaffective disorder (BSAD) matched for gender and age at index episode. For the evaluation of psychopathological parameters during index episode a standardized symptom list was used. Prepsychotic (prodromal) symptoms were also assessed. During the prepsychotic period few differences between the groups were detected. The most important difference between ATPD and the other two other psychotic disorders regarding phenomenology of the full-blown episodes was a higher frequency of "rapidly changing delusional topics", "rapidly changing mood" and anxiety in ATPD. ATPD show a characteristic psychopathological picture consistent with earlier concepts such as cycloid psychoses and bouffée délirante. Nevertheless, psychopathology alone is not enough to establish ATPD as an independent nosological entity.

  2. Parental psychopathology and expectations for the futures of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Paul Andrew; King, Jake S; Mendelson, Jenna L; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2017-02-16

    The influence of parental psychopathology and parental expectations on child well-being is well documented among typically developing populations. However, to date little research has examined the relationship among these factors in families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines an observed relationship between parental psychopathology and expectations in families with children with ASD in the light of research in other populations. Twenty-four parents of children diagnosed with ASD were assessed for symptoms of psychopathology. Parents completed measures of child ASD severity as well as their expectations for possible outcomes of their child. Two main effects were found: higher parental psychopathology and ASD severity were both related to lower expectations. Interaction of ASD severity and parental psychopathology in relation to parent expectations was not observed. These results emphasize the necessity of providing services not only to individuals diagnosed with ASD, but to caregivers as well. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  4. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  5. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  6. A Network View on Psychiatric Disorders: Network Clusters of Symptoms as Elementary Syndromes of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. Aim To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. Methods 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. Results In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "DEPRESSION", "MANIA", “ANXIETY”, "PSYCHOSIS", "RETARDATION", and "BEHAVIORAL DISORGANIZATION". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. Conclusion We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a ‘Psychopathology Web’. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology. PMID:25427156

  7. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G

    2014-01-01

    The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  8. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-09-12

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  9. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, p<.001) and global eating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, p<.001). Females had a stronger relationship between food cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  10. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, p<.001) and global eating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, p<.001). Females had a stronger relationship between food cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders.

  12. Harm avoidance and persistence are associated with somatoform disorder psychopathology: A study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Chen, I-Ming; Chang, Li-Ren; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-05-15

    Whether personality features affect the development of somatoform disorders and their psychopathologies is an important issue. Aim of this study was to resolve this issue by comparing indicators of psychopathology and personality features in subjects with somatoform disorders and healthy controls. This study recruited 148 subjects with somatoform disorders and 146 healthy controls. The severity of psychopathology was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality features. Demographic data, psychopathology indicators, and TPQ scores were compared between groups. Correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to identify the personality dimensions or demographic variables associated with psychopathology. The somatoform group had lower novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) and higher harm avoidance (HA) and severity of psychopathologies. Multiple regression analysis revealed that fatigability, persistence, gender, and education level were predictive of PHQ-15; HA, educational level, persistence, and dependence were predictive of HAQ; HA, persistence, education level, and NS were predictive of BDII-II; and fatigability, education level, persistence, and anticipatory worry were predictive of BAI. The development of somatoform disorders was associated with fatigability, age, residence location, education level, and attachment. The limitations include heterogeneity of the diagnosis, the high proportion of undifferentiated somatoform disorder, and the cross-sectional study design. HA/fatigability, persistence, and education level are associated with each type of psychopathology. Fatigability is a powerful predictor of somatoform disorder development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Do men with eating disorders differ from women in clinics, psychopathology and personality?

    PubMed

    Núñez-Navarro, Araceli; Agüera, Zaida; Krug, Isabel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Sánchez, Isabel; Araguz, Noemí; Gorwood, Phillip; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Karwautz, Andreas; Moragas, Laura; Saldaña, Sandra; Treasure, Janet; Menchón, José Manuel; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To determine if male and female eating disorders differ in clinics, psychopathology and personality traits when compared with a healthy group. Sixty male and 60 female eating disorder individuals (16% anorexia nervosa, 42% bulimia nervosa and 42% eating disorder not otherwise specified), matched for age and diagnostic, were compared with 120 healthy-eating participants (60 male and 60 female participants). All were diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Assessment measures included Eating Disorder Inventory--2, Symptom Checklist--Revised and Temperament and Character Inventory--Revised, as well as other clinical and psychopathological indices. Male eating disorder participants reported significant lower laxative abuse (p = 0.020) and significant higher vomiting episodes (p = 0.019) than female eating disorder participants. Differences on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and some Symptom Checklist--Revised scales were found across genders in eating disorder participants. Male eating disorder participants scored significantly lower than female participants with eating disorders on harm avoidance, reward dependence and cooperativeness. Although eating disorder clinical features were similar across genders, male eating disorder participants had less body image concern and general psychopathology than female eating disorder participants. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  15. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ronald G; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-08-01

    Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21-45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤0.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤0.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=0.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Psychopathology and Speech and Language Disorders in Neurologic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapir, Shimon; Aronson, Arnold E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews findings that suggest a causal relationship between depression, anxiety, or conversion reaction and voice, speech, and language disorders in neurologic patients. The paper emphasizes the need to consider the psychosocial and psychopathological aspects of neurologic communicative disorders, the link between emotional and…

  17. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  18. Psychopathology: Differences among Adults with Intellectually Disabled, Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically examine group differences among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), comorbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy through a detailed exploration of the characteristics that these disorders present in the area of psychopathology. Previous studies indicating that individuals with ID have…

  19. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  20. Psychopathology: Differences among Adults with Intellectually Disabled, Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically examine group differences among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), comorbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy through a detailed exploration of the characteristics that these disorders present in the area of psychopathology. Previous studies indicating that individuals with ID have…

  1. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  2. Level of religiosity and disordered eating psychopathology among modern-orthodox Jewish adolescent girls in Israel.

    PubMed

    Latzer, Yael; Orna, Tzischinsky; Gefen, Shira

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relation between level of religiosity, grade level, self-esteem, and level of disordered eating-related psychopathology among Modem Orthodox Jewish adolescent girls in Israel. The sample consisted of 320 Jewish religious adolescent schoolgirls in the 9th to 12th grades of middle and high schools. The girls completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the religious questionnaire based on Guttman's instrument. The more religious the student, the less eating-related psychopathology was found. The youngest students (grade 9) were found to be the least religious and to have the highest eating-related psychopathology. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that level of religiosity might to some extent protect adolescent girls against developing body dissatisfaction and disordered eating pathology. A high level of religiosity is associated with less emphasis on the physical attractiveness of women and less pressure for their success and achievement outside the home.

  3. Tendon disorders of the hand.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Donald H; Kozin, Scott

    2011-07-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Make decisions on flexor tendon repair based on current evidence. 2. Perform some important tendon transfers after viewing Dr. Kozin's videos. 3. Inject local anesthesia for wide-awake flexor tendon repair after viewing the appropriate videos in the article. 4. Use relative motion extension splints for the postoperative management of extensor tendon injuries. This article provides a practical, clinically useful overview of some of the current best techniques and evidence available to the plastic surgeon in the treatment of flexor and extensor tendon injuries, tendon transfers, trigger fingers, mallet fingers, boutonniere deformities, and De Quervain tenosynovitis. Twelve short movies and drawings emphasize important points of diagnosis and treatment of tendon disorders.

  4. Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed

  5. Eating disorder psychopathology, brain structure, neuropsychological correlates and risk mechanisms in very preterm young adults.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at <33 weeks of gestation. Structural brain correlates and risk factors at birth, in childhood and adolescence, were investigated using prospectively collected data throughout childhood/adolescence. VPT-born individuals had high levels of ED psychopathology at age 21 years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15 years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14 years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.

  6. Insight in psychotic disorder: relation with psychopathology and frontal lobe function.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atmesh; Sharma, Pranjal; Das, Shyamanta; Nath, Kamal; Talukdar, Uddip; Bhagabati, Dipesh

    2014-01-01

    Through conceptualising poor insight in psychotic disorders as a form of anosognosia, frontal lobe dysfunction is often ascribed a vital role in its pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the relation of insight in patients with psychotic illness to that of psychopathology and frontal lobe function. Forty patients with psychotic disorder were selected from those attending the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The evaluation of insight was carried out using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), that of frontal lobe function by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and psychopathology by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The correlation coefficients were determined. A negative correlation between SAI and BPRS scores means that the BPRS score is opposite to SAI scores. When the SAI total score was compared with the FAB total score, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a positive correlation. Better insight predicted lesser psychopathology and also that poor insight would exist with greater psychopathology. Better insight predicted a higher functional status of frontal lobes and prefrontal cortex in particular. Insight deficits in schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses are multidimensional. Integration of different aetiological factors like biological, psychopathological, environmental ones and others are necessary for a better understanding of insight in psychosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Parenting practices as mediating variables between parents' psychopathology and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Trepat, Esther; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents' psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children's psychopathology through a diagnostic interview, and on their own psychological state and parenting style through questionnaires. At ages 3 and 5, corporal punishment mediated the relationships between mothers' anxiety-depression and ODD (in girls), between mothers' aggressive behavior and ODD (in boys), and between parents' rule-breaking and ODD both in boys and girls. For both sexes, there was a direct association between mothers' aggressive behavior score and ODD. The association between fathers' psychopathology and ODD was not mediated by the fathers' parenting practices. Fathers' anxiety-depression and aggressive behavior scores were directly associated with ODD. Parents' psychopathology must be explored and, in families where such psychopathology is a relevant variable, parenting practices must be addressed with a view to the prevention and treatment of children's ODD in the preschool years.

  8. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

    PubMed

    Elbirt, Daniel; Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Bezalel-Rosenberg, Shira; Gill, Harpreet; Attali, Malka; Asher, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment still occurs in the era of HAART, though its onset appears to be delayed and its severity reduced, while HIV-infected individuals live longer with the infection. HAND defines three categories of disorders according to standardized measures of dysfunction: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The pathogenic mechanisms underlying HAND involve host and virus characterizations and interactions and seem to depend heavily on the overall condition of the immune system. Since there are insufficient data at this point to determine the best therapeutic approach, and since HAART apparently is not sufficient to prevent or reverse HAND, therapy with a combination of drugs with high CPE should be considered while adjunctive and alternative therapies are being explored.

  9. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  10. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  11. Sleep Problems and Their Correlates and Comorbid Psychopathology of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants consisted of 166 ASD children and 111 unaffected siblings aged 4-15 years. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Of the children with ASDs, 47.0% (78/166) had at least one…

  12. Sleep Problems and Their Correlates and Comorbid Psychopathology of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants consisted of 166 ASD children and 111 unaffected siblings aged 4-15 years. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Of the children with ASDs, 47.0% (78/166) had at least one…

  13. A Dimensional Model of Psychopathology among Homeless Adolescents: Suicidality, Internalizing, and Externalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Longley, Susan L.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined associations among dimensions of suicidality and psychopathology in a sample of 428 homeless adolescents (56.3% female). Confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for a three-factor model in which suicidality (measured with lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), internalizing disorders (assessed…

  14. A Dimensional Model of Psychopathology among Homeless Adolescents: Suicidality, Internalizing, and Externalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Longley, Susan L.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined associations among dimensions of suicidality and psychopathology in a sample of 428 homeless adolescents (56.3% female). Confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for a three-factor model in which suicidality (measured with lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), internalizing disorders (assessed…

  15. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, V; Larsen, J T; Hillegers, M H J; Dahl, S K; Stevens, H; Mortensen, P B; Petersen, L; Munk-Olsen, T

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most of the investigated adversities were associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder, exceptions were parental somatic illness and parental natural death. By far the strongest risk factor for bipolar disorder in our study was any mental disorder in the parent (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 2.73–4.53) and the additional effects of life events on bipolar risk were limited. An effect of early adverse life events on bipolar risk later in life was mainly observed in children without parental psychopathology. Our findings do not exclude early-life events as possible risk factors, but challenge the concept of adversities as important independent determinants of bipolar disorder in genetically vulnerable individuals. PMID:27779625

  16. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bergink, V; Larsen, J T; Hillegers, M H J; Dahl, S K; Stevens, H; Mortensen, P B; Petersen, L; Munk-Olsen, T

    2016-10-25

    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most of the investigated adversities were associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder, exceptions were parental somatic illness and parental natural death. By far the strongest risk factor for bipolar disorder in our study was any mental disorder in the parent (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 2.73-4.53) and the additional effects of life events on bipolar risk were limited. An effect of early adverse life events on bipolar risk later in life was mainly observed in children without parental psychopathology. Our findings do not exclude early-life events as possible risk factors, but challenge the concept of adversities as important independent determinants of bipolar disorder in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  17. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio; Sahl, Robert

    1997-01-01

    A study of 233 children with developmental disorders and mental illness found that the most common psychiatric diagnoses were oppositional defiant disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pica, organic mental disorder, and autism were more often encountered in low functioning individuals, while depressive and speech/language…

  18. Early maladaptive schemas associated with dimensional and categorical psychopathology in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Frías, Álvaro; Navarro, Sara; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; Aliaga, Ferrán; Salvador, Ana; Aluco, Elena; Martínez, Bárbara; Solves, Laia

    2017-08-17

    To ascertain the foundations for a schema-focused therapy model for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. The sample consisted of 102 borderline personality disorder outpatients. Dimensional psychopathology was assessed using the Scale for Suicidal Ideation, the Aggression Questionnaire, and the Symptom CheckList Revised. Categorical psychopathology was measured using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders, Patient Edition. Stepwise linear/logistic multiple regression analyses were used to determine the predictive role of the schema domains tested by the Young Schema Questionnaire on both types of psychopathology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for those binary outcomes. Regarding dimensional psychopathology, disconnection/rejection predicted greater suicidal ideation (β = .39, p = .002), physical/overt aggressiveness (β = .27, p = .05), and psychotic-like symptoms, such as paranoid ideation (β = .35, p = .003). Other-directedness predicted greater anger/inner aggressiveness (β = .22, p = .05) and internalizing symptoms, such as phobic anxiety (β = .39, p = .001). Regarding categorical psychopathology, disconnection/rejection significantly predicted the presence of lifetime comorbidities with eating disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.99-1.24) and posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.04-1.3), resulting in a good balance of sensitivity/specificity, respectively (.97/.96 and .88/.89). Other-directedness significantly predicted the absence of lifetime comorbidity with substance-use disorders (AOR = .74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95). These relationships remained significant after controlling for confounders (e.g., comorbidity with other personality disorders, clinical global severity). Two schema domains, disconnection/rejection and other-directedness, were directly associated with

  19. Bilateral self-enucleation in acute transient psychotic disorder: the influence of sociocultural factors on psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Harish, Thippeswamy; Chawan, Namdev; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Self-inflicted eye injuries are rare but a devastating consequence of a serious mental disorder. Bilateral self-enucleation also known as oedipism has been documented in ancient texts and myths. Various biologic, psychologic, and social theories have been put forward to explain this rare phenomenon. In this report, we describe a case of oedipism, which highlights the influence of sociocultural factors on the psychopathology in acute transient psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factor structure of the Bern Psychopathology Scale in a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lang, Fabian U; Stierlin, Annabel S; Stegmayer, Katharina; Walther, Sebastian; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    2015-10-01

    The Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) is based on a system-specific approach to classifying the psychopathological symptom pattern of schizophrenia. It consists of subscales for three domains (language, affect and motor behaviour) that are hypothesized to be related to specific brain circuits. The aim of the study was to examine the factor structure of the BPS in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. One hundred and forty-nine inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited at the Department of Psychiatry II, Ulm University, Germany (n=100) and at the University Hospital of Psychiatry, Bern, Switzerland (n=49). Psychopathology was assessed with the BPS. The VARCLUS procedure of SAS(®) (a type of oblique component analysis) was used for statistical analysis. Six clusters were identified (inhibited language, inhibited motor behaviour, inhibited affect, disinhibited affect, disinhibited language/motor behaviour, inhibited language/motor behaviour) which explained 40.13% of the total variance of the data. A binary division of attributes into an inhibited and disinhibited cluster was appropriate, although an overlap was found between the language and motor behaviour domains. There was a clear distinction between qualitative and quantitative symptoms. The results argue for the validity of the BPS in identifying subsyndromes of schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to a dimensional approach. Future research should address the longitudinal assessment of dimensional psychopathological symptoms and elucidate the underlying neurobiological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology as Predictors of Cannabis Use Disorder Onset during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Seeley, John R.; Kosty, Derek B.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Susan C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed four diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods prior to CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. PMID:25799438

  2. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aymamí, N; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Granero, R; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Fernández-Aranda, F; Claes, L; Sauvaget, A; Grall-Bronnec, M; Gómez-Peña, M; Savvidou, L G; Fagundo, A B; del Pino-Gutierrez, A; Moragas, L; Casas, M; Penelo, E; Menchón, J M

    2015-01-01

    (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18-35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  3. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  4. Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology as predictors of cannabis use disorder onset during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk.

  5. Experimental psychopathology paradigms for alcohol use disorders: Applications for translational research.

    PubMed

    Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A

    2016-11-01

    In spite of high prevalence and disease burden, scientific consensus on the etiology and treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has yet to be reached. The development and utilization of experimental psychopathology paradigms in the human laboratory represents a cornerstone of AUD research. In this review, we describe and critically evaluate the major experimental psychopathology paradigms developed for AUD, with an emphasis on their implications, strengths, weaknesses, and methodological considerations. Specifically we review alcohol administration, self-administration, cue-reactivity, and stress-reactivity paradigms. We also provide an introduction to the application of experimental psychopathology methods to translational research including genetics, neuroimaging, pharmacological and behavioral treatment development, and translational science. Through refining and manipulating key phenotypes of interest, these experimental paradigms have the potential to elucidate AUD etiological factors, improve the efficiency of treatment developments, and refine treatment targets thus advancing precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology.

  7. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, we review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in, and promise of work on, distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the construct. As a result, a comprehensive synthesis of theoretical and empirical scholarship on distress tolerance including integration of extant research on the relations between distress tolerance and psychopathology is lacking. Inspection of the scientific literature indicates that there are a number of promising ways to conceptualize and measure distress tolerance, as well as documented relations between distress tolerance factor(s) and psychopathological symptoms and disorders. Although promising, there also is notable conceptual and operational heterogeneity across the distress tolerance literature(s). Moreoever, a number of basic questions remain unanswered regarding the associations between distress tolerance and other risk and protective factors and processes, as well as its putative role(s) in vulnerability for, and resilience to, psychopathology. Thus, the current paper provides a comprehensive review of past and contemporary theory and research and proposes key areas for future empirical study of this construct. PMID:20565169

  8. Association of Eating Disorder Symptoms with Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions of Psychopathology among Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A large body of factor analytic research supports the idea that common mental disorders are organized along correlated latent dimensions termed internalizing and externalizing. Eating disorders (EDs) have been associated with both internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisocial personality disorder) forms of psychopathology. Previous studies found that EDs are best classified as internalizing disorders. However, no previous factor analytic studies of EDs and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions have evaluated if the EDs align with these spectra similarly for men and women. We examined the location of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms within this model of psychopathology among a sample of veterans, a population traditionally understudied in EDs. Method Data were from two studies of veterans and their intimate partners (N = 453 men and 307 women). Participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV without skip-outs. Lifetime symptom severity scores were used in confirmatory factor analytic models. Results A model with AN, BN, and BED symptoms loading onto the distress sub-factor of the internalizing domain fit the data best in the full sample and the male and female subsamples. This model was statistically equivalent for men and women. Discussion All three EDs loaded onto distress, indicating that these conditions overlap with psychopathology characterized by negative affect. Investigating latent dimensions of psychopathology is one approach to identifying common factors that partially account for patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders which may aid in translating research findings into clinical practice. PMID:24849585

  9. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…

  10. Examining Differences between Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Those with Specific Language Disorders on Cognition, Emotions and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Sideridis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences between students with LD and SLI on emotional psychopathology and cognitive variables. In particular, the study examined whether cognitive, emotional, and psychopathology variables are significant discriminatory variables of speech and language disordered groups versus those…

  11. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…

  12. Unrecognised psychopathology in patients with difficult asthma: major mental and personality disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Son, Maarten J.M.; van Keimpema, Anton R.J.; Meijer, Jan-Willem G.; Bühring, Martina E.F.; Pop, Victor J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult asthma is a severe subgroup of asthma in which the main feature is uncontrollability of symptoms. Psychopathology is suggested to be prominent in patients with difficult asthma and considered important in its treatment; however, the evidence is scarce. Aims To describe psychopathology in difficult asthma, both major mental and personality disorders, based on diagnostic interviews. Method This study was conducted in a specialised asthma care centre. A total of 51 patients with difficult asthma were diagnosed at the start of the treatment programme using two structured clinical interviews for both major mental (SCID-I) and personality disorders (SCID-II) according to DSM-IV-TR. Results About 55% of the patients with difficult asthma had a psychiatric disorder of which 89% was undiagnosed and untreated before being interviewed. About 49% had a minimum of one major mental disorder of which the cluster of anxiety disorders was the most common cluster of major mental disorders, followed by somatoform disorders. About 20% were diagnosed with a personality disorder. Of the 10 patients with a personality disorder, 9 had an obsessive–compulsive personality disorder. Conclusions This study demonstrates that more than half of patients with difficult asthma had a psychiatric disorder of which 89% was unrecognised. This study highlights the importance of offering patients with difficult asthma a psychiatric diagnostic interview and/or a psychiatric consultation as part of their routine medical examination and provision of appropriate psychiatric treatment. Moreover, it highlights the urgency of further research into the role of psychopathology in the development of difficult asthma. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703717

  13. Unrecognised psychopathology in patients with difficult asthma: major mental and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Prins, Lonneke C J; van Son, Maarten J M; van Keimpema, Anton R J; Meijer, Jan-Willem G; Bühring, Martina E F; Pop, Victor J M

    2015-06-01

    Difficult asthma is a severe subgroup of asthma in which the main feature is uncontrollability of symptoms. Psychopathology is suggested to be prominent in patients with difficult asthma and considered important in its treatment; however, the evidence is scarce. To describe psychopathology in difficult asthma, both major mental and personality disorders, based on diagnostic interviews. This study was conducted in a specialised asthma care centre. A total of 51 patients with difficult asthma were diagnosed at the start of the treatment programme using two structured clinical interviews for both major mental (SCID-I) and personality disorders (SCID-II) according to DSM-IV-TR. About 55% of the patients with difficult asthma had a psychiatric disorder of which 89% was undiagnosed and untreated before being interviewed. About 49% had a minimum of one major mental disorder of which the cluster of anxiety disorders was the most common cluster of major mental disorders, followed by somatoform disorders. About 20% were diagnosed with a personality disorder. Of the 10 patients with a personality disorder, 9 had an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. This study demonstrates that more than half of patients with difficult asthma had a psychiatric disorder of which 89% was unrecognised. This study highlights the importance of offering patients with difficult asthma a psychiatric diagnostic interview and/or a psychiatric consultation as part of their routine medical examination and provision of appropriate psychiatric treatment. Moreover, it highlights the urgency of further research into the role of psychopathology in the development of difficult asthma. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  14. Unidirectionality between borderline personality disorder traits and psychopathology in a residential addictions sample: A short-term longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Troy A.; Kiselica, Andrew M.; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C.; Bornovalova, Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in a residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2–3 month follow-up, we examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residential drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short-term. PMID:25562538

  15. Unidirectionality Between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathology in a Residential Addictions Sample: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2015-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term.

  16. Associations Among Meaning in Life, Body Image, Psychopathology, and Suicide Ideation in Spanish Participants With Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Marco, José H; Cañabate, Montserrat; Pérez, Sandra; Llorca, Ginés

    2017-04-17

    The aims of this study were to (a) analyze whether participants with eating disorders have lower meaning in life than the nonclinical population; (b) discover whether participants with eating disorders with low meaning in life have more body image disturbances, more psychopathology, and higher suicide ideation than participants with high meaning in life; (c) analyze whether meaning in life is associated with eating disorder psychopathology; and (d) analyze whether meaning in life is able to predict eating disorder psychopathology and suicide ideation, when body image is controlled. The clinical sample comprised 247 Spanish participants diagnosed with eating disorders, and the nonclinical sample comprised Spanish 227 participants. Participants with eating disorders had lower meaning in life than the nonclinical population. Patients with low meaning in life had higher psychopathology and suicide ideation than participants with high meaning in life. Meaning in life was a significant predictor of the eating disorder psychopathology and suicide ideation. Low meaning in life is associated with eating disorder psychopathology in a Spanish sample with eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comorbid atypical depression in borderline personality disorder is common and correlated with anxiety-related psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Gremaud-Heitz, Daniela; Riemenschneider, Anke; Walter, Marc; Sollberger, Daniel; Küchenhoff, Joachim; Dammann, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    The core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are affective instability, unstable relationships and identity disturbance. Axis I comorbidities are frequent, in particular affective disorders. The concept of atypical depression is complex and often underestimated. The purpose of the study was to investigate the comorbidity of atypical depression in borderline patients regarding anxiety-related psychopathology and interpersonal problems. Sixty patients with BPD were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID I, SCID II) as well as the Atypical Depression Diagnostic Scale (ADDS). Additionally, patients completed a questionnaire (SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI, STAXI, IIP-C). Forty-five BPD patients (81.8%) had a comorbid affective disorder of which 15 (27.3%) were diagnosed with an atypical depression. In comparison to patients with major depressive disorder or no comorbid depression, patients with atypical depression showed significant higher scores in psychopathological symptoms regarding anxiety and global severity as well as interpersonal problems. The presence of atypical depression in borderline patients is correlated with psychopathology, anxiety, and interpersonal problems and seems to be of clinical importance for personalized treatment decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of binge eating disorder in the psychopathological profile of obese women.

    PubMed

    Fandiño, Julia; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Preissler, Carolina; Gaya, Caroline W; Papelbaum, Marcelo; Coutinho, Walmir F; Appolinario, Jose C

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychopathological profile of obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Two hundred twelve obese women who seek for weight loss treatment were sequentially selected to participate in the study. Binge eating disorder was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Binge eating disorder severity was assessed using Binge Eating Scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory. The psychopathological profile was assessed using the SCL-90. Binge eating disorder was diagnosed in 54 patients (26.6%). Obese patients with BED presented significant higher scores in all domains of SCL-90 (P < .05 for all) in comparison with obese patients without BED. A significant relationship was found among Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and all domains of the SCL-90 (P < .05 for all). After linear regression, obsessivity-compulsivity (P = .03), interpersonal sensitivity (P = .0064), paranoid ideas (P = .03), and psychoticism (P = .01) were independently related to the severity of BED. Obese women with BED presented a more severe psychopathological profile than obese controls. Among all, obsessivity-compulsivity, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideas, and psychoticism seem to be strongly linked to BED severity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body composition, eating disorder psychopathology, and psychological distress in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Milanese, Chiara; Calugi, Simona; Pellegrini, Massimo; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-04-01

    Although the effect of immediate weight restoration on body composition and body fat distribution has previously been studied in anorexia nervosa (AN), its influence in women with AN on eating disorder psychopathology and psychological distress has not previously been investigated to our knowledge. We assessed body composition and fat mass distribution before and after body weight restoration and investigated any relation between changes in body fat patterns of patients with AN treated in a specialist inpatient unit and their eating disorder and psychological distress features. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 50 female, adult patients with AN before and after complete weight restoration [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²) ≥18.5] and 100 healthy control subjects matched by age and posttreatment BMI of study group participants. Eating disorder psychopathology and psychological distress were assessed in the AN group before and after weight restoration by using the Eating Disorder Examination interview and the Global Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI), respectively. After the achievement of complete weight restoration, patients with AN had higher trunk (P < 0.001), android (P < 0.001), and gynoid (P < 0.001) fat masses and lower arm (P < 0.001) and leg (P = 0.001) fat masses with respect to control subjects. No relation was shown between body-composition variables and eating disorder psychopathology in the AN group, and the only significant predictor of change in BSI-GSI was the baseline BSI-GSI score. The normalization of body weight in patients with AN is associated with a preferential distribution of body fat in central regions, which does not, however, seem to influence either eating disorder psychopathology or psychological distress scores.

  20. Psychopathological Course Typology in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Heuristic Approach in a Sample of 100 Patients.

    PubMed

    Wigand, Moritz E; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas; Schulze, Thomas G; Strik, Werner; Jäger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Despite several previous attempts at subtyping schizophrenia, a typology that reflects neurobiological knowledge and reliably predicts course and outcome is lacking. We applied the system-specific concept of the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) to generate a course typology based on three domains: language, affectivity, and motor behaviour. A cohort of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders according to DSM-IV criteria underwent psychopathological assessment, and all their available medical records were retrospectively analysed on the basis of the BPS. Overall, 39% of the patients showed dominant abnormalities in only one domain, 37% in two domains, and 24% in all three domains. The motor domain was affected in the majority of patients (76%), followed by affectivity (63%) and language (46%). Eighty-six percent of patients showed a bipolar course pattern in at least one domain. In a retrospective analysis of 100 patient records we described system-specific course patterns of schizophrenia by using a neurobiologically informed psychopathological assessment. The results showed a surprisingly high proportion of bipolar courses and a pattern of pure and mixed subtypes, which speaks for an overlap of domains with regards to psychopathological symptoms. A limitation of this heuristic and retrospective approach is that it was largely based on clinical judgement. Prospective studies with more rigorous threshold definitions are needed to clarify the neurobiological and clinical implications of the proposed reorganization of psychotic disorders. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Loneliness mediates the relationship between emotion dysregulation and bulimia nervosa/binge eating disorder psychopathology in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Southward, Matthew W; Christensen, Kara A; Fettich, Karla C; Weissman, Jessica; Berona, Johnny; Chen, Eunice Y

    2014-12-01

    Emotion dysregulation has been linked to binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) although the mechanisms by which it affects BN/BED psychopathology are unclear. This study tested loneliness as a mediator between emotion dysregulation and BN/BED psychopathology. A treatment-seeking sample of 107 women with BN or BED was assessed for loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale), and BN/BED psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination) before treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions and bootstrapping mediation models were run. Greater overall emotion dysregulation was associated with greater BN/BED psychopathology, mediated by loneliness (95 % CI 0.03, 0.09). Emotion dysregulation, however, did not mediate between loneliness and BN/BED psychopathology (95 % CI −0.01, 0.01). Targeting loneliness may effectively treat emotional aspects of BN/BED in women.

  2. Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions: genetic influences and risk for later psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Mikolajewski, Amy J; Taylor, Jeanette; Iacono, William G

    2017-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine how well two oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions (irritable and headstrong/hurtful) assessed in childhood predict late adolescent psychopathology and the degree to which these outcomes can be attributed to genetic influences shared with ODD dimensions. Psychopathology was assessed via diagnostic interviews of 1,225 twin pairs at ages 11 and 17. Consistent with hypotheses, the irritable dimension uniquely predicted overall internalizing problems, whereas the headstrong/hurtful dimension uniquely predicted substance use disorder symptoms. Both dimensions were predictive of antisocial behavior and overall externalizing problems. The expected relationships between the irritable dimension and specific internalizing disorders were not found. Twin modeling showed that the irritable and headstrong/hurtful dimensions were related to late adolescent psychopathology symptoms through common genetic influences. Symptoms of ODD in childhood pose a significant risk for various mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Further, common genetic influences underlie the covariance between irritable symptoms in childhood and overall internalizing problems in late adolescence, whereas headstrong/hurtful symptoms share genetic influences with substance use disorder symptoms. Antisocial behavior and overall externalizing share common genetic influences with both the irritable and headstrong/hurtful dimensions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Are stalkers disordered or criminal? Thoughts on the psychopathology of stalking.

    PubMed

    Dressing, Harald; Foerster, Klaus; Gass, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although stalking is a widespread phenomenon that can be caused by different motives, consideration of the psychopathological underpinnings of stalking behaviour is scarce. In rare cases, stalking can be an expression of mental disorder. Psychotic stalking, for example, can occur as a symptom of schizophrenia or erotomania. Psychotic stalkers are criminally not responsible for their acts and have to be treated in a psychiatric hospital. The majority of stalkers, however, do not suffer from a disorder in need of treatment, and therefore their criminal responsibility is not diminished. Although legislative approaches to protecting victims of stalking differ widely in the European Union, mentally not severely disturbed stalkers can be prosecuted and punished according to criminal law in most countries. In some cases, the differentiation between mentally sane and mentally disturbed stalkers is difficult. This paper focuses on the psychopathology of such 'borderline cases', using the example of a court decision in Germany.

  4. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Sex Differences in Autistic Behaviour Domains and Coexisting Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible differences between high-functioning males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding the core symptoms of autism and coexisting psychopathology. A total of 23 females and 23 males matched for age, IQ, and ASD diagnoses were recruited(mean age 11y 9mo [SD 4y 5mo], range 5y-20y…

  6. Tendon disorders of the hand and wrist.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, John A

    2010-05-01

    The terminology used to describe most common tendon disorders in the hand and wrist suggests that they are inflammatory in nature, although current evidence indicates that mechanical and degenerative factors are more important. Corticosteroid injections provide relief in 60% or more of cases; however, the duration of their effectiveness remains uncertain. Surgical release of the stenotic pulley or sheath is curative in well over 90% of cases; complications of surgery are rare, and relief is long-lasting. Enlightened management of these common problems demands evidence-based guidelines defining indications for surgery that will maximize outcomes and minimize costs. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Aggression and psychopathology in treatment-resistant inpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Karen A; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pal; Sheitman, Brian; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Citrome, Leslie L; McEvoy, Joseph; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychotic symptoms, such as threat/"control-override" delusions or command hallucinations, have been related to aggression in patients with schizophrenia. However, retrospective data collection has hampered evaluation of the direct influence of psychopathology on aggressive behavior. In this study, we monitored aggressive behavior and psychopathology prospectively and in close temporal proximity in 157 treatment-resistant inpatients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participating in a 14-week double-blind clinical trial. Aggressive behavior was rated with the overt aggression scale (OAS). Psychopathology was assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). At baseline, subjects who would be aggressive during the study had higher scores on only two PANSS items: hostility and poor impulse control. During the study PANSS positive subscale scores were significantly higher in aggressive subjects. Total PANSS scores were higher within 3 days of an aggressive incident, as were positive and general psychopathology subscale scores. However, in a smaller subsample for whom PANSS ratings were available within 3 days before aggressive incidents, only scores on the PANSS positive subscale were significantly higher. These findings in chronic, treatment resistant inpatients support the view that positive symptoms may lead to aggression.

  8. [Psychopathological disorders and quality of life in patients with brain infarction].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Pinedo, F; Hernández Pérez, J M; Zurdo, M; Rodríguez Fúnez, B; García Fernández, C; Cueli Rincón, B; Hernández Bayo, J M; Bejarano Parra, M; Rodríguez Manchón, V

    2012-03-01

    To study the influence of various factors on the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients who have suffered a brain infarction (BI), with special attention to psychopathological disorders (PD). Prospective observational study on 45 patients admitted due to a BI, evaluated at 4, 12 and 26 weeks of the acute event. Social and demographic data, and medical history were collected; the SF-36 scale was used for the assessment of HRQOL, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), MMSE, Canadian Neurological Scale, Modified Rankin Scale and other instruments for assessing psychopathological, cognitive, neurological and functional status. A linear regression analysis was performed to identify potential predictors of the SF-36 scores at 26 weeks, introducing, as independent variables, medical and psychiatric history, demographic characteristics and the functional, neuropsychological and psychopathological assessments at 4 weeks. Valid predictive models for all the SF-36 domains were obtained, in which a history of pre-morbid depression, higher scores in the NPI and Rankin Scale, and lowest in the Canadian Neurological Scale were the main predictors of a worse HRQOL in the long term. Psychopathology related caregiver's distress (assessed with the NPI) was associated with a lower score in the social function index. PDs and functional status were the main determinants of HRQOL in patients with BI. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Video game addiction in gambling disorder: clinical, psychopathological, and personality correlates.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Chóliz, Mariano; La Verde, Melania; Aguglia, Eugenio; Signorelli, Maria S; Sá, Gustavo M; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fernández-Formoso, José A; Menchón, José M

    2014-01-01

    We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU) and addiction (VGA) in gambling disorder (GD) patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU) in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA) consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT), symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction) was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7% ÷ 44.3),VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0% ÷ 28.7), and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7% ÷ 20.7). Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD.

  10. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Chóliz, Mariano; La Verde, Melania; Aguglia, Eugenio; Signorelli, Maria S.; Sá, Gustavo M.; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B.; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fernández-Formoso, José A.; Menchón, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU) and addiction (VGA) in gambling disorder (GD) patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU) in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA) consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT), symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction) was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7% ÷ 44.3),VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0% ÷ 28.7), and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7% ÷ 20.7). Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD. PMID:25126551

  11. Family Study of Borderline Personality Disorder and Its Sectors of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Choi-Kain, Lois W.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Jang, Kerry L.; Hudson, James I.

    2011-01-01

    Context The familiality of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and its sectors of psychopathology are incompletely understood. Objectives To assess the familial aggregation of BPD and its 4 major sectors (affective, interpersonal, behavioral, and cognitive) and test whether the relationship of the familial and nonfamilial associations among these sectors can be accounted for by a latent BPD construct. Design Family study, with direct interviews of probands and relatives. Setting A psychiatric hospital (McLean Hospital) and the Boston-area community. Participants A total of 368 probands (132 with BPD, 134 without BPD, and 102 with major depressive disorder) and 885 siblings and parents of probands. Main Assessments The Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R) were used to assess borderline psychopathology, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to assess major depressive disorder. Results Borderline personality disorder meeting both DSM-IV and DIB-R criteria showed substantial familial aggregation for BPD in individuals with a family member with BPD vs those without a family member with BPD, using proband-relative pairs (risk ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–5.5) as well as using all pairs of family members (3.9; 1.7–9.0). All 4 sectors of BPD psychopathology aggregated significantly in families, using both DSM-IV and DIB-R definitions (correlation of traits among all pairs of family members ranged from 0.07 to 0.27), with the affective and interpersonal sectors showing the highest levels; however, the level of familial aggregation of BPD was higher than that of the individual sectors. The relationship among the sectors was best explained by a common pathway model in which the sectors represent manifestations of a latent BPD construct. Conclusions Familial factors contribute to BPD and its sectors of psychopathology. Borderline personality disorder may arise

  12. Attachment and Externalizing Disorders: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Crowell, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Attachment theory offers an intriguing formulation of protection and risk that ties together key aspects of behavior, emotion, and cognition. The authors present links among attachment status, other developmental domains, and the development and maintenance of externalizing disorders to illustrate an approach to integrating attachment…

  13. The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J.; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Meier, Madeline H.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Shalev, Idan; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders traditionally have been viewed as distinct, episodic, and categorical conditions. This view has been challenged by evidence that many disorders are sequentially comorbid, recurrent/chronic, and exist on a continuum. Using the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, we examined the structure of psychopathology, taking into account dimensionality, persistence, co-occurrence, and sequential comorbidity of mental disorders across 20 years, from adolescence to midlife. Psychiatric disorders were initially explained by three higher-order factors (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Disorder) but explained even better with one General Psychopathology dimension. We have called this dimension the p factor because it conceptually parallels a familiar dimension in psychological science: the g factor of general intelligence. Higher p scores are associated with more life impairment, greater familiality, worse developmental histories, and more compromised early-life brain function. The p factor explains why it is challenging to find causes, consequences, biomarkers, and treatments with specificity to individual mental disorders. Transdiagnostic approaches may improve research. PMID:25360393

  14. Panic disorder: psychopathology, medical management and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Arthur H; Marder, Stephen R; Sung, Eric C; Child, John S

    2004-06-01

    This article reviews the clinical features, epidemiology, pathophysiology, dental findings, and dental and medical management of the care of patients with panic disorder, or PD. The authors conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1998 through 2003, using the key term "panic disorder" to define the pathophysiology of the disorder, its epidemiology and dental implications. The articles they selected for further review included those published in peer-reviewed journals. PD is a common and debilitating psychiatric disease in which a person experiences sudden and unpredictable panic attacks, or PAs, with symptoms of overwhelming anxiety, chest pain, palpitations and shortness of breath. Persistent concern about having another attack and worry that it may indicate a heart attack or "going crazy" impairs the person's social, family and working lives. Frequently accompanying the disorder is agoraphobia, depression and mitral valve prolapse, or MVP. In patients with PD, the prevalence of dental disease may be extensive because of the xerostomic effects of psychiatric medications used to treat it. Dental treatment consists of preventive dental education and prescribing saliva substitutes and anticaries agents. Precautions must be taken when prescribing or administering analgesics, antibiotics or sedative agents that may have an adverse interaction with the psychiatric medications. Because there is a connection between PAs and MVP, the dentist needs to consult with the patient's physician to determine the presence of MVP and whether there is associated mitral valve regurgitation. Patients with MVP and accompanying mitral valve regurgitation require prophylactic antibiotics when undergoing dental procedures known to cause a bacteremia and heightened risk of endocarditis.

  15. Childhood trauma in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: focus on personality disorders and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Alegre, José; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Ramírez, Nicolás; Hernández-Vara, Jorge; Casas, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Personality Disorders (PDs) and childhood traumatic experiences have been considered risk factors for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). However, the relationship between these factors and their associated psychopathological impact has not been explored in this population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between different childhood traumas and the presence and number of PDs and current psychopathology in a sample of CFS patients. For this purpose, 166 CFS patients were evaluated with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) and the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Other instruments were used to assess the associated psychopathology and the impact of fatigue. Of the total sample, 55 (33.1%) presented childhood trauma, the most frequent of which were emotional neglect (21.7%) and emotional abuse (18.1%). Considering PD presence, 79 (47.6%) patients presented some PD. There were no differences in frequency of physical childhood trauma in patients with and without PD. However, patients with PD had more frequently experienced emotional childhood trauma (OR=2.18, p=0.034). Severity of childhood trauma was related to a higher number of PDs, more severe depressive symptoms (p=0.025) and suicide risk (p=0.001). Patients with PD and any childhood trauma presented more severe depressive and irritable symptoms and a higher suicide risk than those without any PD and non-childhood traumatic event. These patients' psychopathological symptoms were similar to those of patients with childhood trauma and without PD. These results suggest that emotional childhood trauma but not physical childhood trauma is related to higher frequency of PD presence. More severe childhood emotional and physical traumas are related to a higher number of PDs and to more severe psychopathological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Gadermann, Anne M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee Nasser; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Murphy, Samuel D.; Nizamie, S. Haque; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity. Aims To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders. Method Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews. Results Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0-19.9%) than other (7.1-14.0%) disorders. Conclusions Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders. PMID:22403085

  17. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J; Reichart, Catrien G; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C; Nolen, Willem A; Hillegers, Manon H J

    2016-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10-18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, p<.05), older age of the offspring (OR: 1.19, p<.05), and country of origin (US; OR: 2.17, p<.001). Regarding comorbidity, only country of origin (OR: 7.84, p<.001) was a significant predictor. In general, we found no differences in dimensional psychopathology based on CBCL reports. Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antenatal and postnatal psychopathology among women with current and past eating disorders: longitudinal patterns.

    PubMed

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Antenatal and Postnatal Psychopathology Among Women with Current and Past Eating Disorders: Longitudinal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25345371

  20. Typology of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults: Psychopathological and personality disorder traits correlates.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Nidetch, Victoria; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-12-30

    Few typological studies address schizotypy in young adults. Schizotypal traits were assessed on 466 college students using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). Other measures evaluated personality traits previously associated with schizotypy (borderline, obsessionnal, and autistic traits), psychopathological symptoms (suicidal ideations, depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and psychosocial functioning. A factor analysis was first performed on SPQ-B results, leading to four factors: negative schizotypy, positive schizotypy, social anxiety, and reference ideas. Based on these factors, a cluster analysis was conducted, which yielded four clearly distinct groups characterized by "Low" (non schizotypy), "High schizotypy" (mixed positive and negative), "Positive schizotypy", and "Social impairment". Regarding personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, the "High schizotypy" cluster scored higher than the "Positive" and the "Social impairment" groups, which scored higher than the "Low" cluster. The "Positive" group had higher levels of interpersonal relationships than in the "High" and the "Social impairment" clusters, suggesting that positive schizotypy was associated to benefits such as perceived social relationships. Nevertheless the "Positive" cluster was also linked to high levels of personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, and to low academic achievement, at levels similar those observed in the "Social impairment" cluster, confirming an unhealthy side to positive schizotypy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Binge Eating Disorder and Bipolar Spectrum disorders in obesity: Psychopathological and eating behaviors differences according to comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Caroleo, Mariarita; Rania, Marianna; Barbuto, Elvira; Sinopoli, Flora; Aloi, Matteo; Arturi, Franco; De Fazio, Pasquale

    2017-01-15

    Obesity is not a mental disorder, yet DSM-5 recognizes a strong association between obesity and psychiatric syndromes. Disorders within the Bipolar Spectrum (BSD) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are the most frequent psychiatric disorders among obese patients. The aim of this research is to investigate the psychopathological differences and the distinctive eating behaviors that accompany these comorbidities in obese patients. One hundred and nineteen obese patients (40 males; 79 females) underwent psychological evaluation and psychiatric interview, and a dietitian evaluated their eating habits. Patients were divided into four groups according to comorbidities, and comparisons were run accordingly. Forty-one percent of participants presented BED+BSD comorbidity (Group 1), 21% BED (Group 2) and 8% BSD (Group 3); only 29% obese participants had no comorbidity (Group 4). Female gender was overrepresented among Groups 1 and 2. BSD diagnosis varied according to comorbidities: Type II Bipolar Disorder and Other Specified and Related Bipolar Disorder (OSR BD) were more frequent in Group 1 and Type I Bipolar Disorder in Group 3. A trend of decreasing severity in eating behaviors and psychopathology was evident according to comorbidities (Group 1=Group2>Group3>Group 4). Limitations include the small sample size and the cross-sectional design of the study. BED and BSD are frequent comorbidities in obesity. Type II Bipolar Disorder and OSR BD are more frequent in the group with double comorbidity. The double comorbidity seems associated to more severe eating behaviors and psychopathology. Distinctive pathological eating behaviors could be considered as warning signals, symptomatic of psychiatric comorbidities in Obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissociative disorders and other psychopathological groups: exploring the differences through the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20).

    PubMed

    Amaral do Espirito Santo, Helena Maria; Pio-Abreu, José Luís

    2007-12-01

    The Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire is a self-report questionnaire that has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument. The objectives of this study were to validate the Portuguese version and to determine its capability to distinguish patients with dissociative disorders from others with psychopathological disorders. 234 patients answered the translated version of Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. The Portuguese Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was used to validate clinical diagnosis. Patients with dissociative disorder (n = 113) were compared to a control group of 121 patients with various anxiety and depression disorders. Reliability measured by Cronbach's a was 0.88. The best performance of the Portuguese form was at a cut-off point of 35, which distinguishes between dissociative disorder and neurotic disorders with a good diagnostic efficacy (sensitivity = 0.73). The somatoform dissociation was significantly more frequent in dissociative disorder patients, conversion disorder patients and post-traumatic stress disorder patients. These findings suggest that dissociative disorders can be differentiated from other psychiatric disorders through somatoform dissociation. The Portuguese version of the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire has fine psychometric features that sustain its cross-cultural validity.

  3. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  4. The Cognitive Psychopathology of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.

  5. Leptin secretory dynamics and associated disordered eating psychopathology across the weight spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Charumathi; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Miller, Karen K.; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Lawson, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin secretory dynamics across the weight spectrum and their relationship with disordered eating psychopathology have not been studied. Our objective was to compare leptin secretory dynamics in 13 anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 overweight/obese (OB) and 12 normal-weight women using deconvolution analysis. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary referral center, serum leptin levels were obtained every 20 minutes from 2000-0800h. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure %body fat. Disordered eating psychopathology was assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results The groups differed for basal leptin secretion (BASAL) (p=0.02). Mean leptin pulse amplitude, pulse mass, total pulsatile secretion (TPS) and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly different between groups before and after adjustment for BASAL (p<0.0001 for all). Leptin AUC correlated strongly with TPS (r=0.97, p<0.0001) and less with BASAL (r=0.35, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, only TPS was a significant predictor of leptin AUC (p<0.0001). TPS was inversely associated with most EDE-Q and EDI-2 parameters and the associations remained significant for EDE-Q eating concern (p=0.01), and EDI-2 asceticism, ineffectiveness and social insecurity (p<0.05) after adjusting for BASAL. These relationships were not significant when controlled for %body fat. Conclusion Secretory dynamics of leptin differ across weight spectrum, with mean pulse amplitude, mean pulse mass and TPS being low in AN and high in OB. Pulsatile, rather than basal secretion, is the major contributor to leptin AUC. Decreased pulsatile leptin is associated with disordered eating psychopathology, possibly reflecting low %body fat in AN. PMID:26903591

  6. Association between resting energy expenditure, psychopathology and HPA-axis in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Giovanni; Castellani, Walter; Lelli, Lorenzo; Sauro, Carolina Lo; Dini, Carla; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Bencini, Lorenza; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the complex relationships between resting energy expenditure (REE), eating psychopathology, and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis functioning in patients with eating disorders. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, and it was planned by the Clinic for Eating Disorders of the University of Florence (Italy). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Twenty two anorexia nervosa and twenty one Bulimia Nervosa patients were assessed by means of a clinical interview and the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Eating attitudes and behaviour were specifically investigated by means of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). Patients were also evaluated by means of the symptom checklist (SCL 90-R), REE was measured by means of indirect calorimetry, and blood cortisol morning levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed a reduced REE as compared with predicted REE. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in Bulimics, whereas a strong, negative association between BMI and REE was observed in Anorectics. The pattern of associations between variables supported a mediation model, where shape concern accounted for variations in REE and cortisol levels (mediator), and variations in the mediator significantly accounted for variations in REE. When these associations where taken into account together, the relationship between shape concern and REE was no longer significant, whereas the association between cortisol levels and REE retained its significance, showing strong evidence for a single, dominant mediator. Anorectics and Bulimics showed an opposite pattern of association between BMI and REE. In Anorectics only, a higher REE was associated with a more severe eating disorder specific psychopathology, and cortisol levels represent a possible

  7. ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has commonly been described in psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have found positive associations between abnormal eating patterns during childhood and ADHD, there is a lack of studies on ADHD and Eating Disorders (ED). The aims of this exploratory study were 1) to assess the ADHD symptoms level in ED and to ascertain whether there are differences among ED subtypes; 2) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms and greater general psychopathology; and 3) to assess whether the ADHD symptoms level is associated with specific temperament and character traits. Methods 191 female ED patients were included. Assessment was carried out with the EDI-2, ASRS-v1.1, the SCL-90-R and the TCI-R. Results The ADHD symptoms level was similar in bulimia, eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating subtypes, and lower in anorexic patients. Obsessiveness and Hostility were significantly positively associated with ADHD symptoms. A path model showed that ADHD was associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Self-Directedness, whereas ED severity was influenced by ADHD severity and low Self-Directedness. Conclusions Bingeing/purging ED subtypes have a high ADHD symptoms level, also related with more severe eating, general and personality psychopathology. PMID:23758944

  8. Associations between weight suppression and dimensions of eating disorder psychopathology in a multisite sample.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Shaw, Jena A; Crosby, Ross D; Feig, Emily H; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that weight suppression, the difference between an individual's highest historical body weight and current body weight, may play a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), and may also impact ED treatment. However, there are limited findings regarding the association between weight suppression and dimensions of ED psychopathology, particularly in multi-diagnostic ED samples. Participants were 1748 adults (94% female) from five sites with a variety of DSM-IV ED diagnoses who completed the Eating Disorder Questionnaire, a self-report measure of various attitudinal, behavioral, and medical features of EDs. Four factor analytically derived dimensions of ED psychopathology were examined: (a) weight/shape concerns, (b) binge eating/vomiting, (c) exercise/restrictive eating behaviors, and (d) weight control medication use. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the unique association of weight suppression with each dimension (controlling for ED diagnosis and BMI), as well as the independent unique associations of three interactions: (a) weight suppression×BMI, (b) weight suppression×ED diagnosis, and (c) BMI×ED diagnosis. Results revealed that weight suppression was uniquely associated with all of the ED psychopathology dimensions except binge eating/vomiting. The weight suppression × BMI interaction was significant only for weight/shape concerns, whereas the weight suppression×ED diagnosis was not significant for any of the dimensions. Significant BMI×ED diagnosis interactions were found for all dimensions except weight/shape concerns. Overall, the current results support the salience of weight suppression across multiple dimensions of ED psychopathology, with the exception of binge eating/vomiting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Major depressive disorder. Psychopathology, medical management and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, A H; Mahler, M E

    2001-05-01

    Major depressive disorder, or MDD, is a psychiatric illness in which mood, thoughts and behavioral patterns are impaired for long periods. The illness distresses the person and impairs his or her social functioning and quality of life. MDD is characterized by marked sadness or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities, and is accompanied by weight change, sleep disturbance, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, physical impairment and a high suicide rate. In 2000, the World Health Organization, or WHO, identified MDD as the fourth ranked cause of disability and premature death in the world. WHO projected that by 2020, MDD would rise in disease burden to be second only to ischemic heart disease. The disorder is common in the United States, with a lifetime prevalence rate of 17 percent and a recurrence rate of more than 50 percent. MDD may be associated with extensive dental disease, and people may seek dental treatment before becoming aware of their psychiatric illness. MDD frequently is associated with a disinterest in performing appropriate oral hygiene techniques, a cariogenic diet, diminished salivary flow, rampant dental caries, advanced periodontal disease and oral dysesthesias. Many medications used to treat the disease magnify the xerostomia and increase the incidence of dental disease. Appropriate dental management requires a vigorous dental education program, the use of saliva substitutes and anticaries agents containing fluoride, and special precautions when prescribing or administering analgesics and local anesthetics. Dentists cognizant of these signs and symptoms have an opportunity to recognize patients with occult MDD. After confirmation of the diagnosis and institution of treatment by a mental health practitioner, dentists usually can provide a full range of services that may enhance patients' self-esteem and contribute to the psychotherapeutic aspect of management.

  10. Association of Comorbid Psychopathology with the Duration of Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Susan C.; Walker, Denise D.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) have been well–researched. Comparatively little is known, however, about factors associated with the persistence of CUDs over time. This research explored whether the temporal sequencing of comorbid psychiatric disorders in relation to the onset of the index CUD episode were associated with the length of this episode. Four comprehensive diagnostic assessments were conducted between ages 16 and 30 with a large and regionally representative community sample (n = 816), among which 173 persons were diagnosed with a lifetime CUD. In separate unadjusted analyses, any internalizing disorder and any mood disorder with onset prior to that of the index CUD episode were each significantly and negatively associated with CUD duration. These effects, however, were reduced to trend-level in adjusted analyses that controlled for putative confounders. Following the onset of the index CUD episode, the subsequent occurrence of any axis I disorder, internalizing disorder, externalizing disorder, or other substance use disorder during the index CUD episode was significantly and positively associated with the duration of that episode in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. These findings collectively suggest that the presence of internalizing-spectrum disorders prior to the onset of the index CUD episode affords some modest protection against protracted episodes, whereas the emergence of broad-spectrum psychopathology within the index CUD episode, most notably non-cannabis substance use disorders, is associated with greater disorder persistence. The relevance of these findings for various motivational models of cannabis addiction is discussed. PMID:26766543

  11. Parent and child psychopathology and suicide attempts among children of parents with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.

  12. Parental psychopathology and disorders in offspring. A study of relatives of drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Luthar, S S; Merikangas, K R; Rounsaville, B J

    1993-06-01

    Associations between psychopathology among parents and among their offspring were examined among families of drug abusers. Patterns of transmission of disorders were examined in the context of several potential moderator variables, including gender of parent, ethnicity, and type of drug abused by the proband relative. The sample consisted of 492 parents and 673 siblings of cocaine abusers, and 400 parents and 476 siblings of opioid addicts. Results indicated that a) maternal depression was associated with several psychiatric disorders among all groups of offspring; b) paternal alcoholism yielded less powerful effects, showing associations with offspring substance abuse among blacks but not Caucasians; c) incidence of disorders among offspring showed sequential increases depending on whether neither, one, or both parents were affected; and d) there was little evidence for specificity of aggregation of disorders among these families. Results are discussed in terms of implications for empirical studies as well as intervention programming.

  13. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P

    2006-09-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  14. Change in Identity Diffusion and Psychopathology in a Specialized Inpatient Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Daniel; Gremaud-Heitz, Daniela; Riemenschneider, Anke; Agarwalla, Puspa; Benecke, Cord; Schwald, Oliver; Küchenhoff, Joachim; Walter, Marc; Dammann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show various psychopathological symptoms and suffer especially from disturbance in their identity. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes-particularly in affective BPD symptoms and identity diffusion-during a structured, disorder-specific inpatient treatment (DST) that combined a psychodynamic transference-focused psychotherapy approach with modules of dialectical behavioural skills training. In a prospective, two-group comparison trial, 44 patients with BPD were assessed with questionnaires addressing identity diffusion and state, as well as trait affective psychopathology, before and after 12 weeks of inpatient treatment. Thirty-two patients received DST, whereas 12 patients were given inpatient treatment-as-usual (TAU). The patients were allocated in a non-random procedure for two groups, in order of admission and availability of treatment options in the DST unit. In the pre-post-comparison, the DST group showed a significant decrease in identity diffusion (p < 0.001) and improvements in instability of the image of self and others (p < 0.008), as well as in pathological (trait and state) symptoms. However, there was no significant improvement in the TAU group. After a 12-week inpatient treatment, the findings indicate significant improvements in the DST group in typical affective borderline symptomatology and in the personality structure feature of identity diffusion. This highlights the significance of a short-term specific inpatient therapy for BPD. A structured, disorder-specific inpatient treatment of patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) combined a psychodynamic transference-focused psychotherapy treatment approach (focusing on pathological features in personality organization, particularly on non-integrated images of self and others) with modules of dialectical behavioural skills training. This treatment is associated with a decrease in identity diffusion of

  15. The Relationship between Cognitive Decline and Psychopathology in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Doo; Seo, Hye-Jin; Yun, Hyunju; Jung, Young-Eun; Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Chang-In; Moon, Ji Hyun; Hong, Seong-Chul; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary goals of the present study were to assess intellectual function in participants with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD) and to investigate the relationships between cognitive decline and the severity of each type of psychopathology. Methods The present study included 51 patients with schizophrenia and 42 with BD who were recruited from the psychiatry outpatient clinic of Jeju University Hospital between March 2011 and March 2014. The Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) was administered to each of the 93 participants, and they were categorized into two groups based on their current intelligence quotient (IQ) and their estimated premorbid IQ: severely impaired group (SIG) and mildly impaired group (MIG). The Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were used to assess psychopathology. Results The SIG schizophrenia participants exhibited significantly higher scores on the frequent (F) and schizophrenia (Sc) subscales of the MMPI, but significantly lower scores on the correction (K) and psychopathic deviate (Pd) subscales compared with the MIG schizophrenia participants. Furthermore, the BPRS scores were significantly higher in the SIG schizophrenia participants relative to the MIG schizophrenia participants. The SIG BD participants had significantly higher F, masculinity-femininity (Mf), paranoia (Pa), and Sc but significantly lower Pd scores compared with the MIG BD participants. Conclusion The present findings revealed a significant discrepancy between the estimated premorbid levels of cognitive function and current cognitive function in participants with schizophrenia or BD. Moreover, this discrepancy was correlated with severity of psychopathology in both groups. PMID:25912543

  16. MMPI disability profile: the least known, most useful screen for psychopathology in chronic occupational spinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Gatchel, Robert J; Mayer, Tom G; Eddington, Angelica

    2006-12-01

    Prospective study on predicting psychopathology in chronic occupational spinal disorders (COSDs). To assess prevalence of specific profiles on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and their ability to predict psychopathology in a COSD cohort. In the relatively small number of COSDs that develop chronic pain and disability, the MMPI-2 has been an important part of the psychosocial assessment. Certain profiles have been thought to have a high prevalence in COSD. They have also been widely popularized as predicting certain treatment outcomes, and have often been used to "screen" surgical and rehabilitation candidates. Of an initial cohort of 1,489 consecutive COSD patients completing a valid prerehabilitation MMPI-2, 1,185 patients (79.6%) were classifiable into one of four MMPI profile groups. A new Disability Profile (DP) group was identified, which was the most common profile. Patients attended a 5- to 7-week interdisciplinary rehabilitation program. They completed a psychosocial assessment battery, and a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV diagnosis (SCID-I and II) was administered as the "gold standard" for defining psychopathology. One year postrehabilitation, a structured clinical interview assessed socioeconomic outcomes. A previously unrecognized MMPI profile, now termed the DP, was found to have a prevalence of 53.2% of the whole group, and 66.9% of those with "classifiable" MMPI profiles in this large population of COSD patients. Only 6.9% of subjects had normal profiles (NP), while only 19.5% had profiles previously thought to occur commonly in this population. NP patients were twice as likely to retain work 1 year after treatment than the 3 abnormal MMPI groups combined. The DP group was 14 times more;1 likely to have an Axis I diagnosis (such as depression or anxiety) than the NP group, and was also almost 5 times more likely have an Axis II personality disorder diagnosis. The prevalence of commonly cited MMPI profiles, often used

  17. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Tikàsz, Andràs; Rizkallah, Élie; Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Potvin, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD (n = 19) and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD (n = 360). More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances. PMID:26417473

  18. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes – The Impact of Gender, Age, and Health-Related Functioning on Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12–20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire were administered to assess health-related functioning. Clinical data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Significant gender differences were demonstrated in the pattern of correlates of eating disorder pathology. Among females, eating disorder psychopathology was significantly associated with body mass index adjusted for age and gender, age, insulin restriction, coping, illness perceptions, and perceptions of insulin concern. In a regression model, age, illness perceptions, and insulin restriction remained significantly associated with eating disorder psychopathology, explaining 48% of the variance. None of the variables were associated with eating disorder psychopathology among males. Discussion Greater clinical awareness of illness perceptions, attitudes toward insulin, and insulin restriction may potentially decrease the risk of developing eating disorders among female adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and the subsequent increased morbidity and mortality associated with comorbid type 1 diabetes and eating disorders. PMID:26529593

  19. Anorexia nervosa and parental bonding: the contribution of parent-grandparent relationships to eating disorder psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Laura; Kanyas, Kyra; Lerer, Bernard; Latzer, Yael; Bachar, Eytan

    2008-06-01

    The present study adopted an intergenerational approach in examining the association between parental bonding and anorexia nervosa. Forty-three anorexic participants and 33 nonclinical comparison participants completed eating disorder questionnaires and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The participant's parents also completed the PBI. The anorexic participants perceived both parents as less caring and fathers as more controlling than nonclinical participants. Among anorexic participants, mother control and father care were associated with symptom severity. Intergenerational effects were present. Among anorexic participants, maternal grandmother care was associated with eating disorder psychopathology. The present findings suggest that parental characteristics of grandparents might play a role in the development of eating disorders in granddaughters. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Drug use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder over 25 adult years: role of psychopathology in relational networks.

    PubMed

    Balan, Sundari; Widner, Greg; Shroff, Manan; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Scherrer, Jeffrey; Price, Rumi Kato

    2013-11-01

    In traumatized populations, drug use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) persist for many years. Relational factors that mediate this persistence have rarely been systematically examined. Our aim is to examine the relative effects of psychopathology in familial and non-familial networks on the persistence of both disorders over adulthood. We utilized longitudinal data from an epidemiologically ascertained sample of male Vietnam veterans (n=642). Measures included DSM-IV drug use disorders, other psychiatric disorders, network problem history and time-varying marital and employment characteristics. Longitudinal measures of veterans' psychopathology and social functioning were retrospectively obtained for each year over a 25 year period. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the relative effects of network problems on veteran's drug use disorders and PTSD after adjusting for covariates. Veterans' mean age was 47 years in 1996. Prevalence of illicit drug disorders declined from 29.8% in 1972 to 8.3% in 1996, but PTSD remained at 11.7% from 13.2% in 1972. While 17.0% of veterans reported a familial drug use problem, 24.9% reported a non-familial drug use problem. In full GEE models, a non-familial drug problem was a significant predictor of illicit drug use disorders over 25 years (OR=2.21, CI=1.59-3.09), while both familial depression (OR=1.69, CI=1.07-2.68) and non-familial drinking problem (OR=1.66, CI=1.08-2.54) were significant predictors of PTSD over 25 years. Familial and non-familial problems in networks differentially affect the persistence of drug use disorders and PTSD in traumatized male adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Drug use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder over 25 adult years: Role of psychopathology in relational networks

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Sundari; Widner, Greg; Shroff, Manan; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Scherrer, Jeffrey; Price, Rumi Kato

    2013-01-01

    Background In traumatized populations, drug use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) persist for many years. Relational factors that mediate this persistence have rarely been systematically examined. Our aim is to examine the relative effects of psychopathology in familial and non-familial networks on the persistence of both disorders over adulthood. Method We utilized longitudinal data from an epidemiologically ascertained sample of male Vietnam veterans (n = 642). Measures included DSM-IV drug use disorders, other psychiatric disorders, network problem history and time-varying marital and employment characteristics. Longitudinal measures of veterans’ psychopathology and social functioning were retrospectively obtained for each year over a 25 year period. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the relative effects of network problems on veteran’s drug use disorders and PTSD after adjusting for covariates. Results Veterans’ mean age was 47 years in 1996. Prevalence of illicit drug disorders declined from 29.8% in 1972 to 8.3 % in 1996, but PTSD remained at 11.7% from 13.2% in 1972. While 17.0% of veterans reported a familial drug use problem, 24.9% reported a non-familial drug use problem. In full GEE models, a non-familial drug problem was a significant predictor of illicit drug use disorders over 25 years (OR = 2.21, CI=1.59-3.09), while both familial depression (OR = 1.69, CI = 1.07-2.68) and non-familial drinking problem (OR=1.66, CI=1.08-2.54) were significant predictors of PTSD over 25 years. Conclusions Familial and non-familial problems in networks differentially affect the persistence of drug use disorders and PTSD in traumatized male adults. PMID:23726975

  2. Attachment in anorexia nervosa: an exploration of associations with eating disorder psychopathology and psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zachrisson, H D; Kulbotten, G R

    2006-12-01

    Previous research on attachment and eating disorder has to a great extent presupposed direct links between states of mind with respect to attachment and eating disorder diagnoses. The authors provide a brief review stating that no such association can be found in current literature. The authors suggest that the association might exist on the level of eating disorder pathology and psychiatric symptoms, rather than diagnostic level. Based on 20 Adult Attachment Interviews coded with the Dynamic-Maturational method from patients diagnosed with anorexia, the authors explore the associations between attachment and diagnostic subgroups, eating disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Inventory--2nd edition), and psychiatric symptoms. All patients were coded within the range of insecure attachment. State of mind with respect to attachment did not differentiate between diagnostic subgroup and eating disorder pathology. Individuals classified as dismissing reported higher levels of anxiety-related distress than those classified as preoccupied or mixed dismissing/preoccupied. A high frequency of unresolved traumas and losses was found. The findings support previous reports of high frequencies of insecure attachment and unresolved traumas in anorexic patients. The high level of anxiety-related stress in the dismissing group lead the author to suggest that attachment plays a role in the patient's handling of distress following the eating disorder, rather than in the disorder itself.

  3. Psychopathological alterations and neuroimaging findings with discriminant value in eating behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; García-Vilches, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    The difficulties encountered in regards to defining the diagnosis of patients with an Eating Behavior Disorder (EBD) have favored the use of multidimensional models. This study has aimed to identify which psychopathological and neurobiological variables could have a discriminating capacity regarding the different EBD diagnostic subtypes. A total of 42 patients with an EBD diagnosis (11 Restrictive Anorexia (R-AN), 10 Purgative Anorexia (P-AN), 7 Non-purgative Bulimia (NP-BN), 14 Purgative Bulimia (P-BN)), according to DSM-IV criteria, were selected from those who came for treatment in the Ciudad Real General Hospital Eating Disorder Unit. Twelve healthy controls were also included. All of the subjects underwent a brain SPECT to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in baseline situation (rest). A second one was performed after a visual neutral stimulus (sight of a calm sea) and another one after confronting them with their own corporal image, filmed two weeks before. A battery of questionnaires was administered to evaluate general and eating psychopathology. Patients with NP-BN showed less eating and general psychopathology. Furthermore, unlike patients with R-AN and P-BN, they did not experience an increase of the rCBF when confronted with their own body image. Discriminant variables were body dissatisfaction measured with the BSQ, BMI; BITE scores, ideal silhouette scores, and temporal right hyperactivation when they were shown their own body image. The subgroup of patients diagnosed with NP-BN showed less emotional alteration and less emotional response when they were shown their own body image than the rest of patients with EBD. These differences might have implications from the therapeutic, prognostic or even taxonomic viewpoint.

  4. Adult antisocial behaviour without conduct disorder: demographic characteristics and risk for cooccurring psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2006-03-01

    Several studies note people who demonstrate adult antisocial behaviour (AAB) in the absence of conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 years. Perhaps because they do not meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), this group of people exhibiting late-onset AAB has been underrecognized and understudied. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the demographic features and patterns of cooccurring psychopathology of people exhibiting late-onset antisocial behaviour (AB; AAB but not CD), compared with people suffering from ASPD (CD and AAB), people suffering from CD but not AAB, and members of a nonantisocial control group. This study used the population-based sample of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). The demographic features examined were sex, percentage living in poverty, annual income, and years of formal education. The possibly cooccurring diagnoses examined were alcohol abuse and dependence, drug abuse and dependence, major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, simple phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and posttraumatic stress disorder. About 2.3% of participants exhibited AAB but not CD. These individuals had patterns of demographic characteristics and cooccurring psychiatric disorders quite similar to those of people diagnosed with full ASPD. Individuals who demonstrate this pattern of late-onset AB are at levels of risk comparable to those of individuals suffering from ASPD; therefore, they are equally in need of research and clinical attention.

  5. Quality of life in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: associations with insight and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Margariti, Maria; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Economou, Marina; Christodoulou, George N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2015-02-28

    Therapeutic interventions in chronic mental illness face the important challenge to pursuit the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Insight into chronic mental illness, though a prerequisite for treatment adherence and a positive therapeutic outcome, has shown adverse associations with subjective QOL. This study aims to explore the contribution of psychopathological symptoms on the ambiguous role of insight on QOL. Seventy-two outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale, the scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder, and the WHOQOL-100 instrument for the assessment of quality of life. Insight was found to associate inversely with quality of life. Among psychopathological symptoms, depressive symptoms were the strongest negative contributor on QOL. Mediation analysis revealed that the effects of awareness of the consequences of illness on QOL were largely mediated by depressive symptoms (full mediation for the effect on physical and psychological domain and partial mediation for the effect on independence and environment domain of the QOL). Our results suggest that the inverse relationship between insight and subjective quality of life is partially mediated by depressive symptoms. We discuss theoretical and therapeutic implications of the findings, in conjunction with similar recent research data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative Methods of Classifying Eating Disorders: Models Incorporating Comorbid Psychopathology and Associated Features

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the limitations of current approaches to psychiatric classification. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the eating disorders (EDs). Several alternative methods of classifying EDs have been proposed, which can be divided into two major groups: 1) those that have classified individuals on the basis of disordered eating symptoms; and, 2) those that have classified individuals on the basis of comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Several reviews have addressed symptom-based approaches to ED classification, but we are aware of no paper that has critically examined comorbidity-based systems. Thus, in this paper, we review models of classifying EDs that incorporate information about comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Early approaches are described first, followed by more recent scholarly contributions to comorbidity-based ED classification. Importantly, several areas of overlap among the classification schemes are identified that may have implications for future research. In particular, we note similarities between early models and newer studies in the salience of impulsivity, compulsivity, distress, and inhibition versus risk taking. Finally, we close with directions for future work, with an emphasis on neurobiologically-informed research to elucidate basic behavioral and neuropsychological correlates of comorbidity-based ED classes, as well as implications for treatment. PMID:23416343

  7. Annual research review: phenotypic and causal structure of conduct disorder in the broader context of prevalent forms of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2012-05-01

    A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other 'externalizing' disorders and some 'internalizing' disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conduct disorder is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed by studying CD in the context of

  8. [Impact of eating psychopathology, obsessive-compulsion and depression on self-harm behavior in patients with eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate psychological factors such as eating psychopathology, depression, and obsessive-compulsion that might influence self-harm behavior in patients with eating disorders. Patients with eating disorders (n=135) who visited "M" clinic for eating disorders participated in the study. Data were collected from March to August 2007 using the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, and Self-Harm Inventory (SHI). The participants scored high on self-harm as well as on depression and obsessive-compulsion. On the SHI, a high frequency of self harm behavior such as 'torturing self with self-defeating thoughts', 'abused alcohol', 'hit self', and 'suicide attempt' were found for the participants. There were significant correlations between most eating psychopathology variables, depression, obsessive-compulsion, and self-harm behavior. 'Interoceptive awareness' (eating psychopathology), depression, and 'checking' (obsessive-compulsion) were significant predictors of self-harm behavior. Future interventions for patients with eating disorders should focus on assessing the possibility of self-harm and suicidal attempts, especially in those patients with high levels of eating psychopathology, depression, or obsessive-compulsion. Early intervention for depression and obsessive-compulsion could contribute to preventing self-harm and suicide in patients with eating disorders.

  9. Effects of discontinuing anticholinergic treatment on movement disorders, cognition and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Linda; Annable, Lawrence; Bélanger, Marie-Claire; Kolivakis, Theodore T.; Margolese, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physicians have prescribed anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, procyclidine, biperiden and trihexyphenidyl for treatment and prophylaxis of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for decades. Anticholinergic agents can however worsen tardive dyskinesia and cause many adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Previous studies of anticholinergic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics have yielded a wide range of EPS relapse rates. Improvement in cognition after anticholinergic withdrawal was observed in some studies. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on movement disorders, cognition and general psychopathology after a 4-week taper in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotics. Results: Eighteen of twenty patients successfully discontinued their anticholinergic medication; two did not because of akathisia. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on total Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale score or on the Parkinsonism, Akathisia, Dystonia or Tardive Dyskinesia subscales. However, significant improvement was found on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite z score at weeks 6, 8 and 12 compared with baseline. Significant improvements were seen on the motor and the symbol-coding tasks. No significant effects were observed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression – Severity and Clinical Global Impression – Improvement scales. Conclusion: In this 12-week study of anticholinergic discontinuation in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, gradual decrease and discontinuation of anticholinergics led to a positive effect on cognition. There were no adverse consequences on general psychopathology and no significant differences for 18 of 20 subjects on movement disorders

  10. [Clinical and psychopathological factors associated with impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Sáez-Francàs, N; Martí Andrés, G; Ramírez, N; de Fàbregues, O; Álvarez-Sabín, J; Casas, M; Hernández-Vara, J

    2016-05-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) constitute a complication that may arise during the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several factors have been linked to the development of these disorders, and their associated severe functional impairment requires specific and multidisciplinary management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of ICDs and the clinical and psychopathological factors associated with the appearance of these disorders. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study of a sample of 115 PD patients evaluated to determine the presence of an ICD. Clinical scales were administered to assess disease severity, personality traits, and presence of psychiatric symptoms at the time of evaluation. Of the 115 patients with PD, 27 (23.48%) displayed some form of ICD; hypersexuality, exhibited by 14 (12.2%), and binge eating, present in 12 (10.1%), were the most common types. Clinical factors associated with ICD were treatment with dopamine agonists (OR: 13.39), earlier age at disease onset (OR: 0.92), and higher score on the UPDRS-I subscale; psychopathological factors with a significant association were trait anxiety (OR: 1.05) and impulsivity (OR: 1.13). ICDs are frequent in PD, and treatment with dopamine agonists is the most important risk factor for these disorders. High impulsivity and anxiety levels at time of evaluation, and younger age at disease onset, were also linked to increased risk. However, presence of these personality traits prior to evaluation did not increase risk of ICD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships Among Adaptive and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychopathology During the Treatment of Comorbid Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Laren R.; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C. Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J.; Ciraulo, Domenic A.; Barlow, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. PMID:26310363

  13. Attachment insecurity mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and eating disorder psychopathology in a clinical sample: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Zachariades, Fotini; Proulx, Genevieve; Trinneer, Anne; Balfour, Louise; Demidenko, Natasha; Hayden, Genevieve; Wong, Alison; Bissada, Hany

    2013-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment occurs often among those with an eating disorder and is considered a nonspecific risk factor. However, the mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment may lead to an eating disorder are not well understood. The current study tests a model in which attachment insecurity is hypothesized to mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology. Treatment seeking adults with eating disorders (N=308) completed questionnaires about childhood maltreatment, eating disorder psychopathology, and adult attachment. Structural equation models indicated that childhood trauma had a direct effect on eating disorder symptoms. Also, attachment anxiety and avoidance each equally mediated the childhood maltreatment to eating disorder psychopathology relationship. Attachment insecurity, characterized by affect dysregulation and interpersonal sensitivities may help to explain why eating disorder symptoms may be one consequence of childhood maltreatment in a clinical sample. Clinicians treating primarily those with trauma might assess for disordered eating as a potential manifestation of the sequelae of trauma and attachment insecurity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Willem MA; Egger, Jos IM; Willemsen, Marjolein H; de Leijer, Gert JM; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communication deficits, and motor perseverations. Data on psychological dysfunctions are so far not available. Previous studies have suggested that the loss of one copy of the gene SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is related to the neurobehavioral phenotype. Additional genes proximal to SHANK3 are also likely to play a role in the phenotype of patients with larger deletions. The present paper describes two adult brothers with an identical 2.15 Mb 22qter (22q13.32q13.33) deletion, of whom the youngest was referred for evaluation of recurrent mood changes. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypoplasia of the vermis cerebelli. Extensive clinical examinations led to a final diagnosis of atypical bipolar disorder, of which symptoms fully remitted during treatment with a mood stabilizer. In the older brother, a similar psychopathological picture appeared to be present, although less severe and with a later onset. It is concluded that the behavioral phenotype of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome comprises absent or delayed speech and perseverations with associated autistic-like features, whereas its psychopathological phenotype comprises an atypical bipolar disorder. The latter may have implications for the treatment regime of the syndrome-related behavioral disturbances. PMID:22570549

  15. Gambling Disorder Due to Brazilian Animal Game ("Jogo do bicho"): Gambling Behavior and Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Gustavo; Grant, Jon; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-03-01

    Gambling is currently widespread across the globe and despite legally restricted, it is significantly common in Brazil. A traditional and common form of gambling in Brazil is the Brazilian animal game (BAG)--"Jogo do bicho" in Portuguese. In 2013, BAG activities collected approximately 19 billion Brazilian reais--equivalent to more than 8 billon American dollars, a figure almost 60 % higher than legal lotteries. Although a common form of gambling, the gambling behavior and psychopathology of gambling disorder (GD) associated with BAG has never been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to conduct, the first research approaching GD due to BAG. We assessed 897 participants of whom 63 subjects (7.0 %) presented with GD due to BAG and 834 with GD associated with other forms of gambling. After comparing these two groups, major differences were found in demographics, gambling behavior elements and psychopathological variables. This research reinforces the need for further research on BAG and the need for specific approaches in GD. The particularities of BAG may affect treatment strategies as, for example, suggest some adaptations in social and psychotherapeutic approaches. We also highlight the need to acknowledge the "hidden" BAG as a potential addictive game.

  16. Gambling disorder due to Brazilian animal game (“Jogo do bicho”): gambling behavior and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Gustavo; Grant, Jon; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-01-01

    Gambling is currently widespread across the globe and despite legally restricted, it is significantly common in Brazil. A traditional and common form of gambling in Brazil is the Brazilian animal game (BAG) - “Jogo do bicho” in Portuguese. In 2013, BAG activities collected approximately 19 billion Brazilian reais - equivalent to more than 8 billon American dollars, a figure almost 60% higher than legal lotteries. Although a common form of gambling, the gambling behavior and psychopathology of gambling disorder (GD) associated with BAG has never been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to conduct, the first research approaching GD due to BAG. We assessed 897 participants of whom 63 subjects (7.0%) presented with GD due to BAG and 834 with GD associated with other forms of gambling. After comparing these two groups, major differences were found in demographics, gambling behavior elements and psychopathological variables. This research reinforces the need for further research on BAG and the need for specific approaches in GD. The particularities of BAG may affect treatment strategies as, for example, suggest some adaptations in social and psychotherapeutic approaches. We also highlight the need to acknowledge the “hidden” BAG as a potential addictive game. PMID:25680739

  17. Tanning addiction and psychopathology: Further evaluation of anxiety disorders and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonar, Erin E

    2014-03-01

    Little research has investigated the correlates of problematic tanning and tanning dependence. We sought to identify characteristics associated with problematic tanning and tanning dependence, and to evaluate simultaneously the associations of variables as correlates of problematic tanning and tanning dependence. To assess tanning-related characteristics, psychopathology, and demographics, we administered questionnaires to 533 tanning university students; 31% met criteria for tanning dependence, 12% for problematic tanning. Both problematic tanning and tanning dependence were significantly associated with being female (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively) and with screening positive on measures of obsessive-compulsive (P < .001 and P = .005, respectively) and body dysmorphic (P = .019 and P < .001, respectively) disorders. Frequency of tanning in the past month was the strongest correlate of problematic tanning (P < .001) and tanning dependence (P < .001) when included in a model that controlled for shared variance among demographics and psychopathology. The sample was recruited from 1 university and contained only self-report measures. Results suggest that many who engage in excessive tanning may also have significant psychiatric distress. Additional research is needed to characterize compulsive, problematic tanning and its rates, correlates, and risk factors among diverse samples. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Exploring the agreement between questionnaire information and DSM-IV diagnoses of comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gjevik, Elen; Sandstad, Berit; Andreassen, Ole A; Myhre, Anne M; Sponheim, Eili

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are often comorbid with other psychiatric symptoms and disorders. However, identifying psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders is challenging. We explored how a questionnaire, the Child Behavior Check List, agreed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-based semi-structured interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (Kiddie-SADS). The sample comprised 55 children and adolescents (age 6 to 18 years) with autism spectrum disorders, including the main autism spectrum disorder subgroups and the broad range of cognitive and language functioning. High rate of psychopathology was found both through questionnaire and interview assessment. Using predefined Child Behavior Check List cutoffs, we found good agreement between the Child Behavior Check List and the Kiddie-SADS for identifying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depressive disorders, and oppositional defiant disorder. However, overall the specificity of the Child Behavior Check List was low. The Child Behavior Check List was not useful for identifying anxiety disorders. The Child Behavior Check List may capture core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders as well as comorbid psychopathology, and clinicians should be aware that the Child Behavior Check List may be unspecific when used in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

  20. The Role of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene in Personality and Related Psychopathological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christian; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a short overview of the most significant biologically oriented theories of human personality. Personality concepts of Eysenck, Gray and McNaughton, Cloninger and Panksepp will be introduced and the focal evidence for the heritability of personality will be summarized. In this context, a synopsis of a large number of COMT genetic association studies (with a focus on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism) in the framework of the introduced biologically oriented personality theories will be given. In line with the theory of a continuum model between healthy anxious behavior and related psychopathological behavior, the role of the COMT gene in anxiety disorders will be discussed. A final outlook considers new research strategies such as genetic imaging and epigenetics for a better understanding of human personality. PMID:22483293

  1. The role of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in personality and related psychopathological disorders.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christian; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Reuter, Martin

    2012-05-01

    This review provides a short overview of the most significant biologically oriented theories of human personality. Personality concepts of Eysenck, Gray and McNaughton, Cloninger and Panksepp will be introduced and the focal evidence for the heritability of personality will be summarized. In this context, a synopsis of a large number of COMT genetic association studies (with a focus on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism) in the framework of the introduced biologically oriented personality theories will be given. In line with the theory of a continuum model between healthy anxious behavior and related psychopathological behavior, the role of the COMT gene in anxiety disorders will be discussed. A final outlook considers new research strategies such as genetic imaging and epigenetics for a better understanding of human personality.

  2. Temperaments mediate suicide risk and psychopathology among patients with bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Rihmer, Zoltan; Akiskal, Hagop; Amore, Mario; Gonda, Xenia; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Perugi, Giulio; Serafini, Gianluca; Telesforo, Ludovica; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that bipolar II (BD-II) disorder represents a quite common, distinct form of major mood disorders that should be separated from bipolar I (BD-I) disorder. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess temperament and clinical differences between patients with BD-I and BD-II disorders and to assess whether temperament traits are good predictors of hopelessness in patients with bipolar disorder, a variable highly associated with suicidal behavior and ideation. Participants were 216 consecutive inpatients (97 men and 119 women) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), BD who were admitted to the Sant'Andrea Hospital's psychiatric ward in Rome (Italy). Patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego--Autoquestionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and the Gotland Scale of Male Depression. Patients with BD-II had higher scores on the BHS (9.78 ± 5.37 vs 6.87 ± 4.69; t(143.59) = -3.94; P < .001) than patients with BD-I. Hopelessness was associated with the individual pattern of temperament traits (ie, the relative balance of hyperthymic vs cyclothymic-irritable-anxious-dysthmic). Furthermore, patients with higher hopelessness (compared with those with lower levels of hopelessness) reported more frequently moderate to severe depression (87.1% vs 38.9%; P < .001) and higher MINI suicidal risk. Temperaments are important predictors both of suicide risk and psychopathology and may be used in clinical practice for better delivery of appropriate care to patients with bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rumination in Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder and Obesity: Associations with Eating-Disorder Psychopathology and Weight-bias Internalization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shirley B; Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-03-01

    Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that rumination was associated with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization above and beyond the influence of overvaluation of shape/weight. Findings suggest that, among patients with BED/obesity, rumination is an important cognitive process associated with severity of eating-disorder psychopathology even after accounting for overvaluation of shape/weight. Patients with greater rumination might be more likely to dwell on weight-based discrimination experiences and internalize these negative attitudes. Additional controlled examination could determine whether rumination represents another potential target for BED/obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Parental psychopathology in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sarojini M; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Thakur, Geeta A; Bhat, Venkat; Grizenko, Natalie; Joober, Ridha

    2015-02-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We had previously suggested that exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) may be a valid basis for delineating a distinct subtype of ADHD, where children exposed to MSDP present with a more severe clinical picture. Here, we examine the psychopathology of parents in this group, to better understand the etiology of ADHD. Using the Family Interview for Genetic Studies in a sample of 514 families of children with ADHD, we collected data pertaining to lifetime parental psychopathology. Families were stratified based on maternal smoking during the complete gestational period. The frequency of different disorders was compared using the χ2 statistic. In the group where mothers smoked during pregnancy, both parents were significantly more likely to have antisocial personality disorder, and problems with alcohol and drug abuse. Mothers had a significantly higher frequency of major depressive disorder (MDD), while fathers showed a trend for both MDD and bipolar disorder. Based on the pattern of psychopathology in parents of children exposed to MSDP, as well as earlier reports of the severe clinical, behavioral, and cognitive phenotype in these children, combined with the large body of epidemiological evidence, we propose that these children present a distinct subtype of ADHD with comorbid conduct disorder. Furthermore, we propose that MSDP may be a proxy measure to help delineate this subtype. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Effects of analytical and experiential self-focus on stress-induced cognitive reactivity in eating disorder psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Adhip; Williams, J Mark G; Park, Rebecca J

    2011-10-01

    Previous research suggests distinct modes of self-focus, each with distinct functional properties: Analytical self-focus appears maladaptive, with experiential self-focus having more adaptive effects on indices of cognitive-affective functioning (e.g., Watkins, Moberly, & Moulds, 2008). The authors applied this framework to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and manipulated the mode of self-focus prior to exposure to a stressor (imagining eating a large meal; Shafran, Teachman, Kerry, & Rachman, 1999). Study 1 showed that students high in ED psychopathology reported lower post-stressor feelings of weight or shape change and less subsequent attempts to neutralise (e.g., imagining exercising) after experiential relative to analytical self-focus. Study 2 found that partially weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa had lower post-stressor estimates of their own weight and reported lower urge to cancel stressor effects following experiential compared to analytical self-focus. Experiential self-focus was also followed by less neutralisation than analytical self-focus. Results suggest that the mode of self-focus affects cognitive reactivity following a stressor in individuals with ED psychopathology. Examining the mode within which individuals with ED psychopathology focus on self and body may raise important implications for understanding of psychopathology and open new possibilities for augmenting current treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of analytical and experiential self-focus on stress-induced cognitive reactivity in eating disorder psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Adhip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Park, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests distinct modes of self-focus, each with distinct functional properties: Analytical self-focus appears maladaptive, with experiential self-focus having more adaptive effects on indices of cognitive-affective functioning (e.g., Watkins, Moberly, & Moulds, 2008). The authors applied this framework to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and manipulated the mode of self-focus prior to exposure to a stressor (imagining eating a large meal; Shafran, Teachman, Kerry, & Rachman, 1999). Study 1 showed that students high in ED psychopathology reported lower post-stressor feelings of weight or shape change and less subsequent attempts to neutralise (e.g., imagining exercising) after experiential relative to analytical self-focus. Study 2 found that partially weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa had lower post-stressor estimates of their own weight and reported lower urge to cancel stressor effects following experiential compared to analytical self-focus. Experiential self-focus was also followed by less neutralisation than analytical self-focus. Results suggest that the mode of self-focus affects cognitive reactivity following a stressor in individuals with ED psychopathology. Examining the mode within which individuals with ED psychopathology focus on self and body may raise important implications for understanding of psychopathology and open new possibilities for augmenting current treatments. PMID:21774916

  7. Altered sleep in Borderline Personality Disorder in relation to the core dimensions of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Horváth, Klára

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding sleep disturbances in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and to relate the reported sleep alterations to the underlying core dimensions of BPD pathology. We present a qualitative and theoretical review regarding the empirical studies that investigated objective and subjective sleep quality in BPD and in different psychiatric conditions showing high co-morbidity with this disorder. We show that disturbed sleep including sleep fragmentation, alterations in Slow Wave Sleep and REM sleep, and dysphoric dreaming are prevalent symptoms in BPD. We provide a framework relating the specific sleep alterations to the core dimensions of BPD pathology in order to clarify the inconsistencies of the different findings. The specific sleep disturbances in BPD seem to be related to different dimensions of psychopathological functioning and may have detrimental consequences on waking affect and cognition. Investigating disturbed sleep in BPD in relation to waking symptoms and underlying neural functioning would shed more light on the nature of this complex disorder. Moreover, a stronger emphasis on sleep disturbances would enrich the treatment protocols of BPD. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Dissociative symptoms in female patients with mood and anxiety disorders: a psychopathological and temperamental investigation.

    PubMed

    Bersani, G; Moscariello, M A; Bersani, F S; Colletti, C; Anastasia, A; Prinzivalli, E; Valeriani, G; Salviati, M

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms are frequent among psychiatric patients and may considerably affect patients' psychopathological condition and treatment outcomes. The objectives of the study are to assess the presence of dissociative symptoms in female patients with mood and anxiety disorders, to investigate their correlation with the clinical severity of the disorders and to investigate those personality traits that are more frequent in patients with high levels of dissociation. 50 Caucasian females were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed through the Self-Report Symptom Check-List, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and rating scales for Depression and Anxiety. The mean DES score in the overall sample was 16.6. 32% of patients had a DES score > 20. Depressive symptoms positively correlated with the DES total scores. Dissociator patients presented some significantly different temperamental characteristics in comparison with non dissociator patients. Dissociative symptoms are highly present in patients with mood and anxiety disorders and correlate with the severity of depressive symptoms. Specific personality traits more frequently observed in dissociator people may represent predisposing factors; their early identification could be clinically relevant.

  9. Hand Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... न्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपाली) Russian (Русский) Somali (Af-Soomaali ) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng ... नेपाली (Nepali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Russian (Русский) Expand Section Active Hand Exercises - Русский (Russian) ...

  10. Management of complications of congenital hand disorders.

    PubMed

    Comer, Garet C; Ladd, Amy L

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews treatment and presents complications seen in the treatment of 7 common congenital hand differences, including syndactyly, camptodactyly, ulnar and radial polydactyly, thumb hypoplasia, radial longitudinal deficiency, and epidermolysis bullosa. The management of these conditions is challenging but has evolved over the last several decades with refined understanding of the disease processes and treatments. The goal of this article is to synthesize prior knowledge and provide further insights into these conditions that will help the surgeon avoid treatment complications.

  11. Psychopathology of Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope

    1989-01-01

    Examined incidence and nature of general psychopathology among Nigerian shift workers (N=320). Found shift workers more significantly psychopathological than non-shift workers (p<0.001). Prominent disorders among shift workers were intellectual, sleep, mood, and general somatic disorders. No significant difference could be attributed to gender…

  12. Psychopathology of Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope

    1989-01-01

    Examined incidence and nature of general psychopathology among Nigerian shift workers (N=320). Found shift workers more significantly psychopathological than non-shift workers (p<0.001). Prominent disorders among shift workers were intellectual, sleep, mood, and general somatic disorders. No significant difference could be attributed to gender…

  13. Comorbid psychopathology and clinical symptomatology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, D C; Korlou, S; Sakellariou, K; Kondyli, V; Sarafidou, J; Tsakanikos, E; Giannakopoulos, G; Liakopoulou, M

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been investigated in a number of studies over the last twenty years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenology of illness and broader psychopathology in a group of Greek children and adolescents with OCD. The investigation of parental psychopathology in children and adolescents with OCD was a secondary aim of the present study. We studied 31 children and adolescents with OCD (n=31, age range 8-15 years) and their parents (n=62, age range 43-48 years) and compared to children and adolescents with specific reading and written expression learning disorders (n=30, age range 7-16 years) and their parents (n=58, age range 40-46 years). Appropriate testing showed specific reading and learning disorders, which were of mild to moderate severity for the 85% of this latter group. The diagnosis of learning disorder of reading and written expression was made through the use of standardized reading material, appropriate for ages 10-15 years. Reading comprehension and narration were tested. The written expression (spelling, syntax, content) was examined by a written text, in which the subject developed a certain theme from the reading material. Based on their level of education and occupation, the index families were classified as high (29%), average (45%) and low (26%) socioeconomic status, whereas 6.7% of control families belonged to high, 63.3% to average, and 30% to low status. In order to investigate psychopathology, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children, Present and Life-time version was administered to children and their parents, as well as the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18 (CBCL) to both parents and adolescents (Youth Self-Report). Also the Yale- Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was rated for both children and parents. Moreover, the children were given the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the

  14. Hand stereotypies distinguish Rett syndrome from autism disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Sylvie; Temudo, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) and autism disorder (AD) are 2 neurodevelopmental disorders of early life that share phenotypic features, one being hand stereotypies. Distinguishing RTT from AD often represents a challenge, and given their distinct long-term prognoses, this issue may have far-reaching implications. With the advances in genetic testing, the contribution of clinical manifestations in distinguishing RTT from AD has been overlooked. A comparison of hand stereotypies in 20 children with RTT and 20 with AD was performed using detailed analyses of videotaped standardized observations. Striking differences are observed between RTT and AD children. In RTT, hand stereotypies are predominantly complex, continuous, localized to the body midline, and involving mouthing. Conversely, in AD children, hand stereotypies are simple, bilateral, intermittent, and often involving objects. These results provide important clinical signs useful to the differential diagnosis of RTT versus AD, especially when genetic testing for RTT is not an option. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Margari, Lucia; Matera, Emilia; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed. Methods The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes). Results Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01) and conduct problems (P=0.034). Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18%) and conduct problems (20%) than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement. Conclusion These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. PMID:25709458

  16. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Margari, Lucia; Matera, Emilia; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed. The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners' Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes). Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01) and conduct problems (P=0.034). Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18%) and conduct problems (20%) than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement. These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior.

  17. Parental psychopathology and reports of the childhood home environment in adults with early-onset dysthymic disorder.

    PubMed

    Lizardi, H; Klein, D N

    2000-02-01

    In previous studies, patients with dysthymic disorder (DD) have reported significantly more adverse early home environments than patients with episodic major depressive disorder (MDD) and normal controls. However, DD is also associated with increased rates of mood and personality disorders in first-degree relatives, raising the possibility that the DD-early adversity relationship may be due to the confounding effects of parental psychopathology. The present study addressed this issue using a sample of 97 adult outpatients with early-onset DD, 45 adult outpatients with episodic MDD, and 45 normal controls, and their first-degree relatives. The early home environment was assessed with semi-structured interviews and self-report inventories. Parental psychopathology was assessed using semi-structured direct and family history interviews, and diagnoses were assigned using the best-estimate procedure. Results indicated that parental mood and personality disorders were strongly associated with probands' reports of early adversity. However, patients with DD continued to differ significantly from patients with episodic MDD and normal controls after controlling for parental psychopathology.

  18. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…

  19. [Cultural meanings and relations to the world in psychopathological disorders during pregnancy and the puerperium in the Cameroonian context].

    PubMed

    Mboua, C P; Mboua, N H Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period are significant moments that raise questions about women's relation to the world. Globally, the puerperium (the first 42 days after delivery) remains a time when several psychopathological disorders, related to the sexual sphere, may be manifested. This article considers some standard psychopathological knowledge that sheds light on this, while stressing the impact of culture on the woman's individuality and her psychosexual life experiences. It underlines the sensitizing role of psychological experience, affected by beliefs and various taboos, that can cause her to relive traumas from her psychosexual life experience; the women is often unaware of these experiences, but they make it possible to interpret and prevent disorders during the puerperium.

  20. Childhood trauma, dimensions of psychopathology and the clinical expression of bipolar disorders: A pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Etain, B; Lajnef, M; Henry, C; Aubin, V; Azorin, J M; Bellivier, F; Bougerol, T; Courtet, P; Gard, S; Kahn, J P; Passerieux, C; Leboyer, M

    2017-07-29

    This study aims at testing for paths from childhood abuse to clinical indicators of complexity in bipolar disorder (BD), through dimensions of affective dysregulation, impulsivity and hostility. 485 euthymic patients with BD from the FACE-BD cohort were included from 2009 to 2014. We collect clinical indicators of complexity/severity: age and polarity at onset, suicide attempt, rapid cycling and substance misuse. Patients completed questionnaires to assess childhood emotional, sexual and physical abuses, affective lability, affect intensity, impulsivity, motor and attitudinal hostility. The path-analysis demonstrated significant associations between emotional abuse and all the affective/impulsive dimensions (p < 0.001). Sexual abuse was moderately associated with emotion-related dimensions but not with impulsivity nor motor hostility. In turn, affect intensity and attitudinal hostility were associated with high risk for lifetime presence of suicide attempts (p < 0.001), whereas impulsivity was associated with a higher risk of lifetime presence of substance misuse (p < 0.001). No major additional paths were identified when including Emotional and Physical Neglect in the model. This study provides refinement of the links between early adversity, dimensions of psychopathology and the complexity/severity of BD. Mainly, dimensions of affective dysregulation, impulsivity/hostility partially mediate the links between childhood emotional to suicide attempts and substance misuse in BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disorders of eating behavior: correlation between hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid function and psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Francesca; Santonastaso, Paolo; Caregaro, Lorenza; Favaro, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Altered pituitary-thyroid (PT) function (TSH, FT4, FT3 plasma levels) was correlated with symptoms of Eating Disorders (ED) in 137 patients (65 ANR, 12 ANP, 19 ANBP, 26 BN, 8 EDNOS-AN, 7 EDNOS-BN) and 30 controls. PT hormone concentrations were assessed by immunofluorimetry and psychopathology by EDI-2 and HSCL-90. Values of TSH were decreased in ANP, BN, EDNOS-AN, of T4 in ANR, ANP, AN-BP, of T3 in ANR, ANP, ANBP, BN, EDNOS-AN, EDNOS-BN. TSH values correlated negatively with ineffectiveness in BN and EDNOS-AN, and with depression in EDNOS-AN. FT4 values correlated positively with perfectionism in ANR, ANP and ANBP, with interoceptive awareness in EDNOS-AN, and negatively with depression in EDNOS-AN and with body dissatisfaction in EDNOS-BN. FT3 values correlated positively with perfectionism in ANBP and BN, with ineffectiveness in ANR and ANP, with depression in EDNOS-AN, with hostility in ANR and EDNOS-BN, with interpersonal sensibility in ANP, with somatization in EDNOS-BN, and negatively with interpersonal distrust in EDNOS-AN. Prospective studies are needed to confirm whether or not altered PT parameters correlate with ED symptoms during the course of the diseases.

  2. Nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients with binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Boyhood separation anxiety disorder: thought disorder and object relations psychopathology as manifested in Rorschach imagery.

    PubMed

    Goddard, R; Tuber, S

    1989-01-01

    Rorschach scales were used to examine the quality of thought disturbance and object relations in boys meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) criteria for separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Nineteen urban, middle and low socioeconomic status (SES), SAD boys were compared to a group of 14 male control subjects. The hypotheses of the study were that SAD boys as compared to controls would: (a) have significantly more thought disordered responses as measured by a Rorschach Thought Disorder Scale (Blatt & Ritzler, 1974), and (b) evidence significantly less adaptive object relations scale scores as measured by the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (Urist, 1977). Results confirmed both hypotheses. The SAD group had more thought disordered responses and more disrupted object relations scores than the controls. Ideas and images of these boys were found to generally be more unstable, boundary compromised, fluid, idiosyncratic, tangential, and psychotic-like than the controls. It was concluded that these boys possess a significant potential to have thinking abnormalities that will interfere with their independent functioning. Concerning their object relations scores, the SAD subjects were found to have significantly fewer benign, adaptive object interactional percepts, and a greater number of dependent and/or clinging interactional object representations (imagery) than the controls. This study supports the viewpoint that SAD boys are deeply psychologically troubled.

  4. The role of self-blame and worthlessness in the psychopathology of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E.; Gethin, Jennifer A.; Green, Sophie; Deakin, John F. William; Young, Allan H.; Moll, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive models predict that vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) is due to a bias to blame oneself for failure in a global way resulting in excessive self-blaming emotions, decreased self-worth, hopelessness and depressed mood. Clinical studies comparing the consistency and coherence of these symptoms in order to probe the predictions of the model are lacking. Methods 132 patients with remitted MDD and no relevant lifetime co-morbid axis-I disorders were assessed using a phenomenological psychopathology-based interview (AMDP) including novel items to assess moral emotions (n=94 patients) and the structured clinical interview-I for DSM-IV-TR. Cluster analysis was employed to identify symptom coherence for the most severe episode. Results Feelings of inadequacy, depressed mood, and hopelessness emerged as the most closely co-occurring and consistent symptoms (≥90% of patients). Self-blaming emotions occurred in most patients (>80%) with self-disgust/contempt being more frequent than guilt, followed by shame. Anger or disgust towards others was experienced by only 26% of patients. 85% of patients reported feelings of inadequacy and self-blaming emotions as the most bothering symptoms compared with 10% being more distressed by negative emotions towards others. Limitations Symptom assessment was retrospective, but this is unlikely to have biased patients towards particular emotions relative to others. Conclusions As predicted, feelings of inadequacy and hopelessness were part of the core depressive syndrome, closely co-occurring with depressed mood. Self-blaming emotions were highly frequent and bothering but not restricted to guilt. This calls for a refined assessment of self-blaming emotions to improve the diagnosis and stratification of MDD. PMID:26277271

  5. The role of self-blame and worthlessness in the psychopathology of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Gethin, Jennifer A; Green, Sophie; Deakin, John F William; Young, Allan H; Moll, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive models predict that vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) is due to a bias to blame oneself for failure in a global way resulting in excessive self-blaming emotions, decreased self-worth, hopelessness and depressed mood. Clinical studies comparing the consistency and coherence of these symptoms in order to probe the predictions of the model are lacking. 132 patients with remitted MDD and no relevant lifetime co-morbid axis-I disorders were assessed using a phenomenological psychopathology-based interview (AMDP) including novel items to assess moral emotions (n=94 patients) and the structured clinical interview-I for DSM-IV-TR. Cluster analysis was employed to identify symptom coherence for the most severe episode. Feelings of inadequacy, depressed mood, and hopelessness emerged as the most closely co-occurring and consistent symptoms (≥90% of patients). Self-blaming emotions occurred in most patients (>80%) with self-disgust/contempt being more frequent than guilt, followed by shame. Anger or disgust towards others was experienced by only 26% of patients. 85% of patients reported feelings of inadequacy and self-blaming emotions as the most bothering symptoms compared with 10% being more distressed by negative emotions towards others. Symptom assessment was retrospective, but this is unlikely to have biased patients towards particular emotions relative to others. As predicted, feelings of inadequacy and hopelessness were part of the core depressive syndrome, closely co-occurring with depressed mood. Self-blaming emotions were highly frequent and bothering but not restricted to guilt. This calls for a refined assessment of self-blaming emotions to improve the diagnosis and stratification of MDD. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxytocin Secretion Is Associated with Severity of Disordered Eating Psychopathology and Insular Cortex Hypoactivation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Santin, McKale; Meenaghan, Erinne; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Becker, Anne E.; Herzog, David B.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Klibanski, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal data suggest that oxytocin is a satiety hormone. We have demonstrated that anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a disorder characterized by food restriction, low weight, and hypoleptinemia, is associated with decreased nocturnal oxytocin secretion. We have also reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) hypoactivation in anorexia in brain regions involved in food motivation. The relationships between oxytocin, food-motivation neurocircuitry, and disordered eating psychopathology have not been investigated in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the oxytocin response to feeding in anorexia differs from healthy women and to establish the relationship between oxytocin secretion and disordered eating psychopathology and food-motivation neurocircuitry. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Participants: Participants included 35 women: 13 anorexia (AN), nine weight-recovered anorexia (ANWR), and 13 healthy controls (HC). Measures: Peripheral oxytocin and leptin levels were measured fasting and 30, 60, and 120 min after a standardized mixed meal. The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating psychopathology. fMRI was performed during visual processing of food and nonfood stimuli to measure brain activation before and after the meal. Results: Mean oxytocin levels were higher in AN than HC at 60 and 120 min and lower in ANWR than HC at 0, 30, and 120 min and AN at all time points. Mean oxytocin area under the curve (AUC) was highest in AN, intermediate in HC, and lowest in ANWR. Mean leptin levels at all time points and AUC were lower in AN than HC and ANWR. Oxytocin AUC was associated with leptin AUC in ANWR and HC but not in AN. Oxytocin AUC was associated with the severity of disordered eating psychopathology in AN and ANWR, independent of leptin secretion, and was associated with between-group variance in f

  7. Differences in trauma history and psychopathology between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, Pascal; Gast, Ursula; Catani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between different types of potentially traumatizing events, posttraumatic symptoms, and the pathogenesis of PTSD or major dissociative disorders (DD) has been extensively studied during the last decade. However, the phenomenology and nosological classification of posttraumatic disorders is currently under debate. The current study was conducted to investigate differences between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring major DD with regard to general psychopathology, trauma history, and trauma-specific symptoms. Twenty-four inpatients were administered the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) and the Mini-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (MINI-SKID-D) to assess DD and PTSD. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology and health status. Symptom profiles and axis I comorbidity were similar in all patients. Traumatic experiences did not differ between the two groups, with both reporting high levels of childhood trauma. Only trauma-specific avoidance behavior and dissociative symptoms differed between groups. Results support the view that PTSD and DD are affiliated disorders that could be classified within the same diagnostic category. Our results accord with a typological model of dissociation in which profound forms of dissociation are specific to DD and are accompanied with higher levels of trauma-specific avoidance in DD patients.

  8. Differences in trauma history and psychopathology between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring dissociative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wabnitz, Pascal; Gast, Ursula; Catani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Background The interplay between different types of potentially traumatizing events, posttraumatic symptoms, and the pathogenesis of PTSD or major dissociative disorders (DD) has been extensively studied during the last decade. However, the phenomenology and nosological classification of posttraumatic disorders is currently under debate. The current study was conducted to investigate differences between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring major DD with regard to general psychopathology, trauma history, and trauma-specific symptoms. Methods Twenty-four inpatients were administered the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) and the Mini-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (MINI-SKID-D) to assess DD and PTSD. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology and health status. Results Symptom profiles and axis I comorbidity were similar in all patients. Traumatic experiences did not differ between the two groups, with both reporting high levels of childhood trauma. Only trauma-specific avoidance behavior and dissociative symptoms differed between groups. Conclusion Results support the view that PTSD and DD are affiliated disorders that could be classified within the same diagnostic category. Our results accord with a typological model of dissociation in which profound forms of dissociation are specific to DD and are accompanied with higher levels of trauma-specific avoidance in DD patients. PMID:24298325

  9. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Korean Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Psychopathology According to Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Heejung; Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moonsoo; Jang, Wonseok; Yang, Jae-Won; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Sungdo David

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that more than 50% of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases also have comorbid psychiatric disorders. We evaluated the comorbid psychopathology of Korean children and adolescents with ADHD using a standardized diagnostic instrument. The Korean Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-K) was administered and completed in 105 patients who had been referred to the outpatient and inpatient clinics at the Samsung Medical Center from March 2004 to May 2005. All of the cases were diagnosed as ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed their clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidities, and assessed the correlation of any comorbidity with gender, age and ADHD subtype. Among our 105 participants, 70 (66.7%) subjects were diagnosed with combined-type ADHD, 22 (21.0%) were the predominantly inattentive type, only 1 (1.0%) was determined to have the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD, and 12 (11.4%) were classified as not otherwise specified (NOS) ADHD. Eighty (76.2%) subjects had at least one comorbid disorder such as oppositional defiant disorder (n = 53, 50.5%), anxiety disorders (n = 35, 33.3%) and affective disorders (n = 15, 14.3%). Our patients ranged in age from five to 16 years. Among the factors including gender, age, and ADHD subtype, ADHD subtype was the only one significant to comorbidity in our study. The results of this study suggest that psychiatric comorbidity in Korean children with ADHD is similar to the results of previous studies in western countries. Out of all the ADHD subtypes, the combined-type group had a significantly higher ratio of comorbid disorders and psychopathologies. PMID:16502492

  10. Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: a prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Heylens, Gunter; Verroken, Charlotte; De Cock, Sanne; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Cuypere, Griet

    2014-01-01

    At the start of gender reassignment therapy, persons with a gender identity disorder (GID) may deal with various forms of psychopathology. Until now, a limited number of publications focus on the effect of the different phases of treatment on this comorbidity and other psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to investigate how gender reassignment therapy affects psychopathology and other psychosocial factors. This is a prospective study that assessed 57 individuals with GID by using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) at three different points of time: at presentation, after the start of hormonal treatment, and after sex reassignment surgery (SRS). Questionnaires on psychosocial variables were used to evaluate the evolution between the presentation and the postoperative period. The data were statistically analyzed by using SPSS 19.0, with significance levels set at P < 0.05. The psychopathological parameters include overall psychoneurotic distress, anxiety, agoraphobia, depression, somatization, paranoid ideation/psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and sleeping problems. The psychosocial parameters consist of relationship, living situation, employment, sexual contacts, social contacts, substance abuse, and suicide attempt. A difference in SCL-90 overall psychoneurotic distress was observed at the different points of assessments (P = 0.003), with the most prominent decrease occurring after the initiation of hormone therapy (P < 0.001). Significant decreases were found in the subscales such as anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility. Furthermore, the SCL-90 scores resembled those of a general population after hormone therapy was initiated. Analysis of the psychosocial variables showed no significant differences between pre- and postoperative assessments. A marked reduction in psychopathology occurs during the process of sex reassignment therapy, especially after the initiation of hormone therapy. © 2013

  11. Influence of premorbid psychopathology and lesion location on affective and behavioral disorders after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Pinedo, Fernando; Hernández-Pérez, José María; Zurdo, Martín; Rodríguez-Fúnez, Beatriz; Hernández-Bayo, José María; García-Fernández, Ciara; Cueli-Rincón, Bernardo; Castro-Posada, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of psychopathological symptoms (PSs) after stroke is important because they greatly influence the recovery of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors of PSs occurring in patients with ischemic stroke. Eighty-nine patients were prospectively evaluated upon admission and 4, 12, and 26 weeks later with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hamilton's Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, and a battery of neuropsychological and functional scales. Depression and apathy were the most frequent PSs detected after stroke. Premorbid psychopathologies and right-hemisphere location were the main predictive indicators of early and long-term PSs.

  12. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with Internet addiction in a clinical sample: the effect of personality, defense style and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to contribute to the understanding of underlying causes for the development of Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) and assess comorbidity with other mental disorders through the analysis of data from a clinical sample of college students who presented for treatment of IAD. The clinical sample of our study has demonstrated a high percentage of comorbidity with Axis I and II disorders, while the temporal precedence of the establishment of those disorders cannot lead to specific conclusions. Half of the sample (25/50) presented with comorbidity of another Axis I disorder and 38% (19/50) with a concurrent Axis II personality disorder. The majority of Axis I disorders (51.85%) were reported before the onset of IAD, 33.3% after the onset while it was unclear in 14.81% of cases. The examination of a path model demonstrated that important contributions to the understanding of this disorder can be made through concepts from the neurobiological, trait personality paradigm, as well as from the psychodynamic defense style paradigm. Comorbid psychopathology can further exacerbate the presentation of IAD through a direct link, regardless of the underlying personality structure. The clinician treating IAD patients should complete a clinical evaluation for comorbid Axis I and II diagnoses since their presence may signify a more serious presentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychopathology of Eating Disorders: A Controlled Comparison of Bulimic, Obese, and Normal Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Beck Depression Inventory, and a body image assessment were administered to 15 bulimic, 15 normal, and 15 obese women. Results showed that bulimics evidenced significantly more psychopathology than did normal and obese subjects; bulimics were more depressed, anxious,…

  14. The role of insomnia, pre-sleep arousal and psychopathology symptoms in daytime impairment in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Richdale, Amanda L; Baker, Emma; Short, Michelle; Gradisar, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbance and psychopathology are common during adolescence and are highly prevalent in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between sleep disturbance, psychopathology symptoms, and daytime functioning in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents. Twenty-seven adolescents with HFASD and 27 age- and sex-matched TD adolescents completed questionnaires related to sleep, psychopathology and daytime functioning. Participants also completed a 7-day sleep/wake diary. A subsample of HFASD adolescents (55%) and all the TD adolescents wore an actigraphy monitor concurrently with the sleep diary. Adolescents with HFASD had significantly higher scores for depressed mood, anxiety and pre-sleep arousal compared with TD adolescents and poorer daytime functioning. There were more significant correlations between sleep variables and psychopathology variables, and sleep variables and daytime functioning, in the HFASD group than in the TD group. Standard regression found that sleep variables significantly accounted for 57% of the variance in daytime functioning symptoms of insufficient sleep in the HFASD group, while psychopathology variables accounted for 63% of the variance in daytime functioning. Both sleep disturbance and psychopathology are more prevalent in adolescents with HFASD and are major contributors to poor daytime functioning in these individuals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Negative affect mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and binge-eating disorder symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample: a test of the interpersonal model.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. The Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Anorexia Nervosa and During Renourishment: Relationship to Depression, Anxiety, and Eating Disorder Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Susan C; Watson, Hunna J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Huh, Eun Young; Tarantino, Lisa M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Carroll, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the microbe-gut-brain axis to psychopathology is of interest in anorexia nervosa (AN), as the intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in metabolic function and weight regulation. We characterized the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in AN, using stool samples collected at inpatient admission (T1; n = 16) and discharge (T2; n = 10). At T1, participants completed the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Patients with AN were compared with healthy individuals who participated in a previous study (healthy comparison group; HCG). Genomic DNA was isolated from stool samples, and bacterial composition was characterized by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequencing results were processed by the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline. We compared T1 versus T2 samples, samples from both points were compared with HCG (n = 12), and associations between psychopathology and T1 samples were explored. In patients with AN, significant changes emerged between T1 and T2 in taxa abundance and beta (between-sample) diversity. Patients with AN had significantly lower alpha (within-sample) diversity than did HCG at both T1 (p = .0001) and T2 (p = .016), and differences in taxa abundance were found between AN patients and HCG. Levels of depression, anxiety, and eating disorder psychopathology at T1 were associated with composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. We provide evidence of an intestinal dysbiosis in AN and an association between mood and the enteric microbiota in this patient population. Future directions include mechanistic investigations of the microbe-gut-brain axis in animal models and association of microbial measures with metabolic changes and recovery indices.

  17. The Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Anorexia Nervosa and During Renourishment: Relationship to Depression, Anxiety, and Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kleiman, Susan C.; Watson, Hunna J.; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C.; Huh, Eun Young; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Carroll, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relevance of the microbe-gut-brain axis to psychopathology is of interest in anorexia nervosa (AN), as the intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in metabolic function and weight regulation. Methods We characterized the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in AN, using stool samples collected at inpatient admission (T1) (n=16) and discharge (T2) (n=10). At T1, participants completed the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Patients with AN were compared to healthy individuals who participated in a previous study (healthy comparison group; HCG). Genomic DNA was isolated from stool samples, and bacterial composition was characterized by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequencing results were processed by the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline. We compared T1 vs. T2 samples, samples from both points were compared to HCG (n=12), and associations between psychopathology and T1 samples were explored. Results In patients with AN, significant changes emerged between T1 and T2 in taxa abundance and beta (between-sample) diversity. Patients with AN had significantly lower alpha (within-sample) diversity than HCG at both T1 (p=0.0001) and T2 (p=0.016), and differences in taxa abundance were found between AN patients and HCG. Levels of depression, anxiety, and eating disorder psychopathology at T1 were associated with composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. Conclusions We provide evidence of intestinal dysbiosis in AN and an association between mood and the enteric microbiota in this patient population. Future directions include mechanistic investigations of the microbe-gut-brain axis in animal models and association of microbial measures with metabolic changes and recovery indices. PMID:26428446

  18. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p < 0.001). Within individuals with MD/OCD, the association between PEs and help-seeking behaviour, as an index of severity, was moderated by trauma (ICR = 1.87, p = 0.009) and urbanicity (ICR = 1.48, p = 0.005), but not by cannabis use. In non-psychotic disorder, environmental factors increase the likelihood of psychosis admixture and help-seeking behaviour through an increase in general psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  19. Association of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism with violence: relation with personality disorders, impulsivity, and childhood ADHD psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Supprian, Tillmann; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that disturbances in central serotonin (5-HT) function have a role in impulsive aggression, violence, and criminality. A deletion/insertion polymorphism within the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) promoter gene (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR) is thought to be associated with several psychopathological phenotypes related to disturbed impulse control, anxiety and depression. This study examined the association of the 5-HTTLPR with violent behavior in a sample of 153 male Caucasians referred for a forensic psychiatric examination. We found a significant excess of the short (s) allele and the s/s genotype in patients characterized by recurrent and overt physical violent behavior. This genetic variance explained 5% of the variance of violent behavior. When controlled for the impact of several psychopathologies related to violent behavior, this association was observed in individuals with a history of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, but not presenting with personality disorder or increased impulsiveness. In conclusion, the results (i). suggest an association between serotonergic dysfunction and violent behavior, (ii). provide evidence for an-at least partial-genetic regulation of violent behavior in a subgroup of male offenders, and (iii). suggest a significant role for 5-HT transporter functionality for violent behavior.

  20. Association of Sult4A1 SNPs with psychopathology and cognition in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Herbert Y; Brennan, Mark D; Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu

    2008-12-01

    A number of genes located on chromosome 22q11-13, including catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), are potential schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Recently, the sulfotransferase-4A1 (Sult4A1) locus within chromosome 22q13 was reported to be linked to schizophrenia in a family TDT study. Sult4A1 is related to metabolism of monoamines, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine, both of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction components of schizophrenia. An available, prospectively collected data base was interrogated to determine how three Sult4A1 SNPs: rs138060, rs138097, and rs138110, previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia might be associated with psychopathology, cognition, and quality of life in a sample of 86 Caucasian patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The majority of patients met criteria for treatment resistant schizophrenia and had been drug-free for one week or longer at the time of evaluation. The major findings were: 1) patients heterozygous (T/G) for rs138060 had significantly worse Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Total and anxiety/depression sub-scale scores, and higher Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) Total scores than G/G homozygous patients; and 2) patients heterozygous (A/G) for rs138097 demonstrated significantly worse performance on neuropsychological testing, specifically on tests of executive function and working memory, compared to patients homozygous for the G and A alleles. RS138110 was unrelated to psychopathology and cognition. These results provide the first evidence of how genetic variation in Sult4A1 may be related to clinical symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenia, and permit future studies to attempt to replicate these potentially important findings.

  1. The association of psychopathology with concurrent level of functioning and subjective well-being in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, Lisa; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lambert, Martin; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Lang, Undine E; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Huber, Christian G

    2017-03-29

    The objective is to investigate the relationship between psychopathology measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and concurrent global assessment of functioning (GAF) and subjective well-being under neuroleptics (SWN) in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) regarding severity of illness and disease phase. We analyzed a sample of 202 SSD patients consisting of first episode psychosis (FEP) and multiple episode psychosis (MEP) patients followed up to 12 months using linear mixed models. All PANSS syndromes except excitement were associated with GAF scores (positive syndrome: p < 0.001, d = 1.21; negative syndrome: p = 0.029, d = 0.015; disorganized syndrome: p < 0.001, d = 0.37; anxiety/depression syndrome: p < 0.001, d = 0.49), and positive symptoms had an increasing impact on global functioning with higher severity of illness (mildly ill: p = 0.039, d = 0.22; moderately ill: p < 0.001, d = 0.28; severely ill: p < 0.001, d = 0.69). SWN was associated with positive (p = 0.002, d = 0.22) and anxiety/depression (p < 0.001, d = 0.38) syndromes. Subgroup analyses showed differing patterns depending on illness severity and phase. Over all our results show different patterns of associations of psychopathology and concurrent functioning and subjective well-being. These findings contribute knowledge on the possible role of specific psychopathological syndromes for the functioning and well-being of our patients and may enable tailored treatments depending on severity and phase of illness.

  2. Practical management of tendon disorders in the hand.

    PubMed

    Farnebo, Simon; Chang, James

    2013-11-01

    After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Recognize and treat common tendinopathies such as trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis. 2. Recognize and treat flexor tendon and extensor tendon injuries. 3. Define the different zones where flexor tendon and extensor tendon injuries occur and identify the surgical challenges related to each zone. Common tendon disorders in the hand range from simple trigger fingers to more complex zone II flexor tendon injuries. The goal of treatment in all cases is to aim for optimal early strength and to create conditions favorable for early rehabilitation to decrease the risk of tendon scarring and subsequent poor range of motion. This CME article reviews the presentation, evaluation, state-of-the-art treatment, and outcomes of the treatment of trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and flexor tendon and extensor tendon injuries. New developments in the different areas are highlighted to inform the reader of emerging techniques in the treatment of tendon disorders of the hand.

  3. Mental Health Over Time In A Military Sample: The Impact of Alcohol Use Disorder On Trajectories Of Psychopathology After Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Laura; Cohen, Gregory H.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Fink, David S.; Tamburrino, Marijo; Liberzon, Israel; Chan, Philip; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    To identify trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depression symptom groups after deployment and determine the effect of alcohol use disorder on these trajectories, PTS symptoms were modeled using the PTSD Checklist in 472 Ohio National Guard members, and depression symptoms were modeled using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire in 727 Ohio National Guard members. There were 42% of participants who were resistant to PTS symptoms across the 4 years of study and 55.9% were resistant to depression symptoms. There were 19% and 42.2% of participants who showed resilience (experiencing slightly elevated symptoms followed by a decline, according to Bonanno et al., 2004) to depression and PTS symptoms, respectively. Mild and chronic dysfunction constituted the smallest trajectory groups across disorders. Marital status, deployment to an area of conflict, and number of lifetime stressors were associated with membership into different latent groups for depression (unstandardized beta estimates range: 0.69 to 1.37). Deployment to an area of conflict, number of lifetime potentially traumatic events and education predicted membership into different latent groups for PTS (unstandardized beta estimate range: 0.83 to 3.17). Alcohol use disorder was associated with an increase in both symptom outcomes (unstandardized beta estimate range: 0.20 to 9.45). These results suggest that alcohol use disorder may have contributed substantially to trajectories of psychopathology in this population. PMID:26625353

  4. Psychopathology and quality of life among patients with comorbidity between schizophrenia spectrum disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: no evidence for a "schizo-obsessive" subtype.

    PubMed

    Frías, Alvaro; Palma, Cárol; Farriols, Núria; Salvador, Ana; Bonet, Judit; Bernáldez, Inma

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to occur in up to 12% of patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, several etiopathogenic mechanisms have been postulated for understanding this co-occurrence. Whether this subgroup of "schizo-obsessive" patients may be posed as a clinical entity with a distinct psychopathological and functioning profile remains unclear. A sample of adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for both schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and OCD (n=30) was compared with a "non-OCD schizophrenic" group (n=37) and another subset of "non-schizophrenic OCD" patients (n=30). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), the Clinical Global Severity scale (CGI), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS), and the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) were used. We found that "schizo-obsessive" subjects did not show significant differences in any outcome measures when compared to the "non-OCD schizophrenic" group. Furthermore, statistical analyses also revealed that the "non-schizophrenic OCD" group tended to have lower severity of psychopathology as well as greater quality of life than both psychotic groups. These findings indicate that comorbidity between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and OCD does not comprise a distinct clinical entity, particularly when compared to "non-OCD schizophrenia" disorder. Discrepancies among previous studies may be justified by methodological divergences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Study of the categorization process among patients with eating disorders: a new cognitive approach to psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Urdapilleta, I; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Meunier, J M; Richard, J F

    2005-01-01

    cognitions relating to the effect on health and the intestinal transit time of food. These results lead one to believe that it is not the bulimic binging and purging of these patients, but rather their restrictive behavior that is the determining factor in the differences in food representations observed between the two experimental groups. During the second experiment, 60 women (15 controls, 15 anorexics, 15 anorexic bulimics and 15 bulimics) aged 18-32 (average age: 25.6) classified 27 food names according to their similarities and differences, and then explained the reasons for their categorizations. The data were analyzed in terms of similarity/difference, and the verbalizations were analyzed by content. The results indicate that 10 of the 27 foods were categorized differently by the controls and the subjects with eating disorders. Subjects classified the following foods: camembert cheese, cold cuts, cheese spread, fruit in syrup, whole milk, mayonnaise, bread, fresh fish, potatoes and plain yogurt. Bulimics and controls use similar classifications for food names, while anorexics and atypical bulimics classify foods in a similar way. Examining the categorization criteria used during verbalizations allows us to better understand these differences. The control group's major criterion seems to be the succession of dishes. These subjects group into separate categories entry foods (beef, eggs, fish, etc.), vegetables, cheese or dairy foods, and finally desserts. Additional foods, like bread and mayonnaise, belong to the same category. Other categories are nutritional criteria (for example, dairy products contain calcium) and biological criteria (for example, bananas and apples are fruits). These categorization criteria include structural properties (which describe what the object is made of) and functional, "academic" properties, those which describe how foods are used, "as in cookbooks or diet books." On the other hand, the categorization criteria expressed by anorexic

  6. Unique and Overlapping Symptoms in Schizophrenia Spectrum and Dissociative Disorders in Relation to Models of Psychopathology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Renard, Selwyn B; Huntjens, Rafaele J C; Lysaker, Paul H; Moskowitz, Andrew; Aleman, André; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and dissociative disorders (DDs) are described in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and tenth edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) as 2 categorically distinct diagnostic categories. However, several studies indicate high levels of co-occurrence between these diagnostic groups, which might be explained by overlapping symptoms. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the research concerning overlap and differences in symptoms between schizophrenia spectrum and DDs. For this purpose the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant literature. The literature contained a large body of evidence showing the presence of symptoms of dissociation in SSDs. Although there are quantitative differences between diagnoses, overlapping symptoms are not limited to certain domains of dissociation, nor to nonpathological forms of dissociation. In addition, dissociation seems to be related to a history of trauma in SSDs, as is also seen in DDs. There is also evidence showing that positive and negative symptoms typically associated with schizophrenia may be present in DD. Implications of these results are discussed with regard to different models of psychopathology and clinical practice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mental Health Over Time in a Military Sample: The Impact of Alcohol Use Disorder on Trajectories of Psychopathology After Deployment.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Laura; Cohen, Gregory H; Calabrese, Joseph R; Fink, David S; Tamburrino, Marijo; Liberzon, Israel; Chan, Philip; Galea, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    To identify trajectories of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom groups after deployment and determine the effect of alcohol use disorder on these trajectories, depression symptoms were modeled using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire in 727 Ohio National Guard members, and PTS symptoms were modeled using the PTSD Checklist in 472 Ohio National Guard members. There were 55.8% who were resistant to depression symptoms across the 4 years of study, and 41.5% who were resistant to PTS symptoms. There were 18.7% and 42.2% of participants who showed resilience (experiencing slightly elevated symptoms followed by a decline, according to Bonanno et al., 2002) to depression and PTS symptoms, respectively. Mild and chronic dysfunction constituted the smallest trajectory groups across disorders. Marital status, deployment to an area of conflict, and number of lifetime stressors were associated with membership into different latent groups for depression (unstandardized β estimates range = 0.69 to 1.37). Deployment to an area of conflict, number of lifetime traumatic events and education predicted membership into different latent groups for PTS (significant unstandardized β estimate range = 0.83 to 3.17). AUD was associated with an increase in both symptom outcomes (significant unstandardized β estimate range = 0.20 to 9.45). These results suggested that alcohol use disorder may have contributed substantially to trajectories of psychopathology in this population.

  8. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  9. Psychopathology in a Swedish Population of School Children with Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Najah; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of psychiatric comorbid disorders and associated problems in a school population of children with tic disorders. Method: From a total population of 4,479 children, 25 with Tourette's disorder (TD), 34 with chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 with chronic vocal tics (CVT), and 214 with transient tics (TT) during the past…

  10. Conduct Disorder and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30: Early Adult Psychopathology as a Potential Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olino, Thomas M.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. There is consistent evidence that CD is predictive of antisocial behavior, but mixed evidence that CD is predictive of other externalizing and internalizing disorders. Further, externalizing and internalizing disorders are often associated with similar…

  11. Conduct Disorder and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30: Early Adult Psychopathology as a Potential Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olino, Thomas M.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. There is consistent evidence that CD is predictive of antisocial behavior, but mixed evidence that CD is predictive of other externalizing and internalizing disorders. Further, externalizing and internalizing disorders are often associated with similar…

  12. Psychopathology in a Swedish Population of School Children with Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Najah; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of psychiatric comorbid disorders and associated problems in a school population of children with tic disorders. Method: From a total population of 4,479 children, 25 with Tourette's disorder (TD), 34 with chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 with chronic vocal tics (CVT), and 214 with transient tics (TT) during the past…

  13. Management of the adolescent with substance use disorders and comorbid psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Bukstein, Oscar G; Horner, Michelle S

    2010-07-01

    Substance use disorders are common in youth, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders are present in the majority of cases. This article reviews clinical considerations unique to the population, including intricacies of assessment and special treatment considerations. Several psychotherapeutic intervention models are discussed, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectic behavior therapy, motivational enhancement therapy/motivational interviewing, family behavior therapy, multidimensional family therapy, and multisystemic therapy. Research on psychopharmacologic treatment is limited, and primarily focuses on mood disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. To maximize outcome, recommendations based on practice parameters promote integration of treatment modalities versus serial or concurrent treatment of co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders.

  14. Comorbid Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in 509 Individuals With an At-Risk Mental State: Impact on Psychopathology and Transition to Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current diagnostic system for subjects at enhanced clinical risk of psychosis allows concurrent comorbid diagnoses of anxiety and depressive disorders. Their impact on the presenting high-risk psychopathology, functioning, and transition outcomes has not been widely researched. Methods: In a large sample of subjects with an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS, n = 509), we estimated the prevalence of DSM/SCID anxiety or depressive disorders and their impact on psychopathology, functioning, and psychosis transition. A meta-analytical review of the literature complemented the analysis. Results: About 73% of ARMS subjects had a comorbid axis I diagnosis in addition to the “at-risk” signs and symptoms. About 40% of ARMS subjects had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder while anxiety disorders were less frequent (8%). The meta-analysis conducted in 1683 high-risk subjects confirmed that baseline prevalence of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders is respectively 41% and 15%. At a psychopathological level, comorbid diagnoses of anxiety or depression were associated with higher suicidality or self-harm behaviors, disorganized/odd/stigmatizing behavior, and avolition/apathy. Comorbid anxiety and depressive diagnoses were also associated with impaired global functioning but had no effect on risk of transition to frank psychosis. Meta-regression analyses confirmed no effect of baseline anxiety and/or depressive comorbid diagnoses on transition to psychosis. Conclusions: The ARMS patients are characterized by high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in addition to their attenuated psychotic symptoms. These symptoms may reflect core emotional dysregulation processes and delusional mood in prodromal psychosis. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are likely to impact the ongoing psychopathology, the global functioning, and the overall longitudinal outcome of these patients. PMID:23180756

  15. A Study of Selected Ethnic Affiliations in the Development of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology After a Terrorist Bombing in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Dvorkina, Tatiana; Thielman, Samuel; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Narayanan, Pushpa; Pollio, David E

    2017-09-19

    Despite the frequency of disasters in Africa, almost nothing is known about ethnic affiliations in relation to psychopathology after such incidents. This study examined the mental health outcomes of members of 7 major ethnic groups exposed to the 1998 terrorist bombing of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. Approximately 8 to 10 months after the disaster, 229 civilian employees, 99 locally engaged staff workers of the US State Department and the US Agency for International Development, and 64 workers of the Kenyan Red Cross Society (total N=392) were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Additional data were gathered on demographic characteristics, disaster exposures and injuries, and ethnic affiliations. Disaster-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly less prevalent among members of the Kikuyu group (28%) and post-disaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among members of the Meru group (64%), compared with all others in the sample. Preexisting psychopathology and disaster injury were independently associated with bombing-related psychopathology. Further study of disaster-related psychopathology in relation to African ethnic affiliations is needed to better understand these associations and to assist in planning resources and interventions for African disaster survivors. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 6).

  16. [Note apropos of the classification of mental disorders in child psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Lebovici, S

    1988-01-01

    The need for a classification of problems observed in child psychiatry goes hand in hand with the desire to standardize diagnostics. This classification must be reliable, valid, broken down into various criteria and supplemented with a glossary. The triaxial classification used at the Alfred Binet Center, the changes suggested by WHO (ICD-10) are brought up because of their unquestionable advantages. Review of DSM-III. Critical study of the usefulness of suggested scales to explain the clinical approach to cases.

  17. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Addictive internet use as a comorbid disorder among clients of an adolescent psychiatry - prevalence and psychopathological symptoms].

    PubMed

    Müller, Kai W; Ammerschläger, Marcella; Freisleder, Franz Joseph; Beutel, Manfred E; Wölfling, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Excessive and addictive internet use fulfilling criteria of nonsubstance related addiction disorder is increasingly being discussed by scientists and clinicians alike. Its prevalence of about 3 % among minors points to a relatively frequent phenomenon that can lead to functional impairment and distress. However, there is still no evidence concerning its prevalence among underaged patients in psychiatric treatment. 81 patients between the age of 8 and 17 years were screened by a standardized instrument for internet addiction (AICA-S) to assess the prevalence of internet addiction among minors being treated in psychiatric inpatient settings. Their clinical symptoms were examined using Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist. 11.3 % of the patients fulfilled the criteria of addictive internet use. These patients were older and more often affected by anxiety and depression than patients without internet addiction. Data suggest that internet addiction is a relevant factor among minors in psychiatric institutions. Those with comorbid internet addiction show distinct patterns of psychopathology and may require disorder-specific treatment.

  19. Bone density, body composition, and psychopathology of anorexia nervosa spectrum disorders in DSM-IV vs DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Melanie; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Dichtel, Laura E; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Meenaghan, Erinne; Lederfine Paskal, Margaret; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Faje, Alexander T; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2017-04-01

    DSM-5 revised the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) by eliminating the amenorrhea requirement, liberalizing weight and psychological criteria, and adding the formal diagnosis of "atypical AN" for individuals with AN psychological symptoms without low weight. We sought to determine whether bone density (BMD) is impaired in women diagnosed with AN using the new, more liberal, DSM-5 criteria. Cross-sectional study of 168 women, 18 - 45y: (1) AN by DSM-IV (DSM-IV AN) (n = 37), (2) AN by DSM-5 but not DSM-IV criteria (DSM-5 AN) (n = 33), (3) atypical AN (ATYPICAL AN) (n = 77), (4) healthy comparison group (HC) (n = 21). Measurements included dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales. BMD Z-score <-1.0 was present in 78% of DSM-IV, 82% of DSM-5, and 69% of ATYPICAL. Mean Z-scores were comparably low in DSM-IV and DSM-5, intermediate in ATYPICAL, and highest in HC. Lack of prior low weight or amenorrhea was, but history of overweight/obesity was not, protective against bone loss. Mean lean mass and percent fat mass were significantly lower in all AN groups than HC. DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ATYPICAL had comparable psychopathology. Despite liberalizing diagnostic criteria, many women diagnosed with AN and atypical AN using DSM-5 criteria have low BMD. Presence or history of low weight and/or amenorrhea remain important indications for DXA. Loss of lean mass, in addition to fat mass, is present in all AN groups, and may contribute to low BMD. The deleterious effect of eating disorders on BMD extends beyond those with current low weight and amenorrhea. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:343-351). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Pathogenesis of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Considerations from a Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric problems in children and adolescents. The present article summarizes the main evidence that has accumulated on the pathogenesis of childhood anxiety disorders during the past two decades. Various risk and vulnerability factors (e.g., genetics, behavioral inhibition, disgust sensitivity,…

  1. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  2. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  3. The Pathogenesis of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Considerations from a Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric problems in children and adolescents. The present article summarizes the main evidence that has accumulated on the pathogenesis of childhood anxiety disorders during the past two decades. Various risk and vulnerability factors (e.g., genetics, behavioral inhibition, disgust sensitivity,…

  4. Psychopathology in women arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W

    2006-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N= 103) completed measures of IPV victimization, perpetration, and psychopathology. Results revealed high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, substance use disorders, borderline personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Violence victimization was significantly associated with symptoms of psychopathology. Logistic regression analyses showed that sexual and psychological abuse by partners were associated with the presence of PTSD, depression, and GAD diagnoses. Results highlight the potential importance of the role of violence victimization in psychopathology. Results suggest that Axis I and Axis II psychopathology should routinely be assessed as part of violence intervention programs for women and that intervention programs could be improved by offering adjunct or integrated mental health treatment.

  5. Psychopathology and personality characteristics in relation to blood serotonin in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cath, D C; Spinhoven, P; Landman, A D; van Kempen, G M

    2001-06-01

    Family studies suggest an interrelationship between Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and some forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some authors consider GTS to be part of a serotonergically mediated cluster of OCD spectrum disorders. The present study was undertaken to compare measures of psychopathology, personality and blood serotonin between GTS and OCD (without tics), and to investigate whether an OCD spectrum hypothesis is supported for GTS. Fifteen GTS without OCD subjects, 21 tic with (+) OCD subjects, 15 OCD without tic subjects and 26 controls (all without serotonergic medication) were evaluated with self-rated and clinician-rated measures of psychopathology and personality. Whole blood serotonin (5-HT) and platelet monoamine oxidase activity (MAO) was measured, and Spearman's correlations were calculated between whole blood 5-HT, MAO and rating scale scores within the entire sample and within subgroups. There were main effects of OCD on anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, neuroticism and extraversion scores. There were main effects of tics on depression, obsessive-compulsive, trait anxiety and neuroticism scores, and on platelet MAO. There were interaction effects on platelet MAO, 5-HT, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale severity, trait anxiety and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores. Platelet MAO activity was elevated in tic-free OCD subjects when compared to tic + OCD, GTS without OCD and controls. Whole blood 5-HT was lowered in tic + OCD patients in comparison to GTS without OCD and tic-free OCD subjects. Whole blood 5-HT and obsessive-compulsive severity were negatively correlated within OCD without tic patients and MAO and Leyton Obsessive Inventory scores were negatively related within GTS without OCD patients. The biochemical data of this study suggest that in tic + OCD and in tic-free OCD patients, 5-HT dysregulations play a role, but not necessarily in pure GTS. Serotonergic dysregulations within tic + OCD and

  6. Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood psychopathology: internalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Scott N; Burns, Barbara J; Helen, L Egger; Robertson, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on psychosocial, psychopharmacological, and adjunctive treatments for children between the ages of 6 and 12 with internalizing disorders. The aim of this review was to identify interventions that have potential to prevent substance use disorders in adolescence by treating internalizing disorders in childhood. Results suggest that a variety of behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing symptoms of childhood depression, phobias, and anxiety disorders. None of the studies reviewed included substance abuse outcomes. Thus, little can be said about the relationship between early treatment and the prevention of later substance use. The importance of evaluating the generalizability of research-supported interventions to community settings is highlighted and recommendations for future research are offered.

  7. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's psychopathology in light of the current conceptualization of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Huguelet, Philippe; Perroud, Nader

    2005-01-01

    The study of Mozart's letters and biography leads us to reconsider the psychiatric disorders from which he suffered. Indeed, it seems that Mozart demonstrated depressive episodes, some of which were severe and corresponded to the criteria of the DSM-IV classification. However, the arguments put forward by other authors supporting the occurrence of manic or hypomanic episodes (thus constituting a bipolar disorder diagnosis) are not supported by sufficient historic proof. Indeed, the length of time that the behaviors suggesting manic symptoms lasted is not compatible with such a diagnosis. Rather, Mozart's mood swings and impulsive behavior correspond to some traits of a personality disorder, that is, for the most part, symptoms of the dependent personality disorder. Evidence for this diagnosis appears most notably in Mozart's reactions to his wife's absences, but also in occasional behaviors as well as mood lability. The divergences in the classification of Mozart's symptoms, either into the field of bipolar disorders or into that of personality disorders, are closely linked to the nosological uncertainties that are still a source of debate in today's psychiatric research. We discuss a means of overcoming this limitation by considering the concept of "soft bipolar spectrum," a conceptualization that corresponds to Mozart's psychiatric history.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severity of substance use: the role of comorbid psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Torok, Michelle; Darke, Shane; Kaye, Sharlene

    2012-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly comorbid disorder, and, as such, there is much confusion surrounding the exact role it plays in increasing susceptibility to harmful behaviors. To date, no studies have examined the impact of adult ADHD on severity of substance use, while controlling for comorbid psychiatric disorders. Using a structured cross-sectional survey of 269 regular polysubstance users in Sydney, Australia, this study aimed to determine whether ADHD was a risk factor for more severity of substance use, and whether this effect remained when Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnoses were controlled for. Rates of psychiatric disorders were high, with 45% meeting criteria for ADHD, 47% for BPD, and 64% for CD. While bivariate analyses showed that adult ADHD was significantly associated with all indicators of drug use severity, this effect did not remain once confounding factors were controlled. While ADHD accounted for very few differences in drug use severity, CD was found to independently predict all drug use severity indicators, including earlier onset, greater polydrug use, more frequent stimulant use, and greater risk for stimulant dependence. These results suggest that CD, rather than ADHD, is the strongest predictor of differences in patterns of drug use severity. The extensive comorbidity among this sample highlights the great potential for misattributing drug use risks to ADHD, and that it is important to account for psychiatric comorbidity to properly discern what underlying variables account for differences in harmful drug use behaviors.

  9. Sensorimotor integration and psychopathology: motor control abnormalities related to psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Velasques, Bruna; Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flávia; Cunha, Marlo; Sanfim, Antonio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Anghinah, Renato; Basile, Luis F; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence is reviewed to examine relationships among sensorimotor and cognitive aspects in some important psychiatry disorders. This study reviews the theoretical models in the context of sensorimotor integration and the abnormalities reported in the most common psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder and squizophrenia. The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane data base and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: Alzheimer's disease, AD, autism spectrum disorder, and Squizophrenia in combination with sensorimotor integration. Fifty articles published in English and were selected conducted from 1989 up to 2010. We found that the sensorimotor integration process plays a relevant role in elementary mechanisms involved in occurrence of abnormalities in most common psychiatric disorders, participating in the acquisition of abilities that have as critical factor the coupling of different sensory data which will constitute the basis of elaboration of consciously goal-directed motor outputs. Whether these disorders are associated with an abnormal peripheral sensory input or defective central processing is still unclear, but some studies support a central mechanism. Sensorimotor integration seems to play a significant role in the disturbances of motor control, like deficits in the feedforward mechanism, typically seen in AD, autistic and squizophrenic patients.

  10. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  11. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  12. Is there an increased familial prevalence of psychopathology in children with nonverbal learning disorders?

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Khan, Fahad M

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); reading disorders (RD; n = 59); participants with a psychiatric diagnosis but without a learning disability (n = 55); typically developing controls (n = 31); and children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a chromosomal deletion syndrome that has been proposed as being an exemplar of NLD (VCFS + NLD; n = 20). Based on a family genetic interview, the authors' data suggest that children with NLD, RD, or a psychiatric diagnosis have a higher prevalence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse/dependence. Psychiatric controls and children with NLD--but not children with RD-- showed higher prevalence rates of familial bipolar disorder.

  13. Persistent Psychopathology in the Wake of Civil War: Long-Term Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Nimba County, Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Rockers, Peter C.; Saydee, Geetor; Macauley, Rose; Varpilah, S. Tornorlah; Kruk, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the geographical distribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postconflict Nimba County, Liberia, nearly 2 decades after the end of primary conflict in the area, and we related this pattern to the history of conflict. Methods. We administered individual surveys to a population-based sample of 1376 adults aged 19 years or older. In addition, we conducted a historical analysis of conflict in Nimba County, Liberia, where the civil war started in 1989. Results. The prevalence of PTSD in Nimba County was high at 48.3% (95% confidence interval = 45.7, 50.9; n = 664). The geographical patterns of traumatic event experiences and of PTSD were consistent with the best available information about the path of the intranational conflict that Nimba County experienced in 1989–1990. Conclusions. The demonstration of a “path of PTSD” coincident with the decades-old path of violence dramatically underscores the direct link between population burden of psychopathology and the experience of violent conflict. Persistent postconflict disruptions of social and physical context may explain some of the observed patterns. PMID:20634461

  14. Persistent psychopathology in the wake of civil war: long-term posttraumatic stress disorder in Nimba County, Liberia.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Rockers, Peter C; Saydee, Geetor; Macauley, Rose; Varpilah, S Tornorlah; Kruk, Margaret E

    2010-09-01

    We assessed the geographical distribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postconflict Nimba County, Liberia, nearly 2 decades after the end of primary conflict in the area, and we related this pattern to the history of conflict. We administered individual surveys to a population-based sample of 1376 adults aged 19 years or older. In addition, we conducted a historical analysis of conflict in Nimba County, Liberia, where the civil war started in 1989. The prevalence of PTSD in Nimba County was high at 48.3% (95% confidence interval=45.7, 50.9; n=664). The geographical patterns of traumatic event experiences and of PTSD were consistent with the best available information about the path of the intranational conflict that Nimba County experienced in 1989-1990. The demonstration of a "path of PTSD" coincident with the decades-old path of violence dramatically underscores the direct link between population burden of psychopathology and the experience of violent conflict. Persistent postconflict disruptions of social and physical context may explain some of the observed patterns.

  15. School Exclusion in Children with Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychopathology: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Claire; Whear, Rebecca; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychiatric disorders are associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes including poor academic attainment. For some children these difficulties are recognised through school Special Educational Need procedures (SEN) but many others may remain unidentified and/or unsupported. In Britain, government data suggests disproportionate…

  16. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  17. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  18. School Exclusion in Children with Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychopathology: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Claire; Whear, Rebecca; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychiatric disorders are associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes including poor academic attainment. For some children these difficulties are recognised through school Special Educational Need procedures (SEN) but many others may remain unidentified and/or unsupported. In Britain, government data suggests disproportionate…

  19. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  20. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  1. Panic attacks as a dimension of psychopathology: evidence for associations with onset and course of mental disorders and level of functioning.

    PubMed

    Batelaan, Neeltje M; Rhebergen, Didi; de Graaf, Ron; Spijker, Jan; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2012-09-01

    One of the proposed revisions for DSM-5 is to rate panic attacks as a separate dimension across all mental disorders. The idea is that panic attacks occurring outside panic disorder are a dimension predicting important clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the proposition for DSM-5 that panic attacks have predictive value for overall psychopathology onset, course, and functioning. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a prospective population-based study. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (with classifications based on DSM-III-R), 5,571 subjects were selected who had (1) no panic history, (2) a history of panic attacks (but no panic disorder), (3) current panic attacks, or (4) current panic disorder. The impact of panic status on the prevalence of anxiety, affective, alcohol, and any mental disorders; on the onset and persistence of these disorders during 3-year follow-up; and on levels of functioning during 3-year follow-up (as assessed with the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) was examined. Current panic attacks outside the realm of panic disorder were associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders (χ2(3) = 490.6; P < .001), increased onset of mental disorders (hazard ratio = 4.42; 95% CI, 2.88-6.80), persistence of mental disorders (odds ratio = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.53-4.82), and impaired functioning during 3-year follow-up (F = 69.67; P < .001). Although the impact was smaller than for panic disorder, the associations identified for panic attacks were consistent and significant and were, to a lesser extent, also found for a history of panic attacks. Given the consistent impact of panic attacks on various aspects of psychopathology, the proposition to dimensionally rate panic attacks across all mental disorders may be of great value for clinical care. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. A brief report about the concepts of hand disorders in the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2011-09-01

    Avicenna contributed to development in many fields of medicine. The Canon of Medicine is the masterpiece of Avicenna's medical books in which he wrote on the anatomy of the upper extremity, fractures, dislocations, and nerve and tendon injuries. Reviewing these subjects pertinent to hand disorders reveals Avicenna's concepts about hand disorders a millennium ago. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND MAJOR DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro; Nemethy, Kevin; Péan, Claude; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2013-01-01

    Background In the first population-based study of psychopathology conducted in Haiti, we documented earthquake-related experiences associated with risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) 2–4 months following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Methods A population-based survey was conducted of 1,323 survivors randomly selected from the general nondisplaced community, internally displaced persons camps, and a community clinic. Respondents were from the Nazon area of Port-au-Prince, ~20 miles from the epicenter. Results Respondents (90.5%) reported at least one relative/close friend injured/killed, 93% saw dead bodies, and 20.9% lost their job post-earthquake. The prevalence of PTSD (24.6%) and MDD (28.3%) was high. History of violent trauma was associated with risk of PTSD and MDD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–1.9; AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.3, 2.2, respectively). Low social support (AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.2, 2.3; AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, respectively) increased risk of PTSD and MDD among women. Suffering damage to the home increased risk of MDD in males (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5, 5.5). Associations between being trapped in rubble, major damage to house, job loss, and PTSD; and participation in rescue/recovery, friends/family injured/killed, and MDD varied based on prior history of violent trauma. Conclusions Addressing mental health in a post-earthquake setting such as Haiti will require focusing resources on screening and treatment of identified vulnerable groups while targeting improvement of post-earthquake living conditions. Investment in sources of social support for women may make help mitigate the vulnerability of women to PTSD and MDD. PMID:23124841

  4. Psychopathy and internalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Jochem; Verhaeghe, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is general consensus in clinical and research literature that the core feature of psychopathy consists of an affective deficit. However, previous studies tend to find weak and inconsistent associations between psychopathy and measures of internalizing psychopathology. In this study we test whether the predominant practice of using questionnaires to assess internalizing psychopathology has influenced the results of previous research. We argue that questionnaires measure general distress rather than specific symptoms of internalizing psychopathology, and that the validity of questionnaires might be impaired by psychopathic traits, such as impression management and lack of affective experience. Combining a questionnaire (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21; DASS-21) and a semi-structured interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-R Axis 1 Disorders; SCID-I) for internalizing psychopathology, we test the differential association of both measures with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a sample of 89 male detainees. In accordance with our prediction, we found moderate negative associations between the Interpersonal and Affective facets of the PCL-R and SCID-I, but no significant associations with the DASS-21. We found no evidence that psychopathic traits decrease the validity of the responses on a questionnaire. We conclude that the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy are negatively related to specific symptoms of internalizing psychopathology, but not with general distress.

  5. The Occurrence of Ipsilateral or Contralateral Foot Disorders and Hand Dominance: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D. T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Positano, Rock G.; Dines, Joshua S.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Gagnon, David R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2011-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, hand dominance and side of foot disorders has not been described in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether hand dominance was associated with ipsilateral foot disorders among community-dwelling older men and women Methods Data were from the Framingham Foot Study (n=2,089, examined 2002–2008). Hand preference for writing was used to classify hand dominance. Foot disorders and side of disorders were based on a validated foot examination. Generalized linear models with GEE was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for intra-person variability. Results Left-handed people were less likely to have foot pain or any foot disorders ipsilateral, but were more likely to have hallux valgus ipsilateral to the left hand. Among right-handed people, the following statistically significant increased odds of having an ipsilateral foot disorder versus contralateral foot disorder were seen: 30% for Morton’s Neuroma, 18% for hammer toes, 21% for lesser toe deformity, and a 2-fold increased odds of any foot disorder; there was a 17% decreased odds for Tailor’s Bunion, and an 11% decreased odds for pes cavus. Conclusion For the 2089 study participants, certain forefoot disorders were shown to be ipsilateral while other foot disorders were contralateral to the dominant hand. It is possible that the side of the dominant hand was a proxy for biomechanics of the dominant foot that may explain some of the associations with ipsilateral forefoot disorders. PMID:23328848

  6. Reasons for Quitting Smoking Prior to a Self-Quit Attempt among Smokers with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or Other Anxiety/Mood Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Kutz, Amanda; Gibson, Laura; Leyro, Teresa; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation examined intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for quitting among daily cigarette smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared to clinical daily smokers with other anxiety and mood disorders (AM) and daily smokers with no current axis I psychopathology (C) prior to a self-guided quit attempt. It was hypothesized that (1) the PTSD group would report greater intrinsic (i.e., self-control and health concerns) reasons for quitting smoking, and (2) among those with PTSD, anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety; AS) would predict greater intrinsic reasons for quitting smoking. Participants were 143 (58.7% female; Mage = 29.66 years, SD = 11.88) daily cigarette smokers. Partially consistent with prediction, the PTSD group reported significantly greater self-control intrinsic reasons for quitting, but not health concern intrinsic reasons, than the C group (p <.01). The PTSD group also reported greater immediate reinforcement extrinsic reasons for quitting than the C group (p <.05). The PTSD and AM groups did not significantly differ on any reasons for quitting. Also partially consistent with hypotheses, higher levels of anxiety sensitivity in daily smokers with axis I psychopathology (both PTSD and AM groups) significantly predicted greater self-control intrinsic reasons for quitting. AS did not significantly predict immediate reinforcement extrinsic reasons for quitting. The current findings suggest that individuals with PTSD and other psychopathology may have unique motivations for quitting smoking that could be usefully explored within smoking cessation treatment programs. PMID:19444735

  7. Social cognitive deficits and biases in maltreated adolescents in U.K. out-of-home care: Relation to disinhibited attachment disorder and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kay, Catherine L; Green, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    Children entering out-of-home (OoH) care have often experienced multiple forms of maltreatment and are at risk of psychiatric disorder and poor long-term outcome. Recent evidence shows high rates of disinhibited attachment disorder (DAD) among maltreated adolescents in U.K. OoH care (Kay & Green, 2013). This study aimed to further understand the mechanisms of outcome in this group through investigation of social cognitive functioning. Patterns of theory of mind (ToM) and social information processing were assessed alongside DAD behavior and psychopathology in 63 adolescents in U.K. OoH care (mean age = 176 months, SD = 22; 48% male; 89% White British) and 69 low-risk comparison adolescents (mean age = 171 months, SD = 17; 46% male; 87% White British). Compared to low risk, OoH adolescents showed a hostile attribution bias and ToM deficit, but this was confounded by language ability. ToM was associated with reduced hostile attribution and responding biases and increased social competence, which was further associated with lower levels of externalizing psychopathology. There was no association between social cognition and core features of DAD. Social cognitive deficits and biases may play a role in the high rates of externalizing psychopathology and relationship functioning difficulties in maltreated samples. Future research should assess alternative cognitive mechanisms for DAD.

  8. From positive psychology to psychopathology: the continuum of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-07-21

    Integration of positive psychology into clinical research and treatment has been slow. This integration can be facilitated by the conceptualisation of mental disorders as the high, symptomatic extreme of continuous normal variation. This assumes that there is also a low, positive extreme, which is, however, unchartered territory. This study aims to examine how well current measures capture the low extreme of mental disorder continua, using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an example. The ability of three validated scales to capture ADHD as a continuous trait was examined using Item Response Theory in a sample of 9,882 adolescents from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. These scales were: the Strengths and Weakness of ADHD Symptoms and Normal behaviour scale (SWAN), Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ - hyperactivity subscale), and Conners' Parent Rating Scale (Conners). Only the SWAN reliably differentiated interindividual differences between participants lying at any level of the continuous ADHD latent trait, including the extreme low, positive end (z-scores from -3 to +3). The SDQ showed low reliability across the ADHD latent trait. In contrast, the Conners performed best at differentiating individuals scoring at or above the mean to the high symptomatic range (z-scores from 0 to +3). The SWAN was the only measure to provide indicators of 'positive mental health', endorsed in the presence of particularly good attentive abilities. Scales such as the SWAN that reliably capture ADHD as a continuous trait, including the positive end, are important for not missing meaningful variation in population-based studies. Indicators of positive mental health may be helpful in clinical practice, as positive attributes have been shown to directly influence as well as buffer negative effects of psychiatric symptoms. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    PubMed

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  10. [Hearing impairment and psychopathological disorders in children and adolescents. Review of the recent literature].

    PubMed

    Bailly, D; Dechoulydelenclave, M-B; Lauwerier, L

    2003-01-01

    Hearing impairment is a multifaceted condition with medical and social aspects. If the neuropsychiatric impact of deafness on children has been investigated by researchers from a variety of fields and backgrounds, their conclusion is that children with hearing impairment follow many different developmental pathways. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships between hearing impairment and mental health and the effect of impaired communication on family development. From a review of the literature, the authors examine the relationships between hearing impairment and mental disorders in children and adolescents in terms of prevalence, clinical features and etiological factors. The fami-ly dynamics and the parents-child interactions were also explored. The assessment of psychiatric disorders in hearing-impaired children sets some methodological pro-blems. Accurate evaluation is hampered by the immature language exhi-bited by many hearing-impaired children and by the difficulties that may be encountered in establishing rapport if the child does not understand the examiner's verbal exchanges. Several authors point out the lack of communication skills and experiences with hearing-impaired children on the part of many examiners. In addition, delays have been observed for the development of social maturity in hearing-impaired children and the parents' descriptions may reflect their own worries, rather than the emotional-behavioral functioning of the child. The measurement of psychiatric symptoms is then compromised insofar as many of the assessment procedures are highly verbal and were standardized for normal-hearing children. These difficulties may explain that the pre-valence rates of mental disorders in hearing-impaired children and adolescents found in the literature vary from 15% to 60%. If autism and deafness may both confound each others' dia-gnosis, several studies also point out the high comorbidity observed between these 2 conditions. The significance

  11. Substance abuse patterns and their association with psychopathology and type of hostility in male patients with borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hatzitaskos, P; Soldatos, C R; Kokkevi, A; Stefanis, C N

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of substance use disorder in young adult patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (APD) and to ascertain the specific substances each of these groups choose to abuse. An additional aim was to assess whether alcohol and drug abuse in the patients related to their psychopathology and hostility. The study subjects were 41 hospitalized patients with BPD and 44 hospitalized patients with APD. The diagnoses of personality disorders and substance use disorders were made using DSM-III criteria. Psychopathology patterns were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Hostility was assessed using the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. Abuse of one or more substances was reported by 76% of BPD patients and 95% of APD patients. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of alcohol abuse, but certain substances (such as benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, cannabis, and opioids) were abused more than twice as often by APD patients versus BPD patients. APD patients were more likely than BPD patients to be multiusers. In BPD patients, the number of substances abused showed a negative association with depression, while in APD patients it was positively related to state anxiety. In both patient groups, there was no correlation of the number of abused substances with the degree of extroverted or introverted hostility.

  12. The developmental psychopathology of alcohol use and alcohol disorders: Research achievements and future directions

    PubMed Central

    CHASSIN, LAURIE; SHER, KENNETH J.; HUSSONG, ANDREA; CURRAN, PATRICK

    2013-01-01

    The last 25 years have seen significant advances in our conceptualization of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders within a developmental framework, along with advances in our empirical understanding that have been potentiated by advances in quantitative methods. These include advances in understanding the heterogeneity of trajectories of alcohol outcomes; new insights about early childhood antecedents, and adolescence and emerging adulthood as important developmental periods for alcohol outcomes; a more nuanced understanding of the influences of developmental transitions, and their timing and contexts; a greater appreciation for the importance of considering multiple levels of analysis (including an increasing number of genetically informative studies); a continuing focus on studying multiple pathways underlying alcohol outcomes; and an increasing focus on studying the effects of alcohol exposure on future development. The current paper reviews these advances and suggests directions for future study. PMID:24342856

  13. Religious psychopathology: The prevalence of religious content of delusions and hallucinations in mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religious themes are commonly encountered in delusions and hallucinations associated with major mental disorders, and the form and content of presentation are significant in relation to both diagnosis and management. Aims: This study aimed to establish what is known about the frequency of occurrence of religious delusions (RD) and religious hallucinations (RH) and their inter-relationship. Methods: A review was undertaken of the quantitative empirical English literature on RD and RH. Results: A total of 55 relevant publications were identified. The lack of critical criteria for defining and classifying RD and RH makes comparisons between studies difficult, but prevalence clearly varies with time and place, and probably also according to personal religiosity. In particular, little is known about the content and frequency of RH and the relationship between RH and RD. Conclusion: Clearer research criteria are needed to facilitate future study of RD and RH, and more research is needed on the relationship between RD and RH. PMID:25770205

  14. An Examination of Psychopathology and Daily Impairment in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this

  15. Psychopathological, biological, and neuroimaging characterization of posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of a severe coalmining disaster in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Hai; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tan, Qing-Rong; Yin, Hong; Chen, Yun-Chun; Wang, Hua-Ning; Zhang, Rui-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Zhong; Guo, Li; Tang, Li-Hua; Li, Ling-Jiang

    2010-04-01

    On July 29, 2007, a severe coalmine-flooded disaster occurred in central China and 69 miners were trapped in an about 1400 m underground coal pit. Fortunately, all of them were rescued after 75 h of the ordeal. At 3 and 6 months after the disaster, psychopathological profiles, plasma levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated in 48 survivors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed at 6 months. The prevalence of PTSD was 35.4% (17/48) at 3 months and 31.3% (15/48) at 6 months post-disaster, with high rates of comorbid symptoms. Risk factors for PTSD included previous traumatic experience, less than 5 years of being a miner, in an extremely exhausted or sick during the disaster, poor interpersonal relationship and poor sleep quality experienced before the disaster. Mean plasma cortisol levels at 6 months, but not at 3 months, were significantly higher in PTSD-positive subjects than the negative, and positively correlated with the severity of several comorbid symptoms. Either whole or regional brain volumes of PTSD-positive subjects were not significantly different from PTSD-negative subjects, but PTSD subjects had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy values in the right posterior cingulum and bilateral hippocampal body compared to subjects without PTSD. These results suggest that traumatic exposure in severe coalmining disasters results in considerable psychological consequences, with highly prevalent PTSD and comorbid symptoms, which are associated with previous traumatic experience, shorter-length underground services, and poor interpersonal relationships and sleep quality experienced before the disaster. Baseline cortisol level may be a useful biological predictor for different phases of the development of PTSD. The aberrant connectivity of the hippocampus and the cingulum may represent an early pathological response to trauma exposure. Copyright 2009

  16. Parents' childhood experiences of bonding and parental psychopathology predict borderline personality disorder during adolescence in offspring.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Fuchs, Anna; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Reichl, Corinna; Holz, Birger; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2016-12-30

    Previous studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD) development suggest a transgenerational transmission of parent-child relationship quality, which may also be influenced by parents' mental health status. The aim of this study was twofold. First, we aimed to investigate the transgenerational effect of parental bonding experiences on the development of BPD in their offspring. Second, we examined the association between parents' mental health status and BPD in offspring. Ninety-one female adolescent psychiatric inpatients along with 87 mothers and 59 fathers were enrolled in the study. Adolescent BPD was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-II, parental bonding with the Parental Bonding Instrument, and parents´ psychiatric symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire. We found that low parental care produced a transgenerational effect from mother to BPD in offspring. Further, significant associations were found between paternal psychiatric symptoms and adolescent BPD. High paternal stress levels mediated the association between maternal affect reported by fathers and BPD in daughters. There is evidence of a transgenerational effect of parental bonding specifically for female adolescents with BPD, compared with other clinical control subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of including both parents in future research and in early clinical treatment in adolescents with BPD.

  17. [The structure of psychopathology associated with addictive disorders, against alcohol addiction and the possibility of it's neurometabolic correction in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Belov, V G; Parfenov, Iu A; Zaplutanov, V A; Khaĭrutdinov, D R

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of the structure and dynamics of psychopathology associated with addictive disorders in elderly patients with alcohol dependence. In terms of syndromic approach the structure of neurotic disease in elderly patients with a verified diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders associated with alcohol consumption was evaluated. In the overall structure of neurotic pathology in these patients the analysis of symptoms of neurotic diseases, the research of the structure of syndromes and their dynamics were carried out, as well as the patient's attitude to the disease and to its manifestations was determined. A factor model of the pathogenesis of neurotic pathology connected with mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use in elderly patients was developed. The high clinical effectiveness of the drug "Cytoflavin" used in the reduction of psychiatric symptoms in patients aged from 62 to 74 years with a diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders associated with alcohol consumption has been shown.

  18. [Factitious disorder mixed with somatoform disorder in a patient treated with a psychotherapeutic approach: psychopathology and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Motoki; Kato, Satoshi; Okajima, Yoshiro; Yamaga, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    We encountered a case of somatoform disorder induced by bullying, and factitious disorder was revealed during treatment. This case was a 14-year-old female, who was admitted to a pediatric ward at first. However, she was transferred to a psychiatric ward after a serious suicidal attempt. She caused many problems, and demanded that medical staff treat her symptoms. We assumed that medical care promoted regression. We performed psychotherapeutic intervention based on consensus among medical staff, similar to behavioral therapy. During the patient's admission to the psychiatric ward, her mother was compulsorily hospitalized. After separation of the mother and child, medical staff could intervene, and this stabilized the mental state of her and her mother.

  19. Using repeated daily assessments to uncover oscillating patterns and temporally-dynamic triggers in structures of psychopathology: Applications to the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael J; Jacobson, Nicholas C; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-11-01

    Articulating an accurate and clinically useful structure of psychopathology is a crucial and difficult task. Dimensions identified through cross-sectional factor analyses are increasingly being linked with temporally dynamic processes of social cognition, emotion regulation, symptom expression, and functional impairment to demonstrate how between-person structures and within-person dynamics can be integrated. The present research considers how structure and processes are integrated in the DSM-5, specifically in the alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD). Participants (n = 248) completed a 14-day electronic diary, and results indicated that personality impairments oscillated across days and were triggered by daily negative emotions and cognitive distortions. Importantly, some aspects of the AMPD model that are identified as potentially redundant in cross-sectional research are shown here to increment each other in the prediction of dynamic oscillations and triggers. Thus, longitudinal designs and temporally dynamic analyses may provide new and novel evidence to fully inform structures of psychopathology. Such research is a needed step in the integration of the structure and process in classification and diagnosis of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Childhood sexual abuse moderates the relationship between sexual functioning and eating disorder psychopathology in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Lelli, Lorenzo; Godini, Lucia; Vignozzi, Linda; Rellini, Alessandra H; Faravelli, Carlo; Maggi, Mario; Ricca, Valdo

    2013-09-01

    Sexual dysfunctions that affect all aspects of sexuality are common in patients with eating disorders. However, only few studies have provided longitudinal information on sexual functioning in patients with eating disorders. To evaluate the longitudinal course of sexual functioning, and how changes in psychopathology and history of childhood abuse interact with sexual functioning in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). A total of 27 patients with AN and 31 with BN were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up after a standard individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Subjects were studied by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90, and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. After treatment, both patients with AN and BN showed a significant improvement in the FSFI total score (P < 0.01 for both AN and BN) and all FSFI subscales, without significant between groups differences. Patients reporting childhood sexual abuse did not show a significant improvement in sexual functioning (β = 0.05; P = 0.58). Reduction in eating disorder severity was directly associated with FSFI improvement, but only in those subjects with no history of sexual abuse (β = 0.28; P = 0.01). Eating disorder-specific psychopathology could be considered as a specific maintaining factor for sexual dysfunction in eating disorders subjects. Subjects reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse represent a subpopulation of patients with a profound uneasiness, involving body perception, as well as sexual functioning, which appeared not to be adequately challenged during standard CBT intervention. The results, though original, should be considered as preliminary, given the relatively small sample size

  1. [Comorbid puffy hand syndrome and factitious disorders: an unusual association with poor prognosis].

    PubMed

    Courtin, C; Mathieu, L; Rongiéras, F; Bertani, A; Chauvin, F

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an original clinical presentation of factitious disorders of the upper extremity in an ex-drug-addict patient with puffy hand syndrome. Chronic self-inflicted ulcerations appeared with sequential manner. The patient confessed deliberate self-harm and transfer of anxiety on his hands, the aspect of which had become intolerable. Association of puffy hand syndrome with comorbid psychosis and major depression explained immediate recurrence of ulcerations despite fitted medication and long-term psychotherapy.

  2. Brief Report: Adults with Mild Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)--Scores on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaars, Cees; Horwitz, Ernst; Sytema, Sjoerd; Bos, Johan; Wiersma, Durk; Minderaa, Ruud; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2008-01-01

    While knowledge about symptom presentation of adults with mild ASD, including comorbid psychopathology, is limited, referral of adults with suspected mild PDD is increasing. We report on pilot research investigating whether patients diagnosed with mild ASD (n = 15) and patients who were not diagnosed with ASD (n = 21) differed in terms of (a) AQ…

  3. Hand disorders in musicians: the orthopaedic surgeon's role.

    PubMed

    Sheibani-Rad, S; Wolfe, S; Jupiter, J

    2013-02-01

    Like athletes, musicians are vulnerable to musculoskeletal injuries that can be career ending or have a severe negative financial impact. All ages are affected, with a peak incidence in the third and fourth decades. Women are slightly more likely to be affected than men. It is incumbent upon orthopaedic surgeons to be able to complete a thorough physical assessment, be aware of the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in musicians, and have a detailed knowledge of the specific syndromes they suffer and their appropriate treatment. In this paper we review the common hand injuries that afflict musicians and discuss their treatment.

  4. Sonography of Non-neoplastic Disorders of the Hand and Wrist Tendons.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Anna Guja; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2017-07-14

    Tendon disorders commonly cause hand and wrist disability and curtail the performance of work-related duties or routine tasks. Imaging is often needed for diagnosis, but it requires knowledge of the complex anatomic structures of the tendons of the hand and wrist as well as familiarity with related disorders. This review article aims to provide medical professionals with guidelines for the sonographic assessment of the tendons of hand and wrist and related disorders. Sonographic features of tendon disorders affecting the hand and wrist are described here, specifically: infectious tenosynovitis; tendon rupture or tearing; stenosing forms of tenosynovitis such as De Quervain disease and trigger finger; intersection syndrome; insertional tendinopathy; several forms of tendinous instability such as extensor carpi ulnaris instability, climber finger, and boxer knuckle; and tendinopathy in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Postsurgical evaluation of the hand and wrist tendons is also discussed, including the healthy and pathologic appearances of operated tendons as well as impingement from orthopedic hardware. In conclusion, sonography is effective in assessing the tendons of the hand and wrist and related disorders and represents a valuable tool for diagnosis. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Illusory movements of the contralesional hand in patients with body image disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, M; Moro, V; Aglioti, S

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Ten RBD patients (three with disorders of bodily representations) were asked to report whether movements of their right hand induced any illusory somatic or motor sensations. Inquiries on anomalous sensation of movement of the left hand were carried out while subjects: 1) observed the moving hand in a mirror propped vertically along the parasagittal plane; 2) looked directly at the moving hand; 3) looked at the still hand; 4) kept their eyes closed. Twelve healthy subjects served as controls. Results: Movement of the right hand induced a very clear sensation of movement of the left, contralesional hand in two patients affected by body image disorders. Remarkably, this occurred mainly while subjects were looking in the mirror, that is, when conflicts between visual, somatic, and motor information were maximal. In no condition did control subjects report any consistent anomalous evoked movement or sensation. Conclusions: Illusory movements of the left, plegic hand contingent upon sensorimotor conflicts can be evoked in brain damaged patients with body image disorders. PMID:15489402

  6. Prevalence of hand disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its correlation with microvascular complications.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Usman, K; Reddy, H; Gutch, M; Jain, N; Qidwai, Sa

    2013-07-01

    Physicians have long recognized the association between diabetes mellitus and several pathologic conditions of the hand. The most commonly recognized maladies are limited joint mobility (LJM), Dupuytren's disease (DD), trigger finger (TF), and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Incidence of these hand disorders has increased in the setting of diabetes. Collectively, these are described as diabetic hand syndrome. The aims were to find out the prevalence of hand disorders in diabetic patients, and to study the relation of these hand disorders with microvascular complications. This is an observational cross-sectional case-control study done over a period of 1 year Patients of type 2 DM, of age < 65 years, who visited Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Lucknow were enrolled and were described as cases. Age- and sex-matched nondiabetic individuals were taken in the control group. The data were analyzed using software SPSS. SPSS Inc. Released 2008. SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc. Means and standard deviations were computed; the Student t-test and Chi-square (χ(2)) test were used as appropriate. A total of 400 subjects were studied, 200 each in the case and control groups. Of total 200 diabetic patients, 30% (60/200) patients had neuropathy, 37.5% (75/200) had nephropathy, and 44.5% (89/200) patients had retinopathy. In the study population, 67% patients were having one or more hand disorders, in which LJM was found in 40.5% (81/200) patients, DD was found in 19% (38/200) patients, TF in 16.5% (33/200), and CTS in 14% (28/200) patients. This study shows a high prevalence of hand disorders in diabetic patients and also correlates with the duration of type 2 DM, LJM being the most common hand disorder and more common in patients who have microvascular complications.

  7. The role of maternal anxiety and depressive disorders prior to and during pregnancy and perinatal psychopathological symptoms for early infant diseases and drug administration.

    PubMed

    Krause, Linda; Einsle, Franziska; Petzoldt, Johanna; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Martini, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Maternal mental health prior to and during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases and gastrointestinal complaints in the offspring. Unfortunately, many studies merely focused on perinatal distress without consideration of lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders. To prospectively investigate associations of anxiety and depressive disorders prior to and during pregnancy as well as perinatal distress with infants' inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal complaints and corresponding drug administration. Prospective-longitudinal study initiated in 2009/2010. N=306 (expectant) mothers with and without DSM-IV lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women) and low vs. high severity of psychopathological symptoms during pregnancy (Brief Symptom Inventory) enrolled in early pregnancy and repeatedly assessed during peripartum period. Infant inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal complaints and drug administration assessed via questionnaire (maternal report) at four months postpartum (n=279). Severe psychopathological symptoms during pregnancy were associated with inflammatory diseases and anti-infective medication, whereas anxiety and depressive disorders prior to and during pregnancy were related to gastrointestinal complaints (diarrhea, colic complaints) and corresponding medication. These results have to be discussed with caution, because information on infants' diseases were based exclusively on maternal self-reports. However, they suggest promising directions regarding our current knowledge about the relevance of maternal perinatal distress for infant inflammatory diseases (e.g. fetal programming). Moreover, the association between maternal anxiety and depressive disorders and infant gastrointestinal complaints may be explained by an anxious misinterpretation of 'normal' infant signals or a transmission of adverse gut microbiota, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Social performance is more closely associated with theory of mind and autobiographical memory than with psychopathological symptoms in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried; Mink, Katharina; Lüllmann, Eva; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2010-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of deficits in theory of mind ability (ToM), deficits in recalling autobiographical memories (AM) and social performance in patients with psychosis. Furthermore, the study aimed to investigate if deficits in ToM and AM are better predictors of social performance than psychopathological symptoms and other neurocognitive variables. In a cross-sectional design, patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=55) and healthy controls (n=45) completed a ToM movie paradigm in which they had to infer the characters' intentions and emotions in movies displaying social situations and a first- and second-order false belief ToM paradigm. Recall of AM was investigated using a structured interview. Social performance was assessed in a standardized role-play situation, which was later rated by trained raters, blind to diagnosis. Deficits in AM were associated with deficits in the ability to infer intentions of movie characters and in social performance in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. ToM ability to infer emotions of movie characters and recalling of AM were better predictors of social performance than psychopathological symptoms and other neurocognitive deficits. The results suggest that interventions aiming to enhance ToM deficits and deficits in AM might result in improvement of social performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is associated to eating disorders susceptibility and moderates the expression of psychopathological traits.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Giovanni; Franzago, Marica; Bagnoli, Silvia; Lelli, Lorenzo; Balsamo, Michela; Mancini, Milena; Nacmias, Benedetta; Ricca, Valdo; Sorbi, Sandro; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Eating Disorders (EDs) show a multifactorial etiopathogenesis including environmental, psychological and biological factors. In the present study, we propose a model of interactions between genetic vulnerability-represented by Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene-and stable psychopathological traits, such as bodily disorders and emotion dysregulation for EDs patients. The distribution of a polymorphism of the FTO (rs9939609 T>A) was evaluated in a series of 250 EDs patients and in a group of 119 healthy control subjects. Clinical data were collected through a face-to-face interview and several self-reported questionnaires were applied, including the Emotional Eating Scale and the IDentity and EAting disorders (IDEA) questionnaire for bodily disorders and self-identity. The A-allele was associated with an increased vulnerability to EDs (AA+AT genotypes frequency 72.8% in EDs vs. 52.9% in controls). The presence of the A-allele was associated with binge eating behavior, higher emotional eating and higher IDEA scores. Finally, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was found to influence the relationship between these variables, as an association between disorder of corporeality and emotional eating was found only in A-allele carriers. A-allele seems to represent a potential additive risk factor for EDs persons, with bodily disorders to develop emotional eating and binge eating behaviors.

  10. Mapping the Personality Psychopathology Five domains onto DSM-IV personality disorders in Dutch clinical and forensic samples: implications for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Sellbom, Martin; Smid, Wineke; de Saeger, Hilde; Smit, Naomi; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) model represents 5 broadband dimensional personality domains that align with the originally proposed DSM-5 personality trait system, which was eventually placed in Section III for further study. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between the PSY-5 model and personality disorder criteria. More specifically, we aimed to determine if the PSY-5 domain scales converged with the alternative DSM-5 Section III model for personality disorders, with a particular emphasis on the personality trait profiles proposed for each of the specific personality disorder types. Two samples from The Netherlands consisting of clinical patients from a personality disorder treatment program (n = 190) and forensic psychiatric hospital (n = 162) were used. All patients had been administered the MMPI-2 (from which MMPI-2-RF PSY-5 scales were scored) and structured clinical interviews to assess personality disorder criteria. Results based on Poisson or negative binomial regression models showed statistically significant and meaningful associations for the hypothesized PSY-5 domains for each of the 6 personality disorders, with a few minor exceptions that are discussed in detail. Implications for these findings are also discussed.

  11. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is associated to eating disorders susceptibility and moderates the expression of psychopathological traits

    PubMed Central

    Bagnoli, Silvia; Lelli, Lorenzo; Balsamo, Michela; Mancini, Milena; Nacmias, Benedetta; Ricca, Valdo; Sorbi, Sandro; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Eating Disorders (EDs) show a multifactorial etiopathogenesis including environmental, psychological and biological factors. In the present study, we propose a model of interactions between genetic vulnerability—represented by Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene—and stable psychopathological traits, such as bodily disorders and emotion dysregulation for EDs patients. The distribution of a polymorphism of the FTO (rs9939609 T>A) was evaluated in a series of 250 EDs patients and in a group of 119 healthy control subjects. Clinical data were collected through a face-to-face interview and several self-reported questionnaires were applied, including the Emotional Eating Scale and the IDentity and EAting disorders (IDEA) questionnaire for bodily disorders and self-identity. The A-allele was associated with an increased vulnerability to EDs (AA+AT genotypes frequency 72.8% in EDs vs. 52.9% in controls). The presence of the A-allele was associated with binge eating behavior, higher emotional eating and higher IDEA scores. Finally, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was found to influence the relationship between these variables, as an association between disorder of corporeality and emotional eating was found only in A-allele carriers. A-allele seems to represent a potential additive risk factor for EDs persons, with bodily disorders to develop emotional eating and binge eating behaviors. PMID:28282466

  12. Points of View: Stories of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    This book is designed to provide students, at differing levels of experience and training, with examples that illustrate the problems individuals have with various psychopathologies. Stories are included to illustrate the key elements of psychopathology for these disorders, and are written from the point of view of both the individual who has the…

  13. Points of View: Stories of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    This book is designed to provide students, at differing levels of experience and training, with examples that illustrate the problems individuals have with various psychopathologies. Stories are included to illustrate the key elements of psychopathology for these disorders, and are written from the point of view of both the individual who has the…

  14. Clinical Assessment and Diagnostics of Patients With Hand Disorders: A Case Study Approach.

    PubMed

    Leow, Mabel Qi He; Lim, Rebecca Qian Ru; Tay, Shian Chao

    Clinical assessment of the hand is important for diagnosing underlying hand disorders. Using a case study approach, the clinical assessment for three disorders of the hands is presented: trigger finger (stenosing tenosynovitis), carpal tunnel syndrome, and ulnar-sided wrist injury (styloid impingement). We assess the annular one pulley and finger range of motion for patients with trigger finger. To diagnose for carpal tunnel syndrome, assessment for Tinel's sign, Phalen's sign, abductor pollicis brevis muscle bulk, two-point discrimination, and obtaining a nerve conduction study are performed. Assessment for ulnar-sided wrist injury includes wrist range of motion, assessment of distal radial ulnar joint stability, provocation tests, grip strength, x-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging. This article begins with a description of the hand and wrist anatomy. For each case study, the clinical history is described, followed by a discussion of the pathophysiology, clinical assessments, and diagnostic tests.

  15. Taxometrics and developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2003-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists have criticized categorical classification systems for their inability to account for within-group heterogeneity in biological, etiological. developmental, and cultural influences on behavior. Dichotomizing continuous scores of symptom severity is also inadvisable statistically. Perhaps because of a resulting wariness of categorizing, few explorations into the ontological status of traits or disorders as dimensional versus discrete have been conducted. It is argued here that the limitations of categorizing have little to do with the ontological status of traits and that developmental psychopathologists should be concerned with identifying discrete behavioral syndromes. Common taxometric methods for resolving discrete traits are described, and questions of concern to developmental psychopathologists are outlined that can be addressed through taxometrics studies. These include (a) identifying children who are at risk for future psychopathology, (b) identifying discrete subtypes within current diagnostic classes, (c) locating sensitive periods in the development of discrete pathological traits, (d) discovering moderators of treatment outcome, and (e) elucidating mechanisms of equifinality and multifinality. Although most behavioral traits probably are distributed continuously, identifying those that are discrete will advance the science of developmental psychopathology. Disorders for which taxometric analyses might be applied include anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, conduct problems, depression, and schizophrenia.

  16. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did not predict illness onset.

  17. Time Estimation and Production in HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Weber, Erica; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective The ability to accurately perceive the passage of time relies on several neurocognitive abilities, including attention, memory, and executive functions, which are domains commonly affected in persons living with HIV disease. Method The current study examined time estimation and production and their neurocognitive correlates in a sample of 53 HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), 120 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 113 HIV− individuals. Results Results revealed a moderate main effect of HAND on time estimation and a trend-level effect on time production, but no interaction between HAND and time interval duration. Correlational analyses revealed that time estimation in the HIV+ group was associated with attention, episodic memory and time-based prospective memory. Conclusions Findings indicate that individuals with HAND evidence deficits in time interval judgment suggestive of failures in basic attentional and memory processes. PMID:25854272

  18. Time estimation and production in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie L; Morgan, Erin E; Weber, Erica; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-02-01

    The ability to accurately perceive the passage of time relies on several neurocognitive abilities, including attention, memory, and executive functions, which are domains commonly affected in persons living with HIV disease. The current study examined time estimation and production and their neurocognitive correlates in a sample of 53 HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), 120 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 113 HIV- individuals. Results revealed a moderate main effect of HAND on time estimation and a trend-level effect on time production, but no interaction between HAND and time interval duration. Correlational analyses revealed that time estimation in the HIV+ group was associated with attention, episodic memory and time-based prospective memory. Findings indicate that individuals with HAND evidence deficits in time interval judgment suggestive of failures in basic attentional and memory processes.

  19. [Left temporal arachnoid cyst and specific learning disorders associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorders - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS): contributions of an integrative neuropsychomotor, neuropsychological, psychopathological and neurosurgical approach about a case report in a child (François)].

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Boschi, A; Cuny, M L; Clouard, C; Mosser, A; Golse, B; Philippe, A; Bourgeois, M; Boddaert, N; Puget, S

    2016-12-01

    Left temporal arachnoid cyst and specific learning disorders associated with pervasive developmental disorders - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): contributions of an integrative neuro-psychomotor, neuropsychological, psychopathological and neurosurgical approach about a case report in a child (François). With DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR, the terminology of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) covers two main categories of infantile disorders: disorders of "strictly" autistic nature and pervasive developmental disorders - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Under the terminology of multiple complex developmental disorder (MCDD), it is proposed to classify children presenting symptoms approaching the psychotic disharmonies and usually diagnosed as PDD-NOS. Such a category of developmental disorders is now included without nosographic distinction in the autistic spectrum in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-V). We are reporting a case report of a 6-year-old boy which shows a PDD-NoS/MCDD complex symptomatology type. This child presents multiple disorders: minor neurological signs (soft signs), neuro-psychomotor disorders, developmental coordination disorder (DCD), communication, thought, and regulation of emotions disorders, attention deficit disorders (ADD); in the presence of a high verbal intellectual potential, which makes it difficult to establish a clear diagnosis. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out due to the presence of minor neurological signs (soft signs) and of neurodevelopmental multiple disorders. The MRI revealed a voluminous arachnoid temporo-polar left cyst with a marked mass effect on the left temporal lobe. A neurosurgical intervention allowed to observe the gradual disappearance of the specific symptomatology (in particular soft signs, neuro-psychomotor functions and autistic symptoms) secondary to the interference of the cyst's pressure with intracranial areas involving neurological and

  20. The influence of affective temperaments and psychopathological traits on the definition of bipolar disorder subtypes: a study on bipolar I Italian national sample.

    PubMed

    Perugi, G; Toni, C; Maremmani, I; Tusini, G; Ramacciotti, S; Madia, A; Fornaro, M; Akiskal, H S

    2012-01-01

    Affective temperament and psychopathological traits such as separation anxiety (SA) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS) are supposed to impact on the clinical manifestation and on the course of Bipolar Disorder (BD); in the present study we investigated their influence on the definition of BD subtypes. : Among 106 BD-I patients with DSM-IV depressive, manic or mixed episode included in a multi-centric Italian study and treated according to the routine clinical practice, 89 (84.0%) were in remission after a follow-up period ranging from 3 to 6 months (Clinical Global Impression-BP [CGI-BP] <2). Remitting patients underwent a comprehensive evaluation including self-report questionnaires such as the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) scale, Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI), Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) and the Semi-structured interview for Mood Disorder (SIMD-R) administered by experienced clinicians. Correlation and factorial analyses were conducted on temperamental and psychopathological measures. Comparative analyses were conducted on different temperamental subtypes based on the TEMPS-A, SASI and IPSM profile. : Depressive, cyclothymic and irritable TEMPS-A score and SASI and IPSM total scores were positively and statistically correlated with each other. On the contrary, hyperthymic temperament score was negatively correlated with depressive temperament and not significantly correlated with the other temperamental and psychopathological dimensions. The factorial analysis of the TEMPS-A subscales and SASI and IPSM total scores allowed the extraction of 2 factors: the cyclothymic-sensitive (explaining 46% of the variance) that included, as positive components, depressive, cyclothymic, irritable temperaments and SASI and IPSM scores; the hyperthymic (explaining the 19% of the variance) included hyperthymic temperament as the only positive component and depressive temperament and IPSM, as negative components

  1. Hand preference in children with developmental coordination disorders: cause and effect?

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, H; Whiting, H T A

    2002-06-01

    Inter- and intra-modal matching by eight-year-old children diagnosed as having hand-eye coordination problems (HECP) and categorized as left-handed, together with a left-handed control group of children without such problems, were tested using a manual sensory matching task. The task required the children to locate target pins, visually (seen target), proprioceptively (felt target) or in combination (felt and seen target), while matching to the located target was always carried out without vision. Performance was superior when the target was located visually or visually/proprioceptively for both groups of children. These results question the conclusion that intra-modal will always be more accurate than inter-modal matching. When the combined scores for both hands were analyzed, the HECP children showed inferior performance to the control children in both inter- and intra-modal matching. Separate right and left hand analyses, demonstrated that the differences between the HECP group and control children could be accounted for by lowered performances when the right hand (nonpreferred) was used to match the located target position. Putative neurological disorders related to the development of the hemisphere controlling the nonpreferred hand (left hemisphere) are invoked to account for the poor performance with the nonpreferred hand of the HECP children.

  2. Investigation of hand function among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with upper extremity trauma history.

    PubMed

    Huri, Meral; Şahin, Sedef; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare hand function in autistic children with history of upper extremity trauma with that of autistic children those who do not have history of trauma. The study group included total of 65 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was divided into 2 groups: children with trauma history (Group I) and control group (Group II) (Group I: n=28; Group II: n=37). Hand function was evaluated with 9-Hole Peg Test and Jebsen Hand Function Test. Somatosensory function was evaluated using somatosensory subtests of Sensory Integration and Praxis Test. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS version 20 software. Hand function and somatosensory perception test scores were statistically significantly better in children without upper extremity trauma history (p<0.05). When association between hand function tests and upper extremity somatosensory perception tests was taken into account, statistically significant correlations were found between all parameters of hand function tests and Manual Form Perception and Localization of Tactile Stimuli Test results (p<0.05). Autistic children with upper extremity trauma history had poor somatosensory perception and hand function. It is important to raise awareness among emergency service staff and inform them about strong relationship between somatosensory perception, hand function, and upper extremity trauma in children with ASD in order to develop appropriate rehabilitation process and prevent further trauma.

  3. Arm and Hand Movement in Children Suspected of Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Hilton, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe arm and hand movement in children suspected of having autism spectrum disorder (ASD; age range 29-43 months). A videotaped retrospective review of five children with symptoms of ASD during "Communication Temptation Tasks" was completed at two time points (pre-testing and 6 weeks later). Categories of…

  4. The Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals Proprioceptive and Sensorimotor Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Bryan; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by differences in unimodal and multimodal sensory and proprioceptive processing, with complex biases towards local over global processing. Many of these elements are implicated in versions of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which were therefore studied in high-functioning individuals with ASD and a…

  5. Arm and Hand Movement in Children Suspected of Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Hilton, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe arm and hand movement in children suspected of having autism spectrum disorder (ASD; age range 29-43 months). A videotaped retrospective review of five children with symptoms of ASD during "Communication Temptation Tasks" was completed at two time points (pre-testing and 6 weeks later). Categories of…

  6. The Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals Proprioceptive and Sensorimotor Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Bryan; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by differences in unimodal and multimodal sensory and proprioceptive processing, with complex biases towards local over global processing. Many of these elements are implicated in versions of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which were therefore studied in high-functioning individuals with ASD and a…

  7. [Factitious disorder and self-mutilation in hand and plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sproedt, J; von Campe, A; Bonaccio, M; Grünert, J G

    2010-02-01

    Self-mutilation in the context of factitious disorder can lead to prolonged and complicated treatment in every medical field. Because of a prevalence of 1-5% in hospitalised patients, it is important to be aware of this disorder to protect patients from self- and foreign-induced harm. Often the patient history gives important hints. The different manifestations of this disorder, the specific doctor-patient relationship, several techniques of confrontation and current treatment are presented. Clinical cases from the fields of hand and plastic surgery are presented.

  8. Effective emotion regulation strategies improve fMRI and ECG markers of psychopathology in panic disorder: implications for psychological treatment action.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, A; Filippini, N; Berna, C; Western, D G; Hanson, B; Cooper, M J; Taggart, P; Harmer, C J

    2015-11-03

    Impairments in emotion regulation are thought to have a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, but the neurobiological underpinnings contributing to vulnerability remain poorly understood. It has been a long-held view that exaggerated fear is linked to hyperresponsivity of limbic brain areas and impaired recruitment of prefrontal control. However, increasing evidence suggests that prefrontal-cortical networks are hyperactive during threat processing in anxiety disorders. This study directly explored limbic-prefrontal neural response, connectivity and heart-rate variability (HRV) in patients with a severe anxiety disorder during incidental versus intentional emotion regulation. During 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging, 18 participants with panic disorder and 18 healthy controls performed an emotion regulation task. They either viewed negative images naturally (Maintain), or they were instructed to intentionally downregulate negative affect using previously taught strategies of cognitive reappraisal (Reappraisal). Electrocardiograms were recorded throughout to provide a functional measure of regulation and emotional processing. Compared with controls, patients showed increased neural activation in limbic-prefrontal areas and reduced HRV during incidental emotion regulation (Maintain). During intentional regulation (Reappraisal), group differences were significantly attenuated. These findings emphasize patients' ability to regulate negative affect if provided with adaptive strategies. They also bring prefrontal hyperactivation forward as a potential mechanism of psychopathology in anxiety disorders. Although these results challenge models proposing impaired allocation of prefrontal resources as a key characteristic of anxiety disorders, they are in line with more recent neurobiological frameworks suggesting that prefrontal hyperactivation might reflect increased utilisation of maladaptive regulation strategies quintessential for anxiety

  9. Effective emotion regulation strategies improve fMRI and ECG markers of psychopathology in panic disorder: implications for psychological treatment action

    PubMed Central

    Reinecke, A; Filippini, N; Berna, C; Western, D G; Hanson, B; Cooper, M J; Taggart, P; Harmer, C J

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in emotion regulation are thought to have a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, but the neurobiological underpinnings contributing to vulnerability remain poorly understood. It has been a long-held view that exaggerated fear is linked to hyperresponsivity of limbic brain areas and impaired recruitment of prefrontal control. However, increasing evidence suggests that prefrontal–cortical networks are hyperactive during threat processing in anxiety disorders. This study directly explored limbic–prefrontal neural response, connectivity and heart-rate variability (HRV) in patients with a severe anxiety disorder during incidental versus intentional emotion regulation. During 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging, 18 participants with panic disorder and 18 healthy controls performed an emotion regulation task. They either viewed negative images naturally (Maintain), or they were instructed to intentionally downregulate negative affect using previously taught strategies of cognitive reappraisal (Reappraisal). Electrocardiograms were recorded throughout to provide a functional measure of regulation and emotional processing. Compared with controls, patients showed increased neural activation in limbic–prefrontal areas and reduced HRV during incidental emotion regulation (Maintain). During intentional regulation (Reappraisal), group differences were significantly attenuated. These findings emphasize patients' ability to regulate negative affect if provided with adaptive strategies. They also bring prefrontal hyperactivation forward as a potential mechanism of psychopathology in anxiety disorders. Although these results challenge models proposing impaired allocation of prefrontal resources as a key characteristic of anxiety disorders, they are in line with more recent neurobiological frameworks suggesting that prefrontal hyperactivation might reflect increased utilisation of maladaptive regulation strategies quintessential for anxiety

  10. Exploring the Agreement between Questionnaire Information and DSM-IV Diagnoses of Comorbid Psychopathology in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjevik, Elen; Sandstad, Berit; Andreassen, Ole A.; Myhre, Anne M.; Sponheim, Eili

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are often comorbid with other psychiatric symptoms and disorders. However, identifying psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders is challenging. We explored how a questionnaire, the Child Behavior Check List, agreed with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth…

  11. Exploring the Agreement between Questionnaire Information and DSM-IV Diagnoses of Comorbid Psychopathology in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjevik, Elen; Sandstad, Berit; Andreassen, Ole A.; Myhre, Anne M.; Sponheim, Eili

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are often comorbid with other psychiatric symptoms and disorders. However, identifying psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders is challenging. We explored how a questionnaire, the Child Behavior Check List, agreed with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth…

  12. Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Allen, Nicholas; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers’ and fathers’ responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and the adolescents completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta-emotion interviews and parent-adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of nondepressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression. PMID:28804218

  13. Illusory Changes in Body Size Modulate Body Satisfaction in a Way That Is Related to Non-Clinical Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  14. Birth order and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  15. New technical design of food packaging makes the opening process easier for patients with hand disorders.

    PubMed

    Hensler, Stefanie; Herren, Daniel B; Marks, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Opening packaged food is a complex daily activity carried out worldwide. Peelable packaging, as used for cheese or meat, causes real problems for many consumers, especially elderly people and those with hand disorders. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of producing meat packaging that is easier for patients with hand disorders to open. One hundred patients with hand osteoarthritis were asked to open a meat package currently available in supermarkets (Type A) and a modified, newly designed version (Type B), and rate their experiences with a consumer satisfaction index (CSI). The mean CSI of the Type B packs was 68.9%, compared with 41.9% for Type A (p < 0.0001). These results show that manufacturers today can produce easy-to-open food packages that afford greater consumer satisfaction. Such future packaging would benefit not only people with hand disorders but also the population as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive psychopathology in Schizophrenia: Comparing memory performances with Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and normal subjects on the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Cammisuli, Davide Maria; Sportiello, Marco Timpano

    2016-06-01

    Memory system turns out to be one of the cognitive domains most severely impaired in schizophrenia. Within the theoretical framework of cognitive psychopathology, we compared the performance of schizophrenia patients on the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV with that in matched patients with Obsessive-compulsive disorder and that in healthy control subjects to establish the specific nature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. 30 schizophrenia patients, 30 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 40 healthy controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV. Schizophrenia symptom severity was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Performances on memory battery including Indexes and subtests scores were compared by a One-Way ANOVA (Scheffé post-hoc test). Spearman Rank correlations were performed between scores on PANSS subscales and symptoms and WMS-IV Indexes and subtests, respectively. Schizophrenia patients showed a memory profile characterized by mild difficulties in auditory memory and visual working memory and poor functioning of visual, immediate and delayed memory. As expected, schizophrenia patients scored lower than healthy controls on all WMS-IV measures. With regard to the WMS-IV Indexes, schizophrenia patients performed worse on Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate and Delayed Memory than Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients but not on Visual Working Memory. Such a pattern was made even clearer for specific tasks such as immediate and delayed recall and spatial recall and memory for visual details, as revealed by the lowest scores on Logical Memory (immediate and delayed conditions) and Designs (immediate condition) subtests, respectively. Significant negative correlations between Logical Memory I and II were found with PANSS Excitement symptom as well as between DE I and PANSS Tension symptom. Significant positive correlations between LM II and PANSS Blunted affect and Poor rapport symptoms as well as DE I and PANSS Blunted affect

  17. The Rubber Hand Illusion in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Delayed Influence of Combined Tactile and Visual Input on Proprioception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Burnette, Courtney P.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Cosby, Akua A.

    2012-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, perceived hand ownership can be transferred to a rubber hand after synchronous visual and tactile stimulation. Perceived body ownership and self-other relation are foundational for development of self-awareness, imitation, and empathy, which are all affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined the rubber…

  18. The Rubber Hand Illusion in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Delayed Influence of Combined Tactile and Visual Input on Proprioception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Burnette, Courtney P.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Cosby, Akua A.

    2012-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, perceived hand ownership can be transferred to a rubber hand after synchronous visual and tactile stimulation. Perceived body ownership and self-other relation are foundational for development of self-awareness, imitation, and empathy, which are all affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined the rubber…

  19. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders.

  20. A case of recurrent depressive disorder presenting with Alice in Wonderland syndrome: psychopathology and pre- and post-treatment FDG-PET findings.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Tatsushi; Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Shinsuke

    2017-04-27

    Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome that typically manifests in distortion of extrapersonal visual image, altered perception of one's body image, and a disturbed sense of the passage of distance and time. Several conditions have been reported to contribute to AIWS, although its biological basis is still unknown. Here, we present the first case demonstrating a clear concurrence of recurrent depressive disorder and AIWS. The clinical manifestations and pre- and post-treatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomographic (FDG-PET) images provide insights into the psychopathological and biological basis of AIWS. We describe a 63-year-old Japanese male who developed two distinct episodes of major depression concurrent with AIWS. In addition to typical AIWS perceptual symptoms, he complained of losing the ability to intuitively grasp the seriousness of news and the value of money, which implies disturbance of high-order cognition related to estimating magnitude and worth. Both depression and AIWS remitted after treatment in each episode. Pre-treatment FDG-PET images showed significant hypometabolism in the frontal cortex and hypermetabolism in the occipital and parietal cortex. Post-treatment images showed improvement of these abnormalities. The clinical co-occurrence of depressive episodes and presentation of AIWS can be interpreted to mean that they have certain functional disturbances in common. In view of incapacity, indifference, devitalization, altered perception of one's body image, and disturbed sense of time and space, the features of AIWS analogous to those of psychotic depression imply a common psychopathological basis. These high-order brain dysfunctions are possibly associated with the metabolic abnormalities in visual and parietotemporal association cortices that we observed on the pre- and post-treatment FDG-PET images in this case, while the hypometabolism in the frontal cortex is probably associated with depressive

  1. Impact of personality psychopathology on outcome in short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy for Axis I disorders.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Mathieu; Russell, Jennifer J; Myhr, Gail

    2015-12-15

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious for many Axis I disorders, though its effectiveness in the real world, for patients with Axis II comorbidity is less well known. This study examines the effectiveness of CBT for Axis I disorders in three groups of patients: those with personality disorders, those with personality disorder traits and those with no Axis II pathology. Consecutive referrals of patients with non-psychotic Axis I disorders were assessed for short-term CBT in a University Teaching Unit. While the acceptance rate was lower for individuals with personality disorders, there were no group differences in dropout rates. Of those who completed therapy (mean number of sessions=17.8, SD=11.2), those in the Personality Disorders group (n=45) had 4 sessions more on average than the Personality Disorder Traits group (n=42) or the No Axis II Group (n=266). All 3 groups were equally successful, whether the outcome was therapist opinion of success, the clinical global impression, or the reliable change index based on patient-reported symptom change. Intent to treat analysis results paralleled those of the completer analysis. Our findings indicate that the presence of a personality disorder does not negatively impact therapy adherence or success in short-term CBT for an Axis I disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower cognitive reserve among individuals with syndromic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Woods, Steven Paul; Smith, Christine; Weber, Erica; Scott, J Cobb; Grant, Igor

    2012-11-01

    HIV-seropositive individuals with low cognitive reserve are at high risk for developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that cognitive reserve would also play a unique role in the expression of everyday functioning complications among those with HAND (i.e., syndromic versus subsyndromic impairment). Eighty-six individuals with HIV infection were evaluated; 53 individuals evidenced normal neurocognitive performance, 16 had subsyndromic HAND (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment), and 17 were diagnosed with syndromic HAND based on a comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation. Cognitive reserve represented a combined score including years of education, estimated verbal IQ, and highest occupational attainment. The groups were comparable (e.g. demographics), and the HAND groups had similar rates of global neurocognitive impairment. The syndromic HAND group evidenced lower reserve scores relative to both other groups, suggesting that individuals with lower reserve may be less able to effectively counteract their neurocognitive impairment to maintain independence in daily living activities than HIV-infected individuals with high cognitive reserve.

  3. Lower Cognitive Reserve Among Individuals with Syndromic HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Smith, Christine; Weber, Erica; Scott, J. Cobb; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    HIV-seropositive individuals with low cognitive reserve are at high risk for developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that cognitive reserve would also play a unique role in the expression of everyday functioning complications among those with HAND (i.e., syndromic versus subsyndromic impairment). Eighty-six individuals with HIV infection were evaluated; 53 individuals evidenced normal neurocognitive performance, 16 had subsyndromic HAND (i.e., Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment), and 17 were diagnosed with a syndromic HAND based on a comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation. Cognitive reserve represented a combined score including years of education, estimated verbal IQ, and highest occupational attainment. The groups were comparable (e.g. demographics), and the HAND groups had similar rates of global neurocognitive impairment. The Syndromic HAND group evidenced lower reserve scores relative to both other groups, suggesting that HIV-infected individuals with high cognitive reserve more effectively counteract their neurocognitive impairment to maintain independence in daily living activities. PMID:22677976

  4. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Hand and Wrist: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Sensorimotor Changes

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ann E.; Barbe, Mary F.; Clark, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present recent epidemiological findings regarding work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) of the hand and wrist, and to summarize experimental evidence of underlying tissue pathophysiology and sensorimotor changes in WMSDs. Sixty-five percent of the 333 800 newly reported cases of occupational illness in 2001 were attributed to repeated trauma. WMSDs of the hand and wrist are associated with the longest absences from work and are, therefore, associated with greater lost productivity and wages than those of other anatomical regions. Selected epidemiological studies of hand/wrist WMSDs published since 1998 are reviewed and summarized. Results from selected animal studies concerning underlying tissue pathophysiology in response to repetitive movement or tissue loading are reviewed and summarized. To the extent possible, corroborating evidence in human studies for various tissue pathomechanisms suggested in animal models is presented. Repetitive, hand-intensive movements, alone or in combination with other physical, nonphysical, and nonoccupational risk factors, contribute to the development of hand/wrist WMSDs. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms of tissue injury include inflammation followed by repair and/or fibrotic scarring, peripheral nerve injury, and central nervous system reorganization. Clinicians should consider all of these pathomechanisms when examining and treating patients with hand/wrist WMSDs. PMID:15552707

  5. Claw hand

    MedlinePlus

    Ulnar nerve palsy - claw hand; Ulnar nerve dysfunction - claw hand; Ulnar claw ... Someone can be born with claw hand (congenital), or they can develop it because of certain disorders, such as nerve injury.

  6. Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of peripheral neurological disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Regular exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can result in symptoms and signs of peripheral vascular, neurological and other disorders collectively known as the hand-arm vibration syndrome. The measurement of the effects of hand-transmitted vibration involves converting the evidence of disorder (symptoms and signs) into information that can be stored. Evaluation requires the use of scales on which to indicate the severity of the various symptoms and signs. Assessment involves a judgement of severity relative to a criterion, usually for a specific purpose (e.g. to decide on removal from work or compensation). The measurement and evaluation of symptoms and signs is necessary when monitoring patient health and when performing epidemiological studies for research. The assessment of the severity of the hand-arm vibration syndrome is currently performed with staging systems, but the criteria are not clear and not related to defined methods for measuring or evaluating the symptoms and signs. Recognizing that similar symptoms can occur without injury from occupational exposures to hand-transmitted vibration, this paper attempts to define significant peripheral neurological symptoms caused by hand-transmitted vibration (i.e. 'unusual symptoms') and how these symptoms and related signs may be measured. Scales for evaluating the symptoms (e.g. their extent) and the related signs (e.g. their probability relative to the probability of the sign being present in persons not exposed to vibration) are defined. A method of relating unusual symptoms to both the signs of disorder and the pattern of vibration exposure is illustrated. Assessments of severity will vary according to the reasons for assessing the health effects of vibration, and will depend on local practice and convenience, but a way of combining evaluations of symptoms and signs is demonstrated in a staging system. Although inherently complex, the methods may assist the collection of data required to improve

  7. Suicidality and its relationships with individual, family, peer, and psychopathology factors among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study.

  8. Behavioral Problems in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Controlled Study to Examine the Risk of Psychopathology in a Chronic Pediatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chamanara, Elham; Raeeskarami, Seyed-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are prone to the problems that can delay their psychosocial development; however, the existing literature has not reached a consensus on the psychological problems related to JIA. A total of 51 children and adolescents with JIA and 75 healthy controls aged 6 to 18 years were examined using the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Our results represented that 70 percent of JIA group reached “borderline clinical” range or “clinical” range in internalizing problems, while this percentage in the control group was 18 percent. In addition, our results indicated that JIA group has gotten significantly higher scores (more than twofold) in externalizing behaviors compared to control group. Furthermore, children with JIA showed higher rate of anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, somatic complaints, rule breaking behaviors, and aggressive behaviors as well as thought and social problems compared to control group (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy controls may show higher rate of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, our novel findings on externalizing, social, and thought problems in JIA warrant further investigation on affected children who may be at greater risk of future psychopathologies. PMID:27656678

  9. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Du, Hua; Li, Ben-Hong; Cui, Bo; Ding, Qing-Yun; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some mimic disorders, such as distal-type cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA), Hirayama disease (HD), and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) may present with intrinsic hand muscle atrophy. This study aimed to investigate different patterns of small hand muscle involvement in ALS and some mimic disorders. Methods: We compared the abductor digiti minimi/abductor pollicis brevis (ADM/APB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratios between 200 ALS patients, 95 patients with distal-type CSA, 88 HD patients, 43 SBMA patients, and 150 normal controls. Results: The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly higher in the ALS patients (P < 0.001) than that in the normal controls. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly reduced in the patients with distal-type CSA (P < 0.001) and the HD patients (P < 0.001) compared with that in the normal controls. The patients with distal-type CSA had significantly lower APB CMAP amplitude than the HD patients (P = 0.004). The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly lower in the HD patients (P < 0.001) than that in the patients with distal-type CSA. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio of the SBMA patients was similar to that of the normal controls (P = 0.862). An absent APB CMAP and an abnormally high ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio (≥4.5) were observed exclusively in the ALS patients. Conclusions: The different patterns of small hand muscle atrophy between the ALS patients and the patients with mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders, and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders. PMID:26996473

  10. [Nightmares and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Parmigiani, Giovanna; Gentili, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are long frightening dreams, quite common in psychiatric and general population; they may cause psychological distress and social or occupational dysfunction and are the most common form of parasomnia. They can be divided into post-traumatic nightmares, which are part of post-traumatic stress reaction, idiopathic and stress-induced. This article is a review of studies evaluating the relationship between nightmares and psychopathology, especially in regard to their intensity and content. For example, prepsychotic patients often report nightmares, particularly of body fragmentation and death of the dreamer. Nightmares have been repeatedly associated with the general level of psychopathology and with the personality factor "neuroticism". Nightmare distress, the impact on daily functioning caused by nightmares, may function as a mediating variable. Several studies in the last years have shown that nightmares can be treated with several cognitive-behavioral techniques. Have been also reported promising effects of pharmacological agents, especially prazosin, but they need to be evaluated in larger placebo-controlled trials. In summary, many findings on nightmares are preliminary and this field needs to be further investigated. Nevertheless psychiatry and general medicine need to pay more attention to nightmares; they are not merely a nightly symptom of anxiety, but a separate sleep disorder that should receive specific treatment.

  11. [Hand-arm vibration syndrome and upper limb disorders associated with forestry work].

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Rui, Francesca; Versini, W; Tommasini, M; Nataletti, P

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration in forestry workers is associated with an increased risk for vascular, neurological and musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs. To carry out a cross-sectional study of the hand-arm vibration syndrome and soft-tissue disorders of the upper limb in a group of forestry workers employed in the Forestry Service of the Province of Trento (Italy). In the forestry worker group, usage of anti-vibration chain-saws was intermittent over a typical work year (16 weeks/yr, on average). To investigate vascular, neurological and musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs, the forestry workers (n=159) and a control group of manual workers, unexposed to hand-transmitted vibration, employed in the same Forestry Service (n=146) underwent a structured medical interview and a complete physical examination. The clinical diagnoses of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and carpal tunnel syndrome were made according to internationally recognised consensus criteria. Occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration was assessed according to the recommendations of the International Standard ISO 5349-1 (2001). The forestry workers showed an increased prevalence of peripheral sensory-neural disturbances (33.3%), musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs (37.7%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (21.4%) compared to those observed in the control group. There was no significant difference in the prevalence ofRaynaud' sphenomenon between the forestry workers (6.3%) and the controls (4.1%). After adjustment for confounding factors (age, body mass index, tobacco and alcohol consumption), a significant association was observed between peripheral neuropathies (peripheral sensory-neural disorders, carpal tunnel syndrome) and several indices of vibration exposure such as 8-hr energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration [A(8) in m/s2 r.m.s.], duration of exposure (years), and lifetime vibration dose (m2/s4 hr). An excess, although not

  12. Assessing the relationship between eating disorder psychopathology and autistic traits in a non-clinical adult population.

    PubMed

    Carton, Amelia Myri; Smith, Alastair D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates a genetic and behavioural link between eating disorders and autism spectrum disorders, and a recent study (Coombs et al. in Br J Clin Psychol 50:326-338, 2011) extends this link to typical populations, showing a positive correlation between behaviours in typically developing children. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether this relationship continues beyond development, by studying the link between behaviours in a non-clinical adult population. We examined associations between performance on measures relating to autistic traits and disordered eating. Undergraduate students, equally balanced by gender and by subject studied (i.e. humanity or science), completed three tasks: to measure autistic traits, participants were administered the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Eating disorder symptomatology was measured by the Eating Attitudes Test (Eat-26). Our data revealed a significant positive correlation between scores on the AQ and Eat-26. Multiple linear regressions showed that higher scores on the AQ were particularly associated with higher scores on the Bulimia & Food Preoccupation subscale of the Eat-26. EFT performance was positively related to behaviours associated with autism and eating disorders, although not reliably so. These data support the broader link between autistic traits and disordered eating in the non-clinical population, and demonstrate that it extends into adulthood (a time at which autistic behaviours can decrease). This work carries implications for the development of cognitive therapies for people with eating disorders.

  13. Prospective memory in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND): the neuropsychological dynamics of time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie L; Loft, Shayne; Morgan, Erin E; Weber, Erica; Cushman, Clint; Johnston, Elaine; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Strategic monitoring during a delay interval is theorized to be an essential feature of time-based prospective memory (TB PM), the cognitive architecture of which is thought to rely heavily on frontostriatal systems and executive functions. This hypothesis was examined in 55 individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and 108 seronegative comparison participants who were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), during which time-monitoring (clock-checking) behavior was measured. Results revealed a significant interaction between HAND group and the frequency of clock checking, in which individuals with HAND checked the clock significantly less often than the comparison group across the TB PM retention intervals of the MIST. Subsequent analyses in the HAND sample revealed that the frequency of clocking checking was positively related to overall TB performance, as well as to standard clinical measures of retrospective memory and verbal fluency. These findings add support to a growing body of research elucidating TB PM's reliance on strategic monitoring processes dependent upon intact frontostriatal systems. HIV-associated TB strategic time-monitoring deficits may manifest in poorer functioning outcomes, including medication nonadherence and dependence in activities of daily living. Future research is needed to further delineate the cognitive mechanisms underlying strategic time monitoring in order to advise rehabilitation strategies for reducing HAND-related TB PM deficits.

  14. Risky decision-making in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

    PubMed

    Iudicello, Jennifer E; Woods, Steven Paul; Cattie, Jordan E; Doyle, Katie; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV show moderate deficits in decision-making, but the ecological relevance of such deficits on everyday functioning has not previously been described. This study sought to examine the magnitude, cognitive correlates, and everyday functioning impact of risky decision-making impairment in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Participants included 68 HIV+ individuals with HAND, 78 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 51 HIV- comparison participants, who were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) alongside a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and self-report measures assessing aspects of everyday functioning. HIV+ individuals with HAND performed more poorly on the IGT relative to the other two groups, most notably during the last three trial blocks. Within the HIV+ group, IGT performance during the last three trial blocks was most strongly associated with cognitive flexibility, but was not significantly related to declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), unemployment, or medication non-adherence. While overall IGT performance across the last three trial blocks may be helpful diagnostically in identifying decision-making impairment in HAND, examination of alternate, more specific metrics (e.g., individual deck selections across trial blocks) may be more useful in delineating the role of poor decision-making in HIV-related disability, and should be examined in future research.

  15. Risky decision-making in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Cattie, Jordan E.; Doyle, Katie; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV show moderate deficits in decision-making, but the ecological relevance of such deficits on everyday functioning has not previously been described. This study sought to examine the magnitude, cognitive correlates, and everyday functioning impact of risky decision-making impairment in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Participants included 68 HIV+ individuals with HAND, 78 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 51 HIV- comparison participants, who were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) alongside a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and self-report measures assessing aspects of everyday functioning. HIV+ individuals with HAND performed more poorly on the IGT relative to the other two groups, most notably during the last three trial blocks. Within the HIV+ group, IGT performance during the last three trial blocks was most strongly associated with cognitive flexibility, but was not significantly related to declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), unemployment, or medication non-adherence. While overall IGT performance across the last three trial blocks may be helpful diagnostically in identifying decision-making impairment in HAND, examination of alternate, more specific metrics (e.g., individual deck selections across trial blocks) may be more useful in delineating the role of poor decision-making in HIV-related disability, and should be examined in future research. PMID:23181946

  16. Prospective Memory in HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND): The Neuropsychological Dynamics of Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Loft, Shayne; Morgan, Erin E.; Weber, Erica; Cushman, Clint; Johnston, Elaine; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Strategic monitoring during a delay interval is theorized to be an essential feature of time-based prospective memory (TB PM), the cognitive architecture of which is thought to rely heavily on frontostriatal systems and executive functions. This hypothesis was examined in 55 individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and 108 seronegative comparison participants who were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), during which time monitoring (clock checking) behavior was measured. Results revealed a significant interaction between HAND group and the frequency of clock checking, in which individuals with HAND monitored checked the clock significantly less often than the comparison group across the TB PM retention intervals of the MIST. Subsequent analyses in the HAND sample revealed that the frequency of clocking checking was positively related to overall TB performance, as well as to standard clinical measures of retrospective memory and verbal fluency. These findings add support to a growing body of research elucidating TB PM’s reliance on strategic monitoring processes dependent upon intact frontostriatal systems. HIV-associated TB strategic time monitoring deficits may manifest in poorer functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence and dependence in activities of daily living. Future research is needed to further delineate the cognitive mechanisms underlying strategic time monitoring in order to advise rehabilitation strategies for reducing HAND related TB PM deficits. PMID:23465043

  17. Temperament and character profiles in bipolar I, bipolar II and major depressive disorder: Impact over illness course, comorbidity pattern and psychopathological features of depression.

    PubMed

    Zaninotto, Leonardo; Souery, Daniel; Calati, Raffaella; Di Nicola, Marco; Montgomery, Stuart; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; Mendlewicz, Julien; Robert Cloninger, C; Serretti, Alessandro; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-09-15

    Studies comparing temperament and character traits between patients with mood disorders and healthy individuals have yielded variable results. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to 101 bipolar I (BP-I), 96 bipolar II (BP-II), 123 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, and 125 HS. A series of generalized linear models were performed in order to: (a) compare the TCI dimensions across groups; (b) test any effect of the TCI dimensions on clinical features of mood disorders; and (c) detect any association between TCI dimensions and the psychopathological features of a major depressive episode. Demographic and clinical variables were also included in the models as independent variables. Higher Harm Avoidance was found in BP-II and MDD, but not in BP-I. Higher Self-Transcendence was found in BP-I. Our models also showed higher Self-Directedness in HS, either vs MDD or BP-II. No association was found between any TCI dimension and the severity of symptoms. Conversely, a positive association was found between Harm Avoidance and the overall burden of depressive episodes during lifetime. The cross-sectional design and the heterogeneity of the sample may be the main limitations of our study. In general, our sample seems to support the view of a similar profile of temperament and character between MDD and BP-II, characterized by high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness. In contrast, patients with BP-I only exhibit high Self-Transcendence, having a near-normal profile in terms of Harm Avoidance or Self-Directedness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative symptoms: psychopathological models.

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, J; Djenderdjian, A; Shamasunder, P; Costa, J; Herrera, J; Sramek, J

    1991-01-01

    The psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia have been broadly divided into positive and negative symptom groups. Even though there is no definitive consensus, psychomotor agitation, motor excitement, hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder constitute positive and psychomotor retardation, amotivation, apathy and decreased emotional expression are grouped into negative symptoms. The negative symptoms have been reported to appear late in the course of the illness and resistant to treatment with neuroleptics. While these claims have not been substantiated, the current interest on negative symptoms is related to the fact that many nonfunctioning institutionalized as well as ambulatory schizophrenics manifest negative symptoms. As chronic psychiatric beds have become scarce, many patients with negative symptoms who were harbored in the chronic mental hospitals have been released to the community care and some of these patients live on the streets. Thus their visibility has challenged psychiatry to focus its efforts on the etiology and treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:2049366

  19. Contribution of Interpersonal Problems to Eating Disorder Psychopathology via Negative Affect in Treatment-seeking Men and Women: Testing the Validity of the Interpersonal Model in an Understudied Population.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Proulx, Geneviève; Bissasda, Hany

    2016-12-28

    Research on the psychosocial correlates and theoretical frameworks of men presenting with eating disorders (ED) psychopathology is limited. This study compared treatment-seeking men and women in terms of their levels of interpersonal functioning (affiliation and dominance), regulation of negative emotions (negative affect and instability) and ED psychopathology. The study also investigated the validity of the interpersonal model of ED in men. Results from the cross-sectional data of 388 participants (137 men and 251 women) demonstrated that the structural models fit and that paths were invariant across men and women. There were significant indirect effects of interpersonal functioning on ED psychopathology, mediated through negative affect and instability, for both men and women. Negative affect and instability partially explain the relationship between interpersonal problems and ED psychopathology in treatment-seeking men and women. Current findings highlight the need to evaluate the validity of the model using longitudinal designs to test whether men and women are likely to benefit equally from interpersonal therapies for ED. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Compulsive Exercise Test: confirmatory factor analysis and links with eating psychopathology among women with clinical eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Caroline; Plateau, Carolyn R; Taranis, Lorin; Brewin, Nicola; Wales, Jackie; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET) among an adult sample of patients with eating disorders. Three hundred and fifty six patients and 360 non-clinical control women completed the CET and the Eating Disorders Examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the clinical data showed a moderate fit to the previously published five factor model derived from a community sample (Taranis L, Touyz S, Meyer C, Eur Eat Disord Rev 19:256-268, 2011). The clinical group scored significantly higher than the non-clinical group on four of the five CET subscales, and logistic regression analysis revealed that the CET could successfully discriminate between the two groups. A Receiver Operating Curve analysis revealed that a cut-off score of 15 on the CET resulted in acceptable values of both sensitivity and specificity. The CET appears to have a factor structure that is acceptable for use with an adult sample of patients with eating disorders. It can identify compulsive exercise among patients with eating disorders and a cut-off score of 15 is acceptable as indicating an appropriate cut-off point.

  1. The MMPI-2 Restructured Form Personality Psychopathology Five Scales: bridging DSM-5 Section 2 personality disorders and DSM-5 Section 3 personality trait dimensions.

    PubMed

    Finn, Jacob A; Arbisi, Paul A; Erbes, Christopher R; Polusny, Melissa A; Thuras, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study examined in a college sample and a sample of non-treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed veterans the association between the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales and DSM-5 Section 2 personality disorder (PD) criteria, the same system used in DSM-IV-TR, and the proposed broad personality trait dimensions contained in Section 3 of DSM-5. DSM-5 Section 2 PD symptoms were assessed using the SCID-II-PQ, and applying a replicated rational selection procedure to the SCID-II-PQ item pool, proxies for the DSM-5 Section 3 dimensions and select facets were constructed. The MMPI-2-RF PSY-5 scales demonstrated appropriate convergent and discriminant associations with both Section 2 PDs and Section 3 dimensions in both samples. These findings suggest the MMPI-2-RF PSY-5 scales can serve both conceptually and practically as a bridge between the DSM-5 Section 2 PD criteria and the DSM-5 Section 3 personality features.

  2. A comparison of eating disorder psychopathology, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating.

    PubMed

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the differences in eating disorder psychopathology, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem between 194 overweight/obese college women with and without binge eating. Participants were categorized as binge eating (BE; n=56) or non-binge eating (NBE; n=138) based on reports of binge eating at least once per week on average for the past 28days and no episodes of vomiting or laxative use in the past 28days. The BE group had significantly greater levels of eating, weight, and shape concerns and lower levels of appearance satisfaction and self-esteem than the NBE group. For the BE group, binge eating frequency was negatively correlated with dietary restraint. Results are generally consistent with studies utilizing clinical and community samples. The findings extend such research by examining binge eating in a sample of overweight and obese college women and indicating that overall appearance satisfaction is lower among women with binge eating. Study findings also highlight potential issues to address in obesity and binge eating intervention efforts for college populations. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in additional samples of college women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychopathology in difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Prins, Lonneke C J; van Son, Maarten J M; van Keimpema, Anton R J; van Ranst, Dirk; Pommer, Antoinette; Meijer, Jan-Willem G; Pop, Victor J M

    2015-01-01

    Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed to predispose patients to DA or vice versa; psychopathology may develop as a consequence of DA. We reviewed the available literature on empirical findings regarding psychopathology in adult patients with DA. Studies in English language journals using MEDLINE, Cochrane and PsycINFO databases, were retrieved by an electronic search published from 1990 till July 2014. Literature on psychopathology in DA is scarce. The search identified 16 articles of which only 6 articles were specifically about psychopathology in adult patients with DA. Almost half of the patients with DA had evidence of psychopathology at both syndrome and symptom level. Moreover, psychopathology appeared to be related to frequent exacerbations in patients with DA. This literature review suggests a high prevalence of psychopathology of patients with DA, although it remains unclear whether psychopathology occurs more often in DA compared to "stable asthma". More research is needed on a possible role of psychopathology on clinical signs and symptoms in DA.

  4. Future in Psychopathology Research

    PubMed Central

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter’s proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry. PMID:24562493

  5. Future in psychopathology research.

    PubMed

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  6. Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.

    PubMed

    Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P Read

    2010-10-21

    We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria.

  7. An Affective Dimension within Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms among Boys: Personality and Psychopathology Outcomes into Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A dimension of negatively oriented affect within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, which has been described as irritability, has been shown to predict depression and anxiety. Related constructs have been linked to temperament and personality constructs. However, only a few studies have examined the prediction from…

  8. An Affective Dimension within Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms among Boys: Personality and Psychopathology Outcomes into Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A dimension of negatively oriented affect within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, which has been described as irritability, has been shown to predict depression and anxiety. Related constructs have been linked to temperament and personality constructs. However, only a few studies have examined the prediction from…

  9. Disturbances in reality testing as markers of risk in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review from a developmental psychopathology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J; Allen, Timothy A; Cullen, Kathryn R; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This comprehensive review examined the prevalence and progression of disturbances in reality testing (DRT), defined as psychotic symptoms, cognitive disruptions, and thought problems, in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (O-BD). Our approach was grounded in a developmental psychopathology perspective and considered a broader phenotype of risk within the bipolar–schizophrenia spectrum as measured by categorical and dimensional assessments of DRT in high-risk youth. Methods Relevant studies were identified from numerous sources (e.g., PubMed, reference sections, and colleagues). Inclusion criteria were: (i) family risk studies published between 1975 and 2012 in which O-BD were contrasted with a comparison group (e.g., offspring of parents who had other psychiatric disorders or were healthy) on DRT outcomes and (ii) results reported for categorical or dimensional assessments of DRT (e.g., schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms, cluster A personality traits, or thought problems), yielding a total of 23 studies. Results Three key findings emerged: (i) categorical approaches of DRT in O-BD produced low incidence base rates and almost no evidence of significant differences in DRT between O-BD and comparison groups, whereas (ii) many studies using dimensional assessments of DRT yielded significant group differences in DRT. Furthermore, (iii) preliminary evidence from dimensional measures suggested that the developmental progression of DRT in O-BD might represent a prodrome of severe psychological impairment. Conclusions Preliminary but promising evidence suggests that DRT is a probable marker of risk for future impairment in O-BD. Methodological strengths and weaknesses, the psychometric properties of primary DRT constructs, and future directions for developmental and longitudinal research with O-BD are discussed. PMID:24034419

  10. Self-collimation of light in disordered left-handed metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusek, Marian; Mostowski, Jan

    2010-03-01

    Transmission of light through a left-handed slab is studied theoretically. The slab consists of randomly distributed electric and magnetic scatterers. In a practical realization these could be wire and split ring resonators forming a disordered metamaterial. Enhanced transmission close to the middle of the slab is demonstrated. It is explained canalization of source image through self-collimated channels. Existence of self-collimated channels localized on the surface of the slab is demonstrated and a possibility of sub-wavelength imaging by such a system is discussed.

  11. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Eye-Hand Coordination in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Using a Gap-Overlap Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippa, Alessandro; Forti, Sara; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated eye-hand coordination in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in comparison with age-matched normally developing peers. The eye-hand correlation was measured by putting fixation latencies in relation with pointing and key pressing responses in visual detection tasks where a gap-overlap paradigm was used and compared to…

  13. Eye-Hand Coordination in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Using a Gap-Overlap Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippa, Alessandro; Forti, Sara; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated eye-hand coordination in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in comparison with age-matched normally developing peers. The eye-hand correlation was measured by putting fixation latencies in relation with pointing and key pressing responses in visual detection tasks where a gap-overlap paradigm was used and compared to…

  14. A critical view of transgender health care in Germany: Psychopathologizing gender identity - Symptom of 'disordered' psychiatric/psychological diagnostics?

    PubMed

    Güldenring, Annette

    2015-01-01

    After explaining the essential trans* terminology, I offer a short historical overview of the way health care has dealt with the subject of gender, trans* and health in different times. In the third section, I compare the world's most important diagnostic manuals, namely the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), i.e. their criteria for 'gender identity disorders' (ICD-10) and 'gender dysphoria' (DSM-5). The fourth section branch out the factors which influence every diagnostic conception - of no matter whom - in the health care system. The last section discusses the implications resulting from this diagnostic dilemma for the health situation of gender nonconforming people.

  15. Male eating disorder patients with and without non-suicidal self-injury: a comparison of psychopathological and personality features.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Castro, Rita; Sánchez, Isabel; Menchón, Jose Manuel; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and comorbidity of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in male eating disorder (ED) patients. In total, 130 male ED patients completed a list of 10 impulse-control problems (including NSSI), the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Overall, 21% of the male ED patients (n = 27) engaged in at least one type of NSSI, and we did not find significant differences between the ED subtypes. Self-injurious male ED patients showed significantly more severe ED symptoms and more affective, interpersonal and impulse-control problems than ED patients without NSSI. As previously described in female ED, our data confirm the affect regulation and impulse regulation functions of NSSI in male ED patients.

  16. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  17. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  18. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  19. The Relationship Between Perfectionism and Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Karina; Watson, Hunna J; Hagger, Martin S; Egan, Sarah J

    2017-10-01

    The clinical significance of 2 main dimensions of perfectionism (perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns) was examined via a meta-analysis of studies investigating perfectionism in the psychopathology literature. We investigated relationships between psychopathology outcomes (clinical diagnoses of depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders; symptoms of these disorders; and outcomes related to psychopathology, such as deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation, and general distress) and each perfectionism dimension. The relationships were examined by evaluating (a) differences in the magnitude of association of the 2 perfectionism dimensions with psychopathology outcomes and (b) subscales of 2 common measures of perfectionism. A systematic literature search retrieved 284 relevant studies, resulting in 2,047 effect sizes that were analysed with meta-analysis and meta-regression while accounting for data dependencies. Findings support the notion of perfectionism as a transdiagnostic factor by demonstrating that both dimensions are associated with various forms of psychopathology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Genome-wide association study of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND): A CHARTER group study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming; Hulgan, Todd; Bush, William S; Samuels, David C; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Heaton, Robert K; Ellis, Ronald J; Schork, Nicholas; Marra, Christina M; Collier, Ann C; Clifford, David B; Gelman, Benjamin B; Sacktor, Ned; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; McCutchan, J Allen; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Franklin, Donald R; Rosario, Debralee; Letendre, Scott L; Grant, Igor; Kallianpur, Asha R

    2017-06-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) often complicates HIV infection despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be influenced by host genomics. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HAND in 1,050 CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Study participants. All participants underwent standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive, and neuromedical assessments to determine if they had cognitive impairment as assessed by the Global Deficit Score (GDS), and individuals with comorbidities that could confound diagnosis of HAND were excluded. Neurocognitive outcomes included GDS-defined neurocognitive impairment (NCI; binary GDS, 366 cases with GDS ≥ 0.5 and 684 controls with GDS < 0.5, and GDS as a continuous variable) and Frascati HAND definitions that incorporate assessment of functional impairment by self-report and performance-based criteria. Genotype data were obtained using the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 platform. Multivariable logistic or linear regression-based association tests were performed for GDS-defined NCI and HAND. GWAS results did not reveal SNPs meeting the genome-wide significance threshold (5.0 × 10(-8) ) for GDS-defined NCI or HAND. For binary GDS, the most significant SNPs were rs6542826 (P = 8.1 × 10(-7) ) and rs11681615 (1.2 × 10(-6) ), both located on chromosome 2 in SH3RF3. The most significant SNP for continuous GDS was rs11157436 (P = 1.3 × 10(-7) ) on chromosome 14 in the T-cell-receptor alpha locus; three other SNPs in this gene were also associated with binary GDS (P ≤ 2.9 × 10(-6) ). This GWAS, conducted among ART-era participants from a single cohort with robust neurological phenotyping, suggests roles for several biologically plausible loci in HAND that deserve further exploration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of sertraline on kinematic aspects of hand movements in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mergl, Roland; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Juckel, Georg; Zaudig, Michael; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Movement disorders such as disturbances of fine motor co-ordination are a frequent phenomenon in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Our aim was to investigate changes of hand-motor dysfunction in OCD patients under the influence of 10-week treatment with sertraline and behaviour therapy. We examined the performance of 40 patients satisfying DSM-IV criteria for OCD before and under this therapy using a digitising tablet and kinematic analysis of handwriting and drawing movements. Forty healthy controls were also tested (test-retest interval: 10 weeks). The speed of drawing was significantly lower in OCD patients than in controls (mean+/-standard deviation=197.03+/-113.26 mm/s for patients and 182.48+/-189.61 mm/s for controls; P=0.01). After 10 weeks of therapy, this parameter normalised in patients (from 197.03+/-113.26 mm/s to 163.66+/-101.92 mm/s; P=0.001). Hand-motor dysfunction (especially bradykinesia) improves with a serotonin-enhancing therapy in OCD patients.

  2. Neuropathogenesis of HIV: from initial neuroinvasion to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND).

    PubMed

    Zayyad, Zaina; Spudich, Serena

    2015-03-01

    Early in the HIV epidemic, the central nervous system (CNS) was recognized as a target of infection and injury in the advanced stages of disease. Though the most severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) related to severe immunosuppression are rare in the current era of widespread combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), evidence now supports pathological involvement of the CNS throughout the course of infection. Recent work suggests that the stage for HIV neuropathogenesis may be set with initial viral entry into the CNS, followed by initiation of pathogenetic processes including neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity, and establishment of local, compartmentalized HIV replication that may reflect a tissue reservoir for HIV. Key questions still exist as to when HIV establishes local infection in the CNS, which CNS cells are the primary targets of HIV, and what mechanistic processes underlie the injury to neurons that produce clinical symptoms of HAND. Advances in these areas will provide opportunities for improved treatment of patients with established HAND, prevention of neurological disease in those with early stage infection, and understanding of HIV tissue reservoirs that will aid efforts at HIV eradication.

  3. Parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Borges, Rebeca; Medina Mora, Maria-Elena; Benjet, Corina; Nock, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which parental psychopathology may confer increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts among their offspring in Mexico. Data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002) to examine the unique associations between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality were used. Parental disorders (major depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) were comorbid and after controlling for comorbidity and number of disorders only parental panic and antisocial personality disorder remained associated with ideation and attempts in the total sample. Those with more parental disorders were at increased risk of ideation and attempt, as well as increased risk to transition from suicide ideation to an attempt. These findings may help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries.

  4. Psychopathological characteristics of patients seeking for bariatric surgery, either affected or not by binge eating disorder following the criteria of the DSM IV TR and of the DSM 5.

    PubMed

    Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Da Ros, Annalisa; Speciale, Maurizio; Gentile, Nicola; Tagliabue, Anna; Vinai, Paolo; Bruno, Cecilia; Vinai, Luisa; Studt, Stacia; Cardetti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate whether there are any significant differences in psychopathology between severe obese patients affected by Binge Eating Disorder diagnosed following both the DSM IV TR and the DSM5 criteria, and severe obese patients not having an eating disorder. 118 severe obese patients seeking treatment at a center for bariatric surgery in northern Italy were asked to take part in the current study for a period of six months. Average participant age was 44.27 years, SD 12.42. Age ranged from 18 to 67 years. Average patient BMI was 45.03, SD 7.11, ranging from 32.14 to 66.16 kg/m(2). Seventy seven of the patients (65.3%) were females and 41 (34.7%) were males. BED diagnosis was determined following the diagnostic criteria of both the DSM IV TR and the DSM 5. The presence of other eating disorders was excluded through a clinical screening using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Patient eating habits and the presence of emotional eating were appraised using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Levels of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. 57 out of 118 patients were found to be affected by BED following the DSM 5 criteria; among them 24 followed those of the DSM IV TR. BED patients scored higher on four subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory: Drive for thinness (DT), Bulimia (B), Body dissatisfaction (BD) and Interoceptive awareness (IA) on the STAI and on the Disinhibition and Hunger subscales of the TFEQ. The results confirm the presence of high levels of psychopathology among patients diagnosed with BED, even if they have been diagnosed following the criteria of the DSM 5. There is a great overlap in psychopathology between BED patients diagnosed following the DSM IV TR and the DSM 5 criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperament and Behavior in Toddlers of Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation of a Population at High Familial Risk for Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Attalla, Ashraf M.; Nguyen, Theresa; Stagnaro, Emily; Knight, Bettina T.; Craighead, W. Edward; Stowe, Zachary N.; Newport, D. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: There are no published studies examining concurrent associations between temperament and behavior during toddlerhood in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), a population at high familial risk for psychopathology. Better understanding of early determinants contributing to well-being or mental illness in this high-risk population has the potential to aid in the identification of problem domains to be targeted clinically, and facilitate the development of early intervention and prevention initiatives for an appropriate subgroup of children at the youngest possible age. Methods: A total of 30 offspring of mothers with BD (mean age=25.4±4.9 months) participated in this study at Emory University. The mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results: The results of the correlational analyses indicated that the broad temperament dimension Negative Affectivity and the individual ECBQ scales Sadness and Shyness were positively associated with the broad CBCL dimension Internalizing Problems, whereas Sociability was negatively associated with Internalizing Problems. In addition, the temperament scales Soothability and Frustration were negatively and positively associated with Internalizing Problems, respectively. All ECBQ scales included in the broad temperament dimension Effortful Control, except for Cuddliness, were significantly negatively associated with the broad CBCL dimension Externalizing Problems. A significant sex difference was found for the ECBQ scale Positive Anticipation and the CBCL scale Sleep Problems, with a higher mean rank score for girls than for boys. Conclusions: This is the first systematic investigation of temperament and behavior and concurrent associations between these two domains in toddlers of mothers with BD. The present findings provide a platform for future investigations of the contribution of temperament and early behavior to potential well

  6. Temperament and behavior in toddlers of mothers with bipolar disorder: a preliminary investigation of a population at high familial risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Diana I; Attalla, Ashraf M; Nguyen, Theresa; Stagnaro, Emily; Knight, Bettina T; Craighead, W Edward; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    There are no published studies examining concurrent associations between temperament and behavior during toddlerhood in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), a population at high familial risk for psychopathology. Better understanding of early determinants contributing to well-being or mental illness in this high-risk population has the potential to aid in the identification of problem domains to be targeted clinically, and facilitate the development of early intervention and prevention initiatives for an appropriate subgroup of children at the youngest possible age. A total of 30 offspring of mothers with BD (mean age=25.4±4.9 months) participated in this study at Emory University. The mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The results of the correlational analyses indicated that the broad temperament dimension Negative Affectivity and the individual ECBQ scales Sadness and Shyness were positively associated with the broad CBCL dimension Internalizing Problems, whereas Sociability was negatively associated with Internalizing Problems. In addition, the temperament scales Soothability and Frustration were negatively and positively associated with Internalizing Problems, respectively. All ECBQ scales included in the broad temperament dimension Effortful Control, except for Cuddliness, were significantly negatively associated with the broad CBCL dimension Externalizing Problems. A significant sex difference was found for the ECBQ scale Positive Anticipation and the CBCL scale Sleep Problems, with a higher mean rank score for girls than for boys. This is the first systematic investigation of temperament and behavior and concurrent associations between these two domains in toddlers of mothers with BD. The present findings provide a platform for future investigations of the contribution of temperament and early behavior to potential well-being or mental illness in OBD.

  7. The relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychopathology: a systematic examination of parental comorbid psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Schuckit, Marc A; Nurnberger, John I

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between parental alcohol dependence (with and without comorbid psychopathology) and adolescent psychopathology was examined in a sample of 665 13-17 year-old adolescents and their parents. Results indicated that adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence only did not significantly differ from adolescents who had parents with no psychopathology in regard to any of the measures of psychological symptomatology (substance use, conduct disorder, and depression) or clinical diagnoses (alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, conduct disorder, or depression) assessed. In contrast, adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence and either comorbid drug dependence or depression were more likely to exhibit higher levels of psychological symptomatology. In addition, adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence, depression, and drug dependence were most likely to exhibit psychological problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering parental comorbid psychopathology when examining the relationship between parental alcoholism and offspring adjustment.

  8. The HAND Database: a gateway to understanding the role of HIV in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Tess Z; Kang, Weiliang; Ma, Yongjie; Zhang, Ming

    2015-10-28

    Despite an augmented research effort and scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a high prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persists in the HIV-infected population. Nearly 50 % of all HIV-1-infected individuals suffer from a neurocognitive disorder due to neural and synaptodendritic damage. Challenges in HAND research, including limited availability of brain tissue from HIV patients, variation in HAND study protocols, and virus genotyping inconsistency and errors, however, have resulted in studies with insufficient power to delineate molecular mechanisms underlying HAND pathogenesis. There exists, therefore, a great need for a reliable and centralized resource specific to HAND research, particularly for epidemiological study and surveillance in resource-limited countries where severe forms of HAND persist. To address the aforementioned imperative need, here we present the HAND Database, a resource containing well-curated and up-to-date HAND virus information and associated clinical and epidemiological data. This database provides information on 5,783 non-redundant HIV-1 sequences from global HAND research published to date, representing a total of 163 unique individuals that have been assessed for HAND. A user-friendly interface allows for flexible searching, filtering, browsing, and downloading of data. The most comprehensive database of its kind, the HAND Database not only bolsters current HAND research by increasing sampling power and reducing study biases caused by protocol variation and genotyping inconsistency, it allows for comparison between HAND studies across different dimensions. Development of the HAND Database has also revealed significant knowledge gaps in HIV-driven neuropathology. These gaps include inadequate sequencing of viral genes beyond env, lack of HAND viral data from HIV epidemiologically important regions including Asian and Sub-Saharan African countries, and biased sampling toward the male gender, all

  9. Mental Imagery and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neuroimaging and Experimental Psychopathology Approach to Intrusive Memories of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis and theory paper presents a pragmatic framework to help bridge the clinical presentation and neuroscience of intrusive memories following psychological trauma. Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, key questions, including those involving etiology, remain. In particular, we know little about the brain mechanisms involved in why only some moments of the trauma return as intrusive memories while others do not. We first present an overview of the patient experience of intrusive memories and the neuroimaging studies that have investigated intrusive memories in PTSD patients. Next, one mechanism of how to model intrusive memories in the laboratory, the trauma film paradigm, is examined. In particular, we focus on studies combining the trauma film paradigm with neuroimaging. Stemming from the clinical presentation and our current understanding of the processes involved in intrusive memories, we propose a framework in which an intrusive memory comprises five component parts; autobiographical (trauma) memory, involuntary recall, negative emotions, attention hijacking, and mental imagery. Each component part is considered in turn, both behaviorally and from a brain imaging perspective. A mapping of these five components onto our understanding of the brain is described. Unanswered questions that exist in our understanding of intrusive memories are considered using the proposed framework. Overall, we suggest that mental imagery is key to bridging the experience, memory, and intrusive recollection of the traumatic event. Further, we suggest that by considering the brain mechanisms involved in the component parts of an intrusive memory, in particular mental imagery, we may be able to aid the development of a firmer bridge between patients’ experiences of intrusive memories and the clinical neuroscience behind them. PMID:26257660

  10. Mental Imagery and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neuroimaging and Experimental Psychopathology Approach to Intrusive Memories of Trauma.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis and theory paper presents a pragmatic framework to help bridge the clinical presentation and neuroscience of intrusive memories following psychological trauma. Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, key questions, including those involving etiology, remain. In particular, we know little about the brain mechanisms involved in why only some moments of the trauma return as intrusive memories while others do not. We first present an overview of the patient experience of intrusive memories and the neuroimaging studies that have investigated intrusive memories in PTSD patients. Next, one mechanism of how to model intrusive memories in the laboratory, the trauma film paradigm, is examined. In particular, we focus on studies combining the trauma film paradigm with neuroimaging. Stemming from the clinical presentation and our current understanding of the processes involved in intrusive memories, we propose a framework in which an intrusive memory comprises five component parts; autobiographical (trauma) memory, involuntary recall, negative emotions, attention hijacking, and mental imagery. Each component part is considered in turn, both behaviorally and from a brain imaging perspective. A mapping of these five components onto our understanding of the brain is described. Unanswered questions that exist in our understanding of intrusive memories are considered using the proposed framework. Overall, we suggest that mental imagery is key to bridging the experience, memory, and intrusive recollection of the traumatic event. Further, we suggest that by considering the brain mechanisms involved in the component parts of an intrusive memory, in particular mental imagery, we may be able to aid the development of a firmer bridge between patients' experiences of intrusive memories and the clinical neuroscience behind them.

  11. The relevance of maintaining and worsening processes in psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesco; Gangemi, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The states called "psychopathology" are very diverse, but Lane et al.'s single-process explanation does little to account for this diversity. Moreover, some other crucial phenomena of psychopathology do not fit this theory: the role of negative evaluations of conscious emotions, and the role of emotions without physiological correlates. And it does not consider the processes maintaining disorders.

  12. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  13. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  14. Eye-hand coordination in children with high functioning autism and Asperger's disorder using a gap-overlap paradigm.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Alessandro; Forti, Sara; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    We investigated eye-hand coordination in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in comparison with age-matched normally developing peers. The eye-hand correlation was measured by putting fixation latencies in relation with pointing and key pressing responses in visual detection tasks where a gap-overlap paradigm was used and compared to fixation latencies in absence of manual response. ASD patients showed less efficient eye-hand coordination, which was particularly evident when pointing towards a target was being fixated. The data of normally developing participants confirmed that manual gap effects are more likely for more complex hand movements. An important discrepancy was discovered in participants with ASD: beside normal eye gap effects, they showed no concurrent hand gap effects when pointing to targets. This result has been interpreted as a further sign of inefficient eye-hand coordination in this patient population.

  15. Cannabis and Psychopathology : Update 2004

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish

    2004-01-01

    The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder. PMID:21206788

  16. Psychopathology in Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Peltoniemi, Rosa E.

    Refugees, like most other migrants, are at increased risk for various forms of psychopathology. This paper documents the relationship between refugee migration and psychopathology by reviewing pertinent epidemiological, clinical, and survey studies from the refugee literature. The picture that emerges shows consistently increased levels of serious…

  17. [Psychopathology of schizophrenia and brain imaging].

    PubMed

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    2008-05-01

    While in the midth the 19th century Griesinger and 80 years later Mayer-Gross regarded schizophrenia as a brain disease, a far-reaching change in the view of schizophrenia found expression in the review of Manfred Bleuler in 1951: All classical assumptions of the schizophrenia doctrine and especially, that schizophrenia could be classified a somatically conditioned illness and not psychogenic, would be, as he wrote, shaken severely. On the 1st International Meeting of Neuropathology in Rome (1952) the opinion became generally accepted that pathological changes of the brain could not be expected in schizophrenias. The neuropathological research into psychoses, considered as unfruitful, has been practically stopped. The World Congress of Zürich "The group of schizophrenias" has summarized through Walter Schulte that schizophrenia must be understood as a "riddle of the human being", unapproachable for the methods of scientific medicine. In contrary to the main trends of psychiatry of that time, we were convinced that schizophrenias have a pathological-somatic basis and considered the search for empirical indications of the somatosis hypothesis an aim of research having priority. Thus, we tried to associate findings gained with the available somatic methods (neurohistopathology, neuroradiology, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, neurochemistry) with clinical syndromes and course of the disorder. These investigations, directed to psychopathological-somatic correlations went already since the monograph of 1957 hand in hand with the gradual development of the basic symptom concept (BSC) and of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic symptoms (BSABS) and with our long-term course- and early recognition research. I originated with three observations, made at the Heidelberg Clinic of Kurt Schneider, (1.) the cenesthetic schizophrenia; (2.) the asthenic pure defect and (3.) lethal catatonias, patients who were diagnosed clinically as idiopathic schizophrenias, but could be

  18. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  19. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model.

    PubMed

    Carson, Shelley H

    2011-03-01

    Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.

  1. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  2. Psychopathology of terrorists.

    PubMed

    Piccinni, Armando; Marazziti, Donatella; Veltri, Antonello

    2017-09-21

    Terrorist behavior represents a subtype of human aggression probably determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors, as well as by peculiar environmental influences and group dynamics. As regards terrorists' psychological characteristics, the available studies (mostly carried out with no sound scientific design) have failed to identify the common or typical pathological personality traits of modern terrorists. The popular opinion that terrorists must be insane or psychopathic is still widespread; however, no evidence exists that terrorist behavior may be caused either by prior or current psychiatric disorders or psychopathy. Not surprisingly, some theories have proposed social factors and non-pathological psychological traits as predisposing elements for terrorist acts, but they generally lack of empirical validation. Moreover, most of these theories do not explain why, even if so many people are exposed to the same social factors or show the same psychological traits, only a tiny minority of them join a terrorist group. Therefore, it is mandatory that systematic and scientific investigations be carried out in order to understand the possible bases for terrorist aggression, including the early detection of possibly associated psychopathology, and to design an appropriate counterterrorism prevention policy.

  3. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research.

    PubMed

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T Y; MacLeod, Colin M; de Jong, Peter J; Wiers, Reinout W; Jansen, Anita T M

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental validity studies, and (c) incremental and predictive validity studies. In the first category, implicit measures of disorder-relevant associations were consistent with explicit beliefs for some disorders (e.g., specific phobia), but for other disorders evidence was either mixed (e.g., panic disorder) or inconsistent with explicit beliefs (e.g., pain disorder). For substance use disorders and overeating, expected positive and unexpected negative associations with craved substances were found consistently. Contrary to expectation, implicit measures of self-esteem were consistently positive for patients with depressive disorder, social phobia, and body dysmorphic disorder. In the second category, short-term manipulations of disorder-relevant states generally affected implicit measures as expected. Therapeutic interventions affected implicit measures for one type of specific phobia, social phobia, and panic disorder, but not for alcohol use disorders or obesity. In the third category, implicit measures had predictive value for certain psychopathological behaviors, sometimes moderated by the availability of cognitive resources (e.g., for alcohol and food, only when cognitive resources were limited). The strengths of implicit measures include (a) converging evidence for dysfunctional beliefs regarding certain disorders and consistent new insights for other disorders and (b) prediction of some psychopathological behaviors that explicit measures cannot explain. Weaknesses include (a) that findings were inconsistent for some disorders, raising doubts about the validity of the measures, and (b) that understanding of the concept "implicit" is incomplete.

  4. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Pick, Marion; Biscaldi, Monica; Fangmeier, Thomas; Riedel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social cognition and competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests and a strong desire for routines. Besides, there are specific abnormalities in perception and language. Typical symptoms are already present in early childhood. Traditionally autism has been regarded as a severe form of neurodevelopmental disorder which goes along with overtly abnormal language, learning difficulties and low IQ in the majority of cases. However, over the last decades, it has become clear that there are also many patients with high-functioning variants of ASD. These are patients with normal language at a superficial level of description and normal and sometimes above average intelligence. In high-functioning variants of the disease, they may run unrecognized until late in adult life. High-functioning ASD is associated with a very high prevalence of comorbid classical psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, tics, psychotic symptoms or emotionally unstable syndromes. In many such cases, there is a causal relationship between ASD and the comorbid psychiatric conditions in that the specific ASD symptoms result in chronic conflicts, misunderstandings and failure in private and vocational relationships. These problems in turn often lead to depression, anxiety and sometimes psychosis-like stress reactions. In this constellation, ASD has to be regarded as a basic disorder with causal relevance for secondary psychiatric syndromes. In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead. To conclude, we outline first treatment concepts in out- and in-patient settings.

  5. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  6. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  7. [Psychopathology and creativity].

    PubMed

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Klonowska, Paulina; Patrzała, Amelia; Jaracz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a concept has been presented stating that the process of creativity may be connected with psychopathological features such as mood disorders, mainly bipolar, and psychosis-like thought abnormalities. Biographic studies point to a more frequent occurrence of affective disorders in creative subjects and members of their families. There is also data concerning the occurrence of schizophrenia in the families of prominent persons. A number of studies have demonstrated a similarity of patients with bipolar affective illness and members of their families to creative persons, as to increased indexes of creativity as well as such temperamental features as cyclothymia, neuroticism and openness. An association has been also found between the dimension of"psychoticism", schizotypal features and the measures of creativity. A reduction of the so called "latent inhibition" mechanism, resulting in perception of seemingly irrelevant external stimuli is connected with a predisposition to both increased creativity and schizophrenia-like disturbances. A neurobiological model of generating ideas and creative drive assumes a dominant role of three brain structures: frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the mesolimbic system. The neurotransmission system mostly connected with elevated mood and psychotic thinking is the dopaminergic system, especially its mesolimbic and cortical pathways. Both neurobiological and pharmacological evidence has been accumulated for an association of these pathways with motivational, emotional and cognitive processes, and indirectly, with the processes of creativity. In recent years, a number of interesting results has also been obtained from molecular-genetic studies about genetic determinants of creativity processes in association with bipolar mood changes and psychotic conditions.

  8. Cyclical processes in personality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, P L

    1994-02-01

    Both the understanding of psychopathology and the ability to intervene therapeutically are enhanced by an appreciation of the central role of vicious circles in the development and maintenance of psychological disorder. It is usually possible to discern a structure to people's difficulties in which internal states and external events continually re-create the conditions for the re-occurrence of each other in all too real psychological version of the mythical perpetual motion machine. The present article illustrates how such circular processes work in a number of representative types of psychological difficulty and discusses the implications of this conception for understanding psychopathology and for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  10. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  11. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  12. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  13. Personality and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    A. WIDIGER, THOMAS

    2011-01-01

    Personality and psychopathology can relate to one another in three different ways: personality and psychopathology can influence the presentation or appearance of one another (pathoplastic relationships); they can share a common, underlying etiology (spectrum relationships); and they can have a causal role in the development or etiology of one another. Each of these possible forms of inter-relationship is considered in this paper. PMID:21633679

  14. Congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot): a disorder of the foot but not the hand

    PubMed Central

    Miedzybrodzka, Zosia

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic (non-syndromic) congenital talipes equinovarus, or clubfoot, is a poorly understood but common developmental disorder of the lower limb, which affects at least 2 per 1000 Scottish births (ISD data). It is defined as a fixation of the foot in a hand-like orientation – in adduction, supination and varus – with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities. Despite advances in treatment, disability often persists. The aetiology of the condition has been little studied and is poorly understood. Neurological, muscular, bony, connective tissue and vascular mechanisms have been proposed, but the only firm evidence is that the mildest cases appear to be associated with intra-uterine posture. There is evidence for a genetic contribution to congenital talipes equinovarus aetiology. Its incidence varies with ethnic group, and we found that a family history is present in 24–50% of cases, depending on the population studied. Complex segregation analysis suggests that the most likely inheritance pattern is a single gene of major effect operating against a polygenic background. Possible mechanisms for congenital talipes equinovarus are discussed. PMID:12587918

  15. Congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot): a disorder of the foot but not the hand.

    PubMed

    Miedzybrodzka, Zosia

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic (non-syndromic) congenital talipes equinovarus, or clubfoot, is a poorly understood but common developmental disorder of the lower limb, which affects at least 2 per 1000 Scottish births (ISD data). It is defined as a fixation of the foot in a hand-like orientation--in adduction, supination and varus--with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities. Despite advances in treatment, disability often persists. The aetiology of the condition has been little studied and is poorly understood. Neurological, muscular, bony, connective tissue and vascular mechanisms have been proposed, but the only firm evidence is that the mildest cases appear to be associated with intra-uterine posture. There is evidence for a genetic contribution to congenital talipes equinovarus aetiology. Its incidence varies with ethnic group, and we found that a family history is present in 24-50% of cases, depending on the population studied. Complex segregation analysis suggests that the most likely inheritance pattern is a single gene of major effect operating against a polygenic background. Possible mechanisms for congenital talipes equinovarus are discussed.

  16. [Hebephrenia - a viable psychopathological construct?

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Becker, T; Wigand, M E

    2017-06-22

    Ewald Hecker was the first psychiatrist to describe the disease entity of hebephrenia in some detail, focusing mainly on disturbances of affect. Later Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler saw hebephrenia as a subtype of dementia praecox or schizophrenia. Willy Mayer-Gross and Karl Leonhard characterized hebephrenia with highly differentiated psychopathological descriptions, whereas this construct only played a minor role in the works of Klaus Conrad and Kurt Schneider. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) lists hebephrenia as a subtype of schizophrenia but in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) no subtypes of schizophrenia are mentioned and the concept of hebephrenia is thus lost. Hebephrenia can be seen as an ideal type describing a psychopathological course pattern. This construct can be useful to conceptualize a group of disorders of affect which otherwise escape description, especially since these psychopathological alterations of affect are difficult to operationalize. To have a viable concept of these disorders is relevant for the prognosis and therapy planning. If the concept of hebephrenia is abolished, important psychopathological knowledge might be lost for future generations of psychiatrists.

  17. Interaction effects in comorbid psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Jared W; Chmielewski, Michael S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity in psychopathology is the norm. Despite some initial evidence, few studies have examined if the presence of comorbid conditions changes the expression of the pathology, either through increased severity of the syndrome(s) or by expanding to symptoms beyond the syndrome(s) (i.e., symptom overextension). The following report provides an illustration of interactive effects and overextension in comorbid pathology. A large pool of patients from a university hospital were assessed using SCID-I/P interviews. Of these, 230 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, social phobia, or both were included in the study. Symptoms not belonging to either index condition (major depressive disorder or social phobia) reliably overextended in comorbid cases (odds ratios between 2.82 and 15.75). Current research methodologies (e.g., structured interviews) do not allow for the examination of overextended symptoms. The authors make a call for future psychopathological research to search systematically for interactive effects by adopting more inclusive or flexible assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy for Psychopathology and Body Weight and Safety of Topiramate-Antipsychotic Cotreatment in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Results From a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Correll, Christoph U; Maayan, Lawrence; Kane, John; Hert, Marc De; Cohen, Dan

    2016-06-01

    To meta-analyze the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment in schizophrenia. PubMed/MEDLINE database were searched until September 5, 2015, using the keywords topiramate AND antipsych* OR neurolept* OR specific antipsychotic names. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment versus placebo and ongoing antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were included. Two evaluators extracted data. Standardized mean difference (SMD), weighted mean difference (WMD), and risk ratio (RR) ± 95% CIs were calculated. In 8 RCTs, lasting a mean ± SD of 13.6 ± 4.9 weeks, 439 patients were randomized to topiramate (100-400 mg/d) versus placebo (trials = 7) or ongoing antipsychotic treatment (trial = 1). Topiramate outperformed the comparator regarding total psychopathology (trials = 6, n = 269, SMD = -0.57 [95% CI, -1.01 to -0.14], P = .01), positive symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.56 [95% CI, -1.0 to -0.11], P = .01), negative symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.62 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.10], P = .02) general psychopathology (trials = 3, n = 179, SMD = -0.69 [95% CI, -1.27 to -0.11], P = .02), body weight (trials = 7, n = 327, WMD = -3.14 kg [95% CI, -5.55 to -0.73], P = .01), and body mass index (BMI) (trials = 4, n = 198, WMD = -1.80 [95% CI, -2.77 to -0.84], P = .0003). Topiramate's efficacy for total psychopathology and weight reduction effects were not mediated/moderated by trial duration, topiramate dose, sex, age, inpatient status, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, or baseline BMI. Conversely, clozapine-topiramate cotreatment moderated greater efficacy, but less weight loss, compared to topiramate-nonclozapine antipsychotic combinations. All-cause discontinuation was similar between topiramate and control groups (trials = 7, RR = 1.24 [95% CI, 0.76 to 2.02], P = .39). Topiramate trended only toward more paresthesia than placebo (trials = 4, RR = 2.03 [95 % CI, 0

  19. The rubber hand illusion in children with autism spectrum disorders: delayed influence of combined tactile and visual input on proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Burnette, Courtney P.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Cosby, Akua A.

    2012-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, perceived hand ownership can be transferred to a rubber hand after synchronous visual and tactile stimulation. Perceived body ownership and self–other relation are foundational for development of self-awareness, imitation, and empathy, which are all affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined the rubber hand illusion in children with and without ASD. Children with ASD were initially less susceptible to the illusion than the comparison group, yet showed the effects of the illusion after 6 minutes. Delayed susceptibility to the illusion may result from atypical multisensory temporal integration and/or an unusually strong reliance on proprioception. Children with ASD who displayed less empathy were significantly less likely to experience the illusion than those with more intact ability to express empathy. A better understanding of body representation in ASD may elucidate neural underpinnings of social deficits, thus informing future intervention approaches. PMID:22399451

  20. Risk of psychopathology in adolescent offspring of mothers with psychopathology and recurrent depression.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ruth; Collishaw, Stephan; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Ajay K; Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Harold, Gordon T; Smith, Daniel J; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita

    2013-02-01

    Offspring of mothers with depression are at heightened risk of psychiatric disorder. Many mothers with depression have comorbid psychopathology. How these co-occurring problems affect child outcomes has rarely been considered. To consider whether the overall burden of co-occurring psychopathology in mothers with recurrent depression predicts new-onset psychopathology in offspring. Mothers with recurrent depression and their adolescent offspring (9-17 years at baseline) were assessed in 2007 and on two further occasions up to 2011. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing depression severity, anxiety, alcohol problems and antisocial behaviour. Psychiatric disorder in offspring was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. The number of co-occurring problems in mothers (0, 1 or 2+) predicted new-onset offspring disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.77, P = 0.007). Rates varied from 15.7 to 34.8% depending on the number of co-occurring clinical problems. This remained significant after controlling for maternal depression severity (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.03-2.89, P = 0.040). The burden of co-occurring psychopathology among mothers with recurrent depression indexes increased risk of future onset of psychiatric disorder for offspring. This knowledge can be used in targeting preventive measures in children at high risk of psychiatric disorder.

  1. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  2. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  3. Threat Perception Distortions and Psychopathological Symptoms in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Smulders, Lianne; Mayer, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relationships between symptoms of anxiety, aggression, and depression, on the one hand, and threat perception distortions, on the other hand. A large sample of typically developing children aged 8-12 years (N = 157) were interviewed with an instrument for assessing the main types of childhood psychopathology, and were then…

  4. Creativity and psychopathology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effects of symptoms of co-morbid psychopathology on challenging behaviours among infants and toddlers with Autistic Disorder and PDD-NOS as assessed with the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT).

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C; Worley, Julie A; Neal, Daniene; Sipes, Megan

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether level of symptoms of co-morbid psychopathology exacerbated challenging behaviours in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT)-Part 2 which measures co-morbid symptoms and the BISCUIT- Part 3 which examines challenging behaviours, 362 infants and toddlers with ASD were evaluated. Findings showed that participants scoring high on symptoms of Avoidance and Tantrum/Conduct problems had greater rates of aggressive/destructive behaviours, self-injurious behaviours (SIB) and stereotypies compared to those with low scores. Participants with high levels of Inattention/Impulsivity or Eat/Sleep concerns, compared to those with low levels, demonstrated greater aggressive/destructive behaviour and stereotypies. For symptoms of Anxiety/Repetitive Behaviours, participants with high scores displayed greater levels of stereotypies. Symptoms of co-morbid psychopathology are present at a very early age for children with ASD and elevated levels of these symptoms may exacerbate challenging behaviours.

  6. Clinical disorders and pressure-pain threshold of the forearm and hand among automobile assembly line workers.

    PubMed

    Byström, S; Hall, C; Welander, T; Kilbom, A

    1995-12-01

    The prevalence of forearm and hand disorders was examined by questionnaire and clinical examination in 199 automobile assembly line workers and in 186 controls. The pressure-pain threshold, hand grip force and hand anthropometry were also studied. There was an increased prevalence of de Quervain's disease for male automobile assembly line workers, and of carpal tunnel syndrome in female workers. The prevalence of symptoms in the forearm and hand during the last 7 days were twice as high among automobile assembly line workers than controls for both men and women. The occurrence of symptoms in the last 7 days was associated with de Quervain's disease, carpal tunnel syndrome and sick-leave due to forearm or hand problems, and it also influenced activities of daily living. Hand grip strength and anthropometrics were not associated with findings in the clinical examination or the occurrence of symptoms in the last 7 days. Low pressure-pain threshold was not associated with findings in the clinical examination, except for reported occurrence of symptoms in the last 7 days for women. Pressure-pain threshold as an indicator of tissue damage is discussed.

  7. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  8. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  9. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Beate

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD and 11 controls. Syllable durations from a syllable repetition task served as an estimate of maximal oral movement speed. In two imitation tasks, nonwords and clapped rhythms, unstressed vowel durations and quarter-note clap intervals served as estimates of oral and hand movement speed, respectively. Syllable durations were significantly correlated with vowel durations and hand clap intervals. Sentence imitation was correlated with all three timed movement measures. Clustering on syllable repetition durations produced three clusters that also differed in sentence imitation scores. Results are consistent with limited movement speeds across motor systems and SSD subtypes defined by motor speeds as a corollary of expressive language abilities. PMID:22411590

  10. Oral and hand movement speeds are associated with expressive language ability in children with speech sound disorder.

    PubMed

    Peter, Beate

    2012-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD and 11 controls. Syllable durations from a syllable repetition task served as an estimate of maximal oral movement speed. In two imitation tasks, nonwords and clapped rhythms, unstressed vowel durations and quarter-note clap intervals served as estimates of oral and hand movement speed, respectively. Syllable durations were significantly correlated with vowel durations and hand clap intervals. Sentence imitation was correlated with all three timed movement measures. Clustering on syllable repetition durations produced three clusters that also differed in sentence imitation scores. Results are consistent with limited movement speeds across motor systems and SSD subtypes defined by motor speeds as a corollary of expressive language abilities.

  11. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    PubMed

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuromarkers of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a patient after bilateral hand amputation - ERP case study.

    PubMed

    Chrapusta, Anna; Kropotov, Juri D; Pąchalska, Maria

    2017-06-08

    Introduction. There is a lack in the worldwide literature of reports on the Neuromarkers of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in patients after bilateral hand amputation The aim of this study was to test a hypothesis regarding developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a patient after bilateral hand amputation with the use of Event Related Potentials (ERPs). On the basis of previous research, the amplitudes of P3 ERP components elicited in the cued GO/NOGO tasks have been chosen as candidates for neuromarkers of PTSD. Case study. A 24-year-old patient had undergone bilateral hand amputation 12 months previously. The patient was repeatedly operated on (he had undergone successful bilateral hand replantation) and despite the severity of the injuries, he recovered. However, the patient complained of flashbacks, anxiety and sleep difficulties. Specialist tests showed the presence of PTSD. The patient participated in the cued GO/NOGO task (Kropotov, 2009) with recording 19-channel EEG. P3 GO and NOGO waves in this task were found to be significantly smaller, in comparison to a group of healthy control subjects of the same age (N=23) taken from the HBI normative database (https://www.hbimed.com/). This observed pattern of ERP waves in the patient corresponds to the pattern found in PTSD patients. Conclusions. ERPs in a GO/NOGO task can be used in the assessment of the functional brain changes induced by chronic PTSD.

  13. Prevalence of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) among Patients Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Abdulkareem Jika; Hassan, Abdulaziz; Mamman, Aisha Indo; Muktar, Haruna Mohammed; Sulieman, Aishatu Maude; Baiyewu, Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a great source of morbidity in sub-Saharan African region. However, the magnitude of this problem remains largely uninvestigated despite having the largest number of population with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HAND among patients attending a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 1 year. They were assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale, Word Recall Test, Stick Design Test, Subjective Cognitive Complaint Questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Center for Epidemiological Study–Depression Scale, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, and neurological examination. The CD4 count and viral load were determined for all the participants. A consensus diagnosis was made on each case based on the Frascati criteria. Data obtained were analyzed using “SPSS” for Windows version 15. Results A total of 418 HIV-positive patients participated in the study, of which 325 (77.8%) are females. The mean age (standard deviation) of the participants was 37.2 (9.3) years. The prevalence of HAND was 21.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.6%-25.4%), of which 9.6% were asymptomatic. The significant predictors of HAND in this study are duration of illness (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33 P < .001), detectable viral load (OR = 0.19, P < .001), CD4 count (OR = 0.99, P < .001), education (OR = 0.94, P = .011), stopping medication (OR = 3.55 P = .01), and severity of illness (OR = 1.24, P = .005). Conclusion One-fifth of the HIV-positive patients in this study had HAND. Various sociodemographic and clinical features were related to the prevalence of HAND. PMID:25331222

  14. Hand-arm vibration disorder among grass-cutter workers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azmir, Nor Azali; Ghazali, Mohd Imran; Yahya, Musli Nizam; Ali, Mohamad Hanafi

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from grass-cutting machines has been associated with increasing occurrences of symptoms and signs of occupational diseases related to hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). A cross-sectional study was carried out using an adopted HAVS questionnaire on hand-arm vibration exposure and symptoms distributed to 168 male workers from the grass and turf maintenance industry who use hand-held grass-cutting machines as part of their work. The prevalence ratio and symptom correlation to HAVS between high and low-moderate exposure risk groups were evaluated. There were positive HAVS symptoms relationships between the low-moderate exposure group and the high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio was considered high because there were indicators that fingers turned white and felt numb, 3.63, 95% CI [1.41, 9.39] and 4.24, 95% CI [2.18, 8.27], respectively. Less than 14.3% of workers stated that they were aware of the occupational hand-arm vibration, and it seemed to be related to the finger blanching and numbness. The results suggest that HAVS is under-diagnosed in Malaysia, especially in the agricultural sectors. More information related to safety and health awareness programmes for HAVS exposure is required among hand-held grass-cutting workers.

  15. Associations of Childhood Trauma, Trauma in Adulthood and Previous-Year Stress with Psychopathology in Patients with Major Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schaffrath, Camille; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Schlosser, Nicole; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Meyer, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important possible outcome of exposure to traumatic events that occur in childhood. However, early traumatic experiences are also an important risk factor for several other mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, chronic stress, including daily…

  16. Associations of Childhood Trauma, Trauma in Adulthood and Previous-Year Stress with Psychopathology in Patients with Major Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schaffrath, Camille; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Schlosser, Nicole; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Meyer, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important possible outcome of exposure to traumatic events that occur in childhood. However, early traumatic experiences are also an important risk factor for several other mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, chronic stress, including daily…

  17. Temperament and Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses conceptual issues in relating temperament to psychopathology, including the disputed relation of temperament to personality in children. A potential integrative framework is discussed that links trait and biological markers of temperament (reactive, incentive-response tendencies) with regulatory processes. This framework is…

  18. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  19. The psychopathology of choice.

    PubMed

    Headlee, R; Kalogjera, I J

    1988-10-01

    The important, often neglected factor of choice, learned in childhood, is examined in detail and illustrated by clinical examples. The primary etiological factors in psychopathology of choice are: (1) Too much choice allowed before integration is possible; (2) Too little choice allowed and (3) Distortions of choice due to racial, sexual, and religious prejudices or cognitive distortions.

  20. Temperament and Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses conceptual issues in relating temperament to psychopathology, including the disputed relation of temperament to personality in children. A potential integrative framework is discussed that links trait and biological markers of temperament (reactive, incentive-response tendencies) with regulatory processes. This framework is…

  1. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  2. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  3. Pilot Study: The Role of the Hemispheric Lateralization in Mental Disorders by Use of the Limb (Eye, Hand, Foot) Dominance.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Naser; Dabbaghi, Parviz; Valipour, Habib; Vafadari, Behnam

    2015-04-01

    Based on the previous studies, we know that the hemispheric lateralization defects, increase the probability of psychological disorders. We also know that dominant limb is controlled by dominant hemisphere and limb preference is used as an indicator for hemisphere dominance. In this study we attempted to explore the hemispheric dominance by the use of three limbs (hand, foot and eye). We performed this survey on two samples, psychiatric patients compared with normal population. For this purpose, knowing that the organ dominance is stabilized in adolescence, and age has no effect on the people above 15, we used 48 high school girls and 65 boys as the final samples of normal population. The patient group included 57 male and 26 female who were chronic psychiatric patients. The result shows that left-eye dominance is more in patients than the normal group (P=0.000) but the handedness and footedness differences are not significance. In psychotic, bipolar and depressive disorders, eye dominance had significant difference (P=0.018). But this is not true about hand and foot dominance. Our findings proved that generally in psychiatric patients, left-eye dominance is more common, left-eye dominance is also more in psychotic and depressive disorders. It is less common in bipolar disorders.

  4. Pilot Study: The Role of the Hemispheric Lateralization in Mental Disorders by Use of the Limb (Eye, Hand, Foot) Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Naser; Dabbaghi, Parviz; Valipour, Habib; Vafadari, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the previous studies, we know that the hemispheric lateralization defects, increase the probability of psychological disorders. We also know that dominant limb is controlled by dominant hemisphere and limb preference is used as an indicator for hemisphere dominance. In this study we attempted to explore the hemispheric dominance by the use of three limbs (hand, foot and eye). Methods: We performed this survey on two samples, psychiatric patients compared with normal population. For this purpose, knowing that the organ dominance is stabilized in adolescence, and age has no effect on the people above 15, we used 48 high school girls and 65 boys as the final samples of normal population. The patient group included 57 male and 26 female who were chronic psychiatric patients. Results: The result shows that left-eye dominance is more in patients than the normal group (P=0.000) but the handedness and footedness differences are not significance. In psychotic, bipolar and depressive disorders, eye dominance had significant difference (P=0.018). But this is not true about hand and foot dominance. Discussion: Our findings proved that generally in psychiatric patients, left-eye dominance is more common, left-eye dominance is also more in psychotic and depressive disorders. It is less common in bipolar disorders. PMID:27307954

  5. [Psychopathological features of "primary social withdrawal"].

    PubMed

    Suwa, Mami; Suzuki, Kunifumi

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to clarify the psychopathological features of "primary social withdrawal". Since the concept of "social withdrawal" in general may include various diseases, we isolated and defined "primary social withdrawal" by excluding cases that could be diagnosed by established classifications of mental disorders. First, we examined two cases of "primary social withdrawal" which could not be classified using DSM-IV. We then compared these patients' psychopathological features to those seen in apathy syndrome, taijin kyofu sho and personality disorders. Based on this comparison, we identified five pathological features of "primary social withdrawal": (1) episodes of defeat without a struggle, (2) protecting the ideal image of the expected self, (3) parents' investment in that ideal self, (4) holding an ideal self image shaped more by the desires of others than those of themselves, and (5) avoidance behavior to maintain the positive opinion of others. Finally, we discuss the socio-cultural background of social withdrawal and possible therapies.

  6. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  7. The developmental psychopathology of irritability

    PubMed Central

    LEIBENLUFT, ELLEN; STODDARD, JOEL

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, severe irritability is common in childhood and is very impairing. Furthermore, childhood irritability predicts suicidality, social impairment, and depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood. Focusing on both normative and pathologic development, we review the construct of irritability from its origins in aggression and disruptive behavior research to its contemporary relevance for affective psychopathology. We then describe two broad neurocognitive systems that show promise in differentiating irritable from nonirritable youths: aberrant processing of emotional stimuli and impaired context-sensitive regulation. We suggest behavioral, neurocognitive, and physiologic measures that may aid in studying severe irritability and assessing its therapeutics. Finally, we argue for therapeutic trials targeting severe irritability that address emotional aspects of irritability in addition to the associated disruptive behavior. PMID:24342851

  8. The developmental psychopathology of irritability.

    PubMed

    Leibenluft, Ellen; Stoddard, Joel

    2013-11-01

    Chronic, severe irritability is common in childhood and is very impairing. Furthermore, childhood irritability predicts suicidality, social impairment, and depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood. Focusing on both normative and pathologic development, we review the construct of irritability from its origins in aggression and disruptive behavior research to its contemporary relevance for affective psychopathology. We then describe two broad neurocognitive systems that show promise in differentiating irritable from nonirritable youths: aberrant processing of emotional stimuli and impaired context-sensitive regulation. We suggest behavioral, neurocognitive, and physiologic measures that may aid in studying severe irritability and assessing its therapeutics. Finally, we argue for therapeutic trials targeting severe irritability that address emotional aspects of irritability in addition to the associated disruptive behavior.

  9. Contemporary characteristics of the developmental age psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Daneš-Brozek, Vera

    2012-10-01

    At present time, it may seem that the available therapeutic possibilities and methods have resulted in lower prevalence, and even disappearance, of certain psychopathological entities. The advancement of therapeutic methods has made possible to tackle new issues that are emerging in developmental psychopathology. These issues are directly related to the specifics of the current social sphere, reflecting the turbulent social changes as consequences of globalization and economic instability in the world. Humanitarian crises are ever more often accompanied by increased prevalence of mental disorders and psychological distress of the population in general. Based on child psychiatrists' reports from all corners of the globe, it is evident that the features of developmental psychopathology are constantly changing. The research studies refer to social events and phenomena that in previous decades were not to be found at the fore of clinical entities distribution. Thus, there are research reports on personality disorders in developmental age. Some thirty years ago, opinions were still divided on whether or not there existed personality disorders in developmental age. Nowadays, however, it is an accepted fact among experts that these disorders in youth warrant attention. This prevailing view has instigated research in this domain and now projects are carried out in many countries, so it is safe to say that the research has become global. Furthermore, the researchers' pay much attention to the problem of suicide both in youth and in children. Some special areas of research are being identified, such as the suicide risk assessment in adolescents undergoing short term antidepressant therapy. Latest data show that researchers are more often engaged in parent education, teaching them behaviours they need to raise a child with hyperactivity syndrome. Also, research results on the quality of emotional relationship with adoptive parents have been published with increasing frequency

  10. Direct and Passive Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and the Development of Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2009-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood antisocial outcomes has been demonstrated repeatedly across a variety of outcomes. Yet debate continues as to whether this association reflects a direct programming effect of nicotine on fetal brain development, or a phenotypic indicator of heritable liability passed from mother to child. In the current study, we examine relations between maternal smoking and child behavior among 133 women and their 7–15-year-olds, who were recruited for clinical levels of psychopathology. In order to disentangle correlates of maternal smoking, women who smoked during pregnancy were compared with (a) those who did not smoke, and (b) those who did not smoke but experienced significant second-hand exposure. Second-hand exposure was associated with increased externalizing psychopathology in participant mothers’ offspring. Moreover, regression analyses indicated that smoke exposure during pregnancy predicted conduct disorder symptoms, over and above the effects of income, parental antisocial tendencies, prematurity, birth weight, and poor parenting practices. This is the first study to extend the findings of externalizing vulnerability to second hand smoke exposure. PMID:17520361

  11. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  12. Personality and Psychopathology: A Stagnant Field in Need of Development

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move toward an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (1) normative trends in personality change, (2) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (3) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses, and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. PMID:25544802

  13. Evaluating the accuracy of self-report for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND): defining "symptomatic" versus "asymptomatic" HAND.

    PubMed

    Obermeit, Lisa C; Beltran, Jessica; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Franklin, Donald R; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Vaida, Florin; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina M; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; Sacktor, Ned; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-02-01

    The criteria for differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder require evaluation of (1) cognitive impairment, (2) daily functioning declines, and (3) whether the functional declines are attributable to cognitive versus physical problems. Many providers rely only on self-report to evaluate these latter criteria. However, the accuracy of patient-provided information may be limited. This study evaluated the validity of self-assessment for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) diagnoses by comparing objective findings with self-report of criteria 2 and 3 above. Self-reports were used to stratify 277 cognitively impaired HIV+ individuals into functionally dependent (n = 159) and independent (n = 118) groups, followed by group comparisons of objective functional problems. The dependent group was then divided into those who self-attributed their functional dependence to only cognitive (n = 80) versus only physical (n = 79) causes, for further comparisons on objective findings. The functionally dependent group was significantly worse than the independent group on all objective disability characteristics except severity of cognitive impairment, while those who attributed their dependence to physical (versus cognitive) factors were similar on all objective physical, cognitive, and functioning variables. Of note, 28 % of physical attributors showed no physical abnormalities on neuromedical examinations. Results suggest that patient report is consistently associated with objective measures of functional loss; in contrast, patient identification of physical versus cognitive causes is poorly associated with objective criteria. These findings caution against relying solely on patient self-report to determine whether functional disability in cognitively impaired HIV+ individuals can be attributed to strictly physical causes.

  14. The burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in the Asia-Pacific region and recommendations for screening.

    PubMed

    Ian, Everall; Gwen, Chan Lai; Soo, Chow Ting; Melissa, Corr; Chun-Kai, Huang; Eosu, Kim; Hyo-Youl, Kim; Asad, Khan; Scott, Letendre; Chung-Ki, Li Patrick; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Jordan, Treisman Glenn; Han-Ting, Wei; Wing-Wai, Wong

    2016-08-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder incurs a significant burden on HIV patients in Asia-Pacific countries; however, the incidence is difficult to estimate due to a lack of local epidemiological data. The impact of neurocognitive impairment in HIV patients is often underestimated due to a lack of education and awareness, and there are consequently gaps in the provision of screening and diagnosis to enable earlier intervention to limit neurocognitive impairment. This review seeks to redress the imbalance by promoting awareness and education among physicians concerning the neurovirulence of HIV and thereby increase screening efforts to improve diagnosis rates and clinical outcomes for underserved patients in this region. The Asia, Australia, and Middle East (AAME) HAND Advisory Board convened expert regional representatives to review current practice and recommend appropriate measures related to the implementation of standardised screening programmes and treatment recommendations to curb the developing HAND epidemic in the region. In particular, we recommend basic neuropsychological testing protocols that could be efficiently introduced into clinical practice for routine screening. We also propose simple guidelines for the management of HAND. We believe that HAND is a significant and under-reported diagnosis in HIV patients that warrants both greater recognition and further clinical investigation of the underlying pathophysiology and the impact of HIV disease progression, with HAND being associated with worse medication adherence and therefore possibly increased risk of ARV treatment failure. Widespread screening will lead to greater recognition of HAND and earlier intervention, which may lead to improved management strategies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio; Mozaz, María

    2008-02-01

    This study has two objectives: 1) to analyse the characteristics of self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in accordance with age and gender in a representative sample from the Basque Country; and 2) to explore the relationships of self-concept and self-esteem with psychopathological symptoms. The sample is made up of 1,579 participants, aged 12 to 65, of whom 732 are males (46.4%) and 847 are females (53.6%). The study uses a descriptive and correlational methodology. For the measurement of psychopathological symptoms, self-concept and self-esteem, three assessment instruments are applied. The ANOVAs indicated significant differences associated with age in self-concept, self-esteem, and quantity of psychopathological symptoms. As regards gender, no significant differences were found for self-concept and self-esteem, but there were differences in psychopathological symptoms, with females scoring higher in various disorders (somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and total quantity of symptoms). The results of the correlational analyses confirmed significant inverse relationships between self-concept/self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion considers the potential role of intervention programmes that promote self-concept and self-esteem in the prevention of psychopathological problems.

  16. Fixed Dystonia of the Left Hand in a Violinist: a Rare Functional Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, André; Jahnke, Andreas K.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2013-01-01

    Background Fixed dystonia leads to an immobile abnormal posturing of the affected limb. There is an ongoing debate whether this condition is psychogenic in origin. Case report We present a 21-year-old violinist with fixed dystonia after an acute overuse injury with a transient cyanosis but no signs for psychological trauma. After Incobotulinumtoxin injection, symptoms subsided within 8 hours. Discussion Our case corroborates the notion that fixed dystonias after minor injuries are functional disorders. It underlines the necessity of a biopsychosocial approach to functional disorders, considering the possibility of an overlay between organic and non-organic disorders. PMID:24032089

  17. The burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in post-HAART era: a multidisciplinary review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caruana, G; Vidili, G; Serra, P A; Bagella, P; Spanu, A; Fiore, V; Calvisi, D F; Manetti, R; Rocchitta, G; Nuvoli, S; Babudieri, S; Simile, M M; Madeddu, G

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present multidisciplinary review is to give an updated insight into the most recent findings regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We performed a comprehensive search, through electronic databases (Pubmed - MEDLINE) and search engines (Google Scholar), of peer-reviewed publications (articles and reviews) and conferences proceedings on HAND pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy, from 1999 to 2016. It seems to be increasingly clear that neurodegeneration in HIV-1 affected patients is a multi-faceted disease involving numerous factors, from chronic inflammation to central nervous system (CNS) compartmentalization of HIV. Diagnosis of HAND may benefit from both laboratory analysis and advanced specific neuroimaging techniques. As regards HAND therapy, modified HAART combinations and simplification strategies have been tested, while novel exciting frontiers seem to involve the use of nanoparticles with the ability to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). Albeit highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) allowed a major decrease in morbidity and mortality for AIDS patients, CNS involvement still represents a challenge in HIV patients even today, affecting up to 50% of patients with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Future studies will have to focus on CNS compartmentalization, drugs' ability to penetrate and suppress viral replication in this compartment, and on new approaches to reduce HIV-associated neuroinflammation.

  18. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5: SELECTIVE REVIEWS FROM A NEW NOSOLOGY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, Charles H; Carter, Alice S; Cohen, Julie; Egger, Helen; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Keren, Miri; Lieberman, Alicia; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Oser, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized.

  19. A comparison of three Rorschach diagnostic systems and use of the Hand Test for detecting multiple personality disorder in outpatients.

    PubMed

    Young, G R; Wagner, E E; Finn, R F

    1994-06-01

    Eleven individuals diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD) on the basis of clinical observation by experienced therapists plus elevated scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein & Putnam, 1986) were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Hand Test. Results from the sample (n = 11) and a matched control group (N = 22) were analyzed and discussed in accordance with previous Rorschach diagnostic systems. The Wagner Signs diagnosed 91% (n = 10) of the MPD cases in this outpatient sample, with no false positives. The Labott Signs were found to have no utility, and the Barach Signs, when they occurred, seemed to be diagnostic of MPD but yielded a high rate of false negatives. Hand Test results were analyzed and found to be possibly diagnostic of MPD. Tentative criteria were proposed for its use as an additional tool for diagnosing MPD.

  20. Clinical psychopathology in youth at familial high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jai L; Tandon, Neeraj; Montrose, Debra M; Mermon, Diana; Eack, Shaun M; Miewald, Jean; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2017-09-07

    While the course of psychopathology has been explored from an index mental health diagnosis onwards, there are few detailed, prospective studies of the occurrence of clinical psychopathology in youth with familial risk for severe mental illnesses such as psychosis. We sought to describe the appearance of Axis I psychopathology in a unique sample of adolescents with a family history of schizophrenia (FHR). One hundred and sixty two first- and second-degree relatives (mean age 15.7 ± 3.6; range 8-25) of probands with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed at baseline and annual intervals for up to 3 years, focusing on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I psychopathology. Fourteen individuals (8.6%) developed a psychotic disorder. One hundred and five subjects (65%) met criteria for an Axis I disorder over the course of the study, the most common of which was a depressive episode (40 subjects; 25%). Of the 148 individuals who did not develop psychosis, 91 (61%) had one or more Axis I disorders compared with 10/14 converters who had a comorbid Axis I disorder (71%). Ordered by increasing age of onset, diagnoses included cognitive and externalizing disorders, anxiety disorders, affective disorders, substance use disorders and psychotic disorders. In addition to an elevated risk of psychosis, young FHR relatives manifest a broad range of non-psychotic Axis I psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. This breadth of diagnoses has implications for the structure and function of mental health services for young people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Overdosage of Hand2 causes limb and heart defects in the human chromosomal disorder partial trisomy distal 4q.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masaru; Hosoya, Masaki; Fujita, Motoi; Iida, Tomoko; Amano, Takanori; Maeno, Akiteru; Kataoka, Taro; Otsuka, Taketo; Tanaka, Shigekazu; Tomizawa, Shuichi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2013-06-15

    Partial trisomy distal 4q (denoted 4q+) is a human chromosomal disorder caused by duplication of the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 4 (Chr4). This disorder manifests typical phenotypes, including craniofacial, renal, heart and thumb developmental defects. Although these clinical features are likely caused by a dosage imbalance in the gene network involving the trisomic region, the causative gene or genes and the molecular bases are largely unknown. Here, we report mouse Recombination-induced mutation 4 (Rim4) as a model animal of 4q+. The Rim4 genome contains an insertion of a 6.5 Mb fragment from mouse chromosome 8 into chromosome 6. This insertion fragment contains 17 genes, including Hand2, that encode the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and is syntenic to the distal end of human Chr4, 4q32.3 to 4q34.1, which is responsible for 4q+. A comparison of phenotypes between patients with Rim4 and 4q+ revealed that Rim4 shows direct parallels with many phenotypes of 4q+ such as craniofacial, heart, cervical vertebra and limb deformities. Rebalancing the gene dosage by a genetic cross with Hand2 knockout mice ameliorated symptoms of the heart and limb deformities of Rim4. Conversely, an increase in copy number of Hand2 in wild-type mice recaptures the heart and limb deformities of Rim4. Our results collectively demonstrate that overdosage of Hand2 is a major cause for at least the limb and heart phenotypes of 4q+ and that mouse Rim4 provides a unique animal model for understanding the molecular bases underlying the complex phenotypes of 4q+.

  2. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology

  3. Alexithymia and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2004-04-01

    This research is an attempt to gain a comprehensive insight into alexithymia in schizophrenia. Previous studies offered clinically-descriptive and phenomenologically oriented suggestions regarding alexithymia putative contribution in shaping schizophrenic psychopathology. However, the factorial structure of the scales used to assess alexithymia had never been applied to a schizophrenic sample as a preliminary step to interpret results, thus assuming the purported dimensions of the alexithymia construct (i.e. difficulties identifying feelings, difficulties describing feelings, and externally oriented thinking) to be transnosographically stable. In order to explore the psychopathologic meaning and interrelations with other schizophrenic symptoms, we evaluated 76 chronic schizophrenic outpatients using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, standardized measures of positive, negative, disorganized and depressive symptoms, social and physical anhedonia scales, and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. The principal component analysis ofTAS-20 items revealed a 4-factor structure with multiple correlations with psychotic, disorganized, depressive, anhedonic dimensions and basic symptoms. The data suggest that alexithymia in schizophrenia is more heterogeneous than was previously recognized, and has several components, some of which are more state-related, and others of which are more like trait features. Those components are specifically correlated with both overt and subjective dimensions of schizophrenic psychopathology.

  4. Comorbidity Among Dimensions of Childhood Psychopathology: Converging Evidence from Behavior Genetics.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. We also discuss the implications of research in the search for specific genes that influence childhood psychopathology and suggest avenues for new research.

  5. Comorbidity Among Dimensions of Childhood Psychopathology: Converging Evidence from Behavior Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. We also discuss the implications of research in the search for specific genes that influence childhood psychopathology and suggest avenues for new research. PMID:26019716

  6. Assessment of psychopathology across and within cultures: issues and findings.

    PubMed

    Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2003-07-01

    Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability.

  7. Posttraumatic nightmares and psychopathology in children after road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Schredl, Michael; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children.

  8. Disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed.

  9. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  10. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder. PMID:19874976

  11. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  12. Adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: associations with first-onset DSM-IV disorders.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J

    2010-11-01

    Extensive epidemiologic research from the United States demonstrates that childhood adversities (CAs) are predictive of several psychiatric outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders. To date, this has not been explored in a national sample of adults in South Africa. The present study examined the joint predictive effects of 11 retrospectively reported CAs on the first onset of DSM-IV disorders in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH), a nationally representative sample of adults. We utilized substantively plausible regression models of joint CA effects that account for the comorbidity between individual CAs; outcomes included DSM-IV anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and externalizing disorders measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The results indicated that experiences of CA varied by race, and many CAs were correlated with one another. The best-fitting model for first onset of any disorder included separate indicators for each type of CA, in addition to indicator variables for the number of other CAs reported. Results disaggregated by class of disorder showed that the majority of CAs with significant odds ratios only predicted anxiety disorder. Results disaggregated by life course stage of first onset showed that significant effects of CAs can be observed at each stage of the life course. This study contributes to a growing body of research on the social determinants of mental health in South Africa. Our findings illustrate the importance of utilizing a model that accounts for the clustering and accumulation of CAs, and suggest that a variety of CAs predict onset of mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders, at several stages of the life course.

  13. Adversities in Childhood and Adult Psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: Associations with First-Onset DSM-IV Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive epidemiologic research from the United States demonstrates that childhood adversities (CAs) are predictive of several psychiatric outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders. To date, this has not been explored in a national sample of adults in South Africa. The present study examined the joint predictive effects of 11 retrospectively reported CAs on the first onset of DSM-IV disorders in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH), a nationally representative sample of adults. We utilized substantively plausible regression models of joint CA effects that account for the comorbidity between individual CAs; outcomes included DSM-IV anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and externalizing disorders measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The results indicated that experiences of CA varied by race, and many CAs were correlated with one another. The best-fitting model for first onset of any disorder included separate indicators for each type of CA, in addition to indicator variables for the number of other CAs reported. Results disaggregated by class of disorder showed that the majority of CAs with significant odds ratios only predicted anxiety disorder. Results disaggregated by life course stage of first onset showed that significant effects of CAs can be observed at each stage of the life course. This study contributes to a growing body of research on the social determinants of mental health in South Africa. Our findings illustrate the importance of utilizing a model that accounts for the clustering and accumulation of CAs, and suggest that a variety of CAs predict onset of mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders, at several stages of the life course. PMID:20870332

  14. A hermeneutic framework for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the scope and limitations of descriptive and clinical psychopathology, this paper focuses on the method and intention of structural psychopathology. Structural psychopathology goes beyond the description of isolated symptoms and the use of some of those symptoms to establish a diagnosis. It aims to understand the meaning of a given world of experiences and actions grasping the underlying characteristic modification that keeps the symptoms meaningfully interconnected. Building on and expanding some basic phenomenological and hermeneutical principles, and applying them to the study of abnormal human subjectivity, this paper suggests the methodological guidelines for a structurally informed psychopathological interview. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Linking Dimensional Models of Internalizing Psychopathology to Neurobiological Systems: Affect-Modulated Startle as an Indicator of Fear and Distress Disorders and Affiliated Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    Integrative hierarchical models have sought to account for the extensive comorbidity between various internalizing disorders in terms of broad individual difference factors these disorders share. However, such models have been developed largely on the basis of self-report and diagnostic symptom data. Toward the goal of linking such models to…

  16. Further Evidence of a Specific Psychopathology of Addiction. Differentiation from Other Psychiatric Psychopathological Dimensions (Such as Obesity).

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Angelo G I; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rovai, Luca; Pallucchini, Alessandro; Spera, Vincenza; Perugi, Giulio; Maremmani, Icro

    2017-08-21

    Introduction: In this study, we used a symptomatology checklist (SCL-90) to substantiate the hypothesis that Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has its own five-dimensional psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to test whether this psychopathology can be differentiated from other psychiatric psychopathological dimensions (such as obesity). Methods: The severity and frequency of each of the five dimensions were investigated, at univariate and multivariate levels, by comparing 972 Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients (83.5% male, mean age 30.12 ± 6.6, range: 16-59) and 106 obese individuals (50.0% male, mean age 37.59 ± 7.6, range: 24-52). The correlations between the Body Mass Index (BMI) of obese individuals with these psychopathological dimensions were also studied. Results: Obese individuals showed higher SCL-90 total scores, global severity index scores, number of items rated positively, and positive symptoms distress index scores than HUD patients. The severity of all psychopathological dimensions was significantly higher in obese individuals. Discriminant analysis showed that Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide severity were more frequent in obese patients, sufficiently so to allow differentiation between HUD (lower severity) and obese individuals (greater severity). At the reclassification level, 70.8% of obese individuals in the sample were reclassified as HUD patients. Psychopathological subtypes characterized by Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide typology were more frequent in obese patients and sufficiently so as to discriminate between groups. Of obese patients, 47.2% were reclassified as HUD patients. The severity of the Worthlessness-Being Trapped dimension was sufficient to predict the BMI of obese individuals. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the five-factor psychopathology found in HUD can discriminate between HUD and obese patients, but that there is an area of overlap between the forms of psychopathology found in SUD and those found in

  17. The Moving Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals that Explicit Sense of Agency for Tapping Movements Is Preserved in Functional Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Angela; Bombieri, Federica; Zampini, Massimiliano; Schena, Federico; Dallocchio, Carlo; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Functional movement disorders (FMD) are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia) that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements. Patients with FMD (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 21) underwent the moving Rubber Hand Illusion (mRHI), in which passive and active movements can differentially elicit agency, ownership or both. Explicit measures of agency and ownership were obtained via a questionnaire. Patients and controls showed a similar pattern of response: when the rubber hand was in a plausible posture, active movements elicited strong agency and ownership; implausible posture of the rubber hand abolished ownership but not agency; passive movements suppressed agency but not ownership. These findings suggest that explicit sense of agency and body ownership are preserved in FMD. The latter finding is shared by a previous study in FMD using a static version of the RHI, whereas the former appears to contrast with studies demonstrating altered implicit measures of agency (e.g., sensory attenuation). Our study extends previous findings by suggesting that in FMD: (i) the sense of body ownership is retained also when interacting with the motor system; (ii) the subjective experience of agency for voluntary tapping movements, as measured by means of mRHI, is preserved. PMID:28634447

  18. The Moving Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals that Explicit Sense of Agency for Tapping Movements Is Preserved in Functional Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Angela; Bombieri, Federica; Zampini, Massimiliano; Schena, Federico; Dallocchio, Carlo; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Functional movement disorders (FMD) are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia) that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements. Patients with FMD (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 21) underwent the moving Rubber Hand Illusion (mRHI), in which passive and active movements can differentially elicit agency, ownership or both. Explicit measures of agency and ownership were obtained via a questionnaire. Patients and controls showed a similar pattern of response: when the rubber hand was in a plausible posture, active movements elicited strong agency and ownership; implausible posture of the rubber hand abolished ownership but not agency; passive movements suppressed agency but not ownership. These findings suggest that explicit sense of agency and body ownership are preserved in FMD. The latter finding is shared by a previous study in FMD using a static version of the RHI, whereas the former appears to contrast with studies demonstrating altered implicit measures of agency (e.g., sensory attenuation). Our study extends previous findings by suggesting that in FMD: (i) the sense of body ownership is retained also when interacting with the motor system; (ii) the subjective experience of agency for voluntary tapping movements, as measured by means of mRHI, is preserved.

  19. Factors Associated With Met Expectations in Patients With Hand and Upper Extremity Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Briet, Jan Paul; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Overbeek, Celeste L; Mudgal, Chaitanya; Ring, David C; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which patients' expectations are met during an office visit consistently correlates with patients' satisfaction, whereas the relationship between previsit expectations and satisfaction varies. The aim of this pilot study was to preliminarily assess the relationship of psychosocial factors, pain intensity, and magnitude of disability to previsit expectations, met expectations, and satisfaction with medical care in patients with hand and upper extremity conditions in a surgical outpatient clinic. A cohort of 85 outpatients with upper extremity illnesses indicated their previsit expectations (Patients Intention Questionnaire), degree to which these expectations were met (Expectations Met Questionnaire), level of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-2), confidence about the ability to achieve one's goals in spite of pain (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire), pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale for pain), disability (Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand, short version; QuickDASH), and satisfaction with the medical visit (Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale). Higher previsit expectations were associated with more depressive symptoms, lower pain self-efficacy, higher pain intensity, and fewer years of education. Patients in the low and moderate met expectations categories had significantly more symptoms of depression, fewer years of education, and more pain compared to those in the high-met expectations category. Fewer years of education and higher pain intensity predicted higher previsit expectations and explained 19% of variance. Psychosocial factors affect both previsit expectations and met expectations during an outpatient visit to a hand surgeon. Met expectations, but not previsit expectations, affect satisfaction. Prognostic, level II. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Head-Torso-Hand Coordination in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elders, Vera; Sheehan, Sinead; Wilson, Andrew D.; Levesley, Martin; Bhakta, Bipin; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the nature of coordination and control problems in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Seven adults (two males, five females, age range 20-28y; mean 23y, SD 2y 8mo) and eight children with DCD (six males, two females, age range 7-9y; mean 8y, SD 8mo), and 10 without DCD (seven males, three…

  1. Head-Torso-Hand Coordination in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elders, Vera; Sheehan, Sinead; Wilson, Andrew D.; Levesley, Martin; Bhakta, Bipin; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the nature of coordination and control problems in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Seven adults (two males, five females, age range 20-28y; mean 23y, SD 2y 8mo) and eight children with DCD (six males, two females, age range 7-9y; mean 8y, SD 8mo), and 10 without DCD (seven males, three…

  2. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…

  3. The Relationship of Social Skills to Psychopathology for Individuals with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Smiroldo, Brandi B.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between social skills and psychopathology in 846 individuals with severe mental retardation was examined. Results showed that increases in psychopathological symptoms were related to increases in negative behaviors. Those without stereotypic movement disorders had greater general positive and positive nonverbal behaviors than…

  4. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…

  5. Developmental Psychopathology in Infancy: Illustration from the Study of Maltreated Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante

    1987-01-01

    Considers it inappropriate to focus on discrete symptomatology to infer presence of nascent or incipient infant psychopathology. Asserts that disorders in infancy are best conceptualized as relational psychopathologies, that is, as consequences of dysfunction in parent-child-environment system. Uses research in child maltreatment to illustrate the…

  6. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed.

  7. The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking Dimensional Models of Internalizing Psychopathology to Neurobiological Systems: Affect-Modulated Startle as an Indicator of Fear and Distress Disorders and Affiliated Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.; Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    Integrative hierarchical models have sought to account for the extensive comorbidity between various internalizing disorders in terms of broad individual difference factors these disorders share. However, such models have been developed largely on the basis of self-report and diagnostic symptom data. Toward the goal of linking such models to neurobiological systems, we review studies that have employed variants of the affect-modulated startle paradigm to investigate emotional processing in internalizing disorders as well as personality constructs known to be associated with these disorders. Specifically, we focus on four parameters of startle reactivity: fear-potentiated startle, inhibition of startle in the context of pleasant stimuli, context-potentiated startle, and general startle reactivity. On the basis of available data, we argue that these varying effects index differing neurobiological processes related to mood and anxiety disorders that are interpretable from the standpoint of dimensional models of the internalizing spectrum. Further, we contend that these empirical findings can feed back into and help reshape conceptualizations of internalizing disorders in ways that make them more amenable to neurobiological analysis. PMID:19883142

  9. Co-morbidity of substance use disorder and psychopathology in women who use methamphetamine during pregnancy in the US and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Wouldes, Trecia A.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Wilcox, Tara; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a worldwide problem. Little is known about the co-morbidity of substance use disorders (SUD) and other psychiatric disorders of mothers who use MA prenatally. The Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study is a prospective, investigation of prenatal MA use and child outcome in the United States (US) and New Zealand (NZ). This study examined prenatal MA use and the co-morbidity of SUD and psychiatric disorders at 1-month postpartum. METHOD Mothers who used MA (US = 127, NZ = 97) were compared to a matched comparison group (US = 193, NZ = 110). The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 was used to measure the probability of a SUD. The Brief Symptom Inventory was used to measure the likelihood of a positive diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. RESULTS In US and NZ, the MA groups had lower SES, increased single parenting, delayed prenatal care, increased polydrug use. In the US only, MA mothers had lower income than the comparison group. MA users were 10 times more likely to have a SUD and twice as likely to meet Brief Symptom Inventory criteria for a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. In NZ, but not the US, MA users were five times more likely have co-morbidity of both. This disparity may be due to higher quantities of prenatal alcohol use associated with increased psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that addressing both substance abuse and psychiatric disorders in mothers who use MA may be required to effectively treat maternal MA use. PMID:22789630

  10. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    PubMed Central

    Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H.; Becker, Eni S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results Women with specific phobia had a twofold increase in odds of developing any anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and any somatoform disorder during 17 months, compared to women without specific phobia. Except for depression, these associations persisted after adjustment for all comorbid mental disorders. Conclusions Specific phobia thus appears to be a risk factor for a variety of problems. The result further underpins the necessity for early intervention for specific phobia to prevent later mental health problems. PMID:19888542

  11. Distortions of mind perception in psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kurt; Jenkins, Adrianna C.; Heberlein, Andrea S.; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that psychopathology can influence social perception, but a 2D framework of mind perception provides the opportunity for an integrative understanding of some disorders. We examined the covariation of mind perception with three subclinical syndromes—autism-spectrum disorder, schizotypy, and psychopathy—and found that each presents a unique mind-perception profile. Autism-spectrum disorder involves reduced perception of agency in adult humans. Schizotypy involves increased perception of both agency and experience in entities generally thought to lack minds. Psychopathy involves reduced perception of experience in adult humans, children, and animals. Disorders are differentially linked with the over- or underperception of agency and experience in a way that helps explain their real-world consequences. PMID:21187372

  12. [The psychopathology of delirium. Evolution of the research from Jaspers to Kapur].

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, M; Mistretta, M; Orso, L

    2010-01-01

    Delirium represents a symptom of a thought disorder in which a belief is strongly held in spite of invalidating evidence. Many varieties of delirium have been described and this symptom is common in psychotic disorders (schizophrenia, brief psychotic disorder, chronic delusional disorders, etc.), affective disorders (major depressive disorder, psychotic depression, melancholic depression, bipolar disorder, etc.), organic illnesses and psychotropic substance abuse. Delirium has been deeply studied by psychopathology. Our work offers an overview of the most relevant psychopathological descriptions of delirium in the last century, from Jaspers to Kapur.

  13. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  14. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  15. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  16. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  17. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rasing, Sanne P A; Creemers, Daan H M; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents' depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents' self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems.

  18. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  19. Lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders among impaired physicians in a physicians health program: comparison to a general treatment population: psychopathology of impaired physicians.

    PubMed

    Cottler, Linda B; Ajinkya, Shaun; Merlo, Lisa J; Nixon, Sara Jo; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Gold, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders among physicians is not well-established. We determined differences in lifetime substance use, and abuse/dependence as well as other psychiatric disorders, comparing physicians undergoing monitoring with a general population that had sought treatment for substance use. Participants were 99 physicians referred to a Physician's Health Program (PHP) because of suspected impairment, who were administered the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version IV (CDIS-IV) to assess the presence of psychiatric disorders. Referred physicians were compared with an age, gender, and education status-matched comparison group from National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Wave 1, in a 1:1 ratio. Although referred physicians did not differ from their counterparts on lifetime use of alcohol, opiates, or sedatives, they did have significantly higher conditional odds of meeting criteria for alcohol, opiate, and sedative The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV abuse/dependence disorders. Physicians referred to the PHP had significantly lower odds of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depression, and specific phobia compared with their counterparts. Physicians referred to a PHP have significantly higher odds of abuse/dependence disorders for cannabinoids and cocaine/crack compared with a matched general population sample that had ever sought treatment for substance use, even though physicians were less likely to report use of those substances. Although the rate of alcohol use was similar between the 2 populations, physicians had higher odds of abuse/dependence for opiates, sedatives, and alcohol. More research is needed to understand patterns of use, abuse/dependence, and psychiatric morbidity among physicians.

  20. [Psychopathology and psychosocial functioning of adults with epilepsy. Preliminary evaluation].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, L; Ivanovic-Zuvic, F; Candia, X; Ibarra, X; Méndez, M D; Campos, A; Alarcón, J

    1992-03-01

    To examine the relationship between psychosocial functioning and psychopathology in epilepsy, a total 37-outpatient sample was assessed by means of both the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Patients came from an epilepsy program of the Hospital psiquiátrico, Chile. Disorders in several areas pertaining to psychosocial functioning and psychopathology were observed: Their distribution was quite similar to disorders previously reported when using both instruments. The WPSI scales showed a positive correlation with the MMPI's--a relevant correlation as far as the Overall Psychosocial Functioning, and Emotional adjustment sub-scales are concerned. The relationship between psychopathology and psychosocial functioning in epilepsy is discussed as well as the usefulness of the WPSI as a screening-test for the psychosocial assessment of epileptic subjects.

  1. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general.

  2. Insight, psychopathology, and interpersonal relationships in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Francisco J; Béjar, Agustín; Casado, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    Insight of patients with schizophrenia seems to be a complex phenomenon that includes elements of a psychological, psychopathological, neurocognitive, and interactional nature. The purpose of this research was to study two of these areas (psychopathology and interpersonal relationships) in order to determine their influence on insight and their interrelation. Eighty-two outpatients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were studied using the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight (SAI), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Social Cognitions and Object Relations Scale (SCORS). Bivariate correlations and multiple regression tests were performed. The positive component of the PANSS and the understanding of social causality (SCORS) appeared as the most significant variables related to level of insight. Positive symptoms were inversely related to insight, whereas understanding of social causality was directly associated with an appropriate awareness of illness. These results support the idea that insight is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon. In this respect, the study of the psychopathological dimension of insight should be accompanied by the consideration of interactional and social factors, because awareness of illness can be considered ultimately as an index of concordance between patients' views of the illness and cultural standards regarding mental disorders.

  3. Can Psychopathology at Age 7 Be Predicted from Clinical Observation at One Year? Evidence from the ALSPAC Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Doolin, O.; Gillberg, C.; Gillberg, I. C.; Puckering, C.; Smillie, M.; McConnachie, A.; Heron, J.; Golding, J.; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of developmental psychopathology is to determine whether identifiable pathways to developmental disorders exist in the first months or years of life. Early identification of such disorders poses a similar challenge for clinical services. Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined whether psychopathology at…

  4. Risk profile of cumulative trauma disorders of the arm and hand in the US mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hudock, S.D.; Keran, C.M. )

    1993-01-01

    A review of all upper extremity cumulative trauma disorder (UECTD) injuries was conducted by the US Bureau of Mines for 1985 through 1989. This review was performed by analyzing each injury, as reported by law and maintained on the US Mine Safety and Health Administration's accident data base. This analysis found that incidence rates in mining were lower than in private sector industry, although the number of reported UECTD injuries increased sevenfold and their percentage of all mining injuries increased fivefold from 1985 and 1989. Metal-nonmetal mines accounted for 80 pct of UECTD injuries, while coal mines accounted for 20 pct. Nearly 63 pct of UECTD injuries were accounted for by only four occupations -- mechanics, laborers, boney (crusher) operators, and miners not elsewhere classified (NEC) -- with an incidence rate well above the private sector industry rate.

  5. Test-retest reliability of Antonovsky's 13-item sense of coherence scale in patients with hand-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alice Ørts; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Cederlund, Ragnhild; Tromborg, Hans

    2017-10-01

    To report on the distribution and test-retest reliability of Antonovsky's 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC-13) Scale in patients with hand-related disorders (HRD). Links between the SOC-13 score and factors such as age, number of days between date of injury and start of rehabilitation, gender and educational level were explored. Survey with test-retest, using self-administered questionnaire. SOC-13 was completed before starting rehabilitation at an outpatient clinic after 14 days and three months. Adult patients with HRD were included. A total of 170 participants completed the SOC-13 at baseline (median SOC 71, range 30-91). The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient between baseline and 14 days was 0.84 (n = 151), and baseline and three months was 0.79 (n = 113). Weak correlations were found between SOC and age rs = 0.17, p < 0.03. No correlation was found between SOC and number of days since injury rs = 0.01, p > 0.92. No difference was found in SOC score related to gender or educational level. The SOC-13 scale showed reliability for patients with HRD. There was a weak connection between age and SOC without clinical relevance. SOC-13 has the potential to be a powerful tool to measure the ICF component personal factors, which could have an impact on patients' rehabilitation outcomes. Implications for rehabilitation Antonovsky's SOC-13 scale showed test-retest reliability for patients with hand-related disorders. The SOC-13 scale could be a suitable tool to help measure personal factors.

  6. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Network analysis: A new way of understanding psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo

    2017-08-14

    Current taxonomic systems are based on a descriptive and categorical approach where psychopathological symptoms and signs are caused by a hypothetical underlying mental disorder. In order to circumvent the limitations of classification systems, it is necessary to incorporate new conceptual and psychometric models that allow to understand, analyze and intervene in psychopathological phenomena from another perspective. The main goal was to present a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychopathology. First of all, a brief introduction where psychopathological disorders are conceived as complex dynamic systems was carried out. Key concepts, as well as the different types of networks and the procedures for their estimation, are discussed. Following this, centrality measures, important for the understanding of the network as well as to examine the relevance of the variables within the network were addressed. These factors were then exemplified by estimating a network of self-reported psychopathological symptoms in a representative sample of adolescents. Finally, a brief recapitulation is made and future lines of research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotion-specific and emotion-non-specific components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): implications for a taxonomy of related psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Power, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Many cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including our own SPAARS model, propose that one basis of the disorder is the cognitive system's persistent failure to resolve discrepancies between trauma-related information and the content of pre-existing mental representations, such as schemas. This leads to the characteristic PTSD symptom pattern of re-experiencing and avoidance of trauma-related material. Furthermore, the nature of this unresolved discrepancy revolves around appraisals of threat and the corresponding emotion profile in PTSD is therefore predominantly intense fear and anxiety. This paper argues that this general framework can be extended to discrepancies around other appraisal dimensions such as loss, and consequently to other emotions such as sadness. A localized taxonomy is therefore proposed comprising emotional disorders that resemble PTSD in their basic patterns of re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms--what we call their 'emotion-non-specific component'--but that differ from PTSD in terms of the core emotions involved--what we call their 'emotion-specific component'. The clinical and nosological implications of this argument are discussed.

  9. Diagnostic Specificity and Nonspecificity in the Dimensions of Preschool Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya; Egger, Helen L.; Angold, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Background: The appropriateness of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition" (DSM-IV) nosology for classifying preschool mental health disturbances continues to be debated. To inform this debate, we investigate whether preschool psychopathology shows differentiation along diagnostically specific lines…

  10. Is Pubertal Timing Associated with Psychopathology in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Seeley, John R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This investigation tested whether the timing of puberty continued to be associated with experiences of psychopathology (symptoms and disorders) from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Method: At age 24, 931 participants from a large community sample, who had been interviewed twice during adolescence, completed a telephone interview…

  11. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  12. Ezines: A Constructivist Instructional Activity for Teaching Diagnosis and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Granello, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    Ezines (electronic zines) are independently made, online publications that can provide creative, pedagogical possibilities for constructivist learning in counselor education and, specifically, the diagnosis class. Making ezines about mental disorders and psychopathology allows students to engage in active learning about important topics while…

  13. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  14. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  15. Diagnostic Specificity and Nonspecificity in the Dimensions of Preschool Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya; Egger, Helen L.; Angold, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Background: The appropriateness of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition" (DSM-IV) nosology for classifying preschool mental health disturbances continues to be debated. To inform this debate, we investigate whether preschool psychopathology shows differentiation along diagnostically specific lines…

  16. The New Therapies and Psychopathology: The Behavioral Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, P. E.

    Behavior therapists view psychopathology differently from dynamically oriented therapists, in that behaviorists are taught to regard symptoms primarily as sets of learned behaviors rather than cues to underlying psychological disorders. Even though there is a split among behaviorists as to which procedure is best to follow, there are some special…

  17. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  18. Children's Perceptions of Parental Emotional Neglect and Control and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…

  19. Is Pubertal Timing Associated with Psychopathology in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Seeley, John R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This investigation tested whether the timing of puberty continued to be associated with experiences of psychopathology (symptoms and disorders) from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Method: At age 24, 931 participants from a large community sample, who had been interviewed twice during adolescence, completed a telephone interview…

  20. [Agraphia, cortical anarthria and planning disorders as a result of a lesion of the right hemisphere in a right-handed patient].

    PubMed

    Demeurisse, G; Coekaerts, M J; Hublet, C

    1984-01-01

    A right-hemisphere premotor cerebral infarct in a right-handed man from a largely left-handed family caused cortical anarthria and constructional agraphia. The effect of programming difficulties on impaired oral and written expression was demonstrated by the clinical picture of pure agraphia, which could thus be attributed to a primary disorder of programming. Measurements of cerebral blood flow three months after the accident showed that language representation was ambilateral.

  1. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Common Psychopathologies of Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Twins and Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehringer, Marissa A.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.

    2006-01-01

    We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female…

  3. Transdiagnostic processes in psychopathology: in memory of Susan Nolen-Hoeksema.

    PubMed

    Joormann, Jutta; Goodman, Sherryl H

    2014-02-01

    This special section honors Dr. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's influential work dedicated to improving our understanding of psychopathology. Dr. Nolen-Hoeksema adopted a transdiagnostic perspective to identify mechanisms that underlie many emotional disorders such as cognitive processes and emotion regulation. Her work on the role of rumination and the role of gender differences in psychopathology not only advanced our understanding of important risk factors that cut across disorders but also inspired the development of improved prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. The Structure of Psychopathology in Adolescence and Its Common Personality and Cognitive Correlates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years. The second objective was to identify common personality and cognitive correlates of psychopathology, assessed at 14 years. Results showed that psychopathology at 16 years fit 2 bifactor models equally well: (a) a bifactor model, reflecting a general psychopathology factor, as well as specific externalizing (representing mainly substance misuse and low ADHD) and internalizing factors; and (b) a bifactor model with a general psychopathology factor and 3 specific externalizing (representing mainly ADHD and ODD), substance use and internalizing factors. The general psychopathology factor was related to high disinhibition/impulsivity, low agreeableness, high neuroticism and hopelessness, high delay-discounting, poor response inhibition and low performance IQ. Substance use was specifically related to high novelty-seeking, sensation-seeking, extraversion, high verbal IQ, and risk-taking. Internalizing psychopathology was specifically related to high neuroticism, hopelessness and anxiety-sensitivity, low novelty-seeking and extraversion, and an attentional bias toward negatively valenced verbal stimuli. Findings reveal several nonspecific or transdiagnostic personality and cognitive factors that may be targeted in new interventions to potentially prevent the development of multiple psychopathologies. PMID:27819466

  5. Spousal resemblance in psychopathology: A comparison of parents of children with and without psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Wesseldijk, L W; Dieleman, G C; Lindauer, R J L; Bartels, M; Willemsen, G; Hudziak, J J; Boomsma, D I; Middeldorp, C M

    2016-04-01

    Spouses resemble each other for psychopathology, but data regarding spousal resemblance in externalizing psychopathology, and data regarding spousal resemblance across different syndromes (e.g. anxiety in wives and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] in husbands) are limited. Moreover, knowledge is lacking regarding spousal resemblance in parents of children with psychiatric disorders. We investigated and compared spousal resemblance within and across internalizing and externalizing symptom domains in parents of children with and without psychopathology. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, avoidant personality, ADHD, and antisocial personality were assessed with the Adult Self Report in 728 mothers and 544 fathers of 778 children seen in child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics and in 2075 mothers and 1623 fathers of 2784 children from a population-based sample. Differences in symptom scores and spousal correlations between the samples were tested. Parents in the clinical sample had higher symptom scores than in the population-based sample. In both samples, correlations within and across internalizing and externalizing domains of psychopathology were significant. Importantly, correlations were significantly higher in the clinical sample (P=0.03). Correlations, within and across symptoms, ranged from 0.14 to 0.30 in the clinical sample and from 0.05 to 0.23 in the population-based sample. This large study shows that spousal resemblance is not only present within but also across symptom domains. Especially in the clinical samp