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Sample records for psychosocial risk recovering

  1. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  2. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  3. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  4. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches (Distress Thermometer [DT], Psychosocial Assessment Tool [PAT]), among many more papers calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed. PMID:22492662

  5. Screening for psychosocial risk in pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A; Reilly, Anne; Fooks Parker, Stephanie; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P

    2012-11-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches [Distress Thermometer (DT), Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT)], among many more articles calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed.

  6. [Psychosocial risks at work and occupational health].

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2012-06-01

    The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1) introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2) describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3) provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences, (4) recommendations for health promotion in the workplace, and (5) describes the objective of Occupational Health Psychology and concludes with the recommendations to promote psychosocial health in the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population.

  7. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  8. The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke.

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best available evidence on the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability and the risk of experiencing a stroke increases with age. A wide range of issues that are related to the experience of a stroke, from the perspective of the patient, have been identified in the research literature. This information sheet focuses on qualitative evidence on the short-term and long-term recovery process from the perspective of the elderly person, with the intention of assessing the evidence that would guide nursing practice.

  9. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-05

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  10. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0493 TITLE: Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and...SUBTITLE Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perceived Stress...SUBJECT TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression, anxiety, social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  11. Psychosocial stress and cervical neoplasia risk.

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Bond, Sharon; Madeleine, Margaret M; Luchok, Kathryn; Pirisi, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the association between psychosocial stress and preinvasive cervical neoplasia development controlling for HR-HPV infection. This case-control study enrolled low-income women receiving family planning services at health department clinics. There were 59 cases with biopsy confirmed HSIL and 163 with low-grade SIL and 160 controls with normal cervical cytology. A modified SLE scale was used to measure stressful events and the perceived impact of the event in the prior 5 years. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess SIL risk and stressful events scores and by subscales. After adjusting for age, HR-HPV infection, and lifetime number of sex partners, the SLE count score was associated with an increased risk of SIL among white women (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.38) yet not among African American women (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.87, 1.19). The relationship stress subscale (divorce, infidelity, an increase in the number of arguments, and psychological and physical partner violence) was the only one of four subscales (loss, violence, and financial stress) associated with SIL, again, only among white women (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.96). These data suggest that psychosocial stress may play a role in SIL development. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings, to explore racial difference in reporting stress, and to explore the mechanism through which psychosocial stress may affect cervical neoplasia risk.

  12. Screening for psychosocial risk at pediatric cancer diagnosis: the psychosocial assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Barakat, Lamia P; Ditaranto, Susan; Biros, Daniel; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Beele, David; Kersun, Leslie; Alderfer, Melissa A; Mougianis, Ifigenia; Hocking, Matthew C; Reilly, Anne

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of integrating an evidence-based screening tool of psychosocial risk in pediatric cancer care at diagnosis. Parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer received either the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT; n=52) or psychosocial care as usual (n=47; PAU), based on their date of diagnosis and an alternating monthly schedule. Time to completion of the PAT, time to communication of PAT results to clinical care teams, distribution of PAT risk scores, and identification of psychosocial risks in the medical record were examined. Of families receiving the PAT, 88% completed it within 48 hours. PAT was scored and results communicated within 48 hours in 98% of cases. Most families (72%) were classified as Universal risk based on the underlying Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model, 24% were classified as Targeted risk, and 4% scored in the Clinical range. Significantly more psychosocial risks were recorded in the medical record during PAT intervals than during PAU. An evidence-based psychosocial screener is feasible in pediatric oncology care and is associated with documentation of psychosocial risks in the medical record. Although the majority of families report low levels of psychosocial risk, about one-quarter report problems.

  13. Association of psychosocial risk screening in pediatric cancer with psychosocial services provided.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Barakat, Lamia P; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Ditaranto, Susan; Biros, Daniel; Beele, David; Kersun, Leslie; Hocking, Matthew C; Reilly, Anne

    2011-07-01

    How screening for psychosocial risk in pediatric oncology may relate to the number and type of psychosocial services provided is a critical step in linking screening with treatment. We predicted that screening at diagnosis would be associated with the delivery of more psychosocial services over 8 weeks and that these services would be consistent with Universal, Targeted, or Clinical psychosocial risk level based on the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM). Parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer received either the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT; n = 49) or psychosocial care as usual (PAU; n = 47), based on their date of diagnosis and an alternating monthly schedule. Medical record review and surveys completed by social workers and child life specialists were used to determine psychosocial services provided to patients and their families over the first eight weeks of treatment. As predicted, families in the PAT condition received more services than those in PAU based on social worker and child life specialist report and medical record review. Within the PAT group, families at the Targeted and Clinical levels of risk received more intensive services than those at the Universal level. This initial report shows how psychosocial risk screening may impact psychosocial care in pediatric cancer, supporting the importance of screening as well as matching services to risk level. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Psychosocial risk factors for depression during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Robertas; Kusminskas, Laima; Bunevicius, Adomas; Nadisauskiene, Ruta J; Jureniene, Kristina; Pop, Victor J M

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive disorder in different trimesters and to evaluate the relation of psychosocial risk factors to antenatal depressive disorder. Cohort follow-up. University Hospital, Kaunas, Lithuania. Two hundred and thirty pregnant women consecutively admitted. At 12-16 weeks, 22-26 weeks, and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy, participants were screened for depression using the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF). Women who gave at least one positive answer to the CIDI-SF depression-screening question were evaluated for depressive disorder using the non-patient version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-NP). Psychosocial stressors and two Big Five Personality dimensions, neuroticism and extraversion, were also evaluated. Prevalence of depressive disorder. The prevalence of the antenatal depressive disorder at 12-16 weeks' gestation was 6.1%, at 22-26 weeks 3.5%, and at 32-36 weeks 4.4%. In the first trimester, a greater prevalence of current depressive disorder was independently associated with unplanned and unwanted pregnancy, high neuroticism, low education, and a previous history of depression; in the second trimester with unplanned and unwanted pregnancy and high neuroticism; in the third trimester with unplanned and unwanted pregnancy, high neuroticism, and the occurrence of psychosocial stressors during the last year. The highest prevalence of depressive disorders was found in the first trimester, the lowest in mid-pregnancy. Several determinants (unwanted and unplanned pregnancy, high neuroticism) were independent predictors of antenatal depressive disorders throughout whole pregnancy, while other determinants (low education, previous history of depression, the occurrence of psychosocial stressors at the end of pregnancy) were trimester specific.

  15. Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.

  16. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide) complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (n = 122) indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers. PMID:21994837

  17. Psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal among older women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Della-Monica, Nola R

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, many older women are uninformed about the increased risk and have lower mammography screening rates than younger women. Understanding older women's perceptions of risk might assist health care providers in offering appropriate resources that result in screening. In this study, we explored psychosocial components influencing older women's breast cancer risk appraisal. To identify key psychosocial components of breast cancer risk appraisal, we conducted focus group interviews. Data saturation occurred with four groups (N = 36) of older Black (58%) and White (42%) women with no prior history of breast cancer. On analysis of the data, we found three themes representing psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal with this cohort. Our findings revealed that worry/fear/anxiety, self-regulating empowerment, and realistic optimism were psychosocial mechanisms older Black and White women in this sample used in appraising breast cancer risk.

  18. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p < .0001. Cumulative demographic and psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p < .05. Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Therapeutic governance: psycho-social intervention and trauma risk management,.

    PubMed

    Pupavac, V

    2001-12-01

    This paper critically analyses the significance of psycho-social intervention as a new form of international therapeutic governance based on social risk management. First, the paper examines the international psycho-social model and its origins in an Anglo-American therapeutic ethos. Second, the paper argues that psycho-social approaches jeopardise local coping strategies. Third, the paper highlights the potential political, social and psychological consequences of the pathologisation of war-affected societies. Finally the paper concludes that therapeutic governance represents the reduction of politics to administration.

  20. [Psychosocial risk factors at work as predictors of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María I; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sáez Navarro, M C; Sánchez Meca, Julio

    2007-05-01

    This work analyses the way in which various psychosocial risk indicators may predict mobbing. A sample of 638 workers, 168 men and 470 women, from the fruit-and-vegetable sector was evaluated. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all employees who were present on the evaluation days in the companies comprising the study. After analysing the data obtained with the mobbing questionnaire NAQ-RE (Sáez, García-Izquierdo, and Llor, 2003) and with the psychosocial risk factors evaluation method of the INSHT (Martín and Pérez, 1997), using canonical regression, we found that several psychosocial factors such as role definition, mental workload, interest in the workers, and supervision / participation predict two types of mobbing: personal mobbing and work-performance-related mobbing.

  1. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    respectively). Depression was significantly associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio: 1.26), as was being widowed (hazard ratio: 1.38...TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression , anxiety, social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...examine whether self-reported stress exposures ( depressive symptoms, phobic anxiety, social support, job strain, care-giving stress) are associated with

  2. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  3. [Psychosocial risks, symbols of uneasiness and suffering at work].

    PubMed

    Pezé, Marie

    2011-11-01

    The reality of psychosocial risks concerns all companies, all sectors and all professions, including freelancers and farmers. Employees, public sector workers, supervisors, managers, directors, no profile is spared from these new forms of suffering at work. The situation is especially worrying as the reality of this occupational health issue is almost certainly under-estimated.

  4. Psychosocial Risk Factors Related to Ischemic Heart Disease in Women.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Tina; Hayek, Salim S; Shekiladze, Nikoloz; Schultz, William M; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risk factors such as stress and psychiatric disorders are known to have negative impacts on health outcomes, but their effects on ischemic heart disease, particularly in women, remain to be fully understood despite contributing to one-third of the population attributable risk in acute myocardial infarction. The impact of stress, social isolation, low socioeconomic status, hostility and anger, and stress-related psychiatric disorders on cardiovascular outcomes and the potential mechanisms that underlie their association with ischemic heart disease, with a focus on women, is evaluated. Online search of relevant terms, including the aforementioned risk factors, women, and ischemic heart disease, was utilized to find recent and pertinent trials. Psychosocial risk factors increase cardiovascular risk in both women and men. However, current literature points to a greater degree of adverse cardiovascular events in women who experience these risk factors than in men, but the literature is not as well-defined as the data regarding traditional risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Dedicated study of the sex differences in ischemic heart disease incidence and recurrence, including the impact of psychosocial risk factors, is warranted for the development of appropriate gender-specific diagnostic testing and treatment options in heart disease.

  5. Risk assessment and psychosocial interventions for suicidal patients

    PubMed Central

    Chesin, Megan; Stanley, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is a leading cause of death in the US. Although factors elevating long-term risk for suicide are known and include bipolar disorder, signs of imminent suicide risk are difficult to study and not well-specified. Acute risk determinations must be made to determine the appropriate level of care to safeguard patients. To increase safety among at-risk patients in the short term and to decrease risk over time, psychosocial interventions to prevent suicide have been developed and tested in acute care and outpatient settings. Methods A narrative review of studies of imminent risk factors for suicide, suicide risk decision making, and psychosocial suicide prevention interventions was conducted. Results While some long-term risk factors of suicide have been established, accurate identification of individuals at imminent risk for suicide is difficult. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting individuals at high suicide behavior risk discharging from acute care settings tend to be generic and focus on psychoeducation and supportive follow-up contact. Data regarding the effectiveness of brief interventions (i.e., those not requiring more than one individualized treatment session) is mixed, showing better outcomes in the shorter term and when incidence of suicidal behavior or ideation is the outcome. With respect to longer term suicide prevention interventions (i.e., those with a minimum of 10 sessions), Dialectical Behavior Therapy has the largest evidence base. Conclusions To improve suicide prevention efforts, more rigorous study of imminent risk factors and psychosocial interventions is needed. Adaptations specific to individuals with bipolar disorder are possible and needed. PMID:23782460

  6. Measuring psychosocial risk in families caring for a child with cancer: the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT2.0).

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maria C; Clarke, Naomi E; Vance, Alasdair; Ashley, David M; Heath, John A; Anderson, Vicki A

    2009-07-01

    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0) is a recently developed screening measure for assessing psychosocial risk in families caring for a child with cancer. This study aimed to assess the external validity of the PAT2.0 in an Australian pediatric oncology sample. Further aims included examining mothers' and fathers' PAT2.0 scores, change in psychosocial risk over time, and the relationship between treatment intensity and psychosocial risk. Parents of 143 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed the PAT2.0 at diagnosis (T1) and 6-8 months later (T2). A treatment intensity measure (ITR-2) was completed by two clinical oncologists. The PAT2.0 stratified families into a 3-tiered risk framework and was consistent with existing data from the authors of the scale. The majority of families were stratified into the Universal (lowest risk) category; more than one-third of families had some elevated psychosocial risk. PAT2.0 scores of mothers and fathers were correlated and psychosocial risk remained relatively stable between T1 and T2. Treatment intensity scores were not related to PAT2.0 scores at T2. Findings support the external validity of the PAT2.0 as a psychosocial screener. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of risk are similar; however, multi-informant use of the PAT2.0 may be clinically useful. Psychosocial risk, as measured by the PAT2.0, is a relatively stable construct over the first months of treatment and is independent of treatment intensity. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Behavioral and psychosocial influences of risk perception among Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to assess adolescents' risk perception, namely, their estimates of the likelihood of smoking and alcohol-related illnesses and accidents. The survey was conducted among high school students in Szeged (N = 560, aged between 14-19 years; mean: 16.7; S.D.: 1.4 years). The self-administered questionnaire contained items on sociodemographics, risk perception, health risk behaviors, and certain psychosocial variables. Being a male was associated with risk perception only in terms of alcohol-related illnesses. Smokers, alcohol users, and those who engaged in reckless transportation, evaluated themselves as being at higher risk for substance related illnesses and accidents compared to those who did not report such behaviors. Those who tended to use a seat belt, however, estimated the same amount of risk for an accident as did those who tended not to use them. Social attitudes tended to positively, whereas personal attitudes tended to negatively influence perceptions of health risks. The role of social comparison and self-efficacy, however, depends on the nature of behavior. Besides behavioral influences, psychosocial variables also play a role in adolescents' risk perception.

  8. A family psychosocial risk questionnaire for use in pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Guevara, James; Zhang, Guangxiang; Bhatt, Suraj K; Kavanagh, Jane; Gerdes, Marsha; Localio, Russell; Forrest, Christopher B

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop new methods to better identify psychosocial risk such that children with the greatest risk of poor future outcomes receive more intensive preventive health services. Based on structured literature review and secondary data analysis, a 52-item psychosocial risk questionnaire was administered to 2,083 families of children (<36 months). To quantify the questionnaire's construct validity, developmental concern was assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire version II (ASQ) [n = 1,163]. An iterative model selection process was used to produce the most parsimonious predictive model. Model fit was examined using c-statistics, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and a heuristic measure of model overfit based on the fitted log-likelihood values and associated number of degrees of freedom. We found 13 items easily obtained from parental report produced a regression model with a c-statistic of 0.70. Using an integer scoring system derived from the regression model, we calculated stratum specific likelihood ratios to revise a given prior probability of ASQ failure. The posterior probability of ASQ failure was 44.9 % for a child in the highest risk group (score >25) on the questionnaire, more than double our observed average failure rate of 19.5 %, while it was less than 7 % for a child with the lowest possible score on the questionnaire. Thirteen parent-reported items can be compiled into a summary psychosocial risk questionnaire that predicts failure on developmental screening among preschool children. With further validation, this questionnaire could conceivably be used by clinicians to tailor pediatric preventive care to children at varying levels of risk.

  9. Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and depression may alter immune and endocrine function, with possible effects on cancer incidence and survival. Although these factors have been extensively studied as risk and prognostic factors for cancer, the associations remain unclear. The author used data from prospective cohort studies in population-based and clinical databases to investigate these relations. The findings do not support the hypotheses that personality traits and depression are direct risk factors for cancer and cancer survival. Some researchers have recently reported that cancer affects the psychological status of the partners and family members of cancer patients. The mechanisms underlying this hypothesis imply the existence of not only psychological distress from caregiving and grief but also a shared unhealthy lifestyle. Only a few studies have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in partners of cancer patients. The present study used nationwide population-based data to investigate depression risk among male partners of women with breast cancer. The results support the hypothesis that such men are at increased risk of depression. In conclusion, the effects of personality traits and depression on cancer risk and survival appear to be extremely small. In addition, partners of cancer patients were at increased risk of depression. Screening partners and family members of cancer patients for depressive symptoms is therefore an important concern for research in psycho-oncology. PMID:24270060

  10. Psychosocial processes and mechanisms of risk and protection.

    PubMed

    Psychosocial research on adolescent drinking includes studies of personality and the impact of particular personality traits on drinking risk, expectancies (that is, the effects someone expects after drinking alcohol), and cognitive development. Although studies involving adolescents have not identified specific sets of personality traits that uniquely predict alcohol use, some traits have been shown to be associated with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. These traits include disinhibition or poor self-regulation, impulsiveness and aggression, novelty-seeking, and negative affectivity. Externalizing behaviors in childhood and early adolescence have been found to predict alcohol use disorders in early adulthood, as have certain internalizing behaviors. This article examines the theories and psychosocial processes thought to underlie underage drinking.

  11. Socioeconomic Status, Psychosocial Resources and Risk, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Elder, John P.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Shivpuri, Smriti; Mills, Paul J.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined the contributions of psychosocial resource and risk factors to the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk, in a randomly selected community cohort of 304 middle-aged (40–65 years old) Mexican-American women, a population at elevated cardiometabolic risk. Methods Participants underwent a clinical exam and completed measures of demographic factors and psychosocial resource (i.e., personal and social resources) and risk (i.e., negative emotions and cognitions) variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation models (SEMs) were performed in the total sample and in more and less US-acculturated women (defined by language preference) separately. Results CFAs revealed single latent constructs for SES (i.e., income, education) and psychosocial resources/risk. For the MetSyn, a 3-factor solution was identified, with blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), lipids (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), and metabolic variables (glucose and waist circumference) forming separate factors. SEMs showed that an indirect effects model with SES relating to MetSyn factors through psychosocial resources/risk provided a reasonable descriptive and statistical fit in the full and more acculturated sample (RMSEA and SRMR < .08); fit in the less acculturated sample was marginal according to RMSEA =.09. A significant mediated path from low SES to higher waist circumference/fasting glucose via lower psychosocial resources/higher psychosocial risk was identified in the overall and more acculturated samples (p < .05). Conclusions In this cohort of healthy, middle-aged Mexican-American women, contributions of psychosocial factors to SES-MetSyn associations were limited to the core underlying metabolic mechanisms, and to more US-acculturated women. PMID:22059620

  12. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  13. Psychosocial risks: is risk management strategic enough in business and policy making?

    PubMed

    Langenhan, Melissa K; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-06-01

    In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace-psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.

  14. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    PubMed Central

    Langenhan, Melissa K.; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace—psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. Results It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. Conclusion The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance. PMID:23961331

  15. Disparate patterns of prenatal care utilization stratified by medical and psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Davis, Matthew M; Palladino, Christie L

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate patterns of prenatal care utilization stratified by medical and psychosocial risk. A retrospective cohort of 786 pregnant women who subsequently delivered live births from 1999 to 2003 at the University of Michigan were classified into high medical, high psychosocial, high medical and high psychosocial (dual high risk) and low-risk pregnancies. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between risk and prenatal care utilization using the Kotelchuck Index. Of 786 pregnancies, 202 (25.7%) were high medical risk, 178 (22.7%) were high psychosocial risk, 227 (28.9%) were dual high risk and 179 (22.8%) were low-risk. Over 31% of dual high risk and 25% of high medical risk pregnancies received "adequate plus" prenatal care versus 10% of high psychosocial risk pregnancies. In multivariate analyses, adjusted for risk, race and insurance, high psychosocial risk pregnancies (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.06-2.72) were significantly more likely to receive inadequate prenatal care than care of greater intensity. Many high psychosocial risk pregnancies do not receive adequate prenatal care.

  16. Relationship of psychosocial factors to HIV risk among Haitian women.

    PubMed

    Malow, R M; Cassagnol, T; McMahon, R; Jennings, T E; Roatta, V G

    2000-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among low-income, Haitian women, identifies theoretically relevant mediating psychosocial HIV risk predictors, and provides formative data for developing culturally and gender sensitive interventions for this distinctive, high risk, and understudied population. Confidential interview surveys were administered to 101 women of Haitian descent while they awaited their medical appointments at a local low-income, community medical clinic. Moderately high levels of sexual risk behavior (i.e., unprotected sex with nonmonogamous partners; multiple lifetime partners) were reported. On average, these women reported a belief in their HIV susceptibility, relatively little HIV-related anxiety, somewhat inadequate levels of communication regarding safer sex practices, and lack of adequate confidence in their ability to negotiate safer behaviors in sexual encounters. Both personal and partner condom attitudes were unfavorable and these attitudes predicted condom use levels. It was concluded that interventions need to be developed for Haitian women to improve their attitudes toward condom use and their confidence in negotiating safer sexual practices. However, these interventions cannot be developed in a vacuum. Although it is crucial to consider the woman's individual attitudes and behaviors, it is also important to consider the male partner's attitudes toward sex and the woman's relationship with her male partner within the context of Haitian culture. Only by determining and targeting important potential motivations for safe sex within the cultural context can we most effectively reduce HIV sex risk behavior in Haitian women.

  17. Interactions between physical and psychosocial risk factors at work increase the risk of back disorders: an epidemiological approach

    PubMed Central

    Devereux, J. J.; Buckle, P. W.; Vlachonikolis, I. G.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible interactions between physical and psychosocial risk factors at work that may be associated with self reported back disorders. METHODS: 891 of 1514 manual workers, delivery drivers, technicians, customer services computer operators, and general office staff reported risk factors at work and back disorders with a self administered questionnaire (59% return rate). Of the 869 respondents with a valid questionnaire, 638 workers were classified in to one of four exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial; high physical and low psychosocial; low physical and high psychosocial; and low physical and low psychosocial. Low physical and low psychosocial was used as an internal reference group. The exposure criteria were derived from existing epidemiological publications and models for physical and psychosocial work factors. The frequency and amplitude of lifting and the duration spent sitting while experiencing vibration were used as physical exposure criteria. Ordinal values of mental demands, job control, and social support from managers and coworkers were used as psychosocial exposure criteria. RESULTS: The highest increase in risk was found in the high physical and high psychosocial exposure group for symptoms of back disorders. In the crude and multivariate analyses, a departure from an additive risk model was found for the 7 day prevalence of symptoms of a low back disorder and also for a recurrent back disorder not present before the current job but also experienced in the past 7 days. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors at work may exist to increase the risk of self reported back disorders. Ergonomic prevention strategies that aim to minimise the risks of symptoms of work related back disorders should not only focus on physical but also on psychosocial risk factors at work. The greatest benefits are likely to be realised when both physical and psychosocial

  18. Reliability and validity of the Psychosocial Risk Factors Questionnaire (PRFQ).

    PubMed

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Womble, L G

    2000-03-01

    The Psychosocial Risk Factors Questionnaire (PRFQ) was developed to measure perceived attractiveness, concern about physical appearance, and social pressure for thinness. These variables have been identified as correlates of eating disorder symptoms. The PRFQ has four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. This study assessed its reliability and validity. Seventy-two women enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses completed the PRFQ and measures selected to assess the concurrent validity of its four subscales. Its test-retest reliability was tested in a subsample of 60 women. Support was found for the test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity of all four subscales.

  19. Psychosocial responses associated with perceived risk of cancer in an African-American community.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Tameru, Berhanu; Nganwa, David; Robnet, Vinaida

    2011-08-01

    This epidemiologic health survey study examined the association between health risk perceptions and psychosocial factors in 145 African Americans in East Montgomery, Alabama. The survey gathered information on demographics, population dynamics, health risk perceptions, and coping behaviors. Psychosocial variables measured were worries, concern, stress, and trauma associated with perceived risk of cancer. Results indicated that women were more concerned about the environmental health risks in their community than men. Compared to men, women were highly concerned about the economic effect of perceived environmental health risk. The findings indicate that an individual's health status and educational level were significant predictors of psychosocial responses.

  20. [Changes in work organization and management of psychosocial risk factors].

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, major changes have occurred in Italian working conditions and employment patterns due to several concurrent factors: increasing occupation in the tertiary sector, implementation of new technologies, labour market globalization, higher variability of working time arrangements, decrease of traditional physical-chemical risks, ageing of general/working population, access to work of people with disabilities, growing immigration of extra-community workers. Thus, psychosocial risk factors are becoming crucial issues of the present work organization, dealing with job content (complexity, meaning, uncertainties), mental work load, time pressure, variable working hours; career perspectives, role conflicts and ambiguity, education and training, personal relations, social support, work/family conflicts; age and cultural discrimination. The Occupational Health Physician has to deal with these multidimensional and multifaceted aspects of work stress by different and concurrent approaches, at both group and individual levels, with epidemiological and clinical perspectives, enacting preventive and therapeutic strategies. Both "external" work load and individual "responses" have to be properly considered and risk has to be assessed with "relative" rather than "absolute" criteria, addressed not only at fitness to work, but also to corrective actions. Hence, the OHP has to act in closer collaboration with work psychologists, sociologists, human resources managers and work organisation experts.

  1. An Assessment of a Psychosocial/Risk Factor Intervention Curriculum Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Judith G.; And Others

    A project that was designed to teach medical students how to use the medical history in collecting information relevant to the psychosocial and disease risk status of the patient was studied. A pilot curriculum designed to focus on the importance of preventive medicine and psychosocial aspects of the medical history was evaluated. Comparisons of…

  2. [What do we know about psychosocial risk factors at work? Part I. Theoretical considerations].

    PubMed

    Potocka, Adrianna

    2010-01-01

    A growing interest in the development and implementation of preventive programs at workplace has recently been observed. According to the modern model of occupational health protection, recognition, monitoring and elimination of any potential risks at work are obligatory. This means that occupational health prevention also addresses the issue of psychosocial risks at work. There is a need of common understanding what the psychosocial risks are and how they affect human functioning to prevent them adequately and effectively. The aim of the paper is to present the present knowledge of psychosocial factors at work in a systematic way.

  3. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  4. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  5. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  6. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  7. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. 370.8 Section 370.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency...

  8. Psychosocial Risks Generated By Assets Specific Design Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Furtună; Angela, Domnariu; Petru, Lazăr

    2015-07-01

    The human activity concerning an occupation is resultant from the interaction between the psycho-biological, socio-cultural and organizational-occupational factors. Tehnological development, automation and computerization that are to be found in all the branches of activity, the level of speed in which things develop, as well as reaching their complexity, require less and less physical aptitudes and more cognitive qualifications. The person included in the work process is bound in most of the cases to come in line with the organizational-occupational situations that are specific to the demands of the job. The role of the programmer is essencial in the process of execution of ordered softwares, thus the truly brilliant ideas can only come from well-rested minds, concentrated on their tasks. The actual requirements of the jobs, besides the high number of benefits and opportunities, also create a series of psycho-social risks, which can increase the level of stress during work activity, especially for those who work under pressure.

  9. Emerging aspects of psychosocial risks: violence and harassment at work.

    PubMed

    Gilioli, R; Campanini, P; Fichera, G P; Punzi, S; Cassitto, M G

    2006-01-01

    In the last twenty years, psychosocial risks have become crucial in Occupational Health. Particularly, there is an increasing interest about psychological and physical violence at the workplaces. Psychological violence (mobbing or workplace bullying) is described as a situation in which the person has been the victim of negative acts directed to the person and work, with offences, discriminations and isolation. Physical violence at work, still underestimated in many parts of the world, is becoming a topical subject both for its frequency and its pathogenic potential and consist of violence among workers (internal violence) and between workers and external persons (external violence). Examples of external violence are bank robberies, which are prevalent in many European countries, particulary in Italy. The costs of psychological and physical workplace violence are very high at all levels; individual, for the implication of violence for health and quality of life as well as organizational, for the increase of absenteeism, turnover and health care demands and claims. The Medical Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment (CDL) of the "Clinica de Lavoro Luigi Devoto" was set up in 1996 with a day-hospital service for the diagnosis, rehabilitation and prevention of work related psychological diseases. From its opening, about 5000 patients have been examined.

  10. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial Illness in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence, Pattern and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Ghanshyam Singh; Sharma, Monika; Choudhary, Shyama; Nagaraj, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and psychosocial illness influence each other in multiple ways. The extent of psychosocial disorders in children with T1DM remains largely unstudied in India. Aim To assess the prevalence, severity, pattern and variables affecting psychosocial illness in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods This observational study included 84 children (6-14 years of age) having T1DM at least for 1 year and 100 non diabetic children for comparison. “DSM-5 parent/guardian-Rated Level 1 & 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure –Child age 6-17” was used to assess psychosocial illness, specific domains and severity. Socio-demographic variables were studied and HbA1c levels were measured. Results Significantly higher prevalence of psychosocial illness was observed in children with T1DM as compared with non diabetic group (55.95% vs 20%; p<0.0001). The prevalence for mild, moderate and severe psychosocial illness was 8.33%, 27.38% and 20.24% respectively in diabetic children. Most common psychosocial abnormality was irritation (38.1%), followed by depression (36.9%) and anxiety (32.1%). The prevalence of psychosocial illness was significantly higher in T1DM patients with poorer metabolic control (HbA1c>7.5, p=0.014). Significant association of psychosocial illness was also noticed with poor dietary compliance (p=0.021) and higher mean HbA1c level (p<0.001). Conclusion This study established T1DM as a risk factor for development of psychosocial illness. Irritation, depression and anxiety were most common abnormalities. Significant association of psychosocial illness with poor dietary compliance and poor metabolic control was observed. Psychosocial assessment of every diabetic child is suggested for optimal management. PMID:27790539

  12. [The economics of preventing psycho-social risks].

    PubMed

    Golzio, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the essay is to show the SHIELD methodology for helping the firm management to improve the risks prevention policy. It has been tested in the field with positive results. SHIELD is a cost-benefit analysis application to compare prevention and non-prevention costs, which arise from non-market risks. In the economic perspective safety risks (which include psycho-social risks) are non-market ones as they cause injures to workers during the job. SHIELD (Social Health Indicators for Economic Labour Decisions), is the original method proposed by the author. It is a cost benefits analysis application, which compares safety prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison allow stop management to evaluate the efficiency of the current safety prevention policy as it helps top management to answer to the policy question: how much to invest in prevention costs? The costs comparison is obtained through the reclassification of safety costs between prevention and non-prevention costs (which are composed by claim damages and penalty sanction costs). SHIELD has been tested empirically in four companies operating in the agribusiness sector during a research financed by the Assessorato all'Agricoltura and INAI Regionale of Emilia Romagna Region. Results are postive: it has been found that the increase of prevention costs causes the cut of non-prevention costs in all companies looked into, as assumed by the high reliability organization theory. SHIELD can be applied to all companies which must have an accounting system by law, no matter of the industry they act. Its application has limited costs as SHIELD doesn't need changes in the accounting system. Safety costs sustained by the company are simply reclassified in prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison of these two costs categories has been appreciated by top management of companies investigated as a useful support to decide the risks prevention policy for the company. The SHIELD original feature compared

  13. Psychosocial factors and risk of hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijing L; Liu, Kiang; Matthews, Karen A; Daviglus, Martha L; Ferguson, T Freeman; Kiefe, Catarina I

    2003-10-22

    Although psychosocial factors are correlated, previous studies on risk factors for hypertension have typically examined psychosocial factors individually and have yielded inconsistent findings. To examine the role of psychosocial factors of time urgency/impatience (TUI), achievement striving/competitiveness (ASC), hostility, depression, and anxiety on long-term risk of hypertension. DESIGN, SETTING, AND STUDY POPULATION: A population-based, prospective, observational study using participant data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. A total of 3308 black and white adults aged 18 to 30 years (when recruited in 1985 and 1986) from 4 US metropolitan areas and followed up through 2000 to 2001. Fifteen-year cumulative incidence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher, diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher, or taking antihypertensive medication). The incidence of hypertension at year 15 was 15% from baseline and 13.6% from year 5. After adjusting for the same set of hypertension risk factors and each of the psychosocial factors of TUI, ASC, hostility, depression, and anxiety in 5 separate logistic regression models, higher TUI and hostility were significantly associated with risk of developing hypertension at 15-year follow-up for the total sample. Compared with the lowest score group, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TUI was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.03) for a score of 1; 1.47 (95% CI, 1.08-2.02) for a score of 2; and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.29-2.62) for a score of 3 to 4 (P for trend =.001). Compared with the lowest quartile group, the adjusted OR for hostility was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.76-1.47) for quartile 2; 1.38 (95% CI, 1.00-1.91) for quartile 3; and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.33-2.54) for quartile 4 (P for trend <.001). No consistent patterns were found for ASC, depression, or anxiety. Race- and sex-specific analyses and multivariable models with simultaneous adjustment for all 5 psychosocial factors

  14. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Acker, Deborah; Webb, Tina; Brenzel, Allen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Young, Audrey; Thompson, Richard

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article "History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse" (Pierce et al., 2017) [1].

  15. Illusory recovery: are recovered children with early language delay at continuing elevated risk?

    PubMed

    Dale, Philip S; McMillan, Andrew J; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Plomin, Robert

    2014-08-01

    To examine the later development of language and literacy of children who had delayed language at age 2 but were in the normal range at age 4. Longitudinal data were analyzed from 3,598 pairs of twins participating in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Six hundred thirty-three twins (8.8%) were delayed at age 2 based on parent-reported expressive vocabulary, and of these, 373 (59.0%) were classified as recovered based on 4-year measures. Each recovered 4-year-old was matched on vocabulary, gender, and zygosity to another 4-year-old without a history of early delay. Although the recovered group was below the mean for the total TEDS sample on measures of language at ages 7 and 12, there were no significant differences between the recovered and matched groups. Within the recovered group, it was not possible to predict outcome at better than a chance level. Children who appear to have recovered by age 4 from early delay are at modest risk for continuing difficulties, but this appears to be no higher than the risk for other 4-year-olds with equivalent scores, reflecting the continuing variability in longitudinal outcome after age 4. All children in the low normal range at age 4 merit continuing monitoring.

  16. Illusory Recovery: Are Recovered Children With Early Language Delay at Continuing Elevated Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Philip S.; McMillan, Andrew J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the later development of language and literacy of children who had delayed language at age 2 but were in the normal range at age 4. Method Longitudinal data were analyzed from 3,598 pairs of twins participating in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Six hundred thirty-three twins (8.8%) were delayed at age 2 based on parent-reported expressive vocabulary, and of these, 373 (59.0%) were classified as recovered based on 4-year measures. Each recovered 4-year-old was matched on vocabulary, gender, and zygosity to another 4-year-old without a history of early delay. Results Although the recovered group was below the mean for the total TEDS sample on measures of language at ages 7 and 12, there were no significant differences between the recovered and matched groups. Within the recovered group, it was not possible to predict outcome at better than a chance level. Conclusions Children who appear to have recovered by age 4 from early delay are at modest risk for continuing difficulties, but this appears to be no higher than the risk for other 4-year-olds with equivalent scores, reflecting the continuing variability in longitudinal outcome after age 4. All children in the low normal range at age 4 merit continuing monitoring. PMID:24686486

  17. Increased psychosocial risk, depression and reduced quality of life living with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Simms, Roslyn J; Thong, Kah Mean; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Ong, Albert C M

    2016-07-01

    The psychosocial impact of living with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the overall quality of life (QOL), mood, perceived social support and psychosocial risk of having a diagnosis of ADPKD in a patient cohort from a major UK nephrology centre serving a large catchment population. A postal questionnaire was sent to 349 patients registered at the Sheffield Kidney Institute with chronic kidney disease but not on renal replacement therapy (RRT). The questionnaire incorporated three validated forms: kidney disease quality-of-life short form (KDQOL SF1.3) to assess QOL; nine-item patient health questionnaire (PHQ9) to screen for depression; multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) to evaluate perceived social support; as well as a novel genetic psychosocial risk instrument (GPRI-ADPKD) designed to study the specific psychosocial impact of coping with a diagnosis of ADPKD. The overall response rate was 53%. Patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (<30 mL/min) or larger kidneys (mean length on ultrasound ≥17 cm) reported reduced QOL and increased psychosocial risk. Clinically significant depression was reported in 22% and 62% felt guilty about passing ADPKD on to their children. In multivariate analysis, female gender was associated with overall poorer psychosocial well-being, whereas increasing age, lower kidney function, larger kidneys and loss of a first degree relative from ADPKD were additional risk factors for QOL, depression or psychosocial risk, respectively. Our results reveal a significantly poorer QOL and increasing psychosocial risk with markers of disease progression in patients, particularly women, with ADPKD prior to starting RRT. The future management strategy of ADPKD should address these issues and provide for better individual and family support throughout the patient journey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  18. Maternal Adverse Childhood Experience and Infant Health: Biomedical and Psychosocial Risks as Intermediary Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Maguire, Jonathon L; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the mechanisms accounting for the transfer of risk from one generation to the next, especially as they relate to maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical and emotional health outcomes. Participants were 501 community mother-infant dyads recruited shortly after the birth and followed up at 18 months. Mothers retrospectively reported on their adverse childhood experiences. The main outcome measures were parent-reported infant physical health and emotional problems. Potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission included cumulative biomedical risk (eg, prenatal and perinatal complications) and postnatal psychosocial risk (eg, maternal depression, single parenthood, marital conflict). Four or more adverse childhood experiences were related to a 2- and 5-fold increased risk of experiencing any biomedical or psychosocial risk, respectively. There was a linear association between number of adverse childhood experiences and extent of biomedical and psychosocial risk. Path analysis revealed that the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical health operated specifically through cumulative biomedical risk, while the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and infant emotional health operated specifically through cumulative psychosocial risk. This pattern was not explained by maternal childhood disadvantage or current neighborhood poverty. Maternal adverse childhood experiences confer vulnerability to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal psychosocial health. The association between adverse childhood experiences and offspring physical and emotional health operates through discrete intermediary mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  20. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  1. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jada G; Lobel, Marci

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women's perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women's risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women's risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers.

  2. Biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors predicting low back functional impairment among furniture distribution employees.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sue A; Allread, W Gary; Burr, Deborah L; Heaney, Catherine; Marras, William S

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors for low back disorder have been studied extensively however few researchers have examined all three risk factors. The objective of this was to develop a low back disorder risk model in furniture distribution workers using biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors. This was a prospective study with a six month follow-up time. There were 454 subjects at 9 furniture distribution facilities enrolled in the study. Biomechanical exposure was evaluated using the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (2001) lifting threshold limit values for low back injury risk. Psychosocial and individual risk factors were evaluated via questionnaires. Low back health functional status was measured using the lumbar motion monitor. Low back disorder cases were defined as a loss of low back functional performance of -0.14 or more. There were 92 cases of meaningful loss in low back functional performance and 185 non cases. A multivariate logistic regression model included baseline functional performance probability, facility, perceived workload, intermediated reach distance number of exertions above threshold limit values, job tenure manual material handling, and age combined to provide a model sensitivity of 68.5% and specificity of 71.9%. The results of this study indicate which biomechanical, individual and psychosocial risk factors are important as well as how much of each risk factor is too much resulting in increased risk of low back disorder among furniture distribution workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: Results from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2012-01-01

    Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14–25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values <0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This ‘bundled’ intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved. PMID:21318932

  4. Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

  5. Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

  6. Why Does ADHD Confer Risk for Cigarette Smoking? A Review of Psychosocial Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…

  7. Specificity of Putative Psychosocial Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Lilly; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most psychosocial risk factors appear to have general rather than specific patterns of association with common childhood and adolescence disorders. However, previous research has typically failed to 1) control for comorbidity among disorders, 2) include a wide range of risk factors, and 3) examine sex by developmental stage effects on…

  8. Why Does ADHD Confer Risk for Cigarette Smoking? A Review of Psychosocial Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…

  9. Impact of Psychosocial Risk Factors on Prenatal Care Delivery: A National Provider Survey

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Elizabeth E.; Moloci, Nicholas M.; Housey, Michelle T.; Davis, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate providers’ perspectives regarding the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. Methods A random, national sample of 2095 prenatal care providers (853 obstetricians and gynecologists (Ob/Gyns), 270 family medicine (FM) physicians and 972 midwives) completed a mailed survey. We measured respondents’ practice and referral patterns regarding six psychosocial risk factors: adolescence (age ≤ 19), unstable housing, lack of paternal involvement and social support, late prenatal care (> 13 weeks gestation), domestic violence and drug or alcohol use. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between prenatal care provider characteristics and prenatal care utilization patterns. Results Approximately 60% of Ob/Gyns, 48.4% of midwives and 32.2% of FM physicians referred patients with psychosocial risk factors to clinicians outside of their practice. In all three specialties, providers were more likely to increase prenatal care visits with alternative clinicians (social workers, nurses, psychologists/psychiatrists) compared to themselves for all six psychosocial risk factors. Drug or alcohol use and intimate partner violence were the risk factors that most often prompted an increase in utilization. In multivariate analyses, Ob/Gyns who recently completed clinical training were significantly more likely to increase prenatal care utilization with either themselves (OR=2.15; 95% CI 1.14–4.05) or an alternative clinician (2.27; 1.00–4.67) for women with high psychosocial risk pregnancies. Conclusions Prenatal care providers frequently involve alternative clinicians such as social workers, nurses and psychologists or psychiatrists in the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. PMID:24740719

  10. Potential Psychosocial Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychosocial factors with chronic pain in general, and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. Moreover, a handful of prospective studies suggest that pre-existing psychosocial characteristics represent risk factors for new onset TMD. The current study presents psychosocial findings from the baseline case-control study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 1,633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases completed a battery of psychosocial instruments assessing general psychosocial adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic awareness, and pain coping and catastrophizing. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, odds of TMD were associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, affective distress, somatic awareness, and pain catastrophizing. Among controls, significant gender and ethnic group differences in psychosocial measures were observed, consistent with previous findings. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychosocial symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. These findings provide further evidence of associations between psychosocial factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the premorbid presence of these psychosocial factors predicts increased risk for developing new-onset TMD. PMID:22074752

  11. College student involvement in cigarette smoking: the role of psychosocial and behavioral protection and risk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Frances M; Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2007-02-01

    A theory-based protection and risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' cigarette smoking. Key aims were to examine whether psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in smoking, and to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on smoking involvement. Data for this three-wave longitudinal study were collected in fall 2002, spring 2003, and spring 2004 from 549 male and 427 female first-semester college students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. A 32-page questionnaire was used, with content theoretically derived from the constructs in problem-behavior theory. Cigarette smoking (number of cigarettes smoked on an average day in the past month), three types of psychosocial protection (models protection, controls protection, support protection), three types of psychosocial risk (models risk, opportunity risk, and vulnerability risk), two types of behavioral protection (church involvement, academic achievement), and two types of behavioral risk (problem drinking, marijuana use) were assessed. Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for significant variation in smoking involvement, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings were consistent, for the most part, for both genders and across three separate waves of data. Key predictors of smoking involvement included controls protection, models risk, vulnerability risk, behavioral protection, and behavioral risk. Antecedent protective and risk factors were associated with the initiation of smoking in the college setting. A model of protective and risk factors can be useful in understanding college smoking behavior and suggesting targets for intervention.

  12. Multi-risk Infants: Predicting attachment security from sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health risk among African-American preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods 112 high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads participated. Psychosocial (maternal depression, stress and self-efficacy) and sociodemographic risk (poverty, maternal education, marital status) were maternal self-report (0–4 months). Infant health risk was obtained from hospital charts. Infant-mother attachment (12 months) and maternal sensitivity (4 months) were assessed with Q-sort measures. Findings Psychosocial and sociodemographic, but not infant health risk, negatively related to attachment. Both were mediated by maternal sensitivity. Conclusions The impact of risk domains on attachment security was mediated by maternal sensitivity. Results emphasize the need for early intervention programs targeting premature infants to identify and address environmental and personal factors that place parenting at risk. PMID:21434913

  13. Nurse versus community health worker identification of psychosocial risks in pregnancy through a structured interview.

    PubMed

    Godecker, Amy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Sidebottom, Abbey C

    2013-11-01

    A structured psychosocial risk screening interview, the Prenatal Risk Overview, was administered to 733 women in prenatal care. Either a community health worker (CHW) or a registered nurse (RN) conducted the interview based on day of the week. A comparison of identified risk factors found no significant differences between study samples for six of 13 domains. For CHW interviews, significantly more participants were classified as Moderate/ High Risk for Depression, Lack of Telephone Access, Food Insecurity, and Housing Instability, and as High Risk for Lack of Social Support, Lack of Transportation Access, and Housing Instability. For RN interviews, significantly more participants were classified as High Risk for Alcohol Use. Community health workers successfully conducted psychosocial screening and elicited more self-reported risk than RNs, especially lack of basic needs. Comparing the hourly salary/ wage, the cost for CHWs was 56% lower than for RNs. Preliminary findings support use of paraprofessionals for structured screening interviews.

  14. Effects of spirituality and psychosocial well-being on health risk behaviors in Appalachian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Jesse, D Elizabeth; Reed, Pamela G

    2004-01-01

    To determine the relationships of spirituality and psychosocial well-being to health risk behaviors in pregnant Appalachian women. Descriptive study of 120 women between 16 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The instruments used were the Spiritual Perspective Scale and religiosity items from the Jarel Well-Being Scale. Psychosocial well-being was measured by the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile. Four items measured health risk behaviors. Higher levels of spirituality (spiritual perspective and religiosity) were significantly correlated with greater satisfaction with social support, higher levels of self-esteem, and decreased levels of smoking. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and spiritual variables explained 25% of the variance in frequency of smoking, and in the logistic regression analysis, psychosocial stress was the only variable that significantly predicted substance use. Higher levels of spirituality and lower levels of stress are associated with decreased health risk behaviors among pregnant women from Appalachia. Increasing spiritual resources and decreasing stress during pregnancy offer the potential to improve health promotion efforts in pregnancy with women from Appalachia.

  15. Perceived Neighborhood Risk as a Predictor of Drug Use among Urban Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Moderating Influences of Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Miller, Nicole L.; Ifill-Williams, Michelle; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the moderating influences of psychosocial functioning on the relation between perceived neighborhood risk and alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in inner-city, ethnic minority youths. Neighborhood risk uniquely predicted alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; however, some relations were qualified by level of psychosocial functioning.…

  16. [Psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal workers in Chile].

    PubMed

    Palomo-Vélez, Gonzalo; Carrasco, Jairo; Bastías, Álvaro; Méndez, María Doris; Jiménez, Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Characterize the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal agricultural workers in central Chile. Cross-sectional study in a non-probability sample of 106 female workers for a fruit trading and export company in the region of Maule, Chile. The interviews were conducted in September and October 2013. The SUSESO ISTA-21 questionnaire was used to evaluate five areas of psychosocial risk in the workplace (psychological requirements, active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, compensation, and "double presence"). Questionnaire S10/12 was used to measure labor satisfaction in three areas (satisfaction with benefits received, satisfaction with the company's physical environment, and satisfaction with supervision) and satisfaction in general. The level of psychosocial risk was high in two areas (double presence, and active work and possibilities of development) and medium in the other areas; the level of satisfaction was high in all three areas. The perception of psychosocial risk factors was negatively associated with work satisfaction in three areas: active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, and compensation (compensation was negatively associated except for satisfaction with the company's physical environment). Risks associated with seasonal work and the main issues that workers consider to affect their satisfaction with work and, by extension, their general well-being, are concentrated mainly in the three areas identified.

  17. [Psychosocial Risk Evaluation in the Workplace: Expert-based Development of a Checklist for Occupational Physicians].

    PubMed

    Weigl, M; Müller, A; Angerer, P; Petru, R

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace often fails in practice. One reason is the lack of competence of those who are in charge of the process. We present a checklist for the effective implementation of psychosocial risk assessment at workplace. This tool shall support occupational physicians in the preparation, planning and implementation of a psychosocial risks assessment process. Based on a stepwise development and validation process, specific steps and factors for the successful implementation were identified qualitatively with 15 occupational physicians and experts. This was conducted in a 2-stage Delphi study. In the following, the identified steps and factors were transferred into a checklist. Subsequently, the checklist was evaluated in a focus group of occupational physicians (user evaluation). Thereafter, the contents were subjected to an expert evaluation. Our checklist for the effective implementation of the process of psychosocial risk management in the workplace aims to strengthen the competence of occupational physicians, especially in the implementation of risk assessments in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Number of Psychosocial Strengths Predicts Reduced HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Above and Beyond Syndemic Problems Among Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Hart, Trevor A; Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Vernon, Julia R G; Brennan, David J; Gardner, Sandra; Husbands, Winston; Myers, Ted

    2017-01-03

    Syndemics research shows the additive effect of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Psychosocial strengths may predict less engagement in high-risk sexual behavior. In a study of 470 ethnically diverse HIV-negative GBM, regression models were computed using number of syndemic psychosocial problems, number of psychosocial strengths, and serodiscordant condomless anal sex (CAS). The number of syndemic psychosocial problems correlated with serodiscordant CAS (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92; p = 0.001). When adding the number of psychosocial strengths to the model, the effect of syndemic psychosocial problems became non-significant, but the number of strengths-based factors remained significant (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86; p = 0.002). Psychosocial strengths may operate additively in the same way as syndemic psychosocial problems, but in the opposite direction. Consistent with theories of resilience, psychosocial strengths may be an important set of variables predicting sexual risk behavior that is largely missing from the current HIV behavioral literature.

  19. Psychosocial work environment and cardiovascular risk factors in an occupational cohort in France.

    PubMed

    Niedhammer, I; Goldberg, M; Leclerc, A; David, S; Bugel, I; Landre, M F

    1998-02-01

    Concordant results have been reported in several studies for the effects of job stress on cardiovascular disease, but the potential mechanisms of these effects have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was therefore to examine, in women and men, the cross sectional relations between psychosocial work variables (psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support) and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, overweight, smoking, and alcohol consumption). The original cohort comprised 20,625 volunteers (men aged from 40 to 50 and women from 35 to 50) employed by the French Company Electricité De France-Gaz De France and followed up yearly since 1989. The study was restricted to the 13,226 volunteers in the cohort who were still working and answered a self administered questionnaire on psychosocial work factors in 1995. Data were based on replies to this questionnaire. Three psychosocial work environment exposure scores were used to assess psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support at work respectively. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes within the previous 12 months, overweight, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Psychosocial work factors were significantly associated with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, overweight, smoking, and alcohol consumption, but not with diabetes. In men, low decision latitude was associated with hypertension, high decision latitude and high social support with overweight, low decision latitude with alcohol consumption. Moreover, the risk of hyperlipidaemia increased in men exposed to both high psychological demands and low social support. In women, low decision latitude was related to hyperlipidaemia, high psychological demands with overweight, high psychological demands and high decision latitude with smoking, and low social support with alcohol consumption. These cross sectional results underline the potential effects of

  20. The development of the European framework for psychosocial risk management: PRIMA-EF.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Cox, Tom; Kortum, Evelyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development process of the European framework for psychosocial risk management (PRIMA-EF). It also summarises and discusses key findings of research conducted through this policy-orientated research programme. This paper presents an overview of the development process of PRIMA-EF. The background, methods and outcomes are described and discussed. The paper summarises the key findings of PRIMA-EF and concludes by a discussion of the merit of PRIMA-EF in the area of psychosocial risk management and its intended use. PRIMA-EF has been built on a review, critical assessment, reconciliation and harmonisation of existing European approaches for the management of psychosocial risks and the promotion of mental health at the workplace. The framework has been built from a theoretical analysis of the risk management process, identifying its key elements in logic and philosophy, strategy and procedures, areas and types of measurement, and from a subsequent analysis of European risk management approaches. It is meant to accommodate all existing psychosocial risk management approaches across Europe. It also provides a model and key indicators that relate to the psychosocial risk management process both at the enterprise and macro levels. Experts, researchers, social partners, key European and international organisations and networks were involved throughout the development of PRIMA-EF. A number of methods were applied including literature, case study and policy reviews, interviews, surveys, focus groups and workshops. The scientific findings have been used to develop user-friendly tools for use at the enterprise and policy levels such as guidelines, indicators, guidance sheets, inventories and web-based tools. PRIMA-EF is intended as a framework for harmonizing practice and current methods in the area of psychosocial risk management. It can also be used as a guidance tool for the development of further methods both in Europe and internationally as it can

  1. Perceptions of psychosocial hazards, work-related stress and workplace priority risks in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kortum, Evelyn; Leka, Stavroula; Cox, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades, major global developments in the world of work include an international trend to shift production to developing countries, with wide variations in working conditions and exposure to traditional and emerging occupational risks, such as psychosocial risks. The latter have rarely been addressed or explored in developing and economically-emerging country contexts while we find an abundant body of research from industrialized countries. The research presented, which is part of a larger study, explored the perception of multi-disciplinary experts from different regions, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), of the nature of psychosocial hazards, and work-related stress, as well as their views on workplace priorities that require urgent attention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 experts from developing countries which were subjected to thematic analysis. A two-tiered Delphi survey was completed by 74 experts in the first round with 53 of these experts completing the survey in the second round. Psychosocial hazards and work-related stress were mostly seen as interchangeable in terms of source and effect and all participants perceived them as concern to their workforce. Through the interviews and the Delphi surveys they allude to our contemporary understanding of psychosocial risks. Workplace risks of priority differed by region but primarily work-related stress, injury and accident prevention, and substance abuse and risk behaviors were reported to require urgent attention. The current lack of awareness and research in the area of psychosocial risks and work-related stress hampers action in developing countries. International experts should support the exchange of information and the development of interventions in workplaces in developing countries with a view to integrating these emerging risks into comprehensive occupational health and safety policy frameworks to make such approaches more effective.

  2. [Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.

  3. Psychosocial risk factors for hospitalisation and death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alice J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Masters Pedersen, Jolenee L; Lange, Peter; Prescott, Eva; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-04-01

    Only a few smaller studies have addressed the effect of psychosocial factors on risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in spite of the potential for psychosocial stress to affect development of the disease through immunological and behavioural pathways. The aim of this study is to determine the relation between various psychosocial risk factors, individually and accumulated, and COPD hospitalisation and deaths. A total of 8728 women and men free of asthma and COPD participating in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, economic hardship, and sleep medication in 1991-1993 and followed in nationwide registers until 2009, with <2% loss to follow-up. During follow-up, 461 women and 352 men were hospitalized with or died from COPD. Major life events in adult life and vital exhaustion were both associated with a higher risk of COPD in an exposure-dependent manner, with high vital exhaustion being associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 2.31 (95% CI 1.69-3.16) for women and 2.48 (1.69-3.64) for men. A higher risk of COPD was also found in participants who experienced economic hardship or had a dysfunctional social network. Furthermore, the accumulation of psychosocial risk factors was associated with a higher risk of COPD in both women (HR = 2.40, 1.78-3.22) and men (HR = 1.93, 1.33-2.80). Psychosocial vulnerability may be important to consider both in clinical practice and when planning future preventive strategies against COPD.

  4. Children of Mothers at Psychosocial Risk Growing Up: A Follow up at the Age of 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran; Sydsjo, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to make a 16-year follow-up of children of psychosocial risk mothers as concerns emotional/behavioural problems, self-esteem, life events, and academic grades. Forty-three teenagers (index group) and 61 reference teenagers were personally interviewed and asked to answer the Youth Self-report (YSR), the Self-image…

  5. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Pasacreta, Jeannie V

    2003-01-01

    The identification of the BRCA1/2 genes, and their possible etiologic relationship with various forms of inherited cancer, has been recognized universally as a cornerstone in the search for cancer's genetic link and has made it possible to identify specific individuals and families who harbor a mutation in one of these predisposition genes. Genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility may pose unanticipated psychological and social problems. Because of the recent availability of predisposition genetic testing, research efforts have begun to investigate factors that may influence an individual's intention to undergo testing and the psychosocial sequelae associated with testing. The purpose of this article is to provide an integrative review of the literature that will delineate what is currently known about the psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk. Important generalizations from the literature include: (a) a positive test for breast cancer susceptibility may ignite a psychological response similar to the diagnosis of breast cancer itself; (b) there is likely a subset of individuals at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer who are also at risk for sustained psychosocial problems; (c) available literature challenges a common notion that only individuals with a positive test result will need psychosocial services; and (d) at-risk individuals are basing health care decisions on genetic testing information, thus they are making important decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Clinical issues and directions for future research were highlighted.

  6. Children of Mothers at Psychosocial Risk Growing Up: A Follow up at the Age of 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran; Sydsjo, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to make a 16-year follow-up of children of psychosocial risk mothers as concerns emotional/behavioural problems, self-esteem, life events, and academic grades. Forty-three teenagers (index group) and 61 reference teenagers were personally interviewed and asked to answer the Youth Self-report (YSR), the Self-image…

  7. Preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 and 5 years after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Wylde, Vikki; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - Psychosocial factors are important risk factors for poor outcomes in the first year after total knee replacement (TKR), however their impact on long-term outcomes is unclear. We aimed to identify preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 year and 5 years after TKR. Patients and methods - 266 patients were recruited prior to TKR surgery. Knee pain and function were assessed preoperatively and at 1 and 5 years postoperative using the WOMAC Pain score, WOMAC Function score and American Knee Society Score (AKSS) Knee score. Preoperative depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy and social support were assessed. Statistical analyses involved multiple linear regression and mixed effect linear regression. Results - Higher anxiety was a risk factor for worse pain at 1 year postoperative. No psychosocial factors were associated with any outcomes at 5 years postoperative. Analysis of change over time found that patients with higher pain self-efficacy had lower preoperative pain and experienced less improvement in pain up to 1 year postoperative. Higher pain self-efficacy was associated with less improvement in the AKSS up to 1 year postoperative but more improvement between 1 and 5 years postoperative. Interpretation - Preoperative anxiety was found to influence pain at 1 year after TKR. However, none of the psychosocial variables were risk factors for a poor outcome at 5 years post-operative, suggesting that the negative effects of anxiety on outcome do not persist in the longer-term.

  8. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900

  9. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. A systematic review was performed using the terms "psychosocial factors" AND "COPSOQ" in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking.

  10. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  11. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2016-01-01

    Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity and having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Participants were 2265 men and women (age range, 24-39 years in 2001) from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMTs were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, standard error [SE] = 0.001, p < .001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b = 0.003, SE = 0.001, p = .001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status, and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b = 0.007, SE = 0.003, p = .016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b = 0.004, SE = 0.002, p = .031) after adjustment for age, sex, and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life, and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood.

  12. Psychosocial risks in Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology residents in a Portuguese General and University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Alves de Moura, Pedro; Serranheira, Florentino; Sacadura-Leite, Ema

    2016-03-24

    Medical Doctors (MD), although at the front line of response to patients and their families, are seldom study subjects for occupational psychosocial risks and work related stress. Assess psychiatry and anaesthesiology residents in a central and university Portuguese Hospital for the presence of psychosocial risks at work. We used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version 2 (COPSOQ), which was applied face-to-face in two group settings, in April 2014. It comprised a sample of 19 Psychiatry residents and 20 Anaesthesiology residents. Statistical analysis was done by correlational analysis using Pearson's coefficient (r) and the t-student test for categorical variables. An occupational health risk (red flag) was found for residents in the "Cognitive demands" dimension of COPSOQ and a health risk (red flag) in the "Work influence" dimension for the female Anaesthesiology sub-group. A possible risk (yellow flag) was found in 17 dimensions. Results also showed moderate correlations between various COPSOQ dimensions and the emergency department workload, workload, home study, number of children, year of training and the medical specialty variables. These results suggest that residents have a health risk which derives from the cognitive demands of their work and that it increases with the workload.  This implicates the need for occupational health measures to be taken to manage and reduce these psychological risks.

  13. Family psychosocial screening: should we focus on high-risk settings?

    PubMed

    Kemper, K J; Osborn, L M; Hansen, D F; Pascoe, J M

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to address the question of whether or not psychosocial screening should be focused on "high-risk" populations. A cross-sectional survey of mothers of young children was conducted in various clinics: 758 in teaching clinics, 444 in private practices, and 202 at a military clinic. The self-administered questionnaire covered demographic factors, problems in mothers family of origin, maternal depression, and substance abuse. Mothers in the teaching clinics were younger and had less education and lower incomes than mothers in private practices, with intermediate levels in the military clinic. However, a substantial proportion of mothers seen in all sites reported psychosocial problems. Approximately 20% of mothers in all sites reported a family history of alcoholism. Positive screens for maternal depression ranged from about 15% to 35%. Binge drinking was reported by 10% to 20% at different sites. Psychosocial problems were common even among families seen in "low-risk" settings. Focusing screening only on high-risk clinics would miss many families with psychosocial problems.

  14. Sequential screening for psychosocial and behavioural risk during pregnancy in a population of urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kiely, M; Gantz, M G; El-Khorazaty, M N; El-Mohandes, A A E

    2013-10-01

    Screening for psychosocial and behavioural risks, such as depression, intimate partner violence, and smoking, during pregnancy is considered to be state of the art in prenatal care. This prospective longitudinal analysis examines the added benefit of repeated screening, compared with a single screening, in identifying such risks during pregnancy. Data were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial to address intimate partner violence, depression, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in African American women. Prenatal care sites in the District of Columbia serving mainly women of minority background. A cohort of 1044 African American pregnant women in the District of Columbia. Mothers were classified by their initial response (acknowledgement of risks), and these data were updated during pregnancy. Risks were considered new if they were not previously reported. Standard hypothesis tests and logistic regression were used to predict the acknowledgment of any new risk(s) during pregnancy. New risks: psychosocial variables to understand what factors might help identify the acknowledgement of additional risk(s). Repeated screening identified more mothers acknowledging risk over time. Reported smoking increased by 11%, environmental tobacco smoke exposure increased by 19%, intimate partner violence increased by 9%, and depression increased by 20%. The psychosocial variables collected at the baseline that were entered into the logistic regression model included relationship status, education, Medicaid, illicit drug use, and alcohol use during pregnancy. Among these, only education less than high school was associated with the acknowledgement of new risk in the bivariate analyses, and significantly predicted the identification of new risks (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.90). It is difficult to predict early on who will acknowledge new risks over the course of pregnancy, and thus all women should be screened repeatedly to allow for the identification of risks

  15. [Organizational wellbeing and psychosocial risk factors in a sample of Italian Public Administration work environments].

    PubMed

    Fida, Roberta; Gualandri, M; Avallone, F

    2011-01-01

    It has been recognized both by the scientific community and within the framework of social policies in Europe that the physical and psychosocial working environments pose potential risks for workers and organizational wellbeing. In particular psychosocial risks concern aspects of the design and management of work and its social and organizational contexts which have the potential for causing psychological or physical problems. This article examines the psychosocial risk factors of several types of Italian Public Administration offices (municipal, provincial, regional, central government, university, police headquarters, chamber of commerce, etc.) with the aim of obtaining a picture of the most problematic risk factors for each type. The participants of this survey consisted of about 23,500 employees of different types of Public Administration offices. The Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ, 3) was used to collect the data. Results from ANOVA indicated that perceptions of fairness and job demands were the most problematic risk factors. Perception of safety at work was another problematic risk factor in specific types of work. The results revealed a high perception of stress in all workers over the entire range of the public administration offices studied.

  16. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  17. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms in preadolescents: the role of parental psychosocial risk and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed.

  19. Test Review: Schneller, J. (2005). "Psychosocial Evaluation and Threat Risk Assessment (PETRA)." Lutz, FL--Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Holcomb, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Psychosocial Evaluation and Threat Risk Assessment" (PETRA), a 60-item self-report instrument "designed to address the psychosocial characteristics most commonly associated with acts of school violence" among middle school and high school students ages 11 to 18 years. The PETRA was…

  20. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  1. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  2. Psychosocial risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Eliza; McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Hill, Briony

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have adverse health outcomes for mother and infant throughout pregnancy. However, few studies have identified the psychosocial factors that contribute to women gaining excessive weight during pregnancy. To review the existing literature that explores the impact of psychosocial risk factors (psychological distress, body image dissatisfaction, social support, self-efficacy and self-esteem) on excessive gestational weight gain. A systematic review of peer-reviewed English articles using Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, Informit, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. Quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial factors of excessive GWG, published between 2000 and 2014 were included. Studies investigating mothers with a low risk of mental health issues and normally-developing foetuses were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 474 articles located, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full. Significant associations were found between depression, body image dissatisfaction, and social support with excessive gestational weight gain. No significant relationships were reported between anxiety, stress, self-efficacy, or self-esteem and excessive gestational weight gain. The relationship between psychosocial factors and weight gain in pregnancy is complex; however depression, body dissatisfaction and social support appear to have a direct relationship with excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to identify how screening for, and responding to, psychosocial risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain can be successfully incorporated into current antenatal care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychosocial Risk Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Marold, Donna B.

    1994-01-01

    Presents evidence for a model of risk factors, including depression, hopelessness, lack of social support, and negative self-evaluations, that contribute to suicidal ideation among normative and clinically depressed adolescents. (HTH)

  4. [The characteristics of psychosocial risks in the banking sector: a brief report].

    PubMed

    Stańczak, Aleksander; Merecz-Kot, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial risks in workplace are common phenomenon, stressing even for so-called white collar workers. The aim of the study was to indicate the most important threats in terms of banking sector employees. The studied subjects were 484 employees employed in 26 companies. The Scale of Psychosocial Risk (SPR) was used as a research tool. The most frequent and the most stressful categories of threats were: lack of control over workload and lack of career development chances. Banking sector employees are obliged to follow strict procedures of customer service and they regard their promotion chances as low. Employees's appraisal system is another strongly stressful factor. Work in a banking sector involves a great mental strain and the high risk of dismissal. Interpersonal relationships at work turned out to be the least stressful work facet in the banking sector. Given the most serious sources of psychosocial risks, the authors suggested to take the following actions: changes in work and work control system, education of employees and managerial staff and regular monitoring of occurring threats.

  5. Psychosocial predictors of cannabis use in adolescents at risk.

    PubMed

    Hüsler, Gebhard; Plancherel, Bernard; Werlen, Egon

    2005-09-01

    This research has tested a social disintegration model in conjunction with risk and protection factors that have the power to differentiate relative, weighted interactions among variables in different socially disintegrated groups. The model was tested in a cross-sectional sample of 1082 at-risk youth in Switzerland. Structural equation analyses show significant differences between the social disintegration (low, moderate, high) groups and gender, indicating that the model works differently for groups and for gender. For the highly disintegrated adolescents results clearly show that the risk factors (negative mood, peer network, delinquency) are more important than the protective factors (family relations, secure sense of self). Family relations lose all protective value against negative peer influence, but personal variables, such as secure self, gain protective power.

  6. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  7. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease risk: the role of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress and depression are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poorer prognosis, and physical (in)activity may be a key underlying biobehavioral mechanism. Physical activity has antidepressant effects, and physically fitter, more active individuals seem to be more biologically resilient to psychosocial stressors. This article will present data from a series of population cohort studies and laboratory-based psychophysiological studies to explore the role of physical activity as a protective factor against the effects of psychosocial stress on cardiovascular disease. These mechanisms may improve the treatment and prevention of stress-related illnesses and, thus, has important implications for public health and clinical care of high-risk patients.

  8. Demographic factors, mental health problems, and psychosocial resources influence women's AIDS risk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Silva, Joana; Pereira, M Graça

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how depressive mood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, self-efficacy, and social support are associated with HIV risk behaviors. Participants were sexually active women (N = 1488) recruited when attending gynecological consultations in primary care settings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to assess for depressive mood, abuse/assault-related PTSD, social support, self-efficacy, stress, and sexual risk behavior. The resulting association models showed that demographic factors, mental health problems, and resources are associated with sexual risk behavior. Detecting and treating mental health problems and interventions that bolster women's psychosocial resources are warranted.

  9. Psychosocial work environment and cardiovascular risk factors in an occupational cohort in France

    PubMed Central

    Niedhammer, I.; Goldberg, M.; Leclerc, A.; David, S.; Bugel, I.; Landre, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Concordant results have been reported in several studies for the effects of job stress on cardiovascular disease, but the potential mechanisms of these effects have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was therefore to examine, in women and men, the cross sectional relations between psychosocial work variables (psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support) and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, overweight, smoking, and alcohol consumption). PARTICIPANTS: The original cohort comprised 20,625 volunteers (men aged from 40 to 50 and women from 35 to 50) employed by the French Company Electricite De France-Gaz De France and followed up yearly since 1989. The study was restricted to the 13,226 volunteers in the cohort who were still working and answered a self administered questionnaire on psychosocial work factors in 1995. DESIGN: Data were based on replies to this questionnaire. Three psychosocial work environment exposure scores were used to assess psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support at work respectively. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes within the previous 12 months, overweight, smoking, and alcohol consumption. MAIN RESULTS: Psychosocial work factors were significantly associated with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, overweight, smoking, and alcohol consumption, but not with diabetes. In men, low decision latitude was associated with hypertension, high decision latitude and high social support with overweight, low decision latitude with alcohol consumption. Moreover, the risk of hyperlipidaemia increased in men exposed to both high psychological demands and low social support. In women, low decision latitude was related to hyperlipidaemia, high psychological demands with overweight, high psychological demands and high decision latitude with smoking, and low social support with alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS

  10. Vulnerable Goth teens: the role of schools in this psychosocial high-risk culture.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Carolyn M; Rimer, Don; Scott, Micah

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, a number of tragedies have been linked to the Goth culture. Most alarming have been the acts of violence, suicide, and self-harm found among teens. Teachers, parents, administrators, and fellow students are at a loss on how to relate to such students. They are unsure what role they might play in addressing some of the psychosocial issues they encounter. The purposes of this article are to describe characteristics of Goth teens, identify psychosocial risks for these teens, and describe roles school personnel can play. This article provides a review of the Goth culture, risk factors for Goth teens, and methods school personnel can use in identifying and addressing the psychosocial needs of this group. The Goth culture attracts teens who are depressed, feel persecuted, have a distrust of society, or have suffered past abuse. They then surround themselves with people, music, Web sites, and activities that foster angry or depressed feelings. They have a higher prevalence of depression, self-harm, suicide, and violence than non-Goth teens. School personnel are in a position to make a difference. By preparing themselves with knowledge, skills, materials, and referral sources, they can serve as liaisons. They have a specific role in advocating for the health and safety of students, identifying students who are at risk, disseminating new knowledge, and providing guidance in the management of the troubled teens.

  11. Biomechanical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain at work.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, M S; Frank, J W; Shannon, H S; Norman, R W; Wells, R P; Neumann, W P; Bombardier, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the physical and psychosocial demands of work are associated with low back pain. METHODS: A case-control approach was used. Case subjects (n = 137) reported a new episode of low back pain to their employer, a large automobile manufacturing complex. Control subjects were randomly selected from the study base as cases accrued (n = 179) or were matched to cases by exact job (n = 65). Individual, clinical, and psychosocial variables were assessed by interview. Physical demands were assessed with direct workplace measurements of subjects at their usual jobs. The analysis used multiple logistic regression adjusted for individual characteristics. RESULTS: Self-reported risk factors included a physically demanding job, a poor workplace social environment, inconsistency between job and education level, better job satisfaction, and better coworker support. Low job control showed a borderline association. Physical-measure risk factors included peak lumbar shear force, peak load handled, and cumulative lumbar disc compression. Low body mass index and prior low back pain compensation claims were the only significant individual characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified specific physical and psychosocial demands of work as independent risk factors for low back pain. PMID:11441733

  12. Salivary Biomarkers of Chronic Psychosocial Stress and CVD Risks: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    An, Kyungeh; Salyer, Jeanne; Brown, Roy E; Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina; Starkweather, Angela; Shim, Insop

    2016-05-01

    The use of salivary biomarkers in stress research is increasing, and the precision and accuracy with which researchers are able to measure these biomarkers have dramatically improved. Chronic psychosocial stress is often linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Salivary biomarkers represent a noninvasive biological method of characterizing the stress phenomenon that may help to more fully describe the mechanism by which stress contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CVD. We conducted a systematic review of 40 research articles to identify the salivary biomarkers researchers have most commonly used to help describe the biological impact of chronic psychosocial stress and explore its associations with CVD risk. We address strengths and weaknesses of specimen collection and measurement. We used PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Biological Sciences (ProQuest), and Dissertations/Theses (ProQuest) to retrieve 387 initial articles. Once we applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria to specifically target adult human studies dealing with chronic stress rather than acute/laboratory-induced stress, 40 studies remained, which we synthesized using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. Cortisol was the biomarker used most frequently. Sources of psychosocial stress included job strain, low socioeconomic status, and environmental factors. Overall, psychosocial stress was associated with CVD risks such as vascular pathology (hypertension, blood pressure fluctuation, and carotid artery plaque) as well as metabolic factors such as abnormal blood glucose, dyslipidemia, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Diverse salivary biomarkers have been useful in stress research, particularly when linked to CVD risks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Climatic and psychosocial risks of heat illness incidents on construction site.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunyan Andrea; Rowlinson, Steve; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The study presented in this paper aims to identify prominent risks leading to heat illness in summer among construction workers that can be prioritised for developing effective interventions. Samples are 216 construction workers' cases at the individual level and 26 construction projects cases at the organisation level. A grounded theory is generated to define the climatic heat and psychosocial risks and the relationships between risks, timing and effectiveness of interventions. The theoretical framework is then used to guide content analysis of 36 individual onsite heat illness cases to identify prominent risks. The results suggest that heat stress risks on construction site are socially constructed and can be effectively managed through elimination at supply chain level, effective engineering control, proactive control of the risks through individual interventions and reactive control through mindful recognition and response to early symptoms. The role of management infrastructure as a base for effective interventions is discussed.

  14. Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual factors associated with sexual risk behaviors among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Amy; Kuhns, Lisa; Kinsky, Suzanne; Johnson, Amy; Garofalo, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young sexual minority women are at risk for negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, yet little is known about these risks. We examined factors that may influence sexual risk from a psychosocial and contextual perspective. Analyses were conducted to examine within group relationships between sexual behaviors, negative outcomes, and related factors in a sample of young sexual minority women. Participants (N = 131) were young (mean = 19.8) and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity (57% non-White). Sex under the influence, having multiple partners, and having unprotected sex were common behaviors, and pregnancy (20%) and sexually transmitted infection (12%) were common outcomes. Risk behaviors were associated with age, alcohol abuse, and older partners. Results support the need for further research to understand how these factors contribute to risk in order to target risk reduction programs for this population.

  15. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Child Welfare among Postpartum Mothers with a History of Childhood Maltreatment and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, A. M.; Schury, K.; Reister, F.; Köhler-Dauner, F.; Schauer, M.; Ruf-Leuschner, M.; Gündel, H.; Ziegenhain, U.; Fegert, J. M.; Kolassa, I.-T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) can increase the risk of psychosocial risk factors in adulthood (e. g. intimate partner violence, financial problems, substance abuse or medical problems). The transition to parenthood presents those affected by CM with particular challenges, in addition to usual birth-related stressors. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 240 women were interviewed in the puerperium with respect to CM experiences, using the German version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Current psychosocial risk factors (e. g. financial concerns, maternal mental illness, single parent) were assessed using the Constance Index (KINDEX) for early childhood risk factors. Associations between CM experience and psychosocial risk factors were calculated using simple correlation. Results: The average age of participants was 33 years. On the CTQ 13.8 % of participants reported emotional abuse, 6.7 % physical abuse and 12.5 % sexual abuse, while 32.1 % reported emotional neglect and 7.5 % physical neglect during childhood. With rising severity of CM, more psychosocial risk factors (KINDEX) were present. Conclusions: This study shows a clear association between experiences of maltreatment during childhood and the presence of psychosocial stressors among women in the puerperium. Regular screening for a history of CM and parental psychosocial stressors should be conducted early, i.e. during pregnancy, to avoid negative consequences for the child. PMID:27064835

  16. Optimizing the Use of Electronic Health Records to Identify High-Risk Psychosocial Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, Nicolas Michel; Maniates, Jennifer; Weilburg, Jeffrey; Choy, Garry

    2017-08-14

    Care coordination programs have traditionally focused on medically complex patients, identifying patients that qualify by analyzing formatted clinical data and claims data. However, not all clinically relevant data reside in claims and formatted data. Recently, there has been increasing interest in including patients with complex psychosocial determinants of health in care coordination programs. Psychosocial risk factors, including social determinants of health, mental health disorders, and substance abuse disorders, are less amenable to rapid and systematic data analyses, as these data are often not collected or stored as formatted data, and due to US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations are often not available as claims data. The objective of our study was to develop a systematic approach using word recognition software to identifying psychosocial risk factors within any part of a patient's electronic health record (EHR). We used QPID (Queriable Patient Inference Dossier), an ontology-driven word recognition software, to scan adult patients' EHRs to identify terms predicting a high-risk patient suitable to be followed in a care coordination program in Massachusetts, USA. Search terms identified high-risk conditions in patients known to be enrolled in a care coordination program, and were then tested against control patients. We calculated precision, recall, and balanced F-measure for the search terms. We identified 22 EHR-available search terms to define psychosocial high-risk status; the presence of 9 or more of these terms predicted that a patient would meet inclusion criteria for a care coordination program. Precision was .80, recall .98, and balanced F-measure .88 for the identified terms. For adult patients insured by Medicaid and enrolled in the program, a mean of 14 terms (interquartile range [IQR] 11-18) were present as identified by the search tool, ranging from 2 to 22 terms. For patients enrolled in the program but

  17. Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2012-01-04

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  18. Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Kieschke, Ulf; Schwappach, David L B; Wirsching, Michael; Spahn, Claudia

    2008-10-02

    Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. The questionnaire -Related Behaviour and Experience "Work administered in cross-sectional surveys to students in the first (n = 475) and in the fifth year of studies (n = 355) in required courses at three German universities and to physicians in early professional life in the vicinity of these universities (n = 381). Scores reflecting a healthy behaviour pattern were less likely in physicians (16.7%) compared to 5th year (26.0%) and 1st year students (35.1%) while scores representing unambitious and resigned patterns were more common among physicians (43.4% vs. 24.4% vs. 41.0% and 27.3% vs. 17.2% vs. 23.3 respectively). Female and male responders differed in the domains professional commitment, resistance to stress and emotional well-being. Female physicians on average scored higher in the dimensions resignation tendencies, satisfaction with life and experience of social support, and lower in career ambition. The results show distinct psychosocial stress patterns among medical students and physicians. Health promotion and prevention of psychosocial symptoms and impairments should be integrated as a required part of the medical curriculum and be considered an important issue during the further training of physicians.

  19. Developmental risks and psychosocial adjustment among low-income Brazilian youth.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Koller, Silvia H; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; De Morais, Normanda Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to developmental risks in three domains (community, economic, and family), and relations between risks and psychosocial well-being, were examined among 918 impoverished Brazilian youth aged 14-19 (M = 15.8 years, 51.9% female) recruited in low-income neighborhoods in one city in Southern Brazil. High levels of developmental risks were reported, with levels and types of risks varying by gender, age, and (to a lesser extent) race. Associations between levels of risks in the various domains and indicators of psychological (e.g., self-esteem, negative emotionality) and behavioral (e.g., substance use) adjustment differed for male and female respondents. Findings build on prior research investigating the development of young people in conditions of pervasive urban poverty and reinforce the value of international research in this endeavor.

  20. The association between adolescent sexting, psychosocial difficulties, and risk behavior: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-02-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes beyond intervention. They can also play an important role in the prevention of sexting and its related risks. This article reviews the links between adolescent sexting, other types of risk behavior, and its emotional and psychosocial conditions. Seven databases were examined and nine studies remained for further review. The review of the literature shows that adolescent sexting is cross sectionally associated with a range of health-risk behaviors. Youth who engage in sexting are also found to experience peer pressure and a range of emotional difficulties. The results can guide school nurse education and practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effects of social and psychosocial factors on risk of preterm birth in black women.

    PubMed

    Misra, Dawn; Strobino, Donna; Trabert, Britton

    2010-11-01

    Our objective was to examine how social and psychosocial factors may influence the risk of preterm birth. The design of the study was a hybrid retrospective and prospective cohort. African-American women residing in Baltimore, Maryland, were enrolled prenatally if they received care at one of three Johns Hopkins Medical Institution prenatal clinics (n=384) or enrolled post-partum if they delivered at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution with late, none or intermittent prenatal care (N=459). Preterm birth was defined as less than 37 weeks completed gestation. Interview data were collected on 832 enrolled women delivering singletons between March 2001 and July 2004. The preterm birth rate was 16.4%. In both unadjusted and adjusted models, exposure to racism over a woman's lifetime had no effect on risk of preterm birth in our sample. However, we found evidence of a three-way interaction between reported lifetime experiences of racism, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and stress during pregnancy on preterm birth risk. Racism scores above the median (more racism) were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in three subgroups with the effect moderated by depressive symptoms and stress. Social and psychosocial factors may operate in a complex manner related to risk of preterm birth.

  2. Sex differences in associations between psychosocial factors and aberrant crypt foci among patients at risk for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Katherine E; Cruess, Dean G; Pleau, Devon; Swede, Helen; Anderson, Joseph; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Psychosocial factors may impact cancer risk but sex differences in this domain are understudied. Examining psychosocial factors, such as depression and social support, among colon cancer patients allows for a unique opportunity to study sex differences in the association between psychosocial factors and colon cancer risk in this population. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in the association between key psychosocial factors and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a putative biomarker of colon cancer risk. We hypothesized that higher levels of depression in women and lower levels of social support in men were associated with greater numbers of ACF among individuals at heightened risk for colon cancer. Participants were self-referred or referred by physicians for routine colonoscopy. Within 2 weeks before colonoscopy, participants completed standardized measures assessing psychosocial factors. At colonoscopy, individuals were examined for ACF frequency in the distal 20 cm of the colorectum. Regression β weights were used to examine the association between the psychosocial factors and ACF. A total of 93 individuals (51% women, 49% men) consented to the study. Among women, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with greater numbers of ACF; among men, lower levels of social support were associated with greater numbers of ACF. These results suggest that although colon cancer affects men and women equally with regard to morbidity and mortality rates, there were important sex differences in how psychosocial variables were related to colon cancer risk. Psychosocial interventions aimed at targeting these types of factors are warranted but need to consider the role of sex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of psychosocial risk at work on mental health of the forensic medical service officials in Chile].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Urra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the harmful effects of exposure to psychosocial risk at work on the mental health of workers, there are particularly hazardous occupations product of their nature and the conditions under which the work is done. This article analyzes the associations between psychosocial risk at work and mental health in the Forensic Medical Service (SML) in Chile. The national and representative sample of 757 employees (46% men and 54% women) of SML, answered an online survey in 2013, to measure risk exposure to psychosocial risk and mental health outcomes. Data analysis considered descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that workers have a high psychosocial risk: high psychological demands (83%), low social support (53%), Jobstrain (15%), Isostrain (12%), effort- rewards imbalance (69%). Also, one in three reported depressive symptoms, distress and consumption of psychotropic drugs. The workers reported that the problems of work contribute to the symptoms or consumption. Finally, subjects exposed to psychosocial risk had a greater chance of experiencing mental health problems than those not exposed. Diligent preventive interventions are needed to address this high risk population.

  4. Psychosocial Modeling of Insider Threat Risk Based on Behavioral and Word Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2013-10-01

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. A complementary Personality Factor modeling approach was developed based on analysis to derive relevant personality characteristics from word use. Several implementations of the psychosocial model were evaluated by comparing their agreement with judgments of human resources and management professionals; the personality factor modeling approach was examined using email samples. If implemented in an operational setting, these models should be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  5. Psychosocial risk factors in coronary heart disease: beyond type A behavior.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Miguel; Silva, Danilo; Rocha, Evangelista

    2005-02-01

    From a broad perspective of psychocardiology, our aim is to give an overview of the role that psychosocial risk factors play in coronary artery disease. A review of the literature was made based on a systematic search of four databases: EBSCO, Proquest Psychology, Proquest Health and PubMed. In sample 1, two dependent (Coronary and Myocardial) and six independent variables (Type A, hostility, anger, depression, anxiety and psychosocial) were created. In sample 2, we searched directly for three descriptors (Type D personality, time urgency and coronary-prone behavior). Following this search, two sets of concepts were distinguished: (1) those relating to traditional research areas, and their critics, and (2) those included in the most recent trends, and their limitations. Research in psychocardiology has gone beyond the traditional concept of type A behavior pattern. The idea of a specific toxic component has been abandoned, in favor of a more holistic approach. The deleterious effects that negative emotions, particularly depression, as well as personality and socioeconomic status, may have on the functioning of various organs and psychosocial performance have now been recognized.

  6. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-09-15

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P < 0.002), with high vital exhaustion being associated with a 2-fold higher risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure.

  7. Psychosocial risk factors distinguishing melancholic and nonmelancholic depression: a comparison of six systems.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Mitchell, P; Hickie, I; Wilhelm, K; Brodaty, H; Boyce, P; Roy, K

    1991-12-01

    We examined six systems or scales designed to distinguish melancholia from residual nonmelancholic depressive disorders in a sample of 305 patients. A count of the number of significant psychosocial risk factors showed that a clinical diagnosis was the most differentiating (19 significant risk factors), followed by the Newcastle index (13), DSM-III (10), and the CORE system (10)--the last essentially assessing psychomotor change; Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) (7) and an endogeneity symptom scale (2) were the least differentiating. A subsample of "composite melancholics" was derived, comprising 138 who met "melancholia" criteria for DSM-III, RDC, and CORE, and they were contrasted with residual depressives. The composite melancholics were older, had had a briefer depressive episode, and differed significantly on 12 risk factors, essentially being less likely to report deprivational experiences such as deficient parenting and dysfunctional marital relationships. We suggest that such a risk factor strategy is of potential use in refining the clinical definition of melancholia.

  8. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among health students.

    PubMed

    Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Advincula Reis, Alberto Olavo

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among students enrolled in the first and last years of the Nursing and Medical Undergraduate Programs at State University of Londrina. A convenience sample was selected from 263 enrolled students, and the 183 students who were sexually active (70.4%) had their data assessed. The Aids Risk Reduction Model framework was used to design the questionnaire in which a 5% statistical significance level was considered. Some risk factors were identified such as the perception of invulnerability, multiple sexual partners, consumption of alcoholic beverages before intercourse, and the discontinuous use or no use of condom. The risk factors are common both to the freshman and senior students, with no significant differences related to the passage of time or to the students' higher educational level. Senior students tend to be monogamous which makes them feel safer and decrease the use of condom with their sexual partners.

  9. Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents.

  10. Psychosocial factors and high-risk sexual behavior: race differences among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doljanac, R F; Zimmerman, M A

    1998-10-01

    Adolescence is a period of sexual experimentation. We examined psychosocial predictors of high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. The sample included 824 ninth-graders, most of whom are African American. We conducted separate analyses for whites and African Americans. Predictors included alcohol and substance use, delinquency, prosocial behaviors, and family and peer influences. We found that problem behaviors predicted high-risk sexual behavior, but the effects were stronger for white youth. We also found that friends' behaviors were more predictive than family influences, except for family conflict. In general, the models explained more variance for white youths than for African-American youths. The results suggest that problem behavior theory and social interactions theory may be most relevant for white youth and that other models may be necessary to explain high-risk sexual behavior among African-American youths.

  11. Antisocial personality in treatment-seeking cocaine abusers: Psychosocial functioning and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Ladd, George T; Petry, Nancy M

    2003-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP) is common in substance abusers and may be associated with increased severity of psychosocial problems and risk of HIV infection. This study compared 174 treatment-seeking cocaine abusers with and without ASP on Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores and the HIV risk behavior scale. Patients with ASP comprised 35% of the sample. These patients evidenced more severe problems than non-ASP patients on alcohol, legal, and psychiatric indices of the ASI. Patients with ASP also reported greater participation in lifetime sexual risk behaviors, including number of casual sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, and frequency of anal sex. This study suggests the importance of screening for ASP when patients initiate treatment. Specific and more intensive treatment may be necessary to improve outcomes in this patient population.

  12. Prehypertension and psychosocial risk factors among university students in ASEAN countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Ferrer, Alice Joan G; Low, Wah Yun; Huu, Thang Nguyen; Win, Hla Hla; Rochmawati, Erna; Turnbull, Niruwan

    2017-08-23

    Existing evidence suggests that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of prehypertension, hypertension and to identify psychosocial risk factors for prehypertension among university students in Association of South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) countries. Based on a cross-sectional survey, the total sample included 4649 undergraduate university students (females = 65.3%; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.9, age range of 18-30 years) from 7 ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam). Blood pressure, anthropometric, health behaviour and psychosocial variables were measured. Overall, 19.0% of the undergraduate university students across ASEAN countries had prehypertension, 6.7% hypertension and 74.2% were normotensives. There was country variation in prehypertension prevalence, ranging from 11.3% in Indonesia and 11.5% in Malaysia to above 18% in Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. In multivariate analysis, sociodemographic variables (male gender, living in an upper middle income country, and living on campus or off campus on their own), nutrition and weight variables (not being underweight and obese, having once or more times soft drinks in a day and never or rarely having chocolate or candy), heavy drinking and having depressive symptoms were associated with prehypertension. The study found a high prevalence of prehypertension in ASEAN university students. Several psychosocial risk factors including male gender, obesity, soft drinks consumption, heavy drinking and depression symptoms have been identified which can help in intervention programmes.

  13. Tests of linear and nonlinear relations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and psychosocial problems during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Parra, Gilbert R; Smith, Gail L; Mason, W Alex; Savolainen, Jukka; Chmelka, Mary B; Miettunen, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2017-10-01

    This study tested whether there are linear or nonlinear relations between prenatal/birth cumulative risk and psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Participants (n = 6963) were taken from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986. The majority of participants did not experience any contextual risk factors around the time of the target child's birth (58.1%). Even in this low-risk sample, cumulative contextual risk assessed around the time of birth was related to seven different psychosocial outcomes 16 years later. There was some evidence for nonlinear effects, but only for substance-related outcomes; however, the form of the association depended on how the cumulative risk index was calculated. Gender did not moderate the relation between cumulative risk and any of the adolescent psychosocial outcomes. Results highlight the potential value of using the cumulative risk framework for identifying children at birth who are at risk for a range of poor psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…

  15. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…

  16. Physical and psychosocial ergonomic risk factors for low back pain in automobile manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Vandergrift, Jonathan L; Gold, Judith E; Hanlon, Alexandra; Punnett, Laura

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between ergonomic physical and psychosocial exposures and the risk of prevalent and incident low back pain (LBP) in a longitudinal cohort of automobile manufacturing workers. Ergonomic exposure intensity and LBP presence were determined through questionnaires at baseline (n=1181) and to workers in the same job 1 year later (n=505). Models were constructed using log-binomial regression with special attention to interactions between ergonomic exposures. Awkward back posture (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17), hand force (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), physical effort (PR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.16) and whole body vibration (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08) were each associated cross-sectionally with LBP. Awkward back posture (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.31) and hand force (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.22) also predicted incident LBP, although estimates were statistically less precise. Neither job control, psychological demands, nor job strain was independently related to risk of incident LBP. Among participants reporting high physical ergonomic exposures and moderate to high job control, increasing job demands was associated with a reduced LBP risk (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.00). Among participants reporting high physical exposures and low job control, psychological demands was associated with an increased LBP risk (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.66). Psychosocial workplace interventions for LBP should prioritise jobs in which there are high physical ergonomic exposures. Future studies of LBP should examine the interactions between physical ergonomic risk factors.

  17. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    PubMed

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Patient versus professional based psychosocial risk factor screening for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Quispel, Chantal; van Veen, Mieke J; Zuijderhoudt, Christianne; Steegers, Eric A P; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P

    2014-11-01

    To identify Psychopathology, Psychosocial problems and substance use (PPS) as predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes, two screen-and-advice instruments were developed: Mind2Care (M2C, self-report) and Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction (R4U, professional's checklist). To decide on the best clinical approach of these risks, the performance of both instruments was compared. Observational study of 164 pregnant women who booked at two midwifery practices in Rotterdam. Women were consecutively screened with M2C and R4U. For referral to tailored care based on specific PPS risks, inter-test agreement of single risks was performed in terms of overall accuracy and positive accuracy (risk present according to both instruments). With univariate regression analysis we explored determinants of poor agreement (<90 %). For triage based on risk accumulation and for detecting women-at-risk for adverse birth outcomes, M2C and R4U sum scores were compared. Overall accuracy of single risks was high (mean 93 %). Positive accuracy was lower (mean 46 %) with poorest accuracy for current psychiatric symptoms. Educational level and ethnicity partly explained poor accuracy (p < 0.05). Overall low PPS prevalence decreased the statistical power. For triage, M2C and R4U sum scores were interchangeable from sum scores of five or more (difference <1 %). The probability of adverse birth outcomes similarly increased with risk accumulation for both instruments, identifying 55-75 % of women-at-risk. The self-report M2C and the professional's R4U checklist seem interchangeable for triage of women-at-risk for PPS or adverse birth outcomes. However, the instruments seem to provide complementary information if used as a guidance to tailored risk-specific care.

  19. Positive Psychosocial Factors in Childhood Predicting Lower Risk for Adult Type 2 Diabetes: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, 1980-2012.

    PubMed

    Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Lipsanen, Jari; Kubzansky, Laura D; Hintsanen, Mirka; Savelieva, Kateryna; Serlachius, Anna; Magnussen, Costan G; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Mikkilä, Vera; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a public health concern, but psychosocial factors that may protect against the disease are unknown. This study examines whether a positive psychosocial environment in childhood is associated with lower risk for Type 2 diabetes in adulthood or healthier glucose trajectories over the life course, and whether BMI mediates the associations. A cohort of 3,596 Finnish children was followed into adulthood over 32 years. An overall positive psychosocial score, consisting of six subdomains, was measured at study baseline (1980). Relative risk ratios and multilevel growth curve modeling were used to examine associations of the psychosocial score with Type 2 diabetes (2012) and glucose trajectories (1986-2012). The mediating effect by BMI was examined using mediation analysis. The analyses were conducted between June 2015 and January 2016. There was a 21% decrease in the rate of Type 2 diabetes (relative risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI=0.66, 0.94) for each 1-SD increase in the positive psychosocial score after adjustment for childhood cardiovascular risk factors and dietary behaviors. Adult BMI mediated 52% and weight gain mediated 25% of the association. The growth curve model showed healthier glucose trajectories (age X psychosocial score interaction, b= -0.01; p=0.010) for participants with higher versus lower positive psychosocial score in childhood. Positive psychosocial environment in childhood seems to have beneficial influences on the risk for Type 2 diabetes over the life span. RCTs will be required to see if interventions directed at early-life circumstances are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial Risk Characteristics of Children in Welfare Programmes in Holland: The Role of Risk Factor Analysis in the Planning of Welfare Services for Troubled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a multiple-risk model wherein the psychosocial needs of troubled children can be easily assessed in a uniform way. Reports that model has sufficient reliability. Uses model to describe the mean-risk profiles of children in five major welfare programs for children in Holland; discusses how risk profiles can assist in selecting a program…

  1. [Norms and responsibilities of the occupational physician in psychosocial risks management].

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Ettore

    2010-01-01

    The activity of the occupational physician is one of the key elements for the management of psychosocial risk factor in companies, specifically in the healthcare system. The introduction of laws and agreements between the social partners regarding work-related stress have recently brought the attention upon further issues for the physician to work on. The role of the occupational physician is particularly important in the process of risk assessment, in informing and training the personnel as well as managing the more clinical aspects of the problem. The tasks and responsibilities of the occupational physician are therefore analysed in their more practical aspects, with particular attention to the currently evolving normative context, and are thereafter inserted into the field of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.

  2. The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M J; McKeganey, N P; Finlay, A; Barnard, M A

    1992-01-01

    Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male prostitutes' risk practices were constrained and emergent from the immediate circumstances of the sexual encounter. Unsafe sex was associated with client control. Safer sex was associated with countervailing prostitute strategies of influence. These data confirm the utility of self-empowerment approaches to health education.

  3. Effect of informal employment on the relationship between psychosocial work risk factors and musculoskeletal pain in Central American workers.

    PubMed

    Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Rojas Garbanzo, Marianela; Aragón, Aurora; Carmenate-Milián, Lino; Benavides, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    The constant increase on the psychosocial demands experienced at work seems to contribute to the increase in health problems such as musculoskeletal pain (MSP). This association may be especially important in low-income and middle-income countries, where there is a large proportion of informal workers among whom there is little research. We analysed the association between psychosocial work risk factors and MSP among formal and informal workers using the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health. This is a representative sample (n=12 024) of the economically active population of the six Spanish-speaking countries of Central America. Prevalence ratios (PR) and corresponding 95% CIs from Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between psychosocial work risk factors and the MSP. Compared with formal workers, informal workers reported higher prevalence of MPS in the body regions analysed (ie, cervicodorsal, lumbosacral, upper extremities) and higher exposure to psychosocial work risk factors. However, on the whole, the associations between the exposure to psychosocial work risk factors and the prevalence of MSP were similar for both formal and informal workers. Only the association between exposure to high demands and MSP in the upper extremities was higher (p=0.012) among formal (PR=1.69, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.96) than among informal workers (PR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.51). Exposure to adverse levels of psychosocial work risk factors is associated with higher prevalence of MPS among both formal and informal workers. However, the role of employment informality in this association is complex and requires further examination. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Prenatal screening for psychosocial risks in a high risk-population in Peru using the KINDEX interview.

    PubMed

    Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2016-01-22

    Prenatal stress and other prenatal risk factors (e.g. intimate partner violence) have a negative impact on mother's health, fetal development as well as enduring adverse effects on the neuro-cognitive, behavioral and physical health of the child. Mothers of low socio-economic status and especially those living in crime-ridden areas are even more exposed to a host of risk factors. Societies of extreme violence, poverty and inequalities, often present difficulties to provide adequate mental health care to the most needed populations. The KINDEX, a brief standardized instrument that assesses 11 different risk factors was used by midwives to identify pregnant women at-risk, in a suburban area with one of the highest levels of domestic violence in Lima. The instrument was designed to be used by medical staff to identify high-risk child-bearing women and, based on the results, to refer them to the adequate psychological or social support providers. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of psychosocial screening using the KINDEX in a Latin American Country for the first time, and to explore the relationship of the KINDEX with thee major risk areas, maternal psychopathology, perceived stress and traumatic experiences. The study was conducted in cooperation with the gynecological department of a general hospital in a suburban area of Lima. Nine midwives conducted interviews using the KINDEX of ninety-five pregnant women attending the gynecological unit of the hospital. From these, forty pregnant women were re-interviewed by a clinical psychologist using established instruments in order to assess the feasibility of the prenatal assessment in public health settings and the relationship of the KINDEX with maternal perceived stress, psychopathology symptoms and trauma load during pregnancy. We found high rates of risk factors in the examined pregnant women comparable with those found in the general population. Significant correlations were found between the KINDEX

  5. Psychosocial assessment of candidates and risk classification of patients considered for durable mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Megan C; Flattery, Maureen P; Burns, Brigid; Salyer, Jeanne; Weinland, Stephan; Shah, Keyur B

    2014-08-01

    The psychosocial assessment of candidates for transplantation (PACT), developed to assess candidates for heart transplant, has not been routinely used to assess left ventricular assist device (LVAD) candidacy. We examined the efficacy of the PACT to assess psychosocial outcomes in LVAD patients. We reviewed patients who received LVAD implants between June 2006 and April 2011 and retrospectively applied the PACT. We determined the accuracy of identifying social success with the PACT and revised domains to reflect criteria influencing social success for LVAD patients. Forty-eight patients (72% men, 44% non-white, 50.4 years old) were divided into high-scoring and low-scoring groups. Nine patients with low PACT scores were falsely categorized as high-risk, whereas 4 with high scores had poor social outcomes. The score had a high positive-predictive value (0.86) but low negative-predictive value (0.31). The PACT was revised (modified [m]PACT) to measure indicators, such as social support and understanding of care requirements, identified to more closely affect LVAD outcome. The mPACT exhibited improved accuracy. A reclassification table was developed, and the net reclassification index was 0.32. The percentage of patients incorrectly classified for social risk decreased from 27% with the PACT to 8% with the mPACT. Patients with higher mPACT scores had decreased 30-day readmission rates (26% vs 67%, p = 0.045) after device implantation. By emphasizing social support, psychologic health, lifestyle factors, and device understanding, the mPACT showed improved performance in risk-stratifying candidates for LVAD therapy. Prospective validation is warranted. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pituitary gland volume and psychosocial stress among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cullen, A E; Day, F L; Roberts, R E; Pariante, C M; Laurens, K R

    2015-11-01

    Pituitary volume enlargements have been observed among individuals with first-episode psychosis. These abnormalities are suggestive of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, which may contribute to the development of psychosis. However, the extent to which these abnormalities characterize individuals at elevated risk for schizophrenia prior to illness onset is currently unclear, as volume increases, decreases and no volume differences have all been reported relative to controls. The current study aimed to determine whether antipsychotic-naive, putatively at-risk children who present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz) or a family history of illness (FHx) show pituitary volume abnormalities relative to typically developing (TD) children. An additional aim was to explore the association between pituitary volume and experiences of psychosocial stress. ASz (n = 30), FHx (n = 22) and TD (n = 32) children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. Measures of pituitary volume and psychosocial stress were obtained at age 11-14 years. Neither ASz nor FHx children showed differences in pituitary volume relative to TD children. Among FHx children only, pituitary volume was negatively associated with current distress relating to negative life events and exposure to physical punishment. The lack of pituitary volume abnormalities among ASz and FHx children is consistent with our previous work demonstrating that these children are not characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol levels. The findings imply that these biological markers of HPA axis hyperactivity, observed in some older samples of high-risk individuals, may emerge later, more proximally to disease onset.

  7. Intimate relationships, individual adjustment, and coronary heart disease: Implications of overlapping associations in psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Baucom, Brian R W

    2017-09-01

    Being married or involved in a similar intimate relationship is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the quality of these relationships matters, as strain and disruption are associated with increased risk. These effects are typically studied separately from well-established psychosocial factors for CHD that are aspects of personality and emotional adjustment, even though discord and disruption in intimate relationships are related to these same individual characteristics. Thus, research to date tends to parse correlated risks, often taking a piecemeal approach by focusing on intimate relationships without considering aspects of personality and emotional adjustment that contribute to risk and protection, or focusing on individual-level risks while largely ignoring closely related health-relevant relationships. As an alternative, this article describes an integrative approach, first reviewing associations of the quality of intimate relationships with personality characteristics and aspects of emotional adjustment that confer CHD risk, and then discussing conceptual models of these associations and the biobehavioral mechanisms linking them with CHD. Current approaches to couple interventions are then discussed, including those that have a combined focus on intimate relationship difficulties and emotional adjustment. An integrative agenda for future research emphasizes aggregated risks, combining concepts and methods in current relationship science with those in biobehavioral research on CHD, and including parallel disparities in relationship functioning, emotional adjustment, and CHD risk. Such efforts could ultimately inform empirically based assessments and interventions for interrelated aspects of individuals and their intimate relationships that influence the development and course of CHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Protection from psychosocial risks at work under the European Convention on Human Rights: is it possible?

    PubMed

    Sychenko, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper argues the possibility of establishing common principles of protection from psychosocial risks (PSR) on the basis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) expressed in recent cases on degrading treatment and occupational health. The author focuses on the positive obligations of the States to ensure the protection of the right for life and of the right to respect for private life. The prohibition of degrading treatment in relations between private persons is also considered as relevant to the issue of the protection from PSR. Analyzing the Court's case law (judgments of the Court) we substantiate the possibility of claiming protection from PSR under the European Convention on Human Rights, namely, articles 2, 3 and 6, 8.

  9. Prospective associations of psychosocial adversity in childhood with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emma L; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-07

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of various forms of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. Participants were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Childhood psychosocial risk factors were reported prospectively by parents from 1950-1957, and retrospectively by participants at mean age 43 years in 1989. CVD risk factors were assessed at mean age 60-64 years in 2006-2011. Associations of a summary score of total psychosocial adversity and CVD risk in adulthood were assessed. There was no consistent evidence that cumulative psychosocial adversity, nor any specific form of psychosocial adversity in childhood, was associated with CVD risk factors in late adulthood. There was some evidence that parental death in the first 15 years was associated with higher SBP (Beta: 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.40, P=0.01) and DBP (Beta: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.32, P=0.07). We found no evidence that exposure to greater psychosocial adversity, or specific forms of psychosocial adversity during childhood is associated with adult CVD risk factors. Further large population studies are needed to clarify whether parental death is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  10. A pilot with computer-assisted psychosocial risk-assessment for refugees.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Shakya, Yogendra; Li, Jasmine; Khoaja, Khaled; Norman, Cameron D; Lou, Wendy; Abuelaish, Izzeldin; Ahmadzi, Hayat M

    2012-07-16

    Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA) tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention) or usual care (control) group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA=25; usual care=24). On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46% in usual care group [X2 (1)=3.47, p=0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean=4) and were 'unsure' about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean=2.8) or to privacy of information (mean=2.8) in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean=4.3). The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement needs of refugees. The tool's potential is discussed in relation to implications for healthcare practice. The

  11. A pilot with computer-assisted psychosocial risk –assessment for refugees

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA) tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. Methods A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention) or usual care (control) group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Results Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA = 25; usual care = 24). On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46 % in usual care group [X2 (1)=3.47, p = 0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean = 4) and were ‘unsure’ about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean = 2.8) or to privacy of information (mean = 2.8) in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean = 4.3). Conclusion The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement needs of refugees

  12. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  13. Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal Youth: An Ecological Analysis of Factors Associated with Psychosocial Functioning in High and Low Family Risk Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434

  14. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Child-Reported Emotional and Physical Abuse: Rates, Risk Factors and Psychosocial Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…

  15. Computeen: A Randomized Trial of a Preventive Computer and Psychosocial Skills Curriculum for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…

  16. The Prevalence of and Psychosocial Risks for Suicide Attempts in Male and Female College Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Cheng Hsiang; Ko, Huei Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of and psychosocial risks for suicide attempts was investigated in college students in Taiwan by gender, after controlling for depressive symptoms. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 2,835 college students; 11.90% of females and 8.87% of males reported they had attempted suicide in the…

  17. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  18. A qualitative study of migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV risk behaviour among truck drivers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2016-09-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at: (1) determining potentially traumatic events (PTEs), labour migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviours among truck drivers in Zambia; and (2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behaviour among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use, were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviours. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV-prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population.

  19. The Prevalence of and Psychosocial Risks for Suicide Attempts in Male and Female College Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Cheng Hsiang; Ko, Huei Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of and psychosocial risks for suicide attempts was investigated in college students in Taiwan by gender, after controlling for depressive symptoms. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 2,835 college students; 11.90% of females and 8.87% of males reported they had attempted suicide in the…

  20. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  1. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  3. Computeen: A Randomized Trial of a Preventive Computer and Psychosocial Skills Curriculum for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  5. Cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress and allostatic load in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Theall, Katherine P; Drury, Stacy S; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12-20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL. Approximately 35% of adolescents had 2 or more biomarkers of AL. A significant amount of variance in AL was explained at the neighborhood level. The likelihood of having a high AL was approximately 10% higher for adolescents living in medium-cumulative-risk neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.09), 28% higher for those living in high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.30), and 69% higher for those living in very-high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.70) as compared with adolescents living in low-risk areas. Effect modification was observed by both individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. These findings offer support for the hypothesis that neighborhood risks may culminate in a range of biologically mediated negative health outcomes detectable in adolescents.

  6. The efficacy of targeted interventions for modifiable psychosocial risk factors of persistent nonspecific low back pain - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kent, Peter; Kjaer, Per

    2012-10-01

    There is considerable interest in whether best practice management of nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) should include the targeting of treatment to subgroups of people with identifiable clinical characteristics. However, there are no published systematic reviews of the efficacy of targeted psychosocial interventions. This review aimed to determine if the efficacy of interventions for psychosocial risk factors of persistent NSLBP is improved when targeted to people with particular psychosocial characteristics. Bibliographic databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials of targeted psychosocial interventions that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on the efficacy of targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of pain, activity limitation and psychosocial factors (fear avoidance, catastrophisation, anxiety and depression). Four studies met the inclusion criteria and collectively investigated nine hypotheses about targeted treatment on 28 subgroup/treatment outcomes. There were only two statistically significant results. Graded activity plus Treatment Based Classification targeted to people with high movement-related fear was more effective than Treatment Based Classification at reducing movement-related fear at 4 weeks. Active rehabilitation (physical exercise classes with cognitive-behavioural principles) was more effective than usual GP care at reducing activity limitation at 12 months, when targeted to people with higher movement-related pain. Few studies have investigated targeted psychosocial interventions in NSLBP, using trial designs suitable for measuring treatment effect modification, and they do not provide consistent evidence supporting such targeting. There is a need for appropriately designed and adequately powered trials to investigate targeted psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-Occurring Psychosocial Problems and HIV Risk Among Women Attending Drinking Venues in a South African Township: A Syndemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2012-01-01

    Background In South Africa, women comprise the majority of HIV infections. Syndemics, or co-occurring epidemics and risk factors, have been applied to understanding HIV risk among marginalized groups. Purpose To apply the syndemic framework to examine psychosocial problems that co-occur among women attending drinking venues in South Africa, and to test how the co-occurrence of these problems may exacerbate risk for HIV infection. Method 560 women from a Cape Town township provided data on multiple psychosocial problems, including food insufficiency, depression, abuse experiences, problem drinking, and sexual behaviors. Results Bivariate associations among the syndemic factors showed a high degree of co-occurrence and regression analyses showed an additive effect of psychosocial problems on HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions These results demonstrate the utility of a syndemic framework to understand co-occurring psychosocial problems among women in South Africa. HIV prevention interventions should consider the compounding effects of psychosocial problems among women. PMID:23054944

  8. [Psychosocial risk of fossilization by occupationally-used non-native Englishin information and communication technologists of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Serra, Silvana Valeria; Buonanotte, Federico; Frankel, Lilian; Brizuela, Monica; Serra, Mariel; Soria, Elio Andres

    2016-01-01

    Companies use non-native language (L2) as a service tool, and they may incur in occupational psychosocial risks. Interlanguage can be chronic under poor communicative situations, leading to fossilization. It could be an adverse effect because of its impact in productivity and occupational health. Thus, our aim was to establish factors of this psychosocial risk. 348 information and communication technologists (ICT) were analyzed. They were native Spanish speakers with normal hearing, and used English as a work tool. Age, gender, L2 stages and errors were recorded in relation to fossilization risk. Statistical methods were applied for categorical data (p<0.05). After gender and age adjustments, a significant inverse association was found between L2 stages and fossilization risk (p<0.0001), with higher risk being in the acquisition stage. Also, L2 errors showed a significant direct relation with fossilization risk (p=0.0005). Summing up, ICT in acquisition L2 had upper psychosocial risk to fossilization with mechanistic execution of it, under poorer communicative formats. This results have high sanitary impact given they involved a massively demanded professionals.

  9. [Cancer and suicide among the elderly: psychosocial determinants of risks, psychopathology and opportunities for prevention].

    PubMed

    Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos

    2017-09-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem worldwide. Increasing age is directly associated with the rising rates of cancer and physical and functional limitations are important factors regarded as being associated with suicidal behavior among the elderly. This study sought to conduct a critical review of the literature on the risk factors associated with suicide among elderly cancer patients published between 2000 and 2015. Psychosocial precipitants of risks and psychopathology in 20 selected articles were conducted. The studies consistently identified a number of factors that have been considered to be associated with suicidal behavior among the elderly diagnosed with cancer. These include physical and mental health constraints (particularly major depression), social isolation, and the manner in which these factors and others interact. Further research is needed given the importance of the issue and to examine whether further education for healthcare providers and their abilities in suicide risk assessment and management could have positive effects on reducing the suicide rates among elderly patients with cancer. Considerations for upcoming studies encourage the adoption of empirically supported interventions for individualized management of the elderly cancer patient.

  10. Suicide among soldiers: a review of psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Deming, Charlene A; Fullerton, Carol S; Gilman, Stephen E; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C; McCarroll, James E; McLaughlin, Katie A; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future.

  11. Suicide Among Soldiers: A Review of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Deming, Charlene A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C.; McCarroll, James E.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  12. Does the use of the revised psychosocial assessment tool (PATrev) result in improved quality of life and reduced psychosocial risk in Canadian families with a child newly diagnosed with cancer?

    PubMed

    Barrera, M; Hancock, K; Rokeach, A; Atenafu, E; Cataudella, D; Punnett, A; Johnston, D; Cassidy, M; Zelcer, S; Silva, M; Jansen, P; Bartels, U; Nathan, P C; Shama, W; Greenberg, C

    2014-02-01

    Early psychosocial screening may guide interventions and ameliorate the adverse psychosocial effects of childhood cancer. The revised psychosocial assessment tool provides risk information - Universal (typical distress), Targeted (additional specific distress), and Clinical (severe distress) - about the child with cancer and his or her family. This pilot study investigated the benefits of providing a summary of family psychosocial risk information to the medical team treating the newly diagnosed child (Experimental Group, EG). We conducted a pilot randomized control trial with a sample of 67 parents, comparing the EG to the control group (CG) on parental perception of family psychosocial difficulties (revised psychosocial assessment tool risk levels), child behavior (behavior assessment scale for children-2), pediatric quality of life (PedsQL), and parental anxiety (state-anxiety scale of the state-trait anxiety inventory ), 2-4 weeks after diagnosis (Time 1) and 6 months later (Time 2). Compared to the CG, participants in the EG had significantly reduced targeted and clinical risk (p < 0.001), and improved pain related PedsQL at Time 2 (p < 0.05). Scores for PedsQL total and nearly all subscales improved over time in both groups (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). No changes in behavior scores were noted. Preliminary findings suggest that providing a summary of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool to the treating team shortly after diagnosis may help reduce family wide psychosocial risk 6 months later and improve quality of life related to pain for children who are undergoing treatment for cancer. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Revictimization as a Moderator of Psychosocial Risk Factors for Problem Drinking in Female Sexual Assault Survivors*

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors report greater levels of problem drinking than do other women, and research suggests that their coping strategies, reactions from their social networks, and traumatic life events affect their problem drinking. The links between these factors and problem drinking may be moderated by whether survivors are revictimized, yet research has not examined this possibility. Therefore, the current study examined psychosocial factors, problem drinking, and revictimization in women ASA survivors. Method: Community-dwelling urban women (n = 555) who had experienced an ASA completed a mail survey at Time 1 (T1) and were resurveyed 1 year later to examine how revictimization between survey waves moderated the effects of coping strategies, social reactions to assault disclosures, and traumatic life events on problem drinking at Time 2 (T2). Results: The findings showed that recent revictimization that occurred between surveys was related to increased problem drinking at T2, after T1 problem drinking was controlled for. Moderated hierarchical multiple regressions showed that survivors who engaged in drinking to cope with distress, who received negative social reactions in response to recent assault disclosures, or who experienced additional traumatic events had increased T2 problem drinking only if they were revictimized since T1. Conclusions: Psychosocial factors relate to increases in problem drinking for sexually revictimized women but not for nonrevictimized women. Interventions to reduce problem drinking in women ASA survivors should target drinking to cope with assault-related symptomatology, informal social networks to improve their supportiveness, and safety issues through risk-reduction education and self-defense training for women when appropriate. PMID:19118390

  14. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    PubMed

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bültmann, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms after 5-year follow-up and (ii) whether the effect of ERI was differential across occupational grades. A cohort of 2701 Danish employees filled in a questionnaire on work and health in 2000 and 2005. ERI was measured with four effort and seven reward items. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Participants scoring ≤ 52 points were defined as cases. We used logistic regression to investigate the association of ERI and occupational grade in 2000 with onset of severe depressive symptoms in 2005. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, health behaviours, survey method, self-rated health, sleep disturbances and non-severe depressive symptoms at baseline. High ERI predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms at follow-up, after adjustment for co-variates and occupational grade (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.12-4.25). Participants with high ERI and low occupational grade showed a considerably higher OR (2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.53) compared to participants with low/medium ERI and low grade (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.72-2.92), high ERI and high grade (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.59-2.70) and low/medium ERI and high grade (reference group). Adverse psychosocial working conditions predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms. The effect was stronger among employees of lower occupational grades compared to those of higher grades.

  15. Revictimization as a moderator of psychosocial risk factors for problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Najdowski, Cynthia J

    2009-01-01

    Adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors report greater levels of problem drinking than do other women, and research suggests that their coping strategies, reactions from their social networks, and traumatic life events affect their problem drinking. The links between these factors and problem drinking may be moderated by whether survivors are revictimized, yet research has not examined this possibility. Therefore, the current study examined psychosocial factors, problem drinking, and revictimization in women ASA survivors. Community-dwelling urban women (n = 555) who had experienced an ASA completed a mail survey at Time 1 (T1) and were resurveyed 1 year later to examine how revictimization between survey waves moderated the effects of coping strategies, social reactions to assault disclosures, and traumatic life events on problem drinking at Time 2 (T2). The findings showed that recent revictimization that occurred between surveys was related to increased problem drinking at T2, after T1 problem drinking was controlled for. Moderated hierarchical multiple regressions showed that survivors who engaged in drinking to cope with distress, who received negative social reactions in response to recent assault disclosures, or who experienced additional traumatic events had increased T2 problem drinking only if they were revictimized since T1. Psychosocial factors relate to increases in problem drinking for sexually revictimized women but not for nonrevictimized women. Interventions to reduce problem drinking in women ASA survivors should target drinking to cope with assault-related symptomatology, informal social networks to improve their supportiveness, and safety issues through risk-reduction education and self-defense training for women when appropriate.

  16. Psychosocial, Physical, and Neurophysiological Risk Factors for Chronic Neck Pain: A Prospective Inception Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Bahar; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Maluf, Katrina S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify modifiable risk factors for the development of first-onset chronic neck pain among an inception cohort of healthy individuals working in a high-risk occupation. Candidate risk factors identified from previous studies were categorized into psychosocial, physical, and neurophysiological domains, which were assessed concurrently in a baseline evaluation of 171 office workers within the first 3 months of hire. Participants completed monthly online surveys over the subsequent year to identify the presence of chronic interfering neck pain, defined as a Neck Disability Index score ≥5 points for 3 or more months. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression to identify significant predictors within each domain, which were then entered into a multivariate regression model adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Development of chronic interfering neck pain was predicted by depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-10.31, P = .03), cervical extensor endurance (OR = .92, 95% CI, .87-.97, P = .001), and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (OR = .90, 95% CI, .83-.98, P = .02) at baseline. These findings provide the first evidence that individuals with preexisting impairments in mood and descending pain modulation may be at greater risk for developing chronic neck pain when exposed to peripheral nociceptive stimuli such as that produced during muscle fatigue. Depressed mood, poor muscle endurance, and impaired endogenous pain inhibition are predisposing factors for the development of new-onset chronic neck pain of nonspecific origin in office workers. These findings may assist with primary prevention by allowing clinicians to screen for individuals at risk of developing chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Relationship between Psychosocial Risk Factors and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Public Hospital Nurses in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and risk of WRMSDs among public hospital nurses in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 660 public hospital nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the occurrence of WRMSDs according to body regions, socio-demographic profiles, occupational information and psychosocial risk factors. 468 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71%), and 376 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. Univariate analyses were applied to test for mean and categorical differences across the WRMSDs; multiple logistic regression was applied to predict WRMSDs based on the Job Strain Model’s psychosocial risk factors. Results Over two thirds of the sample of nurses experienced discomfort or pain in at least one site of the musculoskeletal system within the last year. The neck was the most prevalent site (48.94%), followed by the feet (47.20%), the upper back (40.69%) and the lower back (35.28%). More than 50% of the nurses complained of having discomfort in region one (neck, shoulders and upperback) and region four (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). The results also revealed that psychological job demands, job strain and iso-strain ratio demonstrated statistically significant mean differences (p < 0.05) between nurses with and without WRMSDs. According to univariate logistic regression, all psychosocial risk factors illustrated significant association with the occurrence of WRMSDs in various regions of the body (OR: 1.52–2.14). Multiple logistic regression showed all psychosocial risk factors were significantly associated with WRMSDs across body regions (OR: 1.03–1.19) except for region 1 (neck, shoulders and upper back) and region 4 (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). All demographic variables except for years of employment were statistically and significantly associated with WRMSDs (p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings

  19. Relationship between Psychosocial Risk Factors and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Public Hospital Nurses in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nur Azma; Nordin, Rusli; Fatt, Quek Kia; Noah, Rahim M; Oxley, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and risk of WRMSDs among public hospital nurses in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 660 public hospital nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the occurrence of WRMSDs according to body regions, socio-demographic profiles, occupational information and psychosocial risk factors. 468 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71%), and 376 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. Univariate analyses were applied to test for mean and categorical differences across the WRMSDs; multiple logistic regression was applied to predict WRMSDs based on the Job Strain Model's psychosocial risk factors. Over two thirds of the sample of nurses experienced discomfort or pain in at least one site of the musculoskeletal system within the last year. The neck was the most prevalent site (48.94%), followed by the feet (47.20%), the upper back (40.69%) and the lower back (35.28%). More than 50% of the nurses complained of having discomfort in region one (neck, shoulders and upperback) and region four (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). The results also revealed that psychological job demands, job strain and iso-strain ratio demonstrated statistically significant mean differences (p < 0.05) between nurses with and without WRMSDs. According to univariate logistic regression, all psychosocial risk factors illustrated significant association with the occurrence of WRMSDs in various regions of the body (OR: 1.52-2.14). Multiple logistic regression showed all psychosocial risk factors were significantly associated with WRMSDs across body regions (OR: 1.03-1.19) except for region 1 (neck, shoulders and upper back) and region 4 (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). All demographic variables except for years of employment were statistically and significantly associated with WRMSDs (p < 0.05). The findings indicated the high prevalence of WRMSDs in

  20. [Psychosocial aspects of the direct path from infertility to the "instant family": are all risks known].

    PubMed

    Baor, Liora; Blickstein, Isaac

    2005-05-01

    Infertility is invariably described as a crisis event. Couples who encounter infertility are further challenged with the accompanied sense of profound losses: loss of health, sexuality, status and prestige, relationship, self-confidence, self-esteem, security, and the fantasy for biological parenthood. Fertility treatments (ART) create hope and cure for the problem on one hand, but place a tremendous burden on the couple's resources on the other. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), carry potential risks for both the infant and for the mother, in addition to diverse negative psychosocial consequences for the couple. However, it seems that couples either ignore these risks or are unaware of them, and therefore, wish to accomplish the "instant family" (more than one child) via a shortcut (one pregnancy). Although it is impossible to ignore the numerous children born with the aid of ART, it is crucial that professionals inform the couple about the medical as well as the psychological consequences that accompany fertility treatments, to enable couples to make more realistic decisions.

  1. Psychosocial risk and correlates of early menarche in Mexican-American girls.

    PubMed

    Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Wilkinson, Anna V; Spitz, Margaret R; Prokhorov, Alex; Bondy, Melissa; Forman, Michele R

    2011-05-15

    Mexican-American girls have one of the fastest rates of decline in age at menarche. To date, no study has addressed the role of psychosocial factors on age at menarche in this population. Using data from a longitudinal cohort of Mexican-American girls from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area recruited in 2005, the authors investigated associations between family life and socioeconomic environment and age at menarche in 523 girls. After adjusting for maternal age at menarche, daughter's age, and body mass index at baseline, perception of family life environment as conflict-prone was significantly associated with an earlier age at menarche (< 11 years). Additionally, there was a 2-fold higher risk (odds ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 4.40) of early menarche among daughters of mothers who were single parents compared with those who were not. Furthermore, girls who matured early had a 2.5-fold increased risk (odds ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 6.96) of experimenting with cigarettes compared with those who had an average-to-late age at menarche (≥ 11 years). This study provides important information regarding the role of family life environment and single parenting on age at menarche in Mexican Americans. Awareness of the impact of the family life environment and fathers' absence during the early years should be emphasized when addressing early age at menarche across cultures.

  2. Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Case-Control Study in Belgrade (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Isidora; Vlajinac, Hristina; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Matanovic, Dragana; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Sipetic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate which psychosocial risk factors show the strongest association with occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade in peacetime, after the big political changes in Serbia. Methods A case-control study was conducted involving 154 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with MI, and 308 controls matched by gender, age, and place of residence. Results According to conditional logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for conventional coronary risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for work-related stressful events, financial stress, deaths and diseases, and general stress were 3.78 (1.83-7.81), 3.80 (1.96-7.38), 1.69 (1.03-2.78), and 3.54 (2.01-6.22), respectively. Among individual stressful life events, the following were independently related to MI: death of a close family member, 2.21 (1.01-4.84); death of a close friend, 42.20 (3.70-481.29); major financial problems, 8.94 (1.83-43.63); minor financial problems, 4.74 (2.02-11.14); changes in working hours, 4.99 (1.64-15.22); and changes in working conditions, 30.94 (5.43-176.31). Conclusions During this political transition period , stress at work, financial stress, and stress in general as they impacted the population of Belgrade, Serbia were strongly associated with occurence of MI. PMID:27274168

  3. Perinatal Risks and Childhood Premorbid Indicators of Later Psychosis: Next Steps for Early Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy H.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tronick, Ed; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are debilitating disorders that together affect 2%–3% of the adult population. Approximately 50%–70% of the offspring of parents with schizophrenia manifest a range of observable difficulties including socioemotional, cognitive, neuromotor, speech-language problems, and psychopathology, and roughly 10% will develop psychosis. Despite the voluminous work on premorbid vulnerabilities to psychosis, especially on schizophrenia, the work on premorbid intervention approaches is scarce. While later interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis, characterized primarily by attenuated positive symptoms, are promising, the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. This article reviews and proposes potential targets for psychosocial interventions during the premorbid period, complementing biological interventions described by others in this Special Theme issue. Beginning with pregnancy, parents with psychoses may benefit from enhanced prenatal care, social support, parenting skills, reduction of symptoms, and programs that are family-centered. For children at risk, we propose preemptive early intervention and cognitive remediation. Empirical research is needed to evaluate these interventions for parents and determine whether interventions for parents and children positively influence the developmental course of the offspring. PMID:25904724

  4. [Lean production and psychosocial risks: the case of a multinational merger in a metallurgical company in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Stenger, Eunice; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Sabino, Marcos Oliveira; Miquilin, Isabella de Oliveira Campos; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the method known as "lean production" as a work-related psychosocial risk factor in a Brazilian multinational auto parts company after its merger with other multinational companies. The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of two time points: the first using on-site observation and key interviews with managers and workers during implementation of lean production in 1996; the second, 16 years later, comparing data from a document search in labor inspection records from the Ministry of Labor and Employment and legal proceedings initiated by the Office of the Public Prosecutor for Labor Affairs. The merger led to layoffs, replacements, and an increase in the workday. A class action suit was filed on grounds of aggravated working conditions. The new production model led to psychosocial risks that increased the need for workers' health precautions when changes in the production process introduced new and increased risks of physical and mental illnesses.

  5. Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Depression among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Youth: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J

    2017-04-10

    Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer (LGBQ) youth suffer from depression. Identifying modifiable risk and protective factors for depression can inform the development of psychosocial interventions. The aim of this review is to evaluate the methodological characteristics and summarize the substantive findings of studies examining psychosocial risk and protective factors for depression among LGBQ youth. Eight bibliographic databases were searched, and 35 studies that met all inclusion criteria were included for review. Results show that prominent risk factors for depression include internalized LGBQ-related oppression, stress from hiding and managing a socially stigmatized identity, maladaptive coping, parental rejection, abuse and other traumatic events, negative interpersonal interactions, negative religious experiences, school bullying victimization, and violence victimization in community settings. Prominent protective factors include a positive LGBQ identity, self-esteem, social support from friends, and family support. LGBQ youth may face an array of threats to their mental health originating from multiple socioecological levels.

  6. The Effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health Intervention on Psychosocial Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Behavior among Third-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Schools within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health intervention were randomized into control, school-based, and school-based plus family intervention conditions. Measures of third graders' psychosocial determinants of risk behavior indicated significant improvements in all psychosocial determinants following the interventions,…

  7. The Effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health Intervention on Psychosocial Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Behavior among Third-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Schools within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health intervention were randomized into control, school-based, and school-based plus family intervention conditions. Measures of third graders' psychosocial determinants of risk behavior indicated significant improvements in all psychosocial determinants following the interventions,…

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings.

    PubMed

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants. Sociability and self-perception outcome expectancies predicted risk status for females. Cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies predicted risk status for men in the sample. Implications for screening and brief intervention programming efforts are discussed.

  9. Why prevention of repeat abortion is so challenging: psychosocial characteristics of women at risk.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Bieli, Simone; Huang, Dorothy; Tschudin, Sibil

    2017-02-01

    Abortion rates have declined in recent decades; however, the rate of repeat abortion remains high. In order to identify keys to making efficient interventions against repeat abortion, our objectives were: to assess the percentage of repeat abortions in women opting for termination of pregnancy over a period of 1 year; to identify the risk factors for repeat abortion; and to assess the characteristics of women who opted for a further pregnancy termination despite having received standard post-abortion care. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was carried out among 362 women who underwent pregnancy termination during a 1-year period. Women with and without repeat abortion were compared with regard to age, nationality, marital status, parity and use of contraception. In a subsample of 160 women who were available for follow-up over 4 years, those who underwent a further pregnancy termination during the observation period were also analysed qualitatively. The rate of repeat abortion was 30.1% in the survey population. Age and immigrant status were identified as risk factors. The use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was significantly higher after repeat abortion than after a first termination of pregnancy. Among women with repeat abortion in the follow-up group, those with psychological problems tended to discontinue contraception and those with partnership conflicts were prone to using unreliable contraceptive methods. Aside from promoting LARC methods, strategies to reduce repeat abortion should consider the psychosocial risk factors and characteristics of women at risk identified in this study. An interdisciplinary approach including social care and counselling would be the most appropriate means to enable this.

  10. Psychosocial factors and uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at high risk for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Bettina; Price, Melanie A; Butow, Phyllis N; Karatas, Janan; Wilson, Judy; Heiniger, Louise; Baylock, Brandi; Charles, Margaret; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Phillips, Kelly-Anne

    2013-03-01

    Bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. This study assessed factors predicting uptake of RRSO. Women participating in a large multiple-case breast cancer family cohort study who were at increased risk for ovarian and fallopian tube cancer (i.e. BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carrier or family history including at least one first- or second-degree relative with ovarian or fallopian tube cancer), with no personal history of cancer and with at least one ovary in situ at cohort enrolment, were eligible for this study. Women who knew they did not carry the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation segregating in their family (true negatives) were excluded. Sociodemographic, biological and psychosocial factors, including cancer-specific anxiety, perceived ovarian cancer risk, optimism and social support, were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews at cohort enrolment. RRSO uptake was self-reported every three years during systematic follow-up. Of 2,859 women, 571 were eligible. Mean age was 43.3 years; 62 women (10.9 %) had RRSO a median of two years after cohort entry. Factors predicting RRSO were: being parous (OR 3.3, p = 0.015); knowing one's mutation positive status (OR 2.9, p < 0.001) and having a mother and/or sister who died from ovarian cancer (OR 2.5, p = 0.013). Psychological variables measured at cohort entry were not associated with RRSO. These results suggest that women at high risk for ovarian cancer make decisions about RRSO based on risk and individual socio-demographic characteristics, rather than in response to psychological factors such as anxiety.

  11. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Cross-national evidence for the clustering and psychosocial correlates of adolescent risk behaviours in 27 countries.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Pickett, William; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-02-01

    According to Jessor's Problem Behaviour Theory (PBT) and Moffitt's theory of adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, adolescent risk behaviours cluster and can be predicted by various psychosocial factors including parent, peer and school attachment. This study tested the potential influence of the sociocultural, or macro-level, environment on the clustering and correlates of adolescent risk behaviour across 27 European and North American countries. Analyses were based on data from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Participants compromised 56,090 adolescents (M(age) = 15.5 years) who self-reported on substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and early sexual activity as well as on psychosocial factors (parent, peer and school attachment). Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (with country as grouping variable) showed that substance use and early sexual activity loaded on a single underlying factor across countries. In addition, multiple group path analyses (with country as grouping variable) showed that associations between this factor and parent, peer and school attachment were identical across countries. Cross-national consistencies exist in the clustering and psychosocial correlates of substance use and early sexual activity across western countries. While Jessor's PBT stresses the problematic aspects of adolescent risk behaviours, Moffitt emphasizes their normative character. Although the problematic nature of risk behaviours overall receives more attention in the literature, it is important to consider both perspectives to fully understand why they cluster and correlate with psychosocial factors. This is essential for the development and implementation of prevention programmes aimed at reducing adolescent risk behaviours across Europe and North America. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying Multiple Work-Related Psychosocial Risk Factors: Proposal for a Composite Indicator Based on the COPSOQ II.

    PubMed

    Stauder, Adrienne; Nistor, Katalin; Zakor, Tünde; Szabó, Anita; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-05-23

    To determine national reference values for the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) across occupational sectors and develop a composite score to estimate the cumulative effect of multiple work-related stressors, in order to facilitate the implementation of occupational health directives on psychosocial risk assessment. Cross-sectional data was collected via an online questionnaire. The sample included 13,104 individuals and was representative of the general Hungarian adult working population in terms of gender, age, education, and occupation. Mean scores were calculated for 18 scales on work environment and for 5 outcome scales of the COPSOQ II across 18 occupational sectors. We analyzed the association between a composite psychosocial risk score (CPRS), reflecting severity of exposure to multiple risk factors, and high stress, burnout, sleep troubles, and poor self-rated health. We found occupation-related differences in the mean scores on all COPSOQ II scales. Scores on the "Stress" scale ranged from 47.9 to 56.2, with the highest mean score in accommodation and food services sector. Variability was greatest with respect to emotional demands (range 40.3-67.6) and smallest with respect to role clarity (range 70.3-75.7). The prevalence of negative health outcomes increased with the CPRS. Five risk categories were formed, for which the odds ratio of negative outcomes ranged from 1.6 to 56.5. The sector-specific psychosocial risk profiles covering 18 work environmental factors can be used as a reference in organizational surveys and international comparisons. The CPRS proved to be a powerful predictor of self-reported negative health outcomes.

  14. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    Haahr, J; Andersen, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Methods: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. Results: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related to tennis elbow (OR 3.7, CI 1.7 to 8.3). Among men, work with precision demanding movements was related to tennis elbow (OR 5.2, CI 1.5 to 17.9). Among both males and females, the results for work with hand held vibrating tools were inconsistent, partly because of few exposed subjects. A physical strain index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1.3 to 4.6). Conclusion: Results indicate that being a new case of tennis elbow is associated with non-neutral postures of hands and arms, use of heavy hand held tools, and high physical strain measured as a combination of forceful work, non-neutral posture of hands and arms, and repetition. Furthermore, tennis elbow among women was associated with low social support at work. The results for precision demanding movements and for vibration were less consistent. PMID:12709516

  15. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise; Clark, Alice Jessie; Prescott, Eva; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2016-07-15

    Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in men and women. The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income, menopausal status and life style factors. We found major life events in adult life (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.36) and major life events at work (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.50), lacking a confidant (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.53) and dissatisfaction with social network (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and/or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders in Hispanic females of diverse ethnic background and non-Hispanic females.

    PubMed

    George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, P<.008, and the subscale score for Concern, F(7,499)=2.99, P<.004, with Dominicans, Venezuelans and Columbians having higher scores than White non-Hispanics and Central Americans/Mexicans. In addition, there was a significant difference in BMI, F(7,499)=2.70, P<.009. Both Puerto Ricans (24.27+0.81) and Venezuelans (24.66+1.00) had higher BMIs than White non-Hispanics (21.87+0.37), Cubans (21.99+0.24) and Brazilians (21.46+0.96). There was also a significant, F(7,498)=2.70, P<.009, difference among the groups in Ideal Body Image score. Puerto Ricans had the highest score and Brazilians the lowest. Acknowledging that differences in psychosocial risk factors exist among Hispanic females of diverse background can assist us in creating more targeted approaches for the prevention of potential eating disorders in this population.

  17. Associations between the workplace-effort in psychosocial risk management and the employee-rating of the psychosocial work environment - a multilevel study of 7565 employees in 1013 workplaces.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Madsen, Ida Elisabeth Huitfeldt; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Hasle, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the association between the workplace-effort in psychosocial risk management and later employee-rating of the psychosocial work environment. The study is based on data from two questionnaire surveys - one including 1013 workplaces and one including 7565 employees from these workplaces. The association was analyzed using multi-level linear regression. The association for five different trade-groups and for five different psychosocial work environment domains was examined. Limited but statistically significant better employee-ratings of the psychosocial work environment in the respective domains were observed among Danish workplaces that prioritized "development possibilities for employees," "recognition of employees," "employees influence on own work tasks," good "communication at the workplace," and "help to prevent work overload." Danish workplaces with a high effort in psychosocial risk management in the preceding year had a small but significantly more positive rating of the psychosocial work environment by the employees. However, future studies are needed to establish the causality of the associations.

  18. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.

  19. [Psychosocial risk factors for illicit drug use in a sample of Mexican high school students].

    PubMed

    Negrete, Bruno Díaz; García-Aurrecoechea, Raúl

    2008-10-01

    To identify psychosocial risk factors for substance abuse among Mexican students and to offer elements for the design of prevention programs. A cross-sectional, nonexperimental study of a sample of 516 high school students in six of Mexico's most important cities. From April-June 2005, a customized version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory (revised) (DUSI-R) was administered. The analysis comprised eight factors: alcohol and drug abuse, affective disorders, poor self-control, poor school adjustment, low social competence, dysfunctional family relationships, social isolation, and being part of a detrimental social network (whose members take drugs and have antisocial attitudes). Factors predictive for illicit drug use were found by logistical regression, and a structural equation model was designed to determine the relationships among the factors. The factors that predicted substance abuse were poor self-control with a tendency to act impulsively and aggressively; associating with troublemakers; and being frequently exposed to family conflicts, violence, and drug and/or alcohol use in the home. The structural equation model indicated that substance abuse is one of a group of disorders directly determined by associating with detrimental peers, and a higher rate of socioaffective disorders, and indirectly, by dysfunctional family relationships. Some of the suggestions made by theoretical models to explain substance abuse were confirmed. These empirically-supported elements can contribute to the design of prevention programs, especially those that are selective and recommended.

  20. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Truxillo, Donald M; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  1. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  2. Recovering substance-impaired pharmacists' views regarding occupational risks for addiction.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Lisa J; Cummings, Simone M; Cottler, Linda B

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the occupational risks for substance use disorders among pharmacists and possibilities for improved prevention. Descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study. A southeastern state from December 2008 to April 2009. 32 participants (72.7% men) from the impaired professionals monitoring groups in the geographic regions within the state that had the greatest number of physicians, pharmacists, and allied health professionals currently under monitoring contracts for substance use disorders. Guided group discussions regarding substance use among health care providers. Persistent occupational risks for development of a substance use disorder among pharmacists. Several occupational hazards unique to the pharmacy profession might contribute to the problem of substance use disorders among some members of this population, including increased access to potent drugs of abuse, a stressful/unpleasant working environment, a culture that unofficially condones medication diversion, lack of education related to addiction, and lack of support for individuals seeking treatment. These results have important implications for the education of student pharmacists, the continuing education of licensed pharmacists, and the management of pharmacies in which these individuals work. Given the potential occupational risks for substance abuse associated with the pharmacy profession, additional training, monitoring, changes to the work environment, and increased confidential access to treatment may be needed to safeguard pharmacy professionals and the communities they serve.

  3. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension.

  4. Interpersonal Circumplex Descriptions of Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical Illness: Application to Hostility, Neuroticism, and Marital Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Traupman, Emily K.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of three risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension. PMID:20573134

  5. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infection: Depression as a Mediator of Associations between Neuroticism and Upper Respiratory Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    8217•,Ij F11LE Copy • PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK FACTORS FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION: DEPRESSION AS A MEDIATOR OF ASSOCIATIONS C14 BETWEEN NEUROTlClSM AND S... Factors for Upper Respiratory Infection: DEPRESSION AS A MEDIATOR OF ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NEUROTICISM AND UPPER RESPIRATORY ILLNESS I jlI Ross R...indicators of situational depression . Factor analyses of the CES-D in samples of the general U. S. civilian pcpulation typically identify 3 or 4 basic

  6. Psychosocial risk assessment in organizations: Concurrent validity of the brief version of the Management Standards Indicator Tool.

    PubMed

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond; Kerr, Robert; Addley, Ken

    2013-10-01

    The Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT) is a 35-item self-report measure of the psychosocial work environment designed to assist organizations with psychosocial risk assessment. It is also used in work environment research. Edwards and Webster presented a 25-item version of the MSIT based on the deletion of items having a factor loading of < .65. Stress theory and research suggest that psychosocial hazard exposures may result in harm to the health of workers. Thus, using data collected from three UK organizations (N = 20,406) we compared the concurrent validity of the brief and full versions of the MSIT by exploring the strength of association between each version of the instrument and a measure of psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12 and Maslach Burnout Inventory). Analyses revealed that the brief instrument offered similar but not always equal validity to that of the full version. The results indicate that use of the brief instrument, which would be less disruptive for employees, would not elevate the risk of false negative or false positive findings in risk assessment.

  7. [Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-07-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market.

  8. Pneumococcal Serotypes Recovered from Health Children and Their Possible Association with Risk Factor in Istanbul, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cekmez, Ferhat; Karademir, Ferhan; Tanju, I. Asya; Meral, Cihan; Pirgon, Ozgur; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Gocmen, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumonia is an increasing problem worldwide and nasopharyngeal colonization plays an important role in pneumococcal infections. The aims of this study were to assess the nasopharyngeal colonization rate, investigate the risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumonia, serogroup and penicillin susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from healthy children. A single swab was obtained over the nasopharyngeal walls of the 500 healthy children, of which 25 (5%) were found to be carriers. The carrier rate was significantly higher in the seven-nine years-old age group. Upper respiratory tract infection within the last month (OR=1.1, p>0.001), day-care attendance (OR=3.1, p: 0.02), and the presence of more than five people living in the house of the child (OR=0.2, p: 0.003) have been determined to be risk factors for S. pneumoniae carriage. The most prevalent serogroups in descending order were 9, 19, 23, 6, 10 and 18 and these are in accordance with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7). No penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae were obtained. Conclusion: after conjugated vaccine we have seen benefits of vaccine in especially colonization rate and penicillin-resistance. PMID:23675125

  9. Detailed assessments of childhood adversity enhance prediction of central obesity independent of gender, race, adult psychosocial risk and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cynthia R; Dearing, Eric; Usher, Nicole; Trifiletti, Sarah; Zaichenko, Lesya; Ollen, Elizabeth; Brinkoetter, Mary T; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Joung, Kyoung; Park, Kyung Hee; Mantzoros, Christos S; Crowell, Judith A

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether a novel indicator of overall childhood adversity, incorporating number of adversities, severity, and chronicity, predicted central obesity beyond contributions of "modifiable" risk factors including psychosocial characteristics and health behaviors in a diverse sample of midlife adults. The study also examined whether the overall adversity score (number of adversities × severity × chronicity) better predicted obesity compared to cumulative adversity (number of adversities), a more traditional assessment of childhood adversity. 210 Black/African Americans and White/European Americans, mean age=45.8; ±3.3 years, were studied cross-sectionally. Regression analysis examined overall childhood adversity as a direct, non-modifiable risk factor for central obesity (waist-hip ratio) and body mass index (BMI), with and without adjustment for established adult psychosocial risk factors (education, employment, social functioning) and heath behavior risk factors (smoking, drinking, diet, exercise). Overall childhood adversity was an independent significant predictor of central obesity, and the relations between psychosocial and health risk factors and central obesity were not significant when overall adversity was in the model. Overall adversity was not a statistically significant predictor of BMI. Overall childhood adversity, incorporating severity and chronicity and cumulative scores, predicts central obesity beyond more contemporaneous risk factors often considered modifiable. This is consistent with early dysregulation of metabolic functioning. Findings can inform practitioners interested in the impact of childhood adversity and personalizing treatment approaches of obesity within high-risk populations. Prevention/intervention research is necessary to discover and address the underlying causes and impact of childhood adversity on metabolic functioning. © 2013.

  10. Obstetric care providers are able to assess psychosocial risks, identify and refer high-risk pregnant women: validation of a short assessment tool - the KINDEX Greek version.

    PubMed

    Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2015-02-21

    Prenatal assessment for psychosocial risk factors and prevention and intervention is scarce and, in most cases, nonexistent in obstetrical care. In this study we aimed to evaluate if the KINDEX, a short instrument developed in Germany, is a useful tool in the hands of non-trained medical staff, in order to identify and refer women in psychosocial risk to the adequate mental health and social services. We also examined the criterion-related concurrent validity of the tool through a validation interview carried out by an expert clinical psychologist. Our final objective was to achieve the cultural adaptation of the KINDEX Greek Version and to offer a valid tool for the psychosocial risk assessment to the obstetric care providers. Two obstetricians and five midwives carried out 93 KINDEX interviews (duration 20 minutes) with pregnant women to assess psychosocial risk factors present during pregnancy. Afterwards they referred women who they identified having two or more psychosocial risk factors to the mental health attention unit of the hospital. During the validation procedure an expert clinical psychologist carried out diagnostic interviews with a randomized subsample of 50 pregnant women based on established diagnostic instruments for stress and psychopathology, like the PSS-14, ESI, PDS, HSCL-25. Significant correlations between the results obtained through the assessment using the KINDEX and the risk areas of stress, psychopathology and trauma load assessed in the validation interview demonstrate the criterion-related concurrent validity of the KINDEX. The referral accuracy of the medical staff is confirmed through comparisons between pregnant women who have and have not been referred to the mental health attention unit. Prenatal screenings for psychosocial risks like the KINDEX are feasible in public health settings in Greece. In addition, validity was confirmed in high correlations between the KINDEX results and the results of the validation interviews. The

  11. Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: a systematic meta-review.

    PubMed

    Egan, Matt; Tannahill, Carol; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, Sian

    2008-07-16

    The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews) exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Systematic review (QUORUM) of literature reviews (published in any language or country) on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations - and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial environments go hand in hand with better health. Poor psychosocial

  12. People with HIV in HAART-era Russia: transmission risk behavior prevalence, antiretroviral medication-taking, and psychosocial distress.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Kuznetsova, Anna V; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B; Pirogov, Dmitry G

    2011-05-01

    Russia has seen one of the world's fastest-growing HIV epidemics. Transmission risk behavior, HAART-taking, and psychosocial distress of the growing population of Russian people living with HIV (PLH) in the HAART era are understudied. Participants of a systematically-recruited cross-sectional sample of 492 PLH in St. Petersburg completed measures of sexual and drug injection practices, adherence, perceived discrimination, and psychosocial distress. Since learning of their status, 58% of participants had partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus (mean = 5.8). About 52% reported unprotected intercourse with such partners, with 30% of acts unprotected. Greater perceived discrimination predicted lower condom use. A 47% of IDU PLH still shared needles, predicted by having no primary partner, lower education, and more frequently-encountered discrimination. Twenty-five percentage of PLH had been refused general health care, 11% refused employment, 7% fired, and 6% forced from family homes. Thirty-nine percentage of participants had probable clinical depression, 37% had anxiety levels comparable to psychiatric inpatients, and social support was low. Of the 54% of PLH who were offered HAART, 16% refused HAART regimens, and 5% of those on the therapy took less than 90% of their doses. Comprehensive community services for Russian PLH are needed to reduce AIDS-related psychosocial distress and continued HIV transmission risk behaviors. Social programs should reduce stigma and discrimination, and promote social integration of affected persons and their families.

  13. Psychosocial Adjustment and Perceived Risk Among Adolescent Girls From Families With BRCA1/2 or Breast Cancer History.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa A; Egleston, Brian L; Henry-Moss, Dare; Domchek, Susan M; Daly, Mary B; Tuchman, Lisa; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula K; Shorter, Rebecca; Karpink, Kelsey; Sands, Colleen Burke

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of breast cancer family history and maternal BRCA1/2 mutation on the psychosocial adjustment and perceived risk in girls age 11 to 19 years old. Girls age 11 to 19 years old with one or more relatives with breast cancer or a familial BRCA1/2 mutation (breast cancer family history [BCFH] positive, n = 208; n = 69 with BRCA1/2-positive mother), peers (BCFH negative, n = 112), and their mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment, breast cancer-specific distress, and perceived risk of breast cancer. General psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative girls, either by self-report or mother report, except for higher self-esteem among BCFH-positive girls (P = .01). BCFH-positive girls had higher breast cancer-specific distress than BCFH-negative girls (P < .001), but girls from BRCA1/2-positive families did not differ from other BCFH-positive peers. BCFH-positive girls were more likely to report themselves at increased self-risk for breast cancer in adulthood than BCFH-negative peers (74% v 33%, respectively; P ≤ .001). Girls from BRCA1/2-positive families were more likely than other BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative peers to report themselves at increased risk (P < .001). In all groups, perceived risk of breast cancer was associated with older age. Higher breast cancer-specific distress among adolescent girls was associated with higher self-perceived risk of breast cancer and higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. Adolescent girls from BRCA1/2-positive and breast cancer families have higher self-esteem and do not have poorer psychosocial adjustment than peers. However, they do experience greater breast cancer-specific distress and perceived risk of breast cancer, particularly among older girls. Understanding the impact is important to optimize responses to growing up in families at familial and genetic risk for breast cancer, particularly given the debate over the genetic

  14. Psychosocial Adjustment and Perceived Risk Among Adolescent Girls From Families With BRCA1/2 or Breast Cancer History

    PubMed Central

    Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Egleston, Brian L.; Henry-Moss, Dare; Domchek, Susan M.; Daly, Mary B.; Tuchman, Lisa; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula K.; Shorter, Rebecca; Karpink, Kelsey; Sands, Colleen Burke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of breast cancer family history and maternal BRCA1/2 mutation on the psychosocial adjustment and perceived risk in girls age 11 to 19 years old. Materials and Methods Girls age 11 to 19 years old with one or more relatives with breast cancer or a familial BRCA1/2 mutation (breast cancer family history [BCFH] positive, n = 208; n = 69 with BRCA1/2-positive mother), peers (BCFH negative, n = 112), and their mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment, breast cancer–specific distress, and perceived risk of breast cancer. Results General psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative girls, either by self-report or mother report, except for higher self-esteem among BCFH-positive girls (P = .01). BCFH-positive girls had higher breast cancer–specific distress than BCFH-negative girls (P < .001), but girls from BRCA1/2-positive families did not differ from other BCFH-positive peers. BCFH-positive girls were more likely to report themselves at increased self-risk for breast cancer in adulthood than BCFH-negative peers (74% v 33%, respectively; P ≤ .001). Girls from BRCA1/2-positive families were more likely than other BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative peers to report themselves at increased risk (P < .001). In all groups, perceived risk of breast cancer was associated with older age. Higher breast cancer–specific distress among adolescent girls was associated with higher self-perceived risk of breast cancer and higher maternal breast cancer–specific distress. Conclusion Adolescent girls from BRCA1/2-positive and breast cancer families have higher self-esteem and do not have poorer psychosocial adjustment than peers. However, they do experience greater breast cancer–specific distress and perceived risk of breast cancer, particularly among older girls. Understanding the impact is important to optimize responses to growing up in families at familial and genetic risk for breast

  15. Perceptions of social mobility: development of a new psychosocial indicator associated with adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent "perceived social mobility." Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  16. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  17. Biomechanical and psychosocial exposures are independent risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: assessment of confounding using causal diagrams.

    PubMed

    Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Eisen, Ellen A; Neophytou, Andreas; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew S; Dale, Ann Marie; Evanoff, Bradley; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Gerr, Fred; Burt, Susan; Rempel, David

    2016-11-01

    Between 2001 and 2010, six research groups conducted coordinated prospective studies of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) incidence among US workers from various industries to estimate exposure-response relationships. This analysis examined the presence and magnitude of confounding between biomechanical and workplace psychosocial factors and incidence of dominant-hand CTS. 1605 participants, without CTS at enrolment, were followed for up to 3.5 years (2471 person-years). Demographic information, medical history and workplace psychosocial stress measures were collected at baseline. Individual workplace biomechanical exposures were collected for each task and combined across the workweek using time-weighted averaging (TWA). CTS case criteria were based on symptoms and results of electrophysiological testing. HRs were estimated with Cox proportional hazard models. Confounding was assessed using causal diagrams and an empirical criterion of 10% or greater change in effect estimate magnitude. There were 109 incident CTS cases (IR=4.41/100 person-years; 6.7% cumulative incidence). The relationships between CTS and forceful repetition rate, % time forceful hand exertion and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV-HAL) were slightly confounded by decision latitude with effect estimates being attenuated towards the null (10-14% change) after adjustment. The risk of CTS among participants reporting high job strain was attenuated towards the null by 14% after adjusting for the HAL Scale or the % time forceful hand exertions. Although attenuation of the relationships between CTS and some biomechanical and work psychosocial exposures was observed after adjusting for confounding, the magnitudes were small and confirmed biomechanical and work psychosocial exposures as independent risk factors for incident CTS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. [Burnout and psychosocial risk factors in the career of flight attendants: Descriptive study of a population of Lebanese flight attendants].

    PubMed

    Richa, N; Zreik, H; Richa, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of demographic factors (gender and age), work related factors (the position and years of practice) and psychosocial risk factors (cognitive demands, demands to hide emotions, work-family conflict, offensive behaviors…) on the development of burnout among flight attendants, and the nature of psychosocial factors to which they are exposed. The sample was divided into two groups: 67 flight attendants and 67 persons in various jobs. Our sampling units were informed and consented to fill in two questionnaires: the Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). The burnout syndrome affected both groups equally. It affected equally the women as well as men, whatever their age categories and their years of experience. The flight attendants occupying an intermediate position in the hierarchy had the highest score on the burnout syndrome. The psychosocial factors significantly found in flight attendants compared to the control group were: demands for hiding emotions, quantitative demands, emotional demands, temporal demands, lack of influence at work, of rewards, of possibility for development and variation of work, poor quality of leadership, exposure to sexual harassment, lack of social support from supervisors, colleagues, social community at work and work-family conflict. Four of them correlated positively with the development of burnout: quantitative demands, temporal demands, emotional demands and work-family conflict. Their expected work volume is very high (quantitative demands). They have to perform their tasks quickly in a limited time without forgetting the technical constraints (temporal demands). They have to work with an average of three hundred passengers besides colleagues and subordinates, which requires diligent control of the emotions promoted by the airline code of conduct based on repression of emotions (emotional demands). These demands affect the

  19. Alcohol and Cigarette Use and Misuse among Hurricane Katrina Survivors: Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Kloos, Bret; Cheely, Catherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined survivors’ use and misuse of cigarettes and alcohol following Hurricane Katrina. We also examined several psychosocial factors that we expected would be associated with higher or lower rates of substance use following the Hurricane. Participants were 209 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina interviewed in Columbia, SC or New Orleans, LA between October 31, 2005 and May 13, 2006. Results revealed that survivors were smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, and experiencing alcohol-related problems at a substantially higher rate than expected based on pre-Hurricane prevalence data. Results also suggested that certain psychosocial factors were associated with participants’ substance use and misuse following the Hurricane. PMID:19895302

  20. Alcohol and cigarette use and misuse among Hurricane Katrina survivors: psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L; Kloos, Bret; Cheely, Catherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined survivors' use and misuse of cigarettes and alcohol following Hurricane Katrina. We also examined several psychosocial factors that we expected would be associated with higher or lower rates of substance use following the hurricane. Participants were 209 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina interviewed in Columbia, SC or New Orleans, LA between October 31, 2005 and May 13, 2006. Results revealed that survivors were smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, and experiencing alcohol consumption-related problems at a substantially higher rate than expected based on pre-hurricane prevalence data. Results also suggested that certain psychosocial factors were associated with participants' substance use and misuse following the hurricane.

  1. [Psychosocial factors as risk for coronary heart disease--status with special reference to the KORA platform].

    PubMed

    Ladwig, K-H; Marten-Mittag, B; Baumert, J

    2005-08-01

    Psychosocial factors derived from concepts in health psychology and psychopathology are subject of extensive research to assess their power to predict a future coronary artery disease event in apparently healthy subjects. However, bio-behavioural factors have not been implemented in current guidelines of scoring schemes for calculating the risk of coronary events. The presented data were derived from the population-based MONICA Augsburg studies (S1-S3) conducted between 1984 and 1995. The psychosocial data set was available in approximately 13,000 subjects. The KORA follow-up study assessed the vital status for all participants (except for 56 persons) in 1998. Until then, 772 participants (531 men, 241 women) had died. The depressive symptomatology was derived from the von Zerrssen affective symptom check list combining 24 single symptom items with scores ranging from 0 to 3. Risks of total mortality and myocardial infarction were estimated from Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) models adjusted for age and survey and multiple risk factors. Male participants with high scores in depression exhibited a significantly increased risk in total mortality (adjusted HR: 1.55; 95 % CI: 1.28 - 1.83, p < 0.0001) and for fatal and non-fatal coronary events (adjusted HR: 1.36; 95 % CI: 1.02 - 1.81, p < 0.035). Female participants reported higher values in depression scores; however, depression was not predictive for subsequent total mortality and fatal and non-fatal events in females. Depression in men yielded a significant interaction with obesity and increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). The inclusion of psychosocial factors, as demonstrated for depression, is likely to improve prediction of future adverse cardiovascular and total mortality. These factors may also play a crucial role in genotype-phenotype interaction.

  2. Suicide attempts among depressed inpatients with depressive disorder in a Malaysian sample. Psychosocial and clinical risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chan, L F; Maniam, T; Shamsul, A S

    2011-01-01

    Depressed inpatients constitute a high-risk population for suicide attempts. To describe the interactions of clinical and psychosocial risk factors influencing suicide attempts among a Malaysian sample of depressed inpatients. Seventy-five subjects were diagnosed with a depressive disorder according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (SCID-CV). Data on suicide attempts, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicidal Ideation, SSI), depression severity (Beck's Depression Inventory, BDI), recent life-event changes (Social Readjustment Rating Scale, SRRS), sociodemographic and other relevant clinical factors were collected. A third of the subjects presented after a current suicide attempt. Significant factors for a current suicide attempt were race, religion, recent life-event changes, suicidal ideation, and alcohol use disorder. Independent predictive risk factors for a current suicide attempt were Chinese race, recent marital separation, major mortgage or loans, and being newly diagnosed with depression. Any recent change in personal habits was shown to be a protective factor against current suicide attempt. Age and gender were nonsignificant factors. The findings are generally consistent with existing studies and highlight the role of psychosocial risk factors.

  3. [Growing up under adversity in Germany : Design and methods of a developmental study on risk and protective mechanisms in families with diverse psychosocial risk].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Peter; Vierhaus, Marc; Eickhorst, Andreas; Sann, Alexandra; Egger, Carine; Förthner, Judith; Gerlach, Jennifer; Iwanski, Alexandra; Liel, Christoph; Podewski, Fritz; Wyrwich, Sandra; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-10-01

    Family adversity comprises many risk factors for parents and children. The German early intervention approach Frühe Hilfen aims at providing enduring, effective, and scientifically validated prevention and intervention for effective child protection against those risks. The study on risk and protective mechanisms in the development of families with diverse psychosocial risks aims at identifying those mechanisms that cause and stabilize or moderate and diminish maltreatment and neglect, as well as cognitive, social, and emotional developmental deviations in risk families, specifically in the current German social and child protection system. The study examines the development of competence and early behavior problems in a sample of infants and toddlers and the interaction quality with their caregivers by applying a longitudinal sequential-cohort design. The assessments include developmental tests, systematic observations, and questionnaire data. First results suggest stable risk group membership and moderate stability of single risk factors.

  4. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  5. Effects of Kindergarten Retention for At-Risk Children's Psychosocial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Schmitt, Eric; Vanlaar, Gudrun; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Kindergarten retention is a popular practice for children who are considered unready for primary school. However, past research has not yet succeeded to find consistent, strong empirical evidence supporting the practice. In the current study, kindergarten repeaters' development in nine psychosocial domains is compared with that of equally at risk…

  6. Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Influences on HIV Risk among Adolescent Latinas in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Locke, Thomas F.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2003-01-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risky sexual…

  7. Effects of Kindergarten Retention for At-Risk Children's Psychosocial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Schmitt, Eric; Vanlaar, Gudrun; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Kindergarten retention is a popular practice for children who are considered unready for primary school. However, past research has not yet succeeded to find consistent, strong empirical evidence supporting the practice. In the current study, kindergarten repeaters' development in nine psychosocial domains is compared with that of equally at risk…

  8. Early psychosocial intervention for youth at risk for bipolar I or II disorder: a one-year treatment development trial

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J; Chang, Kiki D; Taylor, Dawn O; George, Elizabeth L; Singh, Manpreet K; Schneck, Christopher D; Dickinson, L Miriam; Howe, Meghan E; Garber, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have identified behavioral phenotypes that predispose genetically vulnerable youth to a later onset of bipolar I or II disorder, but few studies have examined whether early psychosocial intervention can reduce risk of syndromal conversion. In a one-year open trial, we tested a version of family-focused treatment adapted for youth at high risk for bipolar disorder (FFT-HR). Methods A referred sample of 13 children (mean 13.4 ± 2.69 years; 4 boys, 9 girls) who had a parent with bipolar I or II disorder participated at one of two outpatient specialty clinics. Youth met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (n = 8), cyclothymic disorder (n = 1), or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (n = 4), with active mood symptoms in the past month. Participants were offered FFT-HR (12 sessions in four months) with their parents, plus psychotropic medications as needed. Independent evaluators assessed depressive symptoms, hypomanic symptoms, and global functioning at baseline and then every four months for one year, with retrospective severity and impairment ratings made for each week of the follow-up interval. Results Families were mostly adherent to the treatment protocol (85% retention), and therapists administered the FFT-HR manual with high levels of fidelity. Youth showed significant improvements in depression, hypomania, and psychosocial functioning scores on the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. They also showed significant improvements in Young Mania Rating Scale and Children’s Depression Rating Scale scores. Conclusions FFT-HR is a promising intervention for youth at high risk for BD. Larger-scale randomized trials that follow youth into young adulthood will be necessary to determine whether early psychosocial intervention can reduce the probability of developing bipolar I or II disorder among genetically vulnerable youth. PMID:21320254

  9. Transient physical and psychosocial activities increase the risk of nonpersistent and persistent low back pain: a case-crossover study with 12 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Paulo H; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Steffens, Daniel; Koes, Bart W; Li, Qiang; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2016-12-01

    A previous study has shown that transient physical and psychosocial activities increased the risk of developing low back pain. However, the link between these factors in triggering nonpersistent or persistent episodes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of transient exposures to physical and psychosocial activities with the development of nonpersistent or persistent low back pain. This was a case-crossover study with 12 months follow-up. We included 999 consecutive participants seeking care for a sudden onset of low back pain. Development of low back pain was the outcome measure. At baseline, participants reported transient exposures to 12 predefined activities over the 4 days preceding pain onset. After 12 months, participants were asked whether they had recovered and the date of recovery. Exposures in the 2-hour period preceding pain onset (case window) were compared with the 2-hour period, 24 hours before pain onset (control window) in a case-crossover design for all participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and interaction analyses were used to compare estimates of nonpersistent (i.e., <6 weeks duration) and persistent cases. This study received funding from Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1003608). There were 832 participants (83%) who completed the 12 months follow-up successfully. Of these, 430 participants had nonpersistent low back pain (<6 weeks duration), whereas 352 reported persistent symptoms (≥6 weeks duration). Exposure to several transient activities, such as manual tasks involving heavy loads, awkward postures, live people or animals, moderate or vigorous physical activity, and being fatigued or tired during a task or activity, significantly increased the risk of both nonpersistent and persistent low back pain, with ORs ranging from 2.9 to 11.7. Overall, the risk of developing a persistent or a nonpersistent episode of

  10. Bias-motivated bullying and psychosocial problems: implications for HIV risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Li, Michael Jonathan; Distefano, Anthony; Mouttapa, Michele; Gill, Jasmeet K

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the experience of bias-motivated bullying was associated with behaviors known to increase the risk of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) aged 18-29, and to assess whether the psychosocial problems moderated this relationship. Using an Internet-based direct marketing approach in sampling, we recruited 545 YMSM residing in the USA to complete an online questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses tested three regression models where we controlled for sociodemographics. The first model indicated that bullying during high school was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse within the past 12 months, while the second model indicated that bullying after high school was associated with engaging in anal intercourse while under the influence of drugs or alcohol in the past 12 months. In the final regression model, our composite measure of HIV risk behavior was found to be associated with lifetime verbal harassment. None of the psychosocial problems measured in this study - depression, low self-esteem, and internalized homonegativity - moderated any of the associations between bias-motivated bullying victimization and HIV risk behaviors in our regression models. Still, these findings provide novel evidence that bullying prevention programs in schools and communities should be included in comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention among YMSM.

  11. Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Aimée E; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2010-05-14

    Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few prospective studies have been able to investigate the longer-term effects of stress in detail, i.e. effects in childhood. Therefore, our general aim is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile in the child at age five. Data are available from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands. Between 2003-2004, 8,266 pregnant women filled out a questionnaire including instruments to determine anxiety (STAI), pregnancy related anxiety (PRAQ), depressive symptoms (CES-D), parenting stress (PDH scale) and work stress (Job Content Questionnaire). Outcome measures in the offspring (age 5-7) are currently collected. These include lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, body composition (body mass index, waist circumference and bioelectrical impedance analysis), autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic and sympathetic measures) and blood pressure. Potential mediators are maternal serum cortisol, gestational age and birth weight for gestational age (intrauterine growth restriction). Possible gender differences in programming are also studied. Main strengths of the proposed study are the longitudinal measurements during three important periods (pregnancy, infancy and childhood), the extensive measurement of maternal psychosocial stress with validated questionnaires and the thorough measurement of the children's cardio-metabolic profile. The availability of several confounding factors will give us the opportunity to quantify the independent contribution of maternal stress during pregnancy to the cardio-metabolic risk profile of her

  12. Relationships of work-related psychosocial risks, stress, individual factors and burnout - Questionnaire survey among emergency physicians and nurses.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Ivana M; Arandjelović, Mirjana Ž; Jovanović, Jovica M; Nešić, Milkica M

    2017-03-24

    Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) = 74.57±16.85) and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74) demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values (< 40) and coping strategies showed high values (> 60). Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2):178-178.

  13. Accumulation of psychosocial and lifestyle factors and risk of low back pain in adolescence: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mikkonen, Paula; Heikkala, Eveliina; Paananen, Markus; Remes, Jouko; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common already in adolescence, and many risk indicators including both psychosocial and lifestyle factors have been recognized. Our purpose was to assess whether the co-occurrence of psychosocial (externalizing and internalizing) problems and lifestyle factors (leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, smoking, and overweight/obesity) associate with LBP at 16 years cross-sectionally or with new LBP at 18-year follow-up. The study population, drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, consisted of 1625 participants (712 boys and 913 girls) who completed a questionnaire on potential explanatory factors at 16 years and on LBP at 16 and 18 years. The outcome measure was 'reporting LBP' or 'consultation for LBP' during the past 6 months. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was utilized to study the co-occurrence of the explanatory factors. Among both genders, four clusters were found. Externalizing behaviour problems were associated with 'reporting LBP' (RR 1.5, boys 1.4, girls) and 'consultation for LBP' (RR 1.6 for both genders) at baseline among both genders. In addition, the cluster of multiple risk behaviours was associated with both 'reporting LBP' (RR 1.3) and 'consultation for LBP' (RR 2.5) and the obese cluster with 'consultation for LBP' (RR 1.7) among girls. Externalizing behaviour problems at 16 years predicted 'consultation for LBP' at 18 years among girls (RR 3.6). Our results stress the role of psychosocial factors in reporting and seeking care for adolescent LBP.

  14. Syndemics of psychosocial problems and HIV risk: A systematic review of empirical tests of the disease interaction concept

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Burns, Bridget F.O.

    2015-01-01

    In the theory of syndemics, diseases co-occur in particular temporal or geographical contexts due to harmful social conditions (disease concentration) and interact at the level of populations and individuals, with mutually enhancing deleterious consequences for health (disease interaction). This theory has widespread adherents in the field, but the extent to which there is empirical support for the concept of disease interaction remains unclear. In January 2015 we systematically searched 7 bibliographic databases and tracked citations to highly cited publications associated with the theory of syndemics. Of the 783 records, we ultimately included 34 published journal articles, 5 dissertations, and 1 conference abstract. Most studies were based on a cross-sectional design (32 [80%]), were conducted in the U.S. (32 [80%]), and focused on men who have sex with men (21 [53%]). The most frequently studied psychosocial problems were related to mental health (33 [83%]), substance abuse (36 [90%]), and violence (27 [68%]); while the most frequently studied outcome variables were HIV transmission risk behaviors (29 [73%]) or HIV infection (9 [23%]). To test the disease interaction concept, 11 (28%) studies used some variation of a product term, with less than half of these (5/11 [45%]) providing sufficient information to interpret interaction both on an additive and on a multiplicative scale. The most frequently used specification (31 [78%]) to test the disease interaction concept was the sum score corresponding to the total count of psychosocial problems. Although the count variable approach does not test hypotheses about interactions between psychosocial problems, these studies were much more likely than others (14/31 [45%] vs. 0/9 [0%]; χ2=6.25, P=0.01) to incorporate language about “synergy” or “interaction” that was inconsistent with the statistical models used. Therefore, more evidence is needed to assess the extent to which diseases interact, either at the

  15. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pincham, Hannah L.; Bryce, Donna; Kokorikou, Danae; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R. M. Pasco

    2016-01-01

    Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention) or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing) can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32) or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32) passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images). Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP) and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change. PMID:26808519

  16. The Iranian version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for assessment of psychological risk factors at work

    PubMed Central

    Aminian, Mohammad; Dianat, Iman; Miri, Anvar; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a widely used tool for evaluation of psychosocial risk factors at work. The aims of this study were to describe the short version of Farsi COPSOQ and to present its psychometric properties. Methods: A total of 427 administrative health care staff participated in this descriptive methodological study. Forward–backward procedure was adopted to translate the questionnaire from English into Farsi. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC), respectively. The feasibility was assessed using ceiling and floor effect. Results: The short version of Farsi COPSOQ was configured with 16 dimensions (32 items).Content validity of the questionnaire was established. Factor analysis supported the conceptual multi-dimensionality (four factors), and therefore confirmed the construct validity of the Farsi COPSOQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging between 0.75 and 0.89) and test retest reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.75 to 0.89) were both approved and the results showed no ceiling or floor effect. Conclusion: The results support the use of Farsi COPSOQ for evaluation of psychological risks and for research purposes in Iranian population. PMID:28058236

  17. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  18. Working conditions and psychosocial risk factors of employees in French electricity and gas company customer support departments.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anne; Dessery, Michel; Boursier, Marie-Françoise; Grizon, Marie Catherine; Jayet, Christian; Reymond, Catherine; Thiebot, Michelle; Zeme-Ramirez, Monique; Calvez, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the real impact of working conditions on the health of call center employees. The aim of this article is to describe the working conditions of French electricity and gas company customer service teams, especially those spending more than 75% of their working time handling calls in order to determine their subjective experience of their work and identify situations at risk of psychosocial constraints. A cross-sectional study using a self-completion questionnaire was conducted on a representative sample of 2,000 employees working in customer service centers. The questions focused on the variety of tasks performed, the organization of working time, the physical environment of the workstation, violent situations and psychosocial factors (Job Content Questionnaire). Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the wish to leave the sector and with a high level of psychosocial constraints. Women made up 66% of the sample. Despite a high educational level, the average socio-professional level of the employees was relatively low. Although the vast majority of employees had chosen this career (74%), just over half would like to leave. The main factors associated with iso-strain were inadequate breaks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0), low perceived quality of work (OR = 2.4), high proportion of working time spent handling calls (≥75% of working time: OR = 5.9, between 50 and <75%: OR = 5.2), exposure to violence either internally (often or very often: OR = 3.1) or from customers (often or very often: OR = 1.8) and an unsatisfactory workplace (OR = 2.0). Employees who spend more than 75% of their working time on the phone cumulate every factor linked with a high level of constraints, but all employees of the EDF and Gaz de France customer service centers are concerned. These workers share many characteristics with other call centers: predominantly female workforce; high educational level; wish to leave this sector despite

  19. Effects of psychosocial and individual factors on physiological risk factors for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders while typing.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laura E; Babski-Reeves, Kari; Smith-Jackson, Tonya

    2007-02-01

    Psychosocial factors are hypothesized to contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) development, although previous research has been largely epidemiological or has focused primarily on the shoulders, back and neck. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of mental workload and time pressure on perceived workload and physiological responses of the distal upper extremity. A total of 18 typists completed nine 5-min typing sessions representing three levels of time pressure and mental workload. Levels were manipulated by adjusting typing speed and by requiring participants to perform arithmetic tasks while typing. Outcomes were measured in muscle activation levels, wrist postures and movements, key strike force and subjective assessments of workload. In general, increased time pressure increased muscle activation, key strike force and wrist deviations; and increased mental workload increased key strike force. Mental workload and time pressure mediated physical risk factors during typing to increase WMSD risk for the distal upper extremity.

  20. A risk to himself: attitudes toward psychiatric patients and choice of psychosocial strategies among nurses in medical-surgical units.

    PubMed

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Scott, P Anne; Treacy, Margaret; Hyde, Abbey; O'Mahony, Rebecca

    2012-04-01

    Psychiatric patients are liable to stereotyping by healthcare providers. We explored attitudes toward caring for psychiatric patients among 13 nurses working in general hospitals in Ireland. Participants thought aloud in response to a simulated patient case and described a critical incident of a patient for whom they had cared. Two attitudinal orientations were identified that correspond to stereotypical depictions of risk and vulnerability. The nurses described psychosocial care strategies that were pragmatic rather than authentically person-centered, with particular associations between risk-oriented attitudes and directive nursing care. Nurses had expectations likely to impede relationship building and collaborative care. Implications arising include the need for improved knowledge about psychiatric conditions and for access to professional development in targeted therapeutic communication skills. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Novel Model for Predicting Rehospitalization Risk Incorporating Physical Function, Cognitive Status, and Psychosocial Support Using Natural Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Cronin, Patrick R; Carballo, Victoria; Danaei, Goodarz; Choy, Garry

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing focus on reducing hospital readmissions in the United States, numerous readmissions risk prediction models have been proposed, mostly developed through analyses of structured data fields in electronic medical records and administrative databases. Three areas that may have an impact on readmission but are poorly captured using structured data sources are patients' physical function, cognitive status, and psychosocial environment and support. The objective of the study was to build a discriminative model using information germane to these 3 areas to identify hospitalized patients' risk for 30-day all cause readmissions. We conducted clinician focus groups to identify language used in the clinical record regarding these 3 areas. We then created a dataset including 30,000 inpatients, 10,000 from each of 3 hospitals, and searched those records for the focus group-derived language using natural language processing. A 30-day readmission prediction model was developed on 75% of the dataset and validated on the other 25% and also on hospital specific subsets. Focus group language was aggregated into 35 variables. The final model had 16 variables, a validated C-statistic of 0.74, and was well calibrated. Subset validation of the model by hospital yielded C-statistics of 0.70-0.75. Deriving a 30-day readmission risk prediction model through identification of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial issues using natural language processing yielded a model that performs similarly to the better performing models previously published with the added advantage of being based on clinically relevant factors and also automated and scalable. Because of the clinical relevance of the variables in the model, future research may be able to test if targeting interventions to identified risks results in reductions in readmissions.

  2. The role of burnout syndrome as a mediator for the effect of psychosocial risk factors on the intensity of musculoskeletal disorders: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Tahereh; Pahlavian, Ahmad Heidari; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Motamedzade, Majid; Moghaddam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of psychosocial risk factors and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 415 nurses from various wards across five hospitals of Iran's Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through three questionnaires: job content questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and visual analogue scale. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that psychosocial risk factors were significantly related to changes in burnout, which in turn affects intensity of MSDs.

  3. Risk factors of workplace bullying for men and women: the role of the psychosocial and physical work environment.

    PubMed

    Salin, Denise

    2015-02-01

    Workplace bullying has been shown to be a severe social stressor at work, resulting in high costs both for the individuals and organizations concerned. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors in a large, nationally representative sample of Finnish employees (n = 4,392). The study makes three important contributions to the existing literature on workplace bullying: first, it demonstrates the role of the physical work environment alongside the psychosocial work environment - employees with a poor physical work environment are more likely than others to report having been subjected to or having observed bullying. Second, contrary to common assumptions, the results suggest that performance-based pay is associated with a lower, rather than higher risk of bullying. Third, the findings suggest that there are gender differences in risk factors, thereby constituting a call for more studies on the role of gender when identifying risk factors. Increased knowledge of risk factors is important as it enables us to take more effective measures to decrease the risk of workplace bullying. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impaired mental well-being and psychosocial risk: a cross-sectional study in female nursing home direct staff

    PubMed Central

    Pélissier, C; Fontana, L; Fort, E; Vohito, M; Sellier, B; Perrier, C; Glerant, V; Couprie, F; Agard, J P; Charbotel, B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to quantify the impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress experienced by nursing home staff and to determine the relationship between impaired mental well-being assessed on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to psychosocial stress assessed on Siegrist's effort/reward and overcommitment model. Methods A transverse study was conducted in France on 2471 female employees in 105 nursing homes for the elderly. Personal and occupational data were collected by questionnaire for 668 housekeepers, 1454 nursing assistants and 349 nurses. Results 36.8% of participants (n=896) showed impaired mental well-being, 42.7% (n=1039) overcommitment and 9% (n=224) effort/reward imbalance. Overcommitment (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.27; 95% CI (1.21 to 1.34)) and effort–reward imbalance (PR=1.19; 95% CI (1.12 to 1.27)) were significantly associated with presence of impaired mental well-being after adjustment for personal factors (age and private life events). Taking effort and reward levels into account, the frequency of impaired mental well-being was highest in case of exposure to great extrinsic effort and low rewards of any type: esteem, PR=3.53, 95% CI (3.06 to 4.08); earnings, PR=3.48, 95% CI (2.99 to 4.06); or job security, PR=3.30, 95% CI (2.88 to 3.78). Participants in situations of overcommitment and of effort/reward imbalance were at the highest risk of impaired mental well-being: PR=3.86, 95% CI (3.42 to 4.35). Conclusions Several changes in nursing home organisation can be suggested to reduce staff exposure to factors of psychosocial stress. Qualitative studies of the relation between impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress in nursing home staff could guide prevention of impaired mental well-being at work. PMID:25829371

  5. Impaired mental well-being and psychosocial risk: a cross-sectional study in female nursing home direct staff.

    PubMed

    Pélissier, C; Fontana, L; Fort, E; Vohito, M; Sellier, B; Perrier, C; Glerant, V; Couprie, F; Agard, J P; Charbotel, B

    2015-03-31

    The present study sought to quantify the impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress experienced by nursing home staff and to determine the relationship between impaired mental well-being assessed on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to psychosocial stress assessed on Siegrist's effort/reward and overcommitment model. A transverse study was conducted in France on 2471 female employees in 105 nursing homes for the elderly. Personal and occupational data were collected by questionnaire for 668 housekeepers, 1454 nursing assistants and 349 nurses. 36.8% of participants (n=896) showed impaired mental well-being, 42.7% (n=1039) overcommitment and 9% (n=224) effort/reward imbalance. Overcommitment (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.27; 95% CI (1.21 to 1.34)) and effort-reward imbalance (PR=1.19; 95% CI (1.12 to 1.27)) were significantly associated with presence of impaired mental well-being after adjustment for personal factors (age and private life events). Taking effort and reward levels into account, the frequency of impaired mental well-being was highest in case of exposure to great extrinsic effort and low rewards of any type: esteem, PR=3.53, 95% CI (3.06 to 4.08); earnings, PR=3.48, 95% CI (2.99 to 4.06); or job security, PR=3.30, 95% CI (2.88 to 3.78). Participants in situations of overcommitment and of effort/reward imbalance were at the highest risk of impaired mental well-being: PR=3.86, 95% CI (3.42 to 4.35). Several changes in nursing home organisation can be suggested to reduce staff exposure to factors of psychosocial stress. Qualitative studies of the relation between impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress in nursing home staff could guide prevention of impaired mental well-being at work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP) over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1) to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2), with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%). Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status); trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression); and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities). Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies. PMID:23327711

  7. Psychosocial Constructs Associated with Condom Use Among High-Risk African American Men Newly Diagnosed with a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charnigo, Richard; Troutman, Adewale

    2012-01-01

    Background African American men are disproportionately burdened by the US AIDS epidemic. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine associations between condom-related psychosocial constructs and condom use among a sample of young, heterosexual, African American men newly diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data from 266 men. Predictors included seven scale measures and 12 covariates. Unadjusted odds ratios were estimated followed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Nearly one half (47.7%) used condoms at last sex. Five of the psychosocial measures had significant bivariate associations with condom use (p<0.05). Specific attitudes toward condom use and partner-related barriers retained multivariable significance. Changes of one standard deviation in these measures increased the estimated odds of condom use by 40% (p=0.021) and 55% (p=0.002), respectively. Conclusion Specific attitudes toward condom use and partner-related barriers may be particularly important constructs to consider when designing behavioral interventions for high-risk, heterosexual, African American men. PMID:20376584

  8. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among women working in geriatric care.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur K; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjoerg L; Helgadottir, Berglind; Tomasson, Kristinn

    2003-12-01

    Nursing is a stressful, physically demanding occupation and a rush setting for musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study is to explore the extent of the association between psychosocial work characteristics and musculoskeletal symptoms among women working in geriatric care. The participants were female employees of all geriatric nursing homes and geriatric hospital wards in Iceland having a staff of 10 or more. A total of 1,886 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 80%. Finding the job mentally difficult, mental exhaustion after one's shift, dissatisfaction with supervisors or the flow of information, insufficient influence at work, dissatisfaction with the hierarchy, intense time pressure, lack of solidarity, dissatisfaction with the job, harassment, violence or threats at work; all of the aforementioned gave crude odds ratios (OR) two or above for one or more musculoskeletal symptoms. Mental exhaustion and harassment, violence, and threats were the factors connected with symptoms from all the body regions studied. The extent of the association of work-related psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among the geriatric female nursing staff is substantial and needs to be taken into account by occupational health services and others involved in preventive work. Am. J. Ind. Med. 44:679-684, 2003. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors among workers of the aircraft maintenance industry.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Helen Cristina; Diniz, Ana Carolina Parise; Barbieri, Dechristian França; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    During the recent decades Brazil has experienced an exponential growth in the aviation sector resulting in an increasing workforce. The aircraft maintenance industry stands out, where the workers have to handle different kind of objects. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychosocial indicators as well as musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders among aircraft maintenance workers. One hundred and one employees were evaluated (32.69 ± 8.25 yr, 79.8 ± 13.4 kg, and 1.75 ± 0.07 m). Musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders were assessed through the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and a standardized physical examination. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial indicators. Results of the NMQ indicate the lower back as the most affected body region. On the other hand, the physical examination has shown clinical diagnosis of shoulder disorders. Neck, upper back and ankle/foot were also reported as painful sites. Most of workers have active work-demand profile and high work engagement levels. We suggest that musculoskeletal symptoms may be related to high biomechanical demand of the tasks performed by workers, what must be further investigated.

  10. Preoperative psychosocial characteristics may predict body image and sexuality two years after risk-reducing mastectomy: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Hemming; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Background Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in patients at high risk has become more available and the rates of both bilateral (BRRM) and contralateral (CRRM) procedures are increasing. For women opting for RRM, psychosocial well-being, body image and sexuality are known to be important patient-reported outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate baseline health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and emotional distress (anxiety and depression) as predictors of body image and sexuality two years after RRM in women undergoing CRRM and BRRM. Methods This is a prospective cohort study including consecutive women opting for BRRM and breast cancer patients considering CRRM at Karolinska University Hospital during 1998–2010. The women were given a set of questionnaires to be completed at baseline before RRM (The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and The Sexual Activity Questionnaire) and two years after RRM (all the above-mentioned questionnaires along with The Body Image Scale). Mean scores for all questionnaires were analysed using linear regression models and adjusted for age at RRM as well as calendar year. Results In total, 253 patients consented to participate in the study. Response rate at baseline and 2 years was 88% and 71%, respectively. In the BRRM group (healthy women), preoperative HRQoL and emotional distress were associated with body image and sexual problems two years after the procedure. No similar associations were found for the patients with breast cancer who underwent CRRM. Conclusions The current study suggests that preoperative HRQoL and emotional distress may predict body image and sexual problems two years after RRM in healthy women, but not in breast cancer patients. Baseline psychosocial characteristics may be useful to identify women at risk for long-term body image and sexual problems following BRRM, but not among breast cancer patients opting for CRRM. PMID:28210554

  11. Relationships between occupational functioning and stress among radio journalists--Assessment by means of the Psychosocial Risk Scale.

    PubMed

    Najder, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Wójcik, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Job characteristics and the consequences of everyday stress among radio journalists who are not exposed to traumatic events have not been studied sufficiently before. We aimed at determining the most common job characteristics and their stressfulness; relationships between stress exposure, health and occupational functioning; differences between radio journalists and other journalists, and also the psychosocial risk for health and functioning in this group. The studied group involved 208 journalists, 134 of whom worked in radio stations. The respondents filled in the Psychosocial Risks Scale (PRS) developed by the Department of Health and Work Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. Requirement of mental effort and readiness to response quickly for most of the time as well as limited possibilities for promotion were the most frequent journalists' complaints. We confirmed that higher levels of stress resulted in worse functioning--the radio journalists who experienced lower stress assessed their health status and ability to work better, were more satisfied with particular aspects of their work, and were more involved in their work. They also presented a significantly lower turnover intention. Moreover, the radio journalists were more involved in their work than other journalists, but experienced lower satisfaction, took more sick leaves and had more days of absence. Well-known relationships between stress level, satisfaction and occupational functioning were confirmed. The most important conclusion refers to the fact that psychosocial risks and stress analysis should be based on the understanding of specificity of each occupation or even position. It is so, because the same job characteristic may pose a challenge for one person, while for another--it can result in extreme discomfort and anxiety--such an attitude broadens understanding of the phenomenon. We also confirmed that the PRS is a well-designed method, appropriate to

  12. Psychosocial approaches to participation in BRCA1/2 genetic risk assessment among African American women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Kerry A; Miller, Suzanne M; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Cavanagh, Karen; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is a significant health concern for African American women. Nonetheless, uptake of genetic risk assessment (including both genetic counseling and testing) for breast cancer gene mutations among these populations remains low. This paper systematically reviews cognitive (i.e., beliefs) and affective (i.e., emotions) factors influencing BRCA1/2 genetic risk assessment among African American women as well as psychosocial interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population. A systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO was undertaken, yielding 112 published studies. Of these, 18 met the eligibility criteria. African American woman are likely to participate in genetic risk assessment if they are knowledgeable about cancer genetics, perceive a high risk of developing breast cancer, have low expectancies of stigmatization from medical professionals, view themselves as independent from family, and have fatalistic beliefs and a future temporal orientation. Anticipated negative affective responses, such as an inability to "handle" the results of testing, are barriers to uptake. Specific perceptions, beliefs, and emotional factors are associated with genetic risk assessment among African American women. Understanding these factors is key in the development of interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population.

  13. Risk of antenatal psychosocial distress in indigenous women and its management at primary health care centres in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra C; Nagel, Tricia; Schierhout, Gill; Matthews, Veronica; Bailie, Ross

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the risk of antenatal psychosocial distress (APD) and associated potential factors and examined management aspects of risk of APD in women attending Aboriginal primary health care services in Australia. Audits of medical records of 797 pregnant women from 36 primary health centres in five jurisdictions (NSW, QLD, SA, WA and NT) were undertaken as part of a quality improvement programme. Information collected included mental health assessed by a standard screening tools, enquiry regarding social and emotional well-being (SEWB), depression management (including antidepressant medications) and referral. Around 18% (n=141) of women were at risk of APD based on assessment using a standard screening tool or by SEWB enquiry. There was a significant association between risk of distress and women's life style behaviours (e.g., alcohol, illicit drug use) and health centre characteristics. Of the 141 women, 16% (n= 22) were prescribed antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. A range of nonpharmaceutical mental health interventions were also recorded, including brief intervention of 61% (n=86), counselling of 57% (n=80) and cognitive behaviour therapy of 5% (n=7). About 39% (n=55) of women with APD were referred to external services for consultations with a psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker or to a women's refuge centre. The higher risk of APD associated with women's life style behaviour indicates that the better understanding of mental health in its cultural context is essential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…

  15. Assessing pediatric patient's risk of distress during health-care encounters: The psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Risk Assessment in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Staab, Jennifer H; Klayman, Gail Jean; Lin, Li

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Risk Assessment in Pediatrics (PRAP). PRAP is a screening tool designed to assess pediatric patients who are at risk of experiencing elevated distress during health-care encounters. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with 200 pediatric patients. Patient's distress levels were observed during their health-care encounter using the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale (CEMS). Health-care staff and parents were asked to rate the patient's level of cooperation and stress. Exploratory factor analysis supported a single latent factor structure of the PRAP tool. Cronbach's α for internal reliability was .83. PRAP score was strongly correlated with CEMS score with r = .82 (p < .0001). The PRAP is a standardized, reliable, and valid method for health-care providers to assess a patient's risk of experiencing significant distress during treatment or testing.

  16. Gender-specific secondary prevention? Differential psychosocial risk factors for major cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Kure, Christina E; Chan, Yih-Kai; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychosocial determinants and interhospital variability on a major acute cardiovascular event (MACE), during follow-up of a multicenter cohort of patients hospitalised with heart disease, participating in a nurse-led secondary prevention programme. Methods Outcome data were retrospectively analysed from 602 cardiac inpatients randomised to postdischarge standard care (n=296), or home-based intervention (n=306), with prolonged follow-up of individualised multidisciplinary support. Baseline psychosocial profiling comprised depressive status, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), social isolation and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Multivariate analyses examined the independent correlates of a composite 2-year MACE rate of all-cause mortality and unplanned cardiovascular-related hospitalisation, according to gender. Results Participants were aged 70±10 years, 431 (72%) were men and 377 (63%) had coronary artery disease. During 2-year follow-up, 165 (27%) participants (114 men, 51 women; p=0.431) experienced a MACE. Independent correlates of a MACE in men were depressive status (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.58; p=0.032), low physical HRQoL (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00; p=0.027) and increasing comorbidity (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25; p=0.004). In women, age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12; p=0.008), MCI (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.18; p=0.029) and hospital site predicted a MACE (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.93; p=0.029). Conclusions Psychological determinants, cognitive impairment and responses to secondary prevention are different for men and women with heart disease and appear to modulate cardiovascular-specific outcomes. Early detection of psychosocial factors through routine screening and gender-specific secondary prevention is encouraged. Trial registration number 12608000014358. PMID:27099759

  17. Computeen: a randomized trial of a preventive computer and psychosocial skills curriculum for at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jason M; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L

    2009-09-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16 years old who were living in affordable housing communities participated in this randomized wait-list control study. Results showed considerable improvements in computer self-efficacy, decreases in internalizing behavior problems, and excellent attendance and consumer satisfaction. Self-esteem and school motivation results were mixed. Computer self-efficacy mediated the relationship between improved computer skills and self-esteem. Younger adolescents showed greater improvement than did older adolescents. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Although there are limitations to this study's sample size and scope, Computeen appears promising as a developmentally appropriate, strengths-based prevention program.

  18. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001). However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2), Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE) over lifetime (P = 0.058) and subjective well-being (P = 0.987) were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001), dominant (P = 0.03), egoistic (P < 0.001) and introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  19. The prevalence of and psychosocial risks for suicide attempts in male and female college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng Hsiang; Ko, Huei Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of and psychosocial risks for suicide attempts was investigated in college students in Taiwan by gender, after controlling for depressive symptoms. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 2,835 college students; 11.90% of females and 8.87% of males reported they had attempted suicide in the preceding 12 months. After controlling for depression, suicidal ideations were associated with suicide attempts in females, whereas there were fewer positive expectations toward the future associated with suicide attempts in males. Several explanations for the high prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in Taiwan were discussed. In the future, further verification of the findings is necessary. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2015-09-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling relationships of ASD-Sibs involved less aggression, less involvement, and more avoidance than those of TD-Sibs. Partial support for a diathesis-stress conceptualization of sibling difficulties was found for ASD-Sibs. For TD-Sibs, broader autism phenotype (BAP) was related to psychosocial difficulties regardless of family stressors. For ASD-Sibs, BAP was related to difficulties only when family stressors were present. This suggests that having a sibling with ASD may be a protective factor that attenuates the negative impact of sibling BAP.

  1. Hospital safety climate, psychosocial risk factors and needlestick injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Muto, Takashi; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ishikawa, Yumiko; Sayama, Shizue; Yoshida, Atsushi; Townley-Jones, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the interactions between safety climate, psychosocial issues and Needlestick and Sharps Injuries (NSI), a cross-sectional study was undertaken among nurses at a university teaching hospital in Japan (89% response rate). NSI were correlated with various aspects of hospital safety climate including supporting one another at work, the protection of staff against blood-borne diseases being a high management priority, managers doing their part to protect staff from blood-borne disease, having unsafe work practices corrected by supervisors, having the opportunity to use safety equipment to protect against blood-borne disease exposures, having an uncluttered work area, and having minimal conflict within their department. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the importance of hospital safety climate in Japanese health care practice, particularly its relationship with NSI. Although the provision of safer devices remains critical in preventing injuries, ensuring a positive safety climate will also be essential in meeting these important challenges for nurses' occupational health.

  2. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: Relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Alexis E.; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E.; Fisher, Helen L.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Laurens, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9–12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11–14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size = −0.73, p = 0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness

  3. Musculoskeletal complaints in cardiac rehabilitation: Prevalence and impact on cardiovascular risk factor profile and functional and psychosocial status.

    PubMed

    Rocha, José Afonso; Allison, Thomas G; Santoalha, José Miguel; Araújo, Vítor; Pereira, Fernando Parada; Maciel, Maria Júlia

    2015-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and their association with risk factor profile and functional and psychosocial status in patients on a cardiac rehabilitation program. In this cross-sectional study of 449 patients admitted within three months of an acute coronary syndrome, patients were divided into those with (MSC+) and those without (MSC-) musculoskeletal complaints. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Short Form 36 Health Survey were used to assess psychosocial status and quality of life, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for physical activity. Functional capacity was estimated from exercise testing. Musculoskeletal pain was present in 119 patients (27%), mainly in the lower limbs (56%). MSC+ were older (mean 56.5±9.9 vs. 53.2±9.5 years; p<0.001) and more frequently women (20.2% vs. 9.1%; p<0.001). MSC+ had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (68.6% vs. 51.2%; p<0.001), hypertension (51.7% vs. 35.5%; p<0.001), obesity (29.4% vs. 17.9%; p<0.001) and metabolic syndrome (44.5% vs. 31.5%; p<0.001). MSC+ showed higher body mass index and waist circumference, and lower physical activity levels (p<0.05), as well as lower functional capacity (8.6±2.2 vs. 9.6±2.1 MET; p<0.05), higher scores for depression (6 [3-9] vs. 3 [1-7]; p<0.05) and anxiety (7 [3-10] vs. 5 [2-8]; p<0.05), and lower scores for physical (44.1±8.7 vs. 47.6±7.6; p<0.05) and mental (39.2±13.0 vs. 44.0±13.0; p<0.05) quality of life. Musculoskeletal complaints are common in cardiac rehabilitation and predict lower levels of physical activity, worse cardiovascular risk factor profile, and poorer functional capacity and psychosocial status, irrespective of age and gender. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alexis E; Zunszain, Patricia A; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E; Fisher, Helen L; Pariante, Carmine M; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-08-01

    Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11-14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size=-0.73, p=0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than

  5. Clinical and psychosocial risk factors of hearing outcome in older adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Howard W; Yeagle, Jennifer A; Thompson, Carol B

    2015-03-01

    To identify psychosocial determinants of speech perception (SP) outcome in older adults after cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Retrospective study. Subjects received their CI at age 45 years or older and had at least 12 months of device experience. Independent variables consisted of the Charlson Comorbidity Index, history of depression, length of hearing loss and amplification use, residential status, education and gaps in SP data. Regression models were evaluated for associations with open-set SP gains at 3 months and 12 months, and in the 6- to 12-month time interval. Every 10% increase in the proportion of life spent using a hearing aid was associated with a 2% to 3% decrement in SP gain within the first 3 months of CI use. Later and overall 1y SP gains were negatively impacted by poorer general health, lower education level, and residence in an assisted-living facility. Patients with gaps in SP data at later time points were also more likely to have poorer health and to live in assisted-living facilities. The absence of two or more evaluations was associated on average with 6.3% lower SP outcome compared to subjects with one or fewer missing data points. Age at CI had no influence on the size of post-operative SP gains. Auditory deprivation and the influence of psychosocial and health factors on engagement in postsurgical rehabilitation services may impact CI outcomes more than has been previously reported. These findings have policy implications and highlight the need for more effective delivery of hearing rehabilitation services to an aging population. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing psychosocial risks through supervisors' development: a contribution for a brief version of the "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool".

    PubMed

    Toderi, Stefano; Gaggia, Andrea; Balducci, Cristian; Sarchielli, Guido

    2015-06-15

    With the recent changes in the world of work psychosocial risks are increasingly prevalent, causing work stress and physical and mental illnesses, which have a tremendous impact on public health and social participation. Supervisors' behaviour development was proposed as an innovative intervention that can reduce psychosocial risks. The "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool" is one of the most important questionnaires that assess managers' preventive behaviour. However, its psychometric properties have never been evaluated and the length of the questionnaire (66 items) limits its practical applicability. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of the questionnaire by providing psychometric evidence on a brief version of the tool focusing on the "Managing and Communicating existing and future Work" cluster of behaviours, which has been found to be the crucial one in terms of stress prevention. A questionnaire was administered to 178 employees of two Italian public organizations (a municipality and a hospital), measuring the supervisors' "Managing and Communicating existing and future Work" competency, and the affective well-being and work team effectiveness. The results showed excellent psychometric properties of the supervisors' behaviour scale and confirmed the expected relationships with criterion outcomes (affective well-being and team effectiveness). Overall, the factorial structure and dimensionality, the construct validity and reliability, and the concurrent validity of the tool were strongly supported by this study. We concluded that the brief version of the scale is a valid and reliable measure that can be easily used in practice and that can contribute to the development of research and practice on this topic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Practice/Research Collaborative: An Innovative Approach to Identifying and Responding to Psychosocial Functioning Problems and Recidivism Risk among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…

  9. A Practice/Research Collaborative: An Innovative Approach to Identifying and Responding to Psychosocial Functioning Problems and Recidivism Risk among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…

  10. Predicting Developmental Change in Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise among Adolescents in China and the United States: The Role of Psychosocial and Behavioral Protection and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…

  11. In-Service Teacher Training to Provide Psychosocial Support and Care in High-Risk and High-Need Schools: School-Based Intervention Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersöhn, Liesel; Loots, Tilda; Eloff, Irma; Ferreira, Ronél

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a South African case study to argue that postcolonial, emerging economy societies in transition often contain schools characterised as high risk and high need. Such schools require teachers to adapt to roles other than facilitating learning, such as psychosocial support and care, and which requires additional professional…

  12. Severe psychosocial stress and heavy cigarette smoking during pregnancy: an examination of the pre- and perinatal risk factors associated with ADHD and Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Maria G; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Lin, Haiqun; Kim, Young-Shin; Scahill, Lawrence; Lombroso, Paul J; King, Robert A; Peterson, Bradley S; Leckman, James F

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). The basis for this co-occurrence is uncertain. This study aimed to determine if specific pre- and perinatal risk factors, including heavy maternal smoking and severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy, were associated with one or both disorders, or neither. We compared maternal report data on pre- and perinatal risk factors on 222 children between the ages of 7 and 18 years including 45 individuals with TS alone, 52 individuals with ADHD alone, 60 individuals with condition of comorbid TS + ADHD, and 65 unaffected control children. Pre- and perinatal histories as well as psychiatric assessments were performed using standardized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with the mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for each variable of interest. Compared to the mothers of unaffected control children, the mothers of children with ADHD alone reported higher rates of heavy smoking (>10 cigarettes per day) during pregnancy and higher levels of severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy (OR = 13.5, p < 0.01 and OR = 6.8, p < 0.002, respectively). The TS + ADHD and the TS alone patients also had higher rates heavy maternal smoking and high levels of psychosocial stress compared to the control children, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance (heavy smoking: OR = 8.5, p < 0.052, OR = 4.6, p < 0.19, respectively; severe psychosocial stress: OR = 3.1, p < 0.07, OR = 2.6, p < 0.11, respectively). Heavy maternal smoking and severe levels psychosocial stress during pregnancy were independently associated with a diagnosis of ADHD. TS patients also had higher rates of these risk factors, but the ORs failed to reach statistical significance. Efforts are needed to reduce the frequency of these risk factors in high-risk populations. Future studies, using genetically sensitive designs, are also needed

  13. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  14. Biomechanical, psychosocial, and organizational risk factors for WRMSD: population-based estimates from the Connecticut upper-extremity surveillance project (CUSP).

    PubMed

    Warren, N; Dillon, C; Morse, T; Hall, C; Warren, A

    2000-01-01

    In a case-control study of a population-based telephone survey of 3,798 working adults, symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WRMSD) were associated with biomechanical, psychosocial, and organizational factors. In several models, biomechanical exposures with strong associations were static postures (odds ratios [ORs] = 2.00-5.45); repeated pushing, pulling, lifting (ORs = 1.86-12.75); and repeated neck bending (ORs = 1.07-12.8). Psychosocial and organizational factors consistently retained in these models were demands (ORs = 1.26-1.59) and organizational support (ORs = 0.53-0.79). Decision latitude entered less frequently (ORs = 0.30-0.49). This research may have implications for intervention strategies. First, reducing both biomechanical and psychosocial risk may be more effective than focusing solely on engineering controls. Second, organizational culture and policy may have strong implications for WRMSD prevalence and control.

  15. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints

    PubMed Central

    Terwee, Caroline B.; van der Windt, Daniëlle A. W. M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Dekker, Joost

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Methods Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after 3 months. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between work-related risk factors and sick leave (i.e., lost days from work due to neck or upper extremity complaints in 3 months). Effect modification by sick leave at baseline, sex, worrying and musculoskeletal co-morbidity was evaluated by adding product terms to the regression models. Results In the subgroup of patients who scored high on the pain copying scale “worrying” the hazard ratio of sick leave was 1.32 (95% CI 1.07–1.62) per 10% increase in heavy physical work. The subgroup of patients who were sitting for long periods of time had a reduced risk of sick leave as compared to patients who did not spend a lot of time sitting, again only in patients who scored high on the pain coping scale “worrying” (adjusted HR = 0.17, 95%-CI 0.04–0.72). Other work-related risk factors were not significantly related to sick leave. Conclusions Heavy physical work increased the risk of sick leave and prolonged sitting reduced the risk of sick leave in a subgroup of patients who worried much about their pain. Additional large longitudinal studies of sufficiently large size among employees with neck or upper extremity complaints are needed to confirm our results. PMID:17410376

  16. Psychosocial, behavioral, and cultural predictors of sexual risk for HIV infection among Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Jarama, S Lisbeth; Kennamer, J David; Poppen, Paul J; Hendricks, Michael; Bradford, Judith

    2005-12-01

    This study sought to replicate and extend an investigation by Diaz et al. (1999) on determinants of HIV risk among Latino gay and bisexual men living in San Francisco who were predominantly English-speaking. Compared to the Diaz et al. study, the current study sample consisted of predominantly Spanish-speaking MSM, who resided outside of HIV/AIDS epicenters and whose countries of origin were primarily Central & South American. The relationships of unprotected anal sex and multiple sexual partners with demographic, developmental, behavioral, cultural and psychosocial variables were examined. Data were collected in a convenience sample of 250 participants (primarily immigrants from El Salvador) residing in Virginia. Most men in the sample had more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months (62%) and more than a third had unprotected anal sex with a casual partner in the same time period. Communication about HIV, sexual attraction, machismo, and experiences of discrimination based on homosexual behavior were predictive of HIV risk behaviors. The findings support an integrative approach to investigating HIV risk among Latino MSM. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  17. Psychosocial factors and substance use in high-risk youth living with HIV: a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Kolmodin, Karen; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Murphy, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to test relationships between psychosocial factors and alcohol and illicit drug use among high-risk youth living with HIV (YLH). One hundred eighty-six high-risk youth with HIV (defined as those with a substance use problem, sexual risk problem, or medication adherence problem) were enrolled across five cities (ages 16-24). Alcohol and illicit drug use were measured with the alcohol, smoking, and substance involvement screening test and a timeline follow-back interview. Questionnaires assessed constructs from the adapted Transtheoretical Model (TTM) including a continuous measure of motivational readiness in response to criticisms of the stage component. Path analysis was utilized to fit cross-sectional data collected via computer assisted personal interviewing (baseline data from intervention study). Separate models were fit for each commonly used substance. In the previous month, 47% used alcohol, 37% used cannabis, and 9% used other illicit drugs. Path models fit the data well and accounted for 30% of the variance in alcohol use and 47% in cannabis use. Higher self-efficacy predicted lower alcohol and cannabis use, but motivational readiness was only directly related to cannabis use. A reduction in pros of substance use was indirectly related to use. Social support and psychological distress were associated with TTM constructs. Interventions focusing on improving motivation and self-efficacy for healthy behaviors may reduce substance use in YLH.

  18. Classification of psychosocial risk factors (yellow flags) for the development of chronic low back and leg pain using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Hallner, Dirk; Hasenbring, Monika

    2004-05-06

    Due to international guidelines of treatment of acute low back pain (LBP), psychosocial risk factors like depressive mood and maladaptive pain-related coping strategies ('yellow flags') have to be assessed in the early phase of acute pain. Within this longitudinal study in patients with LBP and leg pain, we used an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the pain intensity 6 months after the onset of treatment. Psychosocial risk factors were used as input neurons. The training of the three-layer ANN using the back-propagation algorithm yields to an accuracy of 83.1%. Further on, the complexity of this structure indicated the necessity of an early screening procedure that allows a differentiation between several high risk groups and a low risk profile in order to predict the long-term development of pain intensity.

  19. Experiencing sexuality in youth living in Greece: contraceptive practices, risk taking, and psychosocial status.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Andrie, Elisabeth; Deligeoroglou, Efthymios; Tzavara, Chara; Sakou, Irene; Greydanus, Donald; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Tsolia, Mariza; Creatsas, George; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-08-01

    To assess initiation of sexual activity and contraception methods used among Greek adolescents. To determine the association of adolescents' emotional and behavioral status with their sexual activity. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted. The population (N = 1074, age 14-16) consisted of a random sample, stratified according to locality and population density, of 20 public junior high and high schools located in the urban district of Athens, Greece. Anonymous self-reported questionnaires were used to assess sexual activity choices and contraception methods. The Youth Self-Report questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychosocial competencies and difficulties of Greek adolescents. Analyses included frequencies with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Factors that may influence sexual engagement of Greek adolescents were assessed. Of the adolescents who completed the questionnaire 21.8% reported having experienced sexual intercourse. The male/female ratio was 3/1 (P < .001) and the mean age of sexual debut was 14.5 ± 0.9 years. Condoms were the most preferred contraceptive method (79.9%), followed by withdrawal (38.9%). Emergency contraception was used by 9.6% of participants. Adolescents with separated, divorced or with a deceased parent, and non-Greek nationality have higher possibility of being sexually active. Adolescents who reported sexual intercourse had significantly higher score of thought problems (β = 1.07, SE = 0.35, P = .002), attention difficulties (β = 0.67, SE = 0.29, P = .022), delinquent behavior problems (β = 2.37, SE = 0.34, P < .001), aggressive behavior (β = 1.97, SE = 0.48, P < .001), and externalizing problems (β = 4.18, SE = 0.78, P < .001). Engagement in sexual activities was significantly associated with psychosocial difficulties among adolescents living in Greece. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The effects of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health intervention on psychosocial determinants of cardiovascular disease risk behavior among third-grade students.

    PubMed

    Edmundson, E; Parcel, G S; Perry, C L; Feldman, H A; Smyth, M; Johnson, C C; Layman, A; Bachman, K; Perkins, T; Smith, K; Stone, E

    1996-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health is a multi-site study of a school-based intervention designed to reduce or prevent the development of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The goal was to change (or prevent) related risk behaviors and the psychosocial variables that theoretically influence those behaviors. A nested design was used in which schools served as the primary unit of analysis. Twenty-four schools participated at each of four sites (Austin, San Diego, Minneapolis, and New Orleans). Each site had 10 control and 14 intervention schools. Ninety-six schools (with more than 6000 students) in the four sites were randomized to three treatment conditions: control, school-based interventions, and school-plus-family interventions. The sample included approximately equal numbers of males and females and was 67.5% white, 13.9% African-American, 13.9% Hispanic, and 4.7% other. The psychosocial determinants included improvements in dietary knowledge, intentions, self-efficacy, usual behavior, perceived social reinforcement for healthy food choices, and perceived reinforcement and self-efficacy for physical activity. The findings indicated significant improvements in all the psychosocial determinants measured (p < .0001). The results revealed a greater impact in the school-plus-family intervention schools for two determinants, usual dietary behavior and intentions to eat heart-healthy foods. These findings support theory-based interventions for changing selected psychosocial determinants of cardiovascular disease risk behavior among children.

  1. Couples' discontinuation of fertility treatments: a longitudinal study on demographic, biomedical, and psychosocial risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Juliana; Sobral, Maria Pedro; Mesquita-Guimarães, Joana; Leal, Carla; Costa, Maria E; Martins, Mariana V

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to explore the role of infertility-psychosocial variables on treatment discontinuation after controlling for demographic and biomedical variables in couples seeking reimbursed fertility treatment. A prospective study was conducted in 139 couples seeking fertility treatment. Between February 2010 and March 2011, participants completed measures of anxiety (STAI-State), depression (BDI-II), infertility-stress (FPI), and infertility coping strategies (COMPI-CSS). Medical data related to diagnosis, treatment, and discontinuation were collected in December 2013. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of discontinuation. The discontinuation rate was 29.5%. Female education level, engagement in ART procedures, and female causation decreased the likelihood of treatment discontinuation, whereas female age and depression increased the likelihood of discontinuation. Female depression was the strongest predictor in this model. The model correctly identified 75.5% of cases. Female age and female depression are associated with a higher likelihood of treatment discontinuation in couples seeking treatment. Reproductive health professionals should therefore inform couples about the link between the fertility treatment discontinuation and both female age and female depression. Couples in which female partners present clinically relevant depression should be referred to a mental health professional to prevent premature abandonment of fertility treatments and thus increase success rates.

  2. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  3. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  4. Ethnicity, serostatus, and psychosocial differences in sexual risk behavior among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Keisha Carr; Myers, Hector F; Hall, Naomi M; Javanbakht, Marjan

    2004-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse and related life traumas, and other psychosocial variables were investigated as contributors to ethnic differences in sexual risk behaviors among women who differed in HIV-serostatus. A multiethnic sample of 457 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women residing in Los Angeles county was recruited and studied over 2 years as part of the UCLA-Charles R. Drew University Women and Family Project (WFP) study. Comprehensive interviews were administered to participants by ethnically- and linguistically matched interviewers. Data on demographic information, sexual trauma, substance abuse/dependence, psychiatric distress, and sexual history and risk behaviors were collected. The sample for these analyses consisted of 155 African American, 153 European American, and 149 Latina women, and nearly two-thirds of the sample was HIV-seropositive. HIV-positive women were significantly more likely to report more posttraumatic stress, chronic stress, negative health behaviors, drug use, and psychiatric history than HIV-negative women. European American and African American women were more likely to report a history of sexual trauma than Latina women. Finally, Poisson regression analyses revealed that history of trauma, ethnicity, drug and alcohol use, homelessness, and being HIV-positive were associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, with history of trauma increasing the likelihood of engaging in high-risk behaviors by 5.1%. These findings highlight important differences among women as a function of ethnicity and HIV status, and underscore the need for special services for HIV-positive women that address the risk-enhancing effects of substance abuse/dependence, homelessness, and sexual trauma.

  5. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  6. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  7. Epidemiological study to investigate potential interaction between physical and psychosocial factors at work that may increase the risk of symptoms of musculoskeletal disorder of the neck and upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Devereux, J; Vlachonikolis, I; Buckle, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate potential interactions between physical and psychosocial risk factors in the workplace that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorder of the neck and upper limb. Methods: 891 of 1514 manual handlers, delivery drivers, technicians, customer services computer operators, and general office staff reported on physical and psychosocial working conditions and symptoms of neck and upper limb disorders using a self administered questionnaire (59% return rate). Of the 869 valid questionnaire respondents, 564 workers were classified in to one of four exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial, high physical and low psychosocial, low physical and high psychosocial, and low physical and low psychosocial. Low physical and low psychosocial was used as an internal reference group. The exposure criteria were derived from the existing epidemiological literature and models for physical and psychosocial work factors. The frequency and amplitude of lifting and the duration spent sitting while experiencing vibration were used as physical exposure criteria. Ordinal values of mental demands, job control, and social support with managers and coworkers were used as psychosocial exposure criteria. Results: In the multivariate analyses, the highest and significant increase in risk was found in the high physical and high psychosocial exposure group for symptoms of hand or wrist and upper limb disorders after adjusting for years at the job, age, and sex. A potential interaction effect was found for the symptoms of the hand or wrist and upper limb disorders but not for the neck symptoms. Conclusion: This study showed that workers highly exposed to both physical and psychosocial workplace risk factors were more likely to report symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders than workers highly exposed to one or the other. The results suggest an interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors in the workplace that increased the risk of

  8. Psychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study.

    PubMed

    Esch, Pascale; Bocquet, Valéry; Pull, Charles; Couffignal, Sophie; Graas, Marc; Lair, Marie-Lise; Lehnert, Torsten; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Ansseau, Marc

    2011-07-13

    In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236.

  9. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture. PMID:26929837

  10. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture.

  11. Narrative story stems with high risk six year-olds: differential associations with mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Page, Timothy; Boris, Neil W; Heller, Sherryl; Robinson, Lara; Hawkins, Shantice; Norwood, Rhonda

    2011-07-01

    Children's responses on a Narrative Story Stem Technique (NSST) were coded using scales reflecting essential attachment constructs, specifically, attachment, exploratory, sociability, and caregiving behavioral systems, as originally conceived by Bowlby ( 1973 , 1982 ) and elaborated upon by his followers (Cassidy, 2008 ). NSST responses were examined in relation to both mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment and risk using the MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ). Forty-six children participated (average age 6 years 10 months), 19 of whom had high-risk backgrounds, and the rest demographically matched. Findings indicate that NSST scales were associated with behavior on certain HBQ scales, in expected directions. NSST responses appeared to differentiate socially competent children from children with the specific psycho-social risks of externalizing behavior problems and social isolation, according to mother-reports, on the one hand, and peer vulnerability and internalizing problems, according to teacher-reports, on the other. Implications for clinical applications are discussed.

  12. Risk profiles associated with postnatal depressive symptoms among women in a public sector hospital in Mexico: the role of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended.

  13. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area.

  14. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  15. Psychosocial Adjustment over a Two-Year Period in Children Referred for Learning Problems: Risk, Resilience, and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…

  16. Risk among Combat Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: The Impact of Psychosocial Factors on the Escalation of Suicidal Risk

    PubMed Central

    HALIMI, Ramadan; HALIMI, Hidajete

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to (a) evaluate the influence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other comorbid disorders on suicidal risk among combat veterans and (b) evaluate the impact of psychosocial factors on the escalation of suicidal risk. Methods Data were gathered from a random and representative sample of 215 Kosovo War veterans. Subjects were assessed for the presence of lifetime and current psychiatric disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Revision (DSM-IV TR) using the following questionnaires: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (BSIS). Results Suicidal ideations were observed in 44 (20.5%) of the 215 subjects. High suicide risk was found in 31.8% veterans diagnosed with PTSD and comorbid major depressive disorder. In addition, high suicide risk was also observed in the group of unemployed veterans, veterans dissatisfied with social/economic attainment and veterans dissatisfied with living conditions. Conclusion Our study showed that socioeconomic factors contributes to the deterioration of symptoms of major depression, PTSD and other comorbid disorders, with a direct impact of worsening suicidal ideations and suicidal behavior among war veterans.

  17. Helping Middle School Girls at Risk for School Failure Recover Their Confidence and Achieve School Success: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Middle school girls who are at risk have experienced a disproportionate number of intense and disruptive traumatic life events. Such events can adversely affect healthy development and often contribute to higher levels of school failure and problem behavior. Few programs focus on helping at-risk middle school girls achieve school success through…

  18. Sexual compulsivity, co-occurring psychosocial health problems, and HIV risk among gay and bisexual men: further evidence of a syndemic.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether sexual compulsivity fits into a syndemic framework, in which sexual compulsivity is one of a number of co-occurring psychosocial health problems that increase HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2003 and 2004, we conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey of MSM in New York City (n = 669) by approaching attendees at gay, lesbian, and bisexual community events. We analyzed data by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. We found strong positive interrelationships among syndemic factors including sexual compulsivity, depression, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and polydrug use. In bivariate analyses, all syndemic health problems except for childhood sexual abuse were positively related to HIV seropositivity and high-risk sexual behavior. Our multivariate models revealed an array of interrelationships among psychosocial health problems. We found amplified effects of these problems on HIV seropositivity and on the likelihood of engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Our findings support the conclusion that sexual compulsivity is a component of a syndemic framework for HIV risk among MSM. HIV prevention interventions should consider the overlapping and compounding effects of psychosocial problems, including sexual compulsivity.

  19. Socio-demographic, Marital, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy Among Mozambican Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; McIntyre, Teresa M

    2017-08-22

    In Mozambique, women are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Self-efficacy is one of the main predictors of effective use of a condom. Therefore, it is essential to identify the factors that influence condom-use negotiation self-efficacy in vulnerable women. The aim of this paper is to identify socio-demographic, marital, and psychosocial factors associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy among Mozambican women at risk for HIV infection. Participants were women (173) who were patients at the Gynecology Department of the Central Hospital of Beira, Mozambique, and at risk for HIV infection. Women completed measures of condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, HIV prevention knowledge, and perceived barriers against safer sex. The results showed that demographic and marital variables are associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, namely, those having more than 9 years of education, who are younger and not living with a partner, and who talk about AIDS with partners report higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. Regarding psychosocial factors, higher HIV prevention knowledge and fewer perceived barriers to safer sex predict higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. These results can contribute to sexual health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention in Mozambican women because they identify at-risk groups and marital and psychosocial malleable factors that can be targeted in AIDS prevention among at-risk Mozambican women.

  20. Comparison of the effects of exercise participation on psychosocial risk factors and cardiovascular disease in women.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Seon-Rye

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to research the association of Type D personality with CVD risk factors and psychology through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D. [Subjects] This study included 416 middle-aged women. All participants completed the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14) to assess Type D personality. The DS14 consists of two subscales, NA and SI, both of which comprise 7 items. The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+non-Exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running were performed on a treadmill at the HRmax 60-70% level for 40 min; this was done three times a week. Blood samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL-cholesterol were determined enzymatically on a clinical chemistry analyzer. Blood glucose was measured by the hexokinase method. [Results] Weight, percent fat, social support, and waist circumference showed a significant difference between times in the Exercise groups, and the values were significantly lower than those of the non-Exercise groups. Anxiety and depression showed a significant interaction effect between groups. The average number of CVD risk factors in subjects showed a significant difference between groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D personality.

  1. [Psychosocial aspects of risk behaviour of adolescents in respect of drug abuse].

    PubMed

    Klein, M

    2004-02-01

    Children and adolescents in Germany show a high rate of substance use, esp. concerning tobacco and alcohol. Taking these and other drugs can be seen as a juvenile risk behaviour associated with adverse effects, e. g. violence, unsafe sexuality, early pregnancy, underachievement in school. Prevention and intervention measures should begin early and be designed comprehensively in order to gain decisive and long-lasting effects. Children and adolescents of addicted parents and those with substance abusing peers have to be viewed as especially in danger for increased substance abuse and associated risk behaviours. One of the main preventive tasks is the acquisition of affective self-control and self-management competences.

  2. Psychosocial pathways to childhood obesity: a pilot study involving a high risk preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M; Moore, Elizabeth S; Planalp, Elizabeth M; Lefever, Jennifer Burke

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study adopts a systems theory perspective to explore associations between parent and child factors and children's body mass index (BMI). Forty mothers and their preschool-aged children (3-6years) who were eligible for Head Start were recruited. Measures included demographic risk, maternal depression, negative parenting, children's impulsivity, children's approach to eating, and BMI. Structural Equation Modeling supported a mediating model such that mothers who reported greater demographic risk and more depressive symptoms showed higher rates of negative parenting. In turn, more negative parenting predicted higher child impulsivity ratings, which were related to higher food approach scores. Finally, children who scored higher in food approach had higher BMIs. Tests of sub-models excluding any of the mediating variables indicated a significantly worse fit to the data in each case. Results have implications for family-wide intervention strategies to help lower the risk for early-onset obesity in high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  4. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  5. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and…

  6. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  7. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Psychosocial Well-Being of Adopted Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmel, Cassandra

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…

  9. Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit…

  10. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and…

  11. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  12. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Psychosocial Well-Being of Adopted Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmel, Cassandra

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…

  13. Psychosocial Functioning Problems over Time among High-Risk Youths: A Latent Class Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors report the results of latent class analyses and latent class transition analyses of antisocial behavior risk factors among 137 youths participating in a juvenile diversion program. The study examined the youths' latent classifications using baseline and 1-year follow-up measures of family, peer, education, and mental health risk…

  14. Personal, biomechanical, organizational and psychosocial risk factors for neck disorders in a working population.

    PubMed

    Petit, Audrey; Ha, Catherine; Bodin, Julie; Parot-Schinkel, Elsa; Ramond, Aline; Leclerc, Annette; Imbernon, Ellen; Roquelaure, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess both personal and occupational risk factors for non-specific neck disorder (ND) in a representative working population characterized by various levels of exposure to work-related constraints. ND during the preceding 7 days was assessed in 3,710 workers surveyed by 83 occupational physicians between 2002 and 2005. Personal risk factors and work exposure were assessed by a standardized examination and a self-administered questionnaire. Associations between ND and personal and occupational factors were analyzed using logistic regression modeling separately in men and in women. The personal risk factors for ND were age (OR for 1-year increment 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03 in men and 1.03 [1.01-1.04] in women) and previous history of arthritis disease (OR 2.39 [1.17-4.91] in men and 3.95 [1.92-8.12] in women). The risk of ND increased with previous history or upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in men (OR 1.58 [1.17-2.13]) and decreased with BMI in women (OR for 1-kg/m(2) increment 0.96, [0.93-0.99]). The work-related risk factors of ND were sustained or repeated arm abduction (OR 2.08 [1.35-3.21] in men and 2.22 [1.27-3.86] in women) and neck flexion (OR 1.64 [1.26-2.12] in women). Work pace dependent on customers (OR 1.42 [1.10-1.83]) and psychological demand of the task (OR 1.49 [1.15-1.92]) increased the risk of ND in men. Work pace dependent on quantified targets (OR 1.37 [1.05-1.79]) and low supervisor support (OR 1.68 [1.30-2.17]) increased the risk of ND in women. This study highlighted the multifactorial nature of ND.

  15. Spirituality moderates the relationship of psychosocial stress to metabolic risk factors among Afro-Caribbean immigrants in the US Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Tull, Eugene S; Doswell, Willa M; Cort, Malcolm A

    2015-03-01

    Spirituality may contribute to the health advantage of foreign-born blacks compared to United States (US)-born blacks. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that spirituality attenuates the association of psychosocial stress to stress-associated metabolic risk factors among foreign-born Caribbean blacks living in a US jurisdiction. Data on demographic factors, anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist), fasting glucose and insulin, lifestyle behaviors (smoking and alcohol use), psychosocial stress and spirituality were collected from a population-based sample of 319 Afro-Caribbean immigrants, ages 20 and older, who were recruited between 1995 and 2000 in the Virgin Islands of the United States (USVI). Glucose and insulin measurements were used to estimate insulin resistance by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) method. Participants were classified into three levels of spirituality, "low", "medium" and "high" based on the distribution of spirituality scores. Stepwise regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of waist circumference and HOMA-IR within each level of spirituality. The predictors of waist circumference and HOMA-IR varied across the levels of spirituality. Psychosocial stress was an independent predictor of waist and HOMA-IR only among participants with a low level of spirituality. Spirituality appears to attenuate the association of psychosocial stress to waist circumference and insulin resistance among Afro-Caribbean immigrants in the USVI.

  16. Cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is greater in sexual risk takers

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Claire; Ratcliffe, Joanne M.; Mitchell, Melanie; Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between deviant behaviour and cortisol reactivity to stress. However, relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between psychobiological stress reactivity and sexual risk-taking behaviours. In this study, cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured in 26 healthy young adults prior to the administration of a sexual health and behaviour questionnaire. The cortisol response to the TSST was greater in those individuals who reported that at least one of their previous two sexual partners was someone whom they had just met. Results are discussed in the context of a model which suggests that early life stress dysregulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and increases the likelihood of later life risk-taking behaviour. The findings have implications in terms of improving our understanding of psychobiological factors which predispose individuals to engage in adverse sexual health behaviours. PMID:25750779

  17. Work-related psychosocial stress and risk of preterm, low birthweight delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Homer, C J; James, S A; Siegel, E

    1990-01-01

    We investigated whether work-related psychologic stress--defined as work characterized by both high psychologic demands and limited control over the response to these demands--increases a woman's risk of delivering a preterm, low birthweight infant. We studied 786 employed pregnant women included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth Cohort (NLSY), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young adults. Data concerning work status, job title, and other factors affecting pregnancy outcome were obtained from the NLSY. Assessment of job experience was based on job title, using an established catalogue of occupation characteristics. After accounting for the physical exertion entailed in a job, occupational psychologic stress as measured by job title was not associated with preterm, low birthweight delivery for the sample as a whole (Relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval .45, 2.95). For those women who did not want to remain in the work force, work-related stress increased their risk of experiencing this outcome (RR = 8.1, 95% CI 1.5, 50.2). Personal motivation toward work, as well as the physical effort of work, should be considered in evaluating the impact of a job's psychologic characteristics on pregnancy outcome. PMID:2297061

  18. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with First and Recurrent Cystitis in Indian Women: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bharti; Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country. PMID:26917870

  19. Risk for Intimate Partner Violence and Child Physical Abuse: Psychosocial Characteristics of Multirisk Male and Female Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    consisted of 775 female and 592 male Navy recruits. The psychosocial variables assessed included symptoms of dysphoria, posttraumatic stress , self...Munroe et al., 1995). The psychosocial characteristics examined in the present study included symptoms of dysphoria, posttraumatic stress , self...likely that multirisk individuals may exhibit high levels of symp- toms of posttraumatic stress and/or self-dysfunction (e.g., impaired self-reference

  20. Work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors for neck/shoulder pain: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sterud, Tom; Johannessen, Håkon A; Tynes, Tore

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the impact of work-related psychosocial and mechanical exposure on the development of neck/shoulder pain in the general working population. A randomly drawn cohort from the general population in Norway aged 18-66 was followed up for 3 years (n = 12,550, response rate = 67 %). Eligible respondents were in paid work during the reference week in 2006 and 2009, or temporarily absent from such work (n = 6,745). Four work-related psychosocial factors and six mechanical exposures were measured. Outcomes of interest were moderate or severe neck/shoulder pain at follow-up adjusted for baseline neck/shoulder pain. In total, 16.9 % (1,138 individuals) reported neck/shoulder pain during the last month at follow-up. Work related psychosocial predictors of neck/shoulder pain were high job demands (highest OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.11-1.78) and low levels of supportive leadership (highest OR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.08-2.54). Mechanical factors were neck flexion (highest OR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.31-2.39) and lifting in awkward postures (highest OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.21-2.71). The estimated population risk attributable to these factors was about 23 %. The relative risk for neck/shoulder pain associated with psychosocial exposure was slightly influenced by adjustment for physical risk factors, and vice versa. There was no substantial confounding related to age, gender, education, occupation or psychological distress. Highly demanding jobs, neck flexion and awkward lifting appear as the most important predictors of neck/shoulder pain.

  1. Work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors for low back pain: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sterud, Tom; Tynes, Tore

    2013-05-01

    This study examines the impact of work-related psychosocial and mechanical exposure on the development of low back pain (LBP) in the general working population. A randomly drawn cohort from the general population in Norway aged 18-66 years was followed up for 3 years (n=12 550, response rate at baseline=67%). Eligible respondents were in paid work during a reference week in 2006 and 2009, or temporarily absent from such work (n=6745). Five work-related psychosocial factors and seven mechanical exposures were measured. Outcomes of interest were moderate or severe LBP at follow-up adjusted for baseline LBP. In total, 12.8% (861 individuals) reported LBP during the last month at follow-up. Work-related psychosocial predictors of LBP were high job demands (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.72) and low job control (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.57). Mechanical factors were prolonged standing (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.83), awkward lifting (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.88) and squatting/kneeling (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61). The estimated population risk attributable to these factors was approximately 42%. The risk for LBP associated with psychosocial exposure was not influenced by adjustment for mechanical risk factors, and vice versa. There was no substantial confounding related to age, gender, education, occupation or psychological distress. Highly demanding jobs, prolonged standing and awkward lifting appear as the most consistent and important predictors of LBP.

  2. Psychosocial risk and protective factors for the health and well-being of professionals working in emergency and non-emergency medical transport services, identified via questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Navarro Moya, P; González Carrasco, M; Villar Hoz, E

    2017-09-06

    Medical transport (MT) professionals are subject to considerable emotional demands due to their involvement in life-or-death situations and their exposure to the serious health problems of their clients. An increase in the demand for MT services has, in turn, increased interest in the study of the psychosocial risk factors affecting the health of workers in this sector. However, research thus far has not distinguished between emergency (EMT) and non-emergency (non-EMT) services, nor between the sexes. Furthermore, little emphasis has been placed on the protective factors involved. The main objective of the present study is to identify any existing differential exposure - for reasons of work setting (EMT and non-EMT) or of gender - to the various psychosocial risk and protective factors affecting the health of MT workers. Descriptive and transversal research with responses from 201 professionals. The scores obtained on the various psychosocial scales in our study - as indicators of future health problems - were more unfavourable for non-EMT workers than they were for EMT workers. Work setting, but not gender, was able to account for these differences. The scores obtained for the different psychosocial factors are generally more favourable for the professionals we surveyed than those obtained in previous samples. The significant differences observed between EMT and non-EMT personnel raise important questions regarding the organization of work in companies that carry out both services at the same time in the same territory. The relationships among the set of risk/protective factors suggests a need for further investigation into working conditions as well as a consideration of the workers' sense of coherence and subjective well-being as protective factors against occupational burnout syndrome.

  3. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. Methods A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants’ exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Results Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (p < .05) associated with methamphetamine use in adulthood, difficulties with mood, and with symptoms of trauma. Results of a hierarchical regression equation found that report of bullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. Conclusions The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV

  4. The impact of childhood bullying among HIV-positive men: psychosocial correlates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-04-01

    While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants' exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (p<.05) associated with methamphetamine use in adulthood, difficulties with mood, and with symptoms of trauma. Results of a hierarchical regression equation found that report of bullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV-positive populations. Copyright © 2012

  5. The RECOVER Program: Disability Risk Groups and 1-Year Outcome after 7 or More Days of Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S; Chu, Leslie M; Matte, Andrea; Tomlinson, George; Chan, Linda; Thomas, Claire; Friedrich, Jan O; Mehta, Sangeeta; Lamontagne, Francois; Levasseur, Melanie; Ferguson, Niall D; Adhikari, Neill K J; Rudkowski, Jill C; Meggison, Hilary; Skrobik, Yoanna; Flannery, John; Bayley, Mark; Batt, Jane; Santos, Claudia Dos; Abbey, Susan E; Tan, Adrienne; Lo, Vincent; Mathur, Sunita; Parotto, Matteo; Morris, Denise; Flockhart, Linda; Fan, Eddy; Lee, Christie M; Wilcox, M Elizabeth; Ayas, Najib; Choong, Karen; Fowler, Robert; Scales, Damon C; Sinuff, Tasnim; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Rose, Louise; Robles, Priscila; Burns, Stacey; Cypel, Marcelo; Singer, Lianne; Chaparro, Cecelia; Chow, Chung-Wai; Keshavjee, Shaf; Brochard, Laurent; Hebert, Paul; Slutsky, Arthur S; Marshall, John C; Cook, Deborah; Cameron, Jill I

    2016-10-01

    Disability risk groups and 1-year outcome after greater than or equal to 7 days of mechanical ventilation (MV) in medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients are unknown and may inform education, prognostication, rehabilitation, and study design. To stratify patients for post-ICU disability and recovery to 1 year after critical illness. We evaluated a multicenter cohort of 391 medical/surgical ICU patients who received greater than or equal to 1 week of MV at 7 days and 3, 6, and 12 months after ICU discharge. Disability risk groups were identified using recursive partitioning modeling. The 7-day post-ICU Functional Independence Measure (FIM) determined the recovery trajectory to 1-year after ICU discharge and was an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality. The 7-day post-ICU FIM was predicted by age and ICU length of stay. By 2 weeks of MV, ICU patients could be stratified into four disability groups characterized by increasing risk for post ICU disability, ICU and post-ICU healthcare use, and disposition. Patients less than 42 years with ICU length of stay less than 2 weeks had the best function and fewest deaths at 1 year compared with patients greater than 66 years with ICU length of stay greater than 2 weeks who sustained the worst disability and 40% 1-year mortality. Depressive symptoms (17%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (18%) persisted at 1 year. ICU survivors of greater than or equal to 1 week of MV may be stratified into four disability groups based on age and ICU length of stay. These groups determine 1-year recovery and healthcare use and are independent of admitting diagnosis and illness severity. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00896220).

  6. Psychosocial Stress as a Risk Factor for Sepsis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ojard, Connor; Donnelly, John P.; Safford, Monika M.; Griffin, Russell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the relationship between stress and future risk of sepsis. We also evaluated the role of depression in this relationship. METHODS We used population-based data on 30,183 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, characterizing stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We identified incident sepsis events as hospitalizations for a serious infection with the presence of ≥2 SIRS criteria. We assessed associations between PSS and incidence of sepsis over one- and ten-years of follow-up, adjusting for demographics and chronic medical conditions and assessing the role of health behaviors and CES-D in these relationships. RESULTS During 2003–2012, 1,500 participants experienced an episode of sepsis. Mean PSS and CES-D scores were 3.2±2.9 and 1.2±2.1. PSS was associated with increased one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.21 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.06–1.38); multivariable adjustment for health behaviors and CES-D did not change this association (1.20; 1.20; 1.03–1.39). PSS was also associated with increased 10-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.07 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13). Multivariable adjustment showed that health behaviors did not affect this long-term association whereas addition of CES-D reduced the association between PSS and sepsis during 10-year follow-up (HR 1.04; 0.98–1.11). CONCLUSIONS Increased stress was associated higher one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis, even after accounting for depressive symptoms. The association between stress and ten-year adjusted incidence of sepsis was also significant, but this association was reduced when adjusting for depressive symptoms. Reduction of stress may limit short-term sepsis risk. PMID:25469683

  7. [Psychosocial risk exposure among wage earning population in Spain (2004-05): reference values of the 21 dimensions of COPSOQ ISTAS21 questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Moncada Lluís, Salvador; Llorens Serrano, Clara; Font Corominas, Ariadna; Galtés Camps, Ariadna; Navarro Giné, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Reference values of all the 21 psychosocial scales or dimensions (73 items) of the psychosocial risk assessment questionnaire COPSOQ ISTAS21 are computed from a representative sample of the wage earning population in Spain. Representative sample of the Spanish wage-earning population, n=7,612. The sampling was multi-stage by conglomerates. The information was obtained by the administration of a standardized questionnaire in the household during 2004-2005. All 21 scales were standardized and three punctuation levels were established and labelled as 'more favourable to health (or green)', 'intermediate (or yellow)' and 'more unfavourable to health (or red)' according two criteria: 1) to obtain groups that follow a tertiles theoretical distribution and 2) to get the 'red' and 'green' groups as equilibrated as possible. Response rate was 60. Predictability dimension showed the wider difference between 'green' and 'red' proportions (7.14). Role clarity concentred the 35.06 % of population between 100 and 93.75 points, and Sense of community the 29.6% between 100 and 91.67. Double presence and hiding emotions grouped the 34.02% and the 27.74% % of population between 0 and 12.5 points, respectively. 2005 upgraded representative reference values of the 21 COPSOQ ISTAS21 psychosocial dimensions for the wage earning population in Spain are available, necessary premise to diagnose risk situations and prioritize the needed preventive actions at company level.

  8. Psychosocial risk factors in relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in coronary heart disease: Results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey. A registry from the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Pogosova, Nana; Kotseva, Kornelia; De Bacquer, Dirk; von Känel, Roland; De Smedt, Delphine; Bruthans, Jan; Dolzhenko, Maryna

    2017-09-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are established psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease. Contemporary data on their prevalence and associations with other risk factors were evaluated as part of the EUROASPIRE IV survey. Design The design of this study was cross-sectional. Methods The study group consisted of 7589 patients from 24 European countries examined at a median of 1.4 years after hospitalisation due to coronary heart disease events. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety score ≥8) were seen in 26.3% of participants and were more prevalent in women (39.4%) vs men (22.1%). Of the patients, 22.4% (30.6% of women and 19.8% of men) had symptoms of depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression score ≥8). Nevertheless, antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications were prescribed to only 2.4% of patients at hospital discharge, and 2.7% and 5.0% of patients, respectively, continued to take them at interview. Both anxiety and depression were associated with female gender, lower educational level and more sedentary lifestyle. Anxiety was more prevalent in younger age groups and depression rates increased with advancing age. Depression was positively associated with current smoking, central obesity and self-reported diabetes. A number of positive lifestyle changes reduced the odds of anxiety and depression. Conclusions A substantial proportion of patients have anxiety and depression symptoms after coronary heart disease events but these conditions are undertreated. These disorders, especially depression, are associated with other risk factors, including educational level, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, unhealthy diet and reduced compliance with risk factor modification.

  9. Psychosocial and physical risk factors associated with low back pain: a 24 year follow up among women and men in a broad range of occupations

    PubMed Central

    Thorbjornsson, C. O.; Alfredsson, L.; Fredriksson, K.; Koster, M.; Michelsen, H.; Vingard, E.; Torgen, M.; Kilbom, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between psychosocial and physical factors at work, as well as conditions during leisure time, and low back pain (LBP) over 24 years. METHODS: The study group consisted of 252 women and 232 men. From a previous study conducted in 1969, data on psychosocial and physical conditions and LBP were available. Data on LBP for 1971-93 were obtained retrospectively in 1993. RESULTS: The prevalence of LBP in 1969 among women and men were 34% and 24%, the cumulative incidences of LBP during 1970-92 were 38% and 43%, and the prevalences in 1993 of having had LBP during the past 12 months were 44% and 39%, respectively. Monotonous work and few or unsatisfactory social contacts outside work were risk factors for LBP in 1969 among women. LBP in 1969 and dissatisfaction with leisure time were risk factors among both sexes for LBP in 1970-92. LBP in 1969 was a risk factor for LBP in 1993 among women and dissatisfaction with leisure time a risk factor among men. Interactions between few or unsatisfactory social contacts outside work, as well as dissatisfaction with leisure time, and several factors related to work were found to increase the risk of LBP among both sexes during the studied periods. CONCLUSIONS: Conditions in leisure time exert a long term influence on LBP. In this study factors related to work had a long term effect only in interaction with leisure time factors.   PMID:9614391

  10. Protocol for a systematic review of telephone delivered psychosocial interventions on relapse prevention, adherence to psychiatric medication and health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Turner, Alyna; Haddock, Gillian; Kelly, Peter J; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mental and physical health of individuals with a psychotic illness are typically poor. When adhered to, medication can reduce relapse. However, despite adherence, relapse remains common and functional outcomes often remain compromised. Compliance is also typically low. Cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is also elevated, along with several important modifiable health risk behaviours. Access to psychosocial interventions is therefore important, but currently limited. Telephone delivered interventions represent a promising solution, although further clarity is needed. Accordingly, we aim to provide an overview and critical analysis of the current state of evidence for telephone delivered psychosocial interventions targeting key health priorities in adults with a psychotic disorder, including (1) relapse, (2) adherence to psychiatric medication and/or (3) modifiable cardiovascular health risk behaviours. Methods and analysis Our methods are informed by published guidelines. The review is registered and any protocol amendments will be tracked. Ten electronic peer-reviewed and four grey literature databases have been identified. Preliminary searches have been conducted for literature on psychosocial telephone interventions targeting relapse, medication adherence and/or health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder. Articles classified as ‘evaluation’ will be assessed against standardised criteria and checked by an independent assessor. The searches will be re-run just before final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion. A narrative synthesis will be reported, structured around intervention type and content, population characteristics and outcomes. Where possible, ‘summary of findings’ tables will be generated for each comparison. For the primary outcome of each trial, when data are available, we will calculate a risk ratio and its 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula

  11. Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Behavior Risk Factors Associated with Sexual Risk Behaviors among Southeastern US College Students.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Lowe, Kincaid; Stratton, Erin; Goodwin, Sherell Brown; Grimsley, Linda; Rodd, Jan; Williams, Catherine; Mattox, Cheri; Foster, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    We examined correlates of 1) being a virgin; 2) drug or alcohol use prior to the last intercourse; and 3) condom use during the last intercourse in a sample of college students. We recruited 24,055 students at six colleges in the Southeast to complete an online survey, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate), with complete data from 4514. Logistic regression indicated that correlates of virginity included being younger (p < 0.001), male (p = 0.01), being White or other ethnicity (p < 0.001), attending a four-vs. two-year school (p < 0.001), being single/never married (p < 0.001), lower sensation seeking (p < 0.001), more regular religious service attendance (p < 0.001), lower likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p = 0.002), and less frequentdrinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of alcohol or drug use prior to most recent intercourse including being older (p = 0.03), being White (p < 0.01), attending a four-year college (p < 0.001), being homosexual (p = 0.041) or bisexual (p = 0.011), having more lifetime sexual partners (p = 0.005), lower satisfaction with life (p = 0.004), greater likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p < 0.001), and more frequent drinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of condom use during the last sexual intercourse including being older (p = 0.003), being female (p < 0.001), being White (p < 0.001), attending a two-year school (p = 0.04), being single/never married (p = 0.005), being homosexual or bisexual (p = 0.04), and a more frequent drinking (p = 0.001). Four-year college attendees were more likely to be a virgin but, if sexually active, reported higher sexual risk behaviors. These nuances regarding sexual risk may provide targets for sexual health promotion programs and interventions.

  12. Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Behavior Risk Factors Associated with Sexual Risk Behaviors among Southeastern US College Students

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Lowe, Kincaid; Stratton, Erin; Goodwin, Sherell Brown; Grimsley, Linda; Rodd, Jan; Williams, Catherine; Mattox, Cheri; Foster, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlates of 1) being a virgin; 2) drug or alcohol use prior to the last intercourse; and 3) condom use during the last intercourse in a sample of college students. Methods We recruited 24,055 students at six colleges in the Southeast to complete an online survey, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate), with complete data from 4514. Results Logistic regression indicated that correlates of virginity included being younger (p < 0.001), male (p = 0.01), being White or other ethnicity (p < 0.001), attending a four-vs. two-year school (p < 0.001), being single/never married (p < 0.001), lower sensation seeking (p < 0.001), more regular religious service attendance (p < 0.001), lower likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p = 0.002), and less frequentdrinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of alcohol or drug use prior to most recent intercourse including being older (p = 0.03), being White (p < 0.01), attending a four-year college (p < 0.001), being homosexual (p = 0.041) or bisexual (p = 0.011), having more lifetime sexual partners (p = 0.005), lower satisfaction with life (p = 0.004), greater likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p < 0.001), and more frequent drinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of condom use during the last sexual intercourse including being older (p = 0.003), being female (p < 0.001), being White (p < 0.001), attending a two-year school (p = 0.04), being single/never married (p = 0.005), being homosexual or bisexual (p = 0.04), and a more frequent drinking (p = 0.001). Conclusions Four-year college attendees were more likely to be a virgin but, if sexually active, reported higher sexual risk behaviors. These nuances regarding sexual risk may provide targets for sexual health promotion programs and interventions. PMID:25068080

  13. [The relationship of work-related psychosocial risk factors with depressive symptoms among Hungarian workers: preliminary results of the Hungarian Work Stress Survey].

    PubMed

    Nistor, Katalin; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Szabó, Anita; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Stauder, Adrienne

    2015-03-01

    Research has shown that psychosocial stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorders. The present study aims at processing the preliminary results of the Hungarian Survey of Work Stress, concerning the relationship between depressive symptoms and work stress. Cross-sectional survey among Hungarian workers was carried out (n = 1058, 27.5% man, 72.5% woman, age 37.2 years, SD = 11 years). Psychosocial factors were measured using the COPSOQ II questionnaire, while BDI-9 was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was carried out applying Spearman's correlation and logistic regression. A quarter of the workers reported moderate or severe symptoms of depression (BDI≥19). The study confirmed the association between depressive symptoms and work-family conflict (OR = 2.21, CI: 1.82-2.68), possibilities for development (OR = 0.76, CI: 0.59-0.97) meaning of work (OR = 0.69, CI: 0.59-0.89) and commitment (OR = 0.60, CI: 0.47-0.78). The results point toward the need of such organizational measures that allow for the reduction of psychosocial stress.

  14. Mediating Mechanisms of Theory-Based Psychosocial Determinants on Behavioral Changes in a Middle School Obesity Risk Reduction Curriculum Intervention, Choice, Control, and Change.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A; Noia, Jennifer Di

    2016-10-01

    A limited number of school-based intervention studies have explored mediating mechanisms of theory-based psychosocial variables on obesity risk behavior changes. The current study investigated how theory-based psychosocial determinants mediated changes in energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) among urban youth. A secondary analysis study was conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial. Data from students at 10 middle schools in New York City (n = 1136) were used. The intervention, Choice, Control, and Change curriculum, was based on social cognitive and self-determination theories. Theory-based psychosocial determinants (goal intention, cognitive outcome expectations, affective outcome expectations, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and autonomous motivation) and EBRBs were measured with self-report questionnaires. Mediation mechanisms were examined using structural equation modeling, Results: Mediating mechanisms for daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and purposeful stair climbing were identified. Models with best fit indices (root mean square error of approximation = 0.039/0.045, normed fit index = 0.916/0.882; comparative fit index = 0.945/0.932; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.896/0.882, respectively) suggested that goal intention and reduced perceived barriers were significant proximal mediators for reducing SSB consumption among both boys and girls or increasing physical activity by stair climbing among boys. Cognitive outcome expectations, affective outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation indirectly mediated behavioral changes through goal intention or perceived barriers (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The final models explained 25%-27% of behavioral outcome variances. Theory-based psychosocial determinants targeted in Choice, Control, and Change in fact mediated behavior changes in middle school students. Strategies targeting these mediators might benefit future success of behavioral

  15. Child Functional Independence and Maternal Psychosocial Stress as Risk Factors Threatening Adaptation in Mothers of Physically or Sensorially Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated contribution of child functional independence and maternal psychosocial stress to adaptation of 119 mothers of physically or sensorially handicapped children between the ages of 2 and 18. Child functional independence did not uniquely explain variation in mothers' adaptation. Maternal stress was uniquely associated with maternal…

  16. The acceptability and feasibility of a brief psychosocial intervention to reduce blood-borne virus risk behaviours among people who inject drugs: a randomised control feasibility trial of a psychosocial intervention (the PROTECT study) versus treatment as usual.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Gail; Swan, Davina; Shaw, April; Keding, Ada; Towers, Sarah; Craine, Noel; Munro, Alison; Hughes, Elizabeth; Parrott, Steve; Strang, John; Taylor, Avril; Watson, Judith

    2017-03-21

    While opiate substitution therapy and injecting equipment provision (IEP) have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), some PWID continue to share injecting equipment and acquire BBV. Psychosocial interventions that address risk behaviours could reduce BBV transmission among PWID. A pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled, open feasibility study of PWID attending drug treatment or IEP in four UK regions. Ninety-nine PWID were randomly allocated to receive a three-session manualised psychosocial group intervention and BBV transmission information booklet plus treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 52) or information booklet plus TAU (n = 47). The intervention was developed from evidence-based literature, qualitative interviews with PWID, key stakeholder consultations, and expert opinion. Recruitment rates, retention in treatment, follow-up completion rates and health economic data completion measured feasibility. Fifty-six percent (99/176) of eligible PWID were recruited. More participants attended at least one intervention session in London (10/16; 63%) and North Wales (7/13; 54%) than in Glasgow (3/12; 25%) and York (0/11). Participants who attended no sessions (n = 32) compared to those attending at least one (n = 20) session were more likely to be homeless (56 vs 25%, p = 0.044), injected drugs for a greater number of days (median 25 vs 6.5, p = 0.019) and used a greater number of needles from an IEP in the last month (median 31 vs 20, p = 0.056). No adverse events were reported. 45.5% (45/99) were followed up 1 month post-intervention. Feedback forms confirmed that the intervention was acceptable to both intervention facilitators and participants who attended it. Follow-up attendance was associated with fewer days of injecting in the last month (median 14 vs 27, p = 0.030) and fewer injections of cocaine (13 vs 30%, p = 0.063). Analysis of the questionnaires identified several service use

  17. Psychosocial Health Problems Associated with Increased HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Deuba, Keshab; Ekström, Anna Mia; Shrestha, Rachana; Ionita, George; Bhatta, Laxmi; Karki, Deepak Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are marginalized, hidden, underserved and at high risk for HIV in Nepal. We examined the association between MSM sub-populations, psychosocial health problems and support, access to prevention and non-use of condoms. Methods Between September-November of 2010, a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related risk behavior was performed across Nepal through snowball sampling facilitated by non-governmental organizations, recruiting 339 MSM, age 15 or older. The primary outcomes were: (a) non-use of condoms at least once in last three anal sex encounters with men and (b) non-use of condoms with women in the last encounter. The secondary outcome was participation in HIV prevention interventions in the past year. Results Among the 339 MSM interviewed, 78% did not use condoms at their last anal sex with another man, 35% did not use condoms in their last sex with a woman, 70% had experienced violence in the last 12 months, 61% were experiencing depression and 47% had thought of committing suicide. After adjustment for age, religion, marital status, and MSM subpopulations (bisexual, ta, meti, gay), non-use of condoms at last anal sex with a man was significantly associated with non-participation in HIV interventions, experience of physical and sexual violence, depression, repeated suicidal thoughts, small social support network and being dissatisfied with social support. Depression was marginally associated with non-use of condoms with women. The findings suggest that among MSM who reported non-use of condoms at last anal sex, the ta subgroup and those lacking family acceptance were the least likely to have participated in any preventive interventions. Conclusions MSM in Nepal have a prevalence of psychosocial health problems in turn associated with high risk behavior for HIV. Future HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM in Nepal should cover all MSM subpopulations and prioritize psychosocial health interventions. PMID:23516434

  18. Psychosocial risk factors, job characteristics and self-reported health in the Paris Military Hospital Group (PMHG): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Trichereau, Julie; Rondier, Jean-Philippe; Viance, Patrice; Migliani, René

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the associations between psychosocial risk factors and self-reported health, taking into account other occupational risk factors. Design Cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Setting The three military hospitals in Paris, France. Participants Surveys were distributed to 3173 employees (1807 military and 1336 civilian), a total of 1728 employees completed surveys. Missing data prohibited the use of 26 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors used Karasek's model in order to identify psychosocial factors (psychological demands, decisional latitude, social support) in the workplace. The health indicator studied was self-reported health. Adjustments were made for covariates: age, gender, civil or military status, work injury, ergonomic score, physical and chemical exposures, and occupational profile. Occupational profile was defined by professional category, department, work schedule, supervisor status and service-related length in the hospital. Results Job strain (defined as high psychological demands and low decisional latitude) (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and iso-strain (job strain with low social support) were significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Among covariates, occupational profile (p<0.001) and an unsatisfactory ergonomic score (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2, p<0.001) were also significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Conclusions The results support findings linking moderate or poor self-reported health to psychosocial risk factors. The results of this study suggest that workplace interventions that aim to reduce exposure to psychological demands as well as to increase decisional latitude and social support could help improve self-reported health. PMID:22855624

  19. Do the psychosocial risks associated with television viewing increase mortality? Evidence from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Zohn; Johnson, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk of mortality, which could be caused by a sedentary lifestyle, the content of television programming (e.g., cigarette product placement or stress-inducing content), or both. Methods We examined the relationship between self-reported hours of television viewing and mortality risk over 30 years in a representative sample of the American adult population using the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset. We also explored the intervening variable effect of various emotional states (e.g., happiness) and beliefs (e.g., trust in government) of the relationship between television viewing and mortality. Results We find that for each additional hour of viewing, mortality risks increased 4%. Given the mean duration of television viewing in our sample, this amounted to about 1.2 years of life expectancy in the US. This association was tempered by a number of potential psychosocial mediators, including self-reported measures of happiness, social capital, or confidence in institutions. While none of these were clinically significant, the combined mediation power was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions Television viewing among healthy adults is correlated with premature mortality in a nationally-representative sample of US adults, and this association may be partially mediated by programming content related to beliefs or affective states. However, this mediation effect is the result of many small changes in psychosocial states rather than large effects from a few factors. PMID:23683712

  20. Sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial health concerns of female-to-male transgender men screening for STDs at an urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of female-to-male (FTM) transgender men remains understudied. De-identified electronic medical records of 23 FTMs (mean age = 32, 48% racial/ethnic minority) who screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) between July and December 2007 at a Boston, Massachusetts area health center were analyzed. Almost half (48%) were on testosterone and 39% had undergone chest surgery; none had undergone genital reconstruction. The majority (57%) were bisexual, and 30% reported sex with nontransgender males only in the prior three months. One individual was HIV-infected (4.3%) and two (8.7%) had a history of STDs (all laboratory-confirmed). Overall, 26% engaged in sexual risk behavior in the prior three months (i.e., unprotected sex with a nontransgender male, condom breakage, or anonymous sex). The majority (61%) had a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis (52% depression, 52% anxiety, and 26% adjustment disorder), and regular alcohol use was common (65%). Alcohol use, psychosocial distress histories, and sex with males only (versus with males and females) were associated with sexual risk in the past three months. Transgender men have concomitant psychosocial health vulnerabilities which may contribute to sexual risk behaviors. Future research is needed to understand the myriad social, behavioral, and biological factors that contribute to HIV and STD vulnerability for FTMs. PMID:24206043

  1. Demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors identify a high-risk group for depression screening among predominantly Hispanic patients with Type 2 diabetes in safety net care.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi

    2015-01-01

    Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (p<0.05) with female gender, diabetes emotional burden and regimen distress, BMI ≥ 30, lack of an A1C test, diabetes duration, poor self-care, number of diabetes symptoms and complications, functional and physical characteristics (pain, self-rated health condition, Short-Form Health Survey SF-physical, disability score and comorbid illnesses), as well as higher number of ICD-9 diagnoses and emergency room use. A multivariable regression model with stepwise selection identified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, p<.0001). Knowing biopsychosocial factors could help primary care physicians and endocrinologists identify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial health concerns of female-to-male transgender men screening for STDs at an urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; White, Jaclyn M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The sexual health of female-to-male (FTM) transgender men remains understudied. De-identified electronic medical records of 23 FTMs (mean age = 32, 48% racial/ethnic minority) who screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) between July and December 2007 at a Boston, Massachusetts area health center were analyzed. Almost half (48%) were on testosterone and 39% had undergone chest surgery; none had undergone genital reconstruction. The majority (57%) were bisexual, and 30% reported sex with nontransgender males only in the prior three months. One individual was HIV-infected (4.3%) and two (8.7%) had a history of STDs (all laboratory-confirmed). Overall, 26% engaged in sexual risk behavior in the prior three months (i.e., unprotected sex with a nontransgender male, condom breakage, or anonymous sex). The majority (61%) had a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis (52% depression, 52% anxiety, and 26% adjustment disorder), and regular alcohol use was common (65%). Alcohol use, psychosocial distress histories, and sex with males only (versus with males and females) were associated with sexual risk in the past three months. Transgender men have concomitant psychosocial health vulnerabilities which may contribute to sexual risk behaviors. Future research is needed to understand the myriad social, behavioral, and biological factors that contribute to HIV and STD vulnerability for FTMs.

  3. Work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors for work disability: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sterud, Tom

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the impact of work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors for work disability in the general working population. A randomly drawn cohort from the general population in Norway aged 18-66 years was followed for 3 years (N = 12 550, 67% response rate at baseline). Eligible respondents were in paid work for ≥ 10 hours per week in 2006 and were still in paid work or had quit working because of health problems (work disability) in 2009 (N = 6745). Five work-related psychosocial factors and eight mechanical exposures were measured. The outcome of interest was self-reported work disability at 3-year follow-up. In total, 2.6% (176 individuals) reported work disability at the 3-year follow-up. Disability rates were higher among women, older workers, and those with fewer years of education and higher levels of psychological distress and musculoskeletal complaints. After adjusting for these factors, work-related psychosocial predictors of disability were low levels of supportive leadership [odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-2.56] and monotonous work (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.09-2.16). Mechanical factors were neck flexion (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.56), prolonged standing (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.46), whole-body vibration (OR 4.15, 95% CI 1.77-9.71), and heavy physical work (OR 2.23. 95% CI 1.08-4.57). The estimated population risk attributable to these factors was about 45%. Monotonous work, prolonged standing, neck flexion, and whole-body vibration appear to be the most consistent and important predictors of work disability.

  4. Recovering Energy From Relays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic energy stored in relay recovered with aid of simple circuit. Circuit recovers more than 20 percent of energy stored in relay winding and returns it to powerline. New three-transistor driver circuit requires no additional winding.

  5. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    PubMed

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants (< 40 years), whereas among older participants (> 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  6. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as

  7. Body size estimation and other psychosocial risk factors for obesity onset among US adolescents: findings from a longitudinal population level study.

    PubMed

    Liechty, J M; Lee, M-J

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of body size over- and underestimation and other psychosocial factors on the risk for onset of overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) 1 year later among US adolescents. Participants with non-missing height and weight were drawn from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n=13,568). Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to assess longitudinal risk factors for OW and OB onset, controlling for baseline weight status, age, race/ethnicity, parent education and family structure. Analyses were stratified by sex. Compared with accurate body size perception, body size overestimation increased the relative risk (RR) of OW onset among women and men (RR=3.34, confidence interval (CI)=2.39-4.68; RR=6.01, CI=4.09-8.83, respectively, P<0.001) in fully adjusted models including body mass index z-scores. Body size underestimation decreased the RR of OW onset among women and men (RR= 0.08, CI=0.03-0.20; RR=0.13, CI=0.06-0.27, respectively) and OB onset (RR=0.05, CI=0.02-0.14; RR=0.19, CI=0.08-0.47, respectively, P<0.001 for all) in fully adjusted models. Dieting, extreme weight loss behaviors and skipping breakfast at Wave 1 increased the risk of OB onset by Wave 2. Contrary to a common assumption, body size underestimation did not increase, but in fact decreased, the RR for the onset of OW and of OB among adolescents using a prospective longitudinal design. However, body size overestimation predicted onset of OW 1 year later. Body size self-concept and other psychosocial factors have an important role in risk for OW and for OB among both males and females during adolescence.

  8. Reproductive health knowledge among African American women enrolled in a clinic-based randomized controlled trial to reduce psychosocial and behavioral risk, Project DC-HOPE

    PubMed Central

    Backonja, Uba; Robledo, Candace A.; Wallace, Maeve E.; Flores, Katrina F.; Kiely, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background Washington, D.C. has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy in the United States. Increasing women’s reproductive health knowledge may help address these reproductive health issues. This analysis assessed whether high-risk pregnant African American women in Washington, D.C. who participated in an intervention to reduce behavioral and psychosocial risks had greater reproductive health knowledge than women receiving usual care. Methods Project DC-HOPE was a randomized controlled trial that included pregnant African American women in Washington, D.C., recruited during prenatal care. Women in the intervention group were provided reproductive health education and received tailored counseling sessions to address their psychosocial and behavioral risk(s) (cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence). Women in the control group received usual prenatal care. Participants completed a 10-item reproductive knowledge assessment at baseline (n=1,044) and postpartum (n=830). Differences in total reproductive health knowledge scores at baseline and postpartum between groups were examined via chi-squared tests. Differences in postpartum mean total score by group were assessed via multiple linear regression. Results Women in both groups and at both time points scored approximately 50% on the knowledge assessments. At postpartum, women in the intervention group had higher total scores compared to women receiving usual care (mean 5.40 [SD 1.60] vs. 5.03 [SD 1.53] out of 10, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions While intervention participants increased reproductive health knowledge, overall scores remained low. Development of interventions designed to impart accurate, individually tailored information to women may promote reproductive health knowledge among high-risk pregnant African American women residing in Washington, D.C. PMID:27094910

  9. Reproductive Health Knowledge among African American Women Enrolled in a Clinic-Based Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Psychosocial and Behavioral Risk: Project DC-HOPE.

    PubMed

    Backonja, Uba; Robledo, Candace A; Wallace, Maeve E; Flores, Katrina F; Kiely, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Washington, DC, has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy in the United States. Increasing women's reproductive health knowledge may help to address these reproductive health issues. This analysis assessed whether high-risk pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, who participated in an intervention to reduce behavioral and psychosocial risks had greater reproductive health knowledge than women receiving usual care. Project DC-HOPE was a randomized, controlled trial that included pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, recruited during prenatal care (PNC). Women in the intervention group were provided reproductive health education and received tailored counseling sessions to address their psychosocial and behavioral risk(s) (cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence). Women in the control group received usual PNC. Participants completed a 10-item reproductive knowledge assessment at baseline (n = 1,044) and postpartum (n = 830). Differences in total reproductive health knowledge scores at baseline and postpartum between groups were examined via χ(2) tests. Differences in postpartum mean total score by group were assessed via multiple linear regression. Women in both groups and at both time points scored approximately 50% on the knowledge assessments. At postpartum, women in the intervention group had higher total scores compared with women receiving usual care (mean 5.40 [SD 1.60] vs. 5.03 [SD 1.53] out of 10, respectively; p < .001). Although intervention participants increased reproductive health knowledge, overall scores remained low. Development of interventions designed to impart accurate, individually tailored information to women may promote reproductive health knowledge among high-risk pregnant African American women residing in Washington, DC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Antenatal Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression at 20 Weeks Gestation in a Japanese Sample: Psychosocial Perspectives from a Cohort Study in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Tomoe; Takehara, Kenji; Kakee, Naoko; Tsujii, Hiromi; Mori, Rintaro; Inoue, Eisuke; Ota, Erika; Yoshida, Keiko; Kasai, Keiko; Okuyama, Makiko; Kubo, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) is high (Western countries, 10–15%; Japan, 17%). PND can cause parenting impairment and affect family health (e.g. child behaviors, cognitive development and physical health). This study aimed to reveal the risk factors of PND during the pregnancy period in a Japanese sample, and to identify the psychosocial risk factors of PND that should be appended to existing obstetric interview sheets. A cohort study with a Japanese sample was conducted. Methods All 14 obstetrics hospitals in the Setagaya ward, Tokyo, Japan, participated in this study. Pregnant women who booked their delivery between December 2012 and May 2013 were enrolled. Data used for this study were collected at 20 weeks gestation, a few days and one month postnatal. The questionnaires consisted of psychosocial factors and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). To identify PND risk factors, multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 1,775 women participated in this study. Eventually, the data of 1,133 women were used for the multivariate analyses. The demonstrated significant risk factors include EPDS score, primipara, “a perceived lack of family cohesion”, “current physical illness treatment” and “current psychiatric illness treatment”. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of mental health screening using psychological measures during the pregnancy period. In addition, family environment, parity, physical and psychiatric illness should be paid attention by professionals in maternal and child health. The results also suggest that mothers’ feelings of developing their families should be supported. PMID:26625132

  11. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  12. Risk factors and psychosocial characteristics of potential problematic and problematic internet use among adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Problematic internet use (PIU) is associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial implications associated with potential PIU and PIU among adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n = 866) of Greek adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years). Self-completed questionnaires, including internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized to examine the study objectives. Results Among the study population, the prevalence rates of potential PIU and PIU were 19.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that male gender (Odds Ratio, OR: 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI: 1.35-3.00), as well as utilizing the internet for retrieving sexual information (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12), interactive game playing (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.82), and socialization, including chat-room use (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.86) and email (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.24), were independently associated with potential PIU and PIU. Adolescents with potential PIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with hyperactivity (OR: 4.39; 95% CI: 2.03-9.52) and conduct (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.46-4.50) problems. Moreover, adolescent PIU was significantly associated with hyperactivity (OR: 9.96; 95% CI: 1.76-56.20) and conduct (OR: 8.39; 95% CI: 2.04-34.56) problems, as well as comprehensive psychosocial maladjustment (OR: 8.08; 95% CI: 1.44-45.34). Conclusions The determinants of potential PIU and PIU include accessing the internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information, game playing, and socialization. Furthermore, both potential PIU and PIU are adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents. PMID:21794167

  13. Psychosocial interventions in the treatment of youth diagnosed or at high-risk for pediatric bipolar disorder: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Cárol; Farriols, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has emerged as a research field in which psychosocial treatments have provided a plethora of empirical findings over the last decade. We addressed this issue through a systematic review aimed of establishing their effectiveness and feasibility as adjunctive therapies for youth with PBD or at high-risk for PBD. A comprehensive search of databases was performed between 1990 and September 2014. Overall, 33 studies were specifically related to the issue and 20 of them were original articles. Evidence suggests that both "multi-family psychoeducational psychotherapy' and "family-focused therapy" are possible effective treatments for PBD. Likewise, "child and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy" may be characterized as a treatment in its experimental phase. The remaining therapies fail to obtain enough empirical support due to inconsistent findings among clinical trials or data solely based on case reports. Studies of psychosocial treatments provide concluding results concerning their feasibility and acceptability. Larger sample sizes and more randomized controlled trials are mandatory for diminishing methodological shortcomings encountered in the treatments displayed.

  14. Psycho-social resilience, vulnerability and suicide prevention: impact evaluation of a mentoring approach to modify suicide risk for remote Indigenous Australian students at boarding school.

    PubMed

    McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Russo, Sandra; Rutherford, Katrina; Tsey, Komla; Wenitong, Mark; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Jacups, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The proposed study was developed in response to increased suicide risk identified in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who are compelled to attend boarding schools across Queensland when there is no secondary schooling provision in their remote home communities. It will investigate the impact of a multicomponent mentoring intervention to increase levels of psychosocial resilience. We aim to test the null hypothesis that students' resilience is not positively influenced by the intervention. The 5-year project was funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council from December 2014. An integrated mixed methods approach will be adopted; each component iteratively informing the other. Using an interrupted time series design, the primary research methods are quantitative: 1) assessment of change in students' resilience, educational outcomes and suicide risk; and 2) calculation of costs of the intervention. Secondary methods are qualitative: 3) a grounded theoretical model of the process of enhancing students' psychosocial resilience to protect against suicide. Additionally, there is a tertiary focus on capacity development: more experienced researchers in the team will provide research mentorship to less experienced researchers through regular meetings; while Indigenous team members provide cultural mentorship in research practices to non-Indigenous members. Australia's suicide prevention policy is progressive but a strong service delivery model is lacking, particularly for Indigenous peoples. The proposed research will potentially improve students' levels of resilience to mitigate against suicide risk. Additionally, it could reduce the economic and social costs of Indigenous youth suicide by obtaining agreement on what is good suicide prevention practice for remote Indigenous students who transition to boarding schools for education, and identifying the benefits-costs of an evidence-based multi-component mentoring intervention to

  15. Brief Report: Psychosocial Predictors of Engagement in Sexual Risk Behavior Among Trans*female Youth Aged 16-24 Years in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Turner, Caitlin M; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arayasirikul, Sean; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-03-01

    Trans*female youth (TFY) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV. Few longitudinal studies have analyzed both proximal and upstream predictors of changes in HIV-related risk behaviors for TFY. The aim of the present analysis was to identify psychosocial predictors of changes in sexual risk behavior over time for TFY in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data come from the SHINE cohort study conducted at the San Francisco Department of Public Health from 2012 to 2014 (n = 263). The relationship between hypothesized psychosocial factors and changes in engagement in condomless receptive anal intercourse over 12-month follow-up was modeled using generalized estimating equations, after adjusting for participant age, race/ethnicity, and education level. TFY who were ever in a serious relationship since identifying as trans* [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 to 3.08], those who reported recent crack/cocaine use (aOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.85), and those with a monthly income of more than $500 (aOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.85) had significantly higher odds of condomless receptive anal intercourse over the 12-month study period compared to TFY without these exposures. Those who reported high exposure to gender-based discrimination had increased adjusted odds of engagement in condomless receptive anal intercourse compared to those who had low exposure over the study period (aOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.63). Both proximal and structural factors predicted increased engagement in sexual risk behavior among TFY. Results demonstrate the need for a multilevel approach to HIV prevention strategies for this population.

  16. A national standard for psychosocial safety climate (PSC): PSC 41 as the benchmark for low risk of job strain and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Tessa S; Dollard, Maureen F; Richards, Penny A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research from around the world now permeating occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and guidelines, there remains a lack of tools to guide practice. Our main goal was to establish benchmark levels of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) that would signify risk of job strain (jobs with high demands and low control) and depression in organizations. First, to justify our focus on PSC, using interview data from Australian employees matched at 2 time points 12 months apart (n = 1081), we verified PSC as a significant leading predictor of job strain and in turn depression. Next, using 2 additional data sets (n = 2097 and n = 1043) we determined benchmarks of organizational PSC (range 12-60) for low-risk (PSC at 41 or above) and high-risk (PSC at 37 or below) of employee job strain and depressive symptoms. Finally, using the newly created benchmarks we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) and found that improving PSC in organizations to above 37 could reduce 14% of job strain and 16% of depressive symptoms in the working population. The results provide national standards that organizations and regulatory agencies can utilize to promote safer working environments and lower the risk of harm to employee mental health.

  17. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Andover, Margaret S; Morris, Blair W; Wren, Abigail; Bruzzese, Margaux E

    2012-03-30

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.

  18. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed. PMID:22463065

  19. Low Back Pain Prevalence and Related Workplace Psychosocial Risk Factors: A Study Using Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiou; Haldeman, Scott; Lu, Ming-Lun; Baker, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence of low back pain, to investigate associations between low back pain and a set of emerging workplace risk factors and to identify worker groups with an increased vulnerability for low back pain in the US. Methods The data used for this study came from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was designed to collect data on health conditions and related risk factors obtained from the US civilian population. The variance estimation method was used to compute weighted data for prevalence of low back pain. Multivariable logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and age were performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for low back pain. The examined work-related psychosocial risk factors included work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity. Work hours, occupation and other work organizational factors (non-standard work arrangements and alternative shifts) were also examined. Results The prevalence rate of self-reported low back pain in previous three months among workers in the U.S. was 25.7% in 2010. Female or older workers were at increased risk of experiencing low back pain. We found significant associations between low back pain and a set of psychosocial factors, including work-family imbalance (OR 1.27, CI 1.15–1.41), exposure to hostile work (OR 1.39, CI 1.25–1.55), and job insecurity (OR 1.44, CI 1.24–1.67), while controlling for demographic characteristics and other health related factors. Older workers who had non-standard work arrangements were more likely to report low back pain. Females who worked 41–45 hours per week and younger workers who worked over 60 hours per week had an increased risk for low back pain. Workers from several occupation groups, including, male healthcare practitioners, female and younger healthcare support workers, and female farming, fishing and forestry workers had

  20. "Blue flags", development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors - a validation study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Post Sennehed, Charlotte; Gard, Gunvor; Holmberg, Sara; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Grahn, Birgitta

    2017-07-24

    Working conditions substantially influence health, work ability and sick leave. Useful instruments to help clinicians pay attention to working conditions are lacking in primary care (PC). The aim of this study was to test the validity of a short "Blue flags" questionnaire, which focuses on work-related psychosocial risk factors and any potential need for contacts and/or actions at the workplace. From the original"The General Nordic Questionnaire" (QPSNordic) the research group identified five content areas with a total of 51 items which were considered to be most relevant focusing on work-related psychosocial risk factors. Fourteen items were selected from the identified QPSNordic content areas and organised in a short questionnaire "Blue flags". These 14 items were validated towards the 51 QPSNordic items. Content validity was reviewed by a professional panel and a patient panel. Structural and concurrent validity were also tested within a randomised clinical trial. The two panels (n = 111) considered the 14 psychosocial items to be relevant. A four-factor model was extracted with an explained variance of 25.2%, 14.9%, 10.9% and 8.3% respectively. All 14 items showed satisfactory loadings on all factors. Concerning concurrent validity the overall correlation was very strong rs = 0.87 (p < 0.001).). Correlations were moderately strong for factor one, rs = 0.62 (p < 0.001) and factor two, rs = 0.74 (p < 0.001). Factor three and factor four were weaker, bur still fair and significant at rs = 0.53 (p < 0.001) and rs = 0.41 (p < 0.001) respectively. The internal consistency of the whole "Blue flags" was good with Cronbach's alpha of 0.76. The content, structural and concurrent validity were satisfactory in this first step of development of the "Blue flags" questionnaire. In summary, the overall validity is considered acceptable. Testing in clinical contexts and in other patient populations is recommended to ensure predictive validity and

  1. Assessment of potential risk factors for new onset disabling low back pain in Japanese workers: findings from the CUPID (cultural and psychosocial influences on disability) study.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Mika; Matsudaira, Ko; Sawada, Takayuki; Koga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Akiko; Isomura, Tatsuya; Coggon, David

    2017-08-02

    Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p < 0.1) in analyses adjusted only for gender and age, the highest odds ratio (OR) was for past history of LBP (2.8, 95% [confidence interval {CI}]: 1.6-4.9), followed by working ≥60 h per week (1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5) and lifting weights ≥25 kg by hand (1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association

  2. Social and psychosocial factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviour among university students in the United Kingdom: a web-survey.

    PubMed

    Chanakira, E; Goyder, E C; Freeman, J V; O'Cathain, A; Kinghorn, G; Jakubovic, M

    2015-05-01

    In the UK there are limited data about university students' risky sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional web-survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with high-risk sex among students at two UK universities. High-risk sex was reported by 25% of 1108. High personal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk perception and permissive attitudes towards casual sex were associated with high-risk sex for both men (odds ratio [OR]: 12.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.10-35.81; OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.11-5.56, respectively) and women (OR: 22.31; 95% CI: 9.34-53.26; OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.82-5.01, respectively). For men, drinking alcohol (OR: 17.67; 95% CI: 1.90-164.23) and for women age and frequent drinking (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05-3.89; OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.08-3.31, respectively) were associated with high-risk sex. However, perceiving an average student as more likely to contract STIs (men, OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.75) or HIV (men, OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.96; women, OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28-0.63) and finding it difficult to discuss sexual matters (women, OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39-0.91) were negatively associated with high-risk sex. Most of the factors found were similar to other populations, but some psychosocial factors showed complex patterns of association that require further investigation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Recovering after stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke rehabilitation; Cerebrovascular accident - rehabilitation; Recovery from stroke; Stroke - recovery; CVA - recovery ... LIVE AFTER A STROKE Most people will need stroke rehabilitation (rehab) to help them recover after they leave ...

  4. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pravina

    2002-05-01

    Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.

  5. Prediction Effects of Personal, Psychosocial, and Occupational Risk Factors on Low Back Pain Severity Using Artificial Neural Networks Approach in Industrial Workers.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Ebrahim; Khotanlou, Hassan; Khoubi, Jamshid; Giahi, Omid; Mahdavi, Neda

    2017-07-21

    This study aimed to provide an empirical model of predicting low back pain (LBP) by considering the occupational, personal, and psychological risk factor interactions in workers population employed in industrial units using an artificial neural networks approach. A total of 92 workers with LBP as the case group and 68 healthy workers as a control group were selected in various industrial units with similar occupational conditions. The demographic information and personal, occupational, and psychosocial factors of the participants were collected via interview, related questionnaires, consultation with occupational medicine, and also the Rapid Entire Body Assessment worksheet and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index software. Then, 16 risk factors for LBP were used as input variables to develop the prediction model. Networks with various multilayered structures were developed using MATLAB. The developed neural networks with 1 hidden layer and 26 neurons had the least error of classification in both training and testing phases. The mean of classification accuracy of the developed neural networks for the testing and training phase data were about 88% and 96%, respectively. In addition, the mean of classification accuracy of both training and testing data was 92%, indicating much better results compared with other methods. It appears that the prediction model using the neural network approach is more accurate compared with other applied methods. Because occupational LBP is usually untreatable, the results of prediction may be suitable for developing preventive strategies and corrective interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The key role of psychosocial risk on therapeutic outcome in obese children and adolescents. Results from a longitudinal multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Röbl, Markus; de Souza, Martin; Schiel, Ralf; Gellhaus, Ines; Zwiauer, Karl; Holl, Reinhard W; Wiegand, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software for longitudinal multicenter documentation. 12,305 (19.8%) attended care for 6-24 months, undergoing an intensive therapy period and subsequent follow-ups for up to 3 years. A cumulative social risk score was calculated based on different risk indicators. Migration background, low education, and parental employment significantly influenced the outcome of lifestyle intervention. The observed BMI-SDS reduction was significantly higher in the subgroup with low social risks factors (Δ BMI-SDS -0.19) compared to those presenting moderate (Δ BMI-SDS -0.14) and high social risk (Δ BMI-SDS -0.11). Our data underline the effect of children's social setting on the outcome of multidimensional lifestyle intervention. The presence of a high social risk burden is a negative predictor for successful weight loss. Specific therapeutic programs need to be developed for disadvantaged children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  7. High-risk alcohol use and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors in patients with HIV infection in three primary health care clinics in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking

  8. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  9. Psychosocial pathways to sexually transmitted infection risk among youth transitioning out of foster care: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Kym R; McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-10-01

    To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included (1) historical abuse and foster care experiences; (2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence; and (3) STI risk in young adulthood. We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race, and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of .026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than five partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 years decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Interventions/policies that (1) address externalizing trauma sequelae; (2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships; and (3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Street Workers and Internet Escorts: Contextual and Psychosocial Factors Surrounding HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Engage in Sex Work with Other Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Tinsley, Jake P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n = 19) and internet escorts (n = 13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD = 42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the “lucrativeness” of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, “why not

  11. Street workers and internet escorts: contextual and psychosocial factors surrounding HIV risk behavior among men who engage in sex work with other men.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Tinsley, Jake P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n=19) and internet escorts (n=13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD=42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the "lucrativeness" of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, "why not?" attitude, and because

  12. Self-reported urge urinary incontinence (UUI) among older Mexican-American men: risk factors and psycho-social consequences.

    PubMed

    Gerst, K; Ray, L A; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D V; Markides, K S

    2011-12-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic Whites and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditions and men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey.

  13. Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived risk of genetically modified food: an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Melissa L; Holup, Joan L

    2005-04-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the risk of genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on risk perception as a framework for understanding cross-national differences in reactions to GM food. Differences in the cultural values and circumstances of people in the US, European countries, and the developing world are examined. The implications of cultural theory for risk communication and decision making about GM food are discussed and directions for future research highlighted.

  14. Patterns of Service Use, Individual and Contextual Risk Factors, and Resilience among Adolescents Using Multiple Psychosocial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda; Dudding, Peter; Armstrong, Mary; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very little research has examined the relationship between resilience, risk, and the service use patterns of adolescents with complex needs who use multiple formal and mandated services such as child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, and special educational supports. This article reports on a study of 497 adolescents in…

  15. Patterns of Service Use, Individual and Contextual Risk Factors, and Resilience among Adolescents Using Multiple Psychosocial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda; Dudding, Peter; Armstrong, Mary; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very little research has examined the relationship between resilience, risk, and the service use patterns of adolescents with complex needs who use multiple formal and mandated services such as child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, and special educational supports. This article reports on a study of 497 adolescents in…

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  17. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  18. A prospective longitudinal study of neuropsychological and psychosocial factors in asymptomatic individuals at risk for HTLV-III/LAV infection in a methadone program: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, C H; McKegney, F P; O'Dowd, M A; Selwyn, P A; Schoenbaum, E; Drucker, E; Feiner, C; Cox, C P; Friedland, G

    1987-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that cognitive impairment may be present early in the course of HTLV-III/LAV infection, intravenous drug abusers (IDVAs) without overt symptoms of AIDS related illness were tested with standard neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. This study is the baseline for a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of HTLV-III/LAV infection in this high risk population. Of 211 subjects initially evaluated, 70 (33%) were HTLV-III/LAV seropositive and 141 (67%) were seronegative. At the baseline, by univariate analysis, the seropositive IVDAs were significantly (p less than .05) more impaired than seronegatives on 4 of 8 measures: Finger Tapping--dominant, hand, Digit Span Forward, Trail making A and WAIS-Similarities. However, by multivariate analysis the seropositives were significantly more impaired only on the WAIS-Similarities and Wechsler--Associative Learning tests. Multiple factors such as drug use and psychological stress may have influenced test performance. These preliminary results, however, suggest that seropositive IVDAs may show evidence of impaired neuropsychological function even in the absence of AIDS related symptoms and are consistent with the hypothesis of the early neurotropism of HTLV-III/LAV.

  19. Work-related psychosocial and organizational risk factors for headache: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Tore; Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom

    2013-12-01

    To determine the effects of work-related psychosocial and organizational factors on headache. A random cohort from the Norwegian general population (aged 18 to 66 years) had been observed for 3 years. Eligible respondents answered a question about headache, and were engaged in paid employment during the reference weeks in 2006 and 2009, or were temporarily absent from such work (N = 3325). In the fully adjusted model, the main risk factors were high role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] = 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49 to 5.48), low social climate (highest OR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.09 to 4.49), bullying/harassment (OR = 3.94; 95% CI = 1.36 to 11.42), and downsizing (OR = 2.38; 95% = 1.20 to 4.71). Role conflict, low social climate, and bullying/harassment were the main predictors of headaches. These factors should be considered to prevent headaches at work.

  20. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Bohley, Stefanie; Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-04

    Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). 2 populations in East Germany. CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45-83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20-79 years at baseline (2193 women). Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD. The associations were stronger for women than for men. An explanation for these

  1. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Design Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Setting 2 populations in East Germany. Participants CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45–83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20–79 years at baseline (2193 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. Results RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Conclusions Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular

  2. Psychosocial work environment and myocardial infarction: improving risk estimation by combining two complementary job stress models in the SHEEP Study.

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Siegrist, J; Hallqvist, J; Reuterwall, C; Theorell, T

    2002-04-01

    Associations between two alternative formulations of job stress derived from the effort-reward imbalance and the job strain model and first non-fatal acute myocardial infarction were studied. Whereas the job strain model concentrates on situational (extrinsic) characteristics the effort-reward imbalance model analyses distinct person (intrinsic) characteristics in addition to situational ones. In view of these conceptual differences the hypothesis was tested that combining information from the two models improves the risk estimation of acute myocardial infarction. 951 male and female myocardial infarction cases and 1147 referents aged 45-64 years of The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology (SHEEP) case-control study underwent a clinical examination. Information on job stress and health adverse behaviours was derived from standardised questionnaires. Multivariate analysis showed moderately increased odds ratios for either model. Yet, with respect to the effort-reward imbalance model gender specific effects were found: in men the extrinsic component contributed to risk estimation, whereas this was the case with the intrinsic component in women. Controlling each job stress model for the other in order to test the independent effect of either approach did not show systematically increased odds ratios. An improved estimation of acute myocardial infarction risk resulted from combining information from the two models by defining groups characterised by simultaneous exposure to effort-reward imbalance and job strain (men: odds ratio 2.02 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.34 to 3.07); women odds ratio 2.19 (95% CI 1.11 to 4.28)). Findings show an improved risk estimation of acute myocardial infarction by combining information from the two job stress models under study. Moreover, gender specific effects of the two components of the effort-reward imbalance model were observed.

  3. Medical nonadherence in pediatric HIV: psychosocial risks and intersection with the child protection system for medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Corry; Wade, Mark; Salter, Robyn; Macdougall, Georgina; Shouldice, Michelle; Read, Stanley; Bitnun, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment has serious health implications for HIV-infected children, at times warranting referral to child protective services (CPS). The current study of 134 children with perinatally acquired HIV infection aimed to investigate rates of treatment adherence and CPS involvement, multilevel variables associated with nonadherence, and the manner in which these risks operated together in the prediction of adherence outcomes. Risk factors for nonadherence were grouped on the basis of confirmatory factor models, and factor score regression was carried out to determine which factors were uniquely predictive of adherence. A series of indirect effects models were then tested in order to examine how these factors operated together in the prediction of adherence. Results showed that almost half of the sample demonstrated suboptimal adherence to treatment, and in one-fifth, CPS was involved for medical neglect. Caregiver Health, Caregiver Involvement, Caregiver Acceptance, and Child Adaptation were predictive of nonadherence, and together explained 54% of the variance in treatment adherence. There were significant indirect effects of Caregiver Health on adherence that operated through Caregiver Involvement and Child Adaptation and an indirect effect of Caregiver Involvement on adherence through Child Adaptation. Findings extend current literature that has independently linked various factors predictive of medical adherence in pediatric HIV by showing separate but simultaneous associations with nonadherence and unique pathways to adherence involving multilevel risks. Healthcare and child welfare implications are discussed.

  4. A case-control study of psychosocial risk and protective factors of self-immolation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Mohammadi, Reza; Almasi, Afshin; Amini-Saman, Javad; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Svanström, Leif

    2015-03-01

    Self-immolation is the third leading cause of years of life lost (YLL) among women in Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate self-immolation-related risk and protective factors in the western region of Iran, a province with the highest prevalent of self-immolation in the country. Using a case-control design, we compared 151 cases of self-immolation attempters who were admitted to a burn center in Kermanshah with 302-matched control group from the same community/locality between March 21st, 2009, and March 20th, 2012. We conducted descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis to examine the associations of self-immolation with demographic and familial risk factors, adverse life events, mental disorders, as well as potential protective factors. According to our findings, the highest percentage of self-immolation was in the 16-25 year-old age group (60%) and in females (76%). Of the potential risk factors in the study, major depression, adjustment disorders, individual history of suicide attempts and opium dependence, were statistically significant predictors of self-immolation. Suggestions for translating the local picture of self-immolation portrayed by our findings, into meaningful prevention strategies that have a good fit with the social and interpersonal context within which self-immolation takes place are discussed.

  5. Psychosocial work characteristics, sleep disturbances and risk of subsequent depressive symptoms: a study of time-varying effect modification.

    PubMed

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro S; Westerlund, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    Job strain and low social support at work are recognized risk factors for depression. However, people with poor sleep may represent a high-risk group more likely to benefit from interventions against work stress. The present study examined whether the associations between these work stressors and depressive symptoms differed by strata of sleep disturbances (effect modification/effect moderation) considering repeat measures of work characteristics and sleep. The study was based on five biennial measurements of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 1537 respondents recurrently in paid work, from an originally representative sample of the Swedish working population. High work demands, low decision authority and low social support were measured waves 2 and 4, sleep disturbances (putative moderator/modifier) waves 1 and 3, and depressive symptoms (outcome) wave 5. Causal effect modification, whether the effect of working conditions differed by strata of sleep disturbances, was analysed by structural nested mean modelling estimated using a regression-with-residuals with inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting approach. High demands and low social support, but not low decision authority, influenced subsequent depressive symptoms. The relationship between social support and depressive symptoms was not apparently modified by sleep disturbances. However, disturbed sleep wave 3 modified the effect of high demands wave 4 (coefficient 1.77, P < 0.05) on depressive symptoms wave 5. The results indicate that high job demands is a stronger risk factor for depressive symptoms in people with pre-existing sleep disturbances, suggesting that targeted workplace interventions may be more effective when it comes to preventing negative effects of job demands. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Subjective social status and psychosocial and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Malavika A.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2013-01-01

    Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000–2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N = 5301), we quantified the association of subjective social status with selected cardiovascular risk factors: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, waist circumference, insulin resistance and prevalence of diabetes. We contrasted the strength of the associations of these outcomes with subjective versus objective social status and examined whether perceived discrimination confounded or modified these associations. Subjective social status was measured using two 10-rung "ladders," using the U.S. and the community as referent groups. Objective social status was measured using annual family income and years of schooling completed. Gender-specific multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to examine associations. Subjective and objective measures were weakly positively correlated. Independent of objective measures, subjective social status was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms (men and women) and insulin resistance (women). The associations of subjective social status with the outcomes were modest and generally similar to the objective measures. We did not find evidence that perceived racial discrimination strongly confounded or modified the association of subjective social status with the outcomes. Subjective social status was related to depressive symptoms but not consistently to stress or metabolic risk factors in African Americans. PMID:22381684

  7. Psychosocial and Behavioral Characteristics of High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Unknown HIV Positive Serostatus in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sapsirisavat, Vorapot; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Keadpudsa, Siriwan; Egan, James E; Pussadee, Kanitta; Klaytong, Preeyarach; Reuel Friedman, M; van Griensven, Frits; Stall, Ron

    2016-12-01

    HIV prevalence remains high in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok. Even though resources for HIV testing and treatment are available for all, a large proportion of MSM still do not get HIV tested. We studied high risk MSM who are unaware of their HIV status to help maximize effectiveness of our resources. Convenience sampling was conducted among MSM who came for HIV testing at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two popular drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, have not been tested positive for HIV, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection diagnosis. Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interview was used to assess psychosocial profile, sexual risks, and HIV testing patterns prior to being informed of their HIV positive status. Among 499 high-risk MSM enrolled, the median age was 24.8 years and 112 (22 %) tested HIV-positive. Among the HIV-positive participants, 92 % self-identified as gay (versus bisexual), 39 % attained a bachelors degree or higher, 65 % had monthly income 10,000-29,999 baht ($280-830 USD), 10 % had vaginal or anal sex with a woman in the past 12 months, 39 % had condomless receptive sex with men and 21 % went to Lat Phrao to find a sexual partner. Compared to HIV negative MSM, HIV-positive MSM had less HIV testing: 31 % had ever been tested for HIV, 12 % had been tested in the past 6 months; but were more likely to guess correctly their positive status (31 %). Regarding psychosocial variables among HIV-positive MSM, 7 % had regular methamphetamine use in the past 3 months, 10 % had >2 sources of discrimination, and 8 % had >2 sources of discrimination due to being MSM. In multivariable model, age<30 year old, self-identified as gay, had monthly income <50,000 baht ($1400 USD), had anal sex with men in past 12 months, had >2 sources of discrimination because of being MSM, did not

  8. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  9. Indoor air quality: a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  10. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    PubMed

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  11. Reading deficits in schizophrenia and individuals at high clinical risk: relation to sensory function, course of illness, and psychosocial outcome

    PubMed Central

    Revheim, Nadine; Corcoran, Cheryl M.; Dias, Elisa; Hellmann, Esther; Martinez, Antigona; Butler, Pamela D.; Lehrfeld, Jonathan M.; DiCostanzo, Joanna; Albert, Jennifer; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The ability to read passages of information fluently and with comprehension is a basic component of socioeconomic success. Reading ability depends upon the integrity of underlying visual and auditory (phonological) systems. This study investigates the integrity of reading ability in schizophrenia relative to the integrity of underlying visual and auditory function. Methods Participants were 45 schizophrenia patients, 19 clinical high risk patients, and 65 controls. Reading was assessed using tests sensitive to visual vs. phonological reading dysfunction. Sensory, neuropsychological and functional outcome measures were also obtained. Results Schizophrenia patients showed reading deficits that were far more severe (effect size>2.0) than would be predicted based upon general neurocognitive impairments (effect size 1.0–1.4). The deficits correlated highly with both visual and auditory sensory measures, including impaired mismatch negativity (MMN) generation (r=.62, n=51, p=.0002). Patients with established schizophrenia showed both visual and phonological impairments, whereas high-risk patients showed isolated visual impairments. >70% of schizophrenia patients met criteria for acquired dyslexia, with 50% reading below 8th grade level despite intact premorbid reading ability. Reading deficits also correlated significantly (rp=.4, n=30, p=.03) with failure to match parental socioeconomic achievement, over and above contributions of more general cognitive impairment. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia show severe deficits in reading ability that represent a potentially remediable cause of impaired socioeconomic function. Such deficits are not presently captured during routine clinical assessment. Deficits most likely develop during the years immediately surrounding illness onset and may contribute to the reduced educational and occupational achievement associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25178752

  12. Psychosocial stress related to the loss of a close relative the year before or during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    László, Krisztina D; Liu, Xiao Qin; Svensson, Tobias; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven

    2013-07-01

    The role of stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has only been investigated in a few studies, and the findings are not conclusive. We analyzed whether maternal bereavement shortly before or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. We conducted a cohort study of singleton births in Denmark during 1978-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 (n=4 122 490) by linking national population-based registers. Mothers were considered exposed to bereavement if they lost a parent, a sibling, a partner, or a child the year before or during pregnancy (n=124 553). The risk of preeclampsia was slightly increased for women who lost a close relative during the 6 months before conception (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.23) or during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29). Exposure during these periods tended to be more closely related to early preeclampsia (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation; OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67) than to late preeclampsia (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.20). The strongest association was observed between loss of a child and early preeclampsia when the exposure window was from 6 months before pregnancy until start of second trimester (OR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.46-6.61). Our results related to timing of exposure suggest that severe stress may influence early placentation. However, the public health implications of our findings are limited in populations with a low prevalence of severe stress exposures.

  13. Recovering plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studying recovering plant biodiversity on Mount Pinatubo may provide valuable insights that improve our understanding of recovery of other ecosystems following disturbances of all types. Ongoing sheet and rill erosion coupled with mass waste events in the unstable pyroclastic flow deposits persist, effectively re-setting primary succession at micro-landscape scale without affecting habitat level diversity. Spatial factors and micro-habitat diversity may exert more control over continued succession as the riparian systems become more deeply dissected and complex. The number of taxa within functional groups and conservation concerns are botanical issues that deserve further research. PMID:22019638

  14. Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landon, Lauren Blackwell; Vessey, William B.; Barrett, Jamie D.

    2015-01-01

    A team is defined as: "two or more individuals who interact socially and adaptively, have shared or common goals, and hold meaningful task interdependences; it is hierarchically structured and has a limited life span; in it expertise and roles are distributed; and it is embedded within an organization/environmental context that influences and is influenced by ongoing processes and performance outcomes" (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007, p. 189). From the NASA perspective, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. Thus, depending on context, this definition can encompass both the spaceflight crew and the individuals and teams in the larger multi-team system who are assigned to support that crew during a mission. The Team Risk outcomes of interest are predominantly performance related, with a secondary emphasis on long-term health; this is somewhat unique in the NASA HRP in that most Risk areas are medically related and primarily focused on long-term health consequences. In many operational environments (e.g., aviation), performance is assessed as the avoidance of errors. However, the research on performance errors is ambiguous. It implies that actions may be dichotomized into "correct" or "incorrect" responses, where incorrect responses or errors are always undesirable. Researchers have argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006) (Category III1). Two problems occur when focusing on performance errors: 1) the errors are infrequent and, therefore, difficult to observe and record; and 2) the errors do not directly correspond to failure. Research reveals that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures

  15. Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome.

  16. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  17. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  18. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  19. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains isolated in Argentina (South America) are different from those recovered in North America and present a higher risk for humans

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Monica; Xu, Jianguo; Zielinski, Gustavo; Auger, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent causing meningitis and septicemia/septic shock. Strains are usually virulent (Eurasia) or of intermediate/low virulence (North America). Very few data regarding human and swine isolates from South America are available. Case presentation: Seventeen new human S. suis cases in Argentina (16 serotype 2 strains and a serotype 5 strain) are reported. Alongside, 14 isolates from pigs are analyzed: 12 from systemic disease, one from lungs and one from tonsils of a healthy animal. All human serotype 2 strains and most swine isolates are sequence type (ST) 1, as determined by multilocus sequence typing and present a mrp+/epf+/sly+ genotype typical of virulent Eurasian ST1 strains. The remaining two strains (recovered from swine lungs and tonsils) are ST28 and possess a mrp+/epf−/sly− genotype typical of low virulence North American strains. Representative human ST1 strains as well as one swine ST28 strain were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing and compared with genomes from GenBank. ST1 strains clustered together with three strains from Vietnam and this cluster is close to another one composed of 11 strains from the United Kingdom. Conclusion: Close contact with pigs/pork products, a good surveillance system, and the presence of potentially virulent Eurasian-like serotype 2 strains in Argentina may be an important factor contributing to the higher number of human cases observed. In fact, Argentina is now fifth among Western countries regarding the number of reported human cases after the Netherlands, France, the UK and Poland. PMID:28348788

  20. Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and HIV-related sexual risk behavior between Black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Typhanye P; Regan, Rotrease; Wilton, Leo; Harawa, Nina T; Ou, San San; Wang, Lei; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-12-01

    We assessed associations in substance use, psychosocial characteristics, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, comparing characteristics of Black men who only have sex with other men only (BMSMO; n = 839) to Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW; n = 590). The study analyzed baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061), a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Bivariate analyses compared BMSMO to BMSMW along demographics, substance use, psychosocial characteristics, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Logistic regression models then assessed multivariable associations between being BMSMW and the odds of engaging in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Adjusted analyses revealed that BMSMW remained more likely to have unprotected anal intercourse while under the influence of alcohol (AOR: 1.45; 95 % CI:1.11-1.90) and were more likely to receive money/drugs for sex (AOR: 2.11; 95 % CI:1.48-3.03), compared to BMSMO. Substance use is an important factor to be considered when developing risk-reduction interventions for BMSMW. Structural interventions that address factors that may contribute to exchange sex among these men are also warranted.

  1. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  2. Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

  3. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  4. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  5. Recover bromine on site

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.; Mahajan, S.; Beatty, R.D.; Rostrup-Nielsen, T.; Schubert, D.W.; Lu, Phat Tan

    1993-04-01

    Chemists have long recognized the importance of recovering bromine from waste streams, and attempts to do so catalytically date back more than 50 years. Although the early interest in bromine recovery was driven primarily by economics, increased environmental pressures are providing additional incentives to recycle this element. As the acceptability of discharging wastes into the environment decreases, the cost of doing so increases, creating a need for alternative handling. The authors interest in waste bromine recovery was driven by both economic and environmental factors. In their evaluation of a research program that included a bromination step as part of a synthesis process, Catalytica researchers found that the process would be feasible commercially only if the waste HBr produced were recycled on site to bromine. A nonbromine route was eventually adopted for this particular research program, but the need for an economical and environmentally sound process for recycling HBr to bromine was recognized. The development of this process became a project in its own right. This process eliminates the need to form and ship aqueous sodium bromide offsite. It converts the waste HBr directly to bromine by catalytic oxidation.

  6. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Design Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. Setting The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. Data sources We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. Main outcome measures We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Results Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20 000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100 000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Conclusions

  7. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model.

    PubMed

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-09-16

    To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20,000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100,000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Nalmefene can be seen as a cost-effective treatment for alcohol dependence, with substantial public

  8. Common psychosocial stressors in middle-aged women related to longstanding distress and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease: a 38-year longitudinal population study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Lena; Guo, Xinxin; Hällström, Tore; Norton, Maria C; Waern, Margda; Östling, Svante; Bengtsson, Calle; Skoog, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relation among psychosocial stressors, long-standing distress and incidence of dementia, in a sample of women followed from midlife to late life. Design Prospective longitudinal population study. Setting The analyses originate from the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden, a representative sample of women examined in 1968 (participation rate 90%) and re-examined in 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000 and 2005. Participants 800 women born in 1914, 1918, 1922 and 1930 who were systematically selected for a psychiatric examination at baseline, in 1968. Primary and secondary outcome measures 18 psychosocial stressors (eg, divorce, widowhood, work problems and illness in relative) were obtained at baseline. Symptoms of distress were measured according to a standardised question at each study wave. Dementia was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) criteria based on information from neuropsychiatric examinations, informant interviews, hospital records, and registry data, and measured through the whole study period. Results During the 37 years of follow-up, 153 women developed dementia (104 of those had Alzheimer's disease (AD)). Number of psychosocial stressors in 1968 was associated (HR, 95% CI) with higher incidence of dementia (1.15, 1.04 to 1.27) and AD (1.20, 1.07 to 1.35) between 1968 and 2005, in multivariate Cox regressions. Number of psychosocial stressors in 1968 was also associated (OR, 95% CI) with distress in 1968 (1.48, 1.32 to 1.67), 1974 (1.31, 1.17 to 1.46), 1980 (1.27, 1.11 to 1.45), 2000 (1.39, 1.14 to 1.70) and 2005 (1.35, 1.02 to 1.79), in multivariate logistic regressions. Number of psychosocial stressors (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and long-standing distress (1968–1974–1980) (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.45) were independently associated with AD. Conclusions Our study shows that common psychosocial stressors may have severe and long-standing physiological and

  9. Psychosocial Risk Factors, Interventions, and Comorbidity in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Need for Comprehensive and Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients' or HCPs' overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions, this

  10. Psychosocial Risk Factors, Interventions, and Comorbidity in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Need for Comprehensive and Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions

  11. Common psychosocial stressors in middle-aged women related to longstanding distress and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease: a 38-year longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lena; Guo, Xinxin; Hällström, Tore; Norton, Maria C; Waern, Margda; Ostling, Svante; Bengtsson, Calle; Skoog, Ingmar

    2013-09-30

    To study the relation among psychosocial stressors, long-standing distress and incidence of dementia, in a sample of women followed from midlife to late life. Prospective longitudinal population study. The analyses originate from the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden, a representative sample of women examined in 1968 (participation rate 90%) and re-examined in 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000 and 2005. 800 women born in 1914, 1918, 1922 and 1930 who were systematically selected for a psychiatric examination at baseline, in 1968. 18 psychosocial stressors (eg, divorce, widowhood, work problems and illness in relative) were obtained at baseline. Symptoms of distress were measured according to a standardised question at each study wave. Dementia was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) criteria based on information from neuropsychiatric examinations, informant interviews, hospital records, and registry data, and measured through the whole study period. During the 37 years of follow-up, 153 women developed dementia (104 of those had Alzheimer's disease (AD)). Number of psychosocial stressors in 1968 was associated (HR, 95% CI) with higher incidence of dementia (1.15, 1.04 to 1.27) and AD (1.20, 1.07 to 1.35) between 1968 and 2005, in multivariate Cox regressions. Number of psychosocial stressors in 1968 was also associated (OR, 95% CI) with distress in 1968 (1.48, 1.32 to 1.67), 1974 (1.31, 1.17 to 1.46), 1980 (1.27, 1.11 to 1.45), 2000 (1.39, 1.14 to 1.70) and 2005 (1.35, 1.02 to 1.79), in multivariate logistic regressions. Number of psychosocial stressors (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and long-standing distress (1968-1974-1980) (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.45) were independently associated with AD. Our study shows that common psychosocial stressors may have severe and long-standing physiological and psychological consequences. However, more studies are needed to confirm these results and investigate

  12. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  13. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.

  14. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  15. Psychosocial and family functioning in spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, Grayson N; Devine, Katie A

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower socio-economic status (SES) homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB.

  16. The combined effect of physical, psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental risk factors on the presence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the combined effect of physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors on the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism due to MSS) in a random sample of 3003 workers in New Zealand. By telephone interview, participants reported their current workplace exposures and MSS (neck/shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist and low back) and its consequences. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Combined exposure to physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors increased the odds of MSS in the neck/shoulder (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.79-5.52), arms/elbow regions (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.21-7.76) and low back (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.28-2.37) and its consequences, i.e. reduced activities due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.45, 95% CI 2.28-13.00), absenteeism due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.19, 95% CI 2.24-12.01) and absenteeism due to low back symptoms (OR 4.37, 95% CI 2.92-6.53). In contrast, favourable psychosocial/organisational work conditions reduced the odds of wrist symptoms due to poor physical work conditions (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.44-3.34). We conclude that to reduce MSS and its consequences, employers need to adopt a multifaceted approach: concentrate on improving physical conditions as well as the psychosocial/organisational and environmental aspects of the working environment.

  17. Latent class profiles of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial health indicators are differentially associated with sexual transmission risk: Findings from the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort study of HIV-infected men engaged in primary care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Biello, Katie; Reisner, Sari L.; Crane, Heidi M.; Wilson, Johannes; Grasso, Chris; Kitahata, Mari M.; Mathews, Wm. Christopher; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether latent class indicators of negative affect and substance use emerged as distinct psychosocial risk profiles among HIV-infected men, and if these latent classes were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors that may transmit HIV. Methods Data were from HIV-infected men who reported having anal intercourse in the past six months and received routine clinical care at four U.S. sites in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort (n=1,210). Latent class membership was estimated using binary indicators for: anxiety, depression, alcohol and/or drug use during sex, and polydrug use. Generalized estimating equations modeled whether latent class membership was associated with HIV sexual transmission risk in the past six months. Results Three latent classes of psychosocial indicators emerged: (1) internalizing (15.3%) (high probability of anxiety and major depression); (2) externalizing (17.8%) (high probability of alcohol and/or drug use during sex and polydrug use); (3) low psychosocial distress (67.0%) (low probability of all psychosocial factors examined). Internalizing and externalizing latent class membership were associated with HIV sexual transmission risk, compared to low psychosocial class membership; externalizing class membership was also associated with higher sexual transmission risk compared to internalizing class membership. Conclusions Distinct patterns of psychosocial health characterize this sexually active HIV-infected male patient population and are strongly associated with HIV sexual transmission risk. Public health intervention efforts targeting HIV sexual risk transmission may benefit from considering symptom clusters that share internalizing or externalizing properties. PMID:25642839

  18. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers—findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study

    PubMed Central

    MATSUDAIRA, Ko; KAWAGUCHI, Mika; ISOMURA, Tatsuya; INUZUKA, Kyoko; KOGA, Tadashi; MIYOSHI, Kota; KONISHI, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17–11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97–8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18–14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace. PMID:26051289

  19. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

    PubMed

    Edelman, Natalie; Cassell, Jackie A; de Visser, Richard; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-04

    Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience) may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16-44 years, who participated in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010-2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a) 2+ partners in the last year (2PP); b) non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC); c) non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC). We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure). Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion), and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever), younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year), and living at home with both parents until the age of 14 were each associated with

  20. Women with heart failure are at high psychosocial risk: a systematic review of how sex and gender influence heart failure self-care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jody R; Clark, Alexander M

    2011-03-06

    To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995-2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care.

  1. Women with Heart Failure Are at High Psychosocial Risk: A Systematic Review of How Sex and Gender Influence Heart Failure Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jody R.; Clark, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995–2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care. PMID:21403845

  2. Some theoretical remarks regarding the integration of somatic and psychosocial risk factors of coronary artery disease in preventive programmes in occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, F W

    1998-01-01

    In occupational medicine, as well as in many other medical areas, we still find too frequently a disturbing polarization of 'natural science oriented' versus 'psychosocial oriented' medicine. This has its roots in Descartes' traditional division of res cogitans (thinking substance) and res extensa (extended or corporeal substance). It would be important for medicine to integrate modern physics, where quantum theory plays an essential role, into its natural science base. In modern physics, the Cartesian division can no longer be consistently maintained as it has been in classical physics and related natural sciences. Taking the recent developments and new aspects of modern natural science into consideration for application in medical thinking would facilitate greatly the desirable unified, holistic approach, necessary to overcome the problems of the Cartesian division still present, and to better integrate somatic and psychosocial aspects of medicine. This is important for the general planning of programmes of preventive medicine in occupational health as well as in other medical fields. It is also essential specifically in treating individual patients and their medical problems. This is demonstrated here using the example of coronary artery disease (CAD). Treatment and prevention of CAD, a main cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, is a major challenge for all of medicine, including occupational medicine.

  3. Closing the Loop: An interactive action-research conference format for delivering updated medical information while eliciting Latina patient/family experiences and psychosocial needs post-genetic cancer risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Deborah J.; Deri, Julia; Ricker, Charité; Perez, Martin A.; Ogaz, Raquel; Feldman, Nancy; Viveros, Lori A.; Paz, Benjamin; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Blazer, Kathleen R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A patient/family-centered conference was conducted at an underserved community hospital to address Latinas’ post-genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) medical information and psychosocial support needs, and determine the utility of the action research format. Methods Latinas seen for GCRA were recruited to a half-day conference conducted in Spanish. Content was partly determined from follow-up survey feedback. Written surveys, interactive discussions, and Audience Response System (ARS) queries facilitated the participant-healthcare professional action research process. Analyses included descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results The 71 attendees (41 patients and 27 relatives/friends) were primarily non-U.S. born Spanish-speaking females, mean age 43 years. Among patients, 73% had a breast cancer history; 85% had BRCA testing (49% BRCA+). Nearly all (96%) attendees completed the conference surveys and ARS queries; ≥48% participated in interactive discussions. Most (95%) agreed that the format met their personal interests and expectations and provided useful information and resources. Gaps/challenges identified in the GCRA process included pre-consult anxiety, uncertainty about reason for referral and expected outcomes, and psychosocial needs post-GCRA, such as absorbing and disseminating risk information to relatives and concurrently coping with a recent cancer diagnosis. Conclusions The combined action research and educational conference format was innovative and effective for responding to continued patient information needs and addressing an important data gap about support needs of Latina patients and family members following genetic cancer risk assessment. Findings informed GCRA process improvements and provide a basis for theory-driven cancer control research. PMID:22678665

  4. Psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    De Niet, J E; Naiman, D I

    2011-12-01

    Rates of childhood obesity are increasing at alarming rates worldwide. This is especially alarming as obesity is associated with many physical and psychological consequences. A great number of studies indicate that obese children have an impaired psychological well-being (e.g., depression, self-esteem, and quality of life) compared to their non-overweight peers. There has been an overwhelming amount of research conducted in this area over the past few decades, and as such, this paper provides a summarized overview of the vast trove of available information on the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity. In this paper we provide a summarized overview of: 1) psychosocial aspects that contribute to the onset of childhood obesity; 2) psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity; and 3) familial-based lifestyle behavior modification interventions for treating childhood obesity and its treatment success. Although it seems obvious that obese children and adolescents would likely be at higher risk for psychological problems, the mediating factors in the relationship between psychological problems and obesity are still not well established. Obesity is a complex disorder with an equally complex etiology, and is thus associated with complex behaviors and outcomes that make it difficult to study in children. It has been indicated that family-based lifestyle interventions can improve psychological well-being in obese children; however, not all children profit from these interventions. Interventions aimed at improving treatment results need further investigation. For example, interventions targeted specifically at groups that tend to be less successful in weight-loss programs and interventions providing long-term support to these individuals are recommended.

  5. Key psychosocial challenges in vascularized composite allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kumnig, Martin; Jowsey-Gregoire, Sheila G

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are important elements in the assessment and follow-up care for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) and require multidisciplinary evaluation protocols. This review will highlight differences between VCA with solid organ transplantation (SOT), provide information on the psychosocial selection of VCA candidates, ethical issues, psychological outcomes, and on the need for multicenter research. VCA is primarily a life-enhancing procedure to improve recipients’ quality of life and psychological well-being and it represents a potential option to provide reproduction in case of penile or uterine transplantation. The risk benefit ratio is distinctly different than SOT with candidates desiring life enhancing outcomes including improved body image, return to occupations, restored touch, and for uterine transplant, pregnancy. The Chauvet Workgroup has been convened with membership from a number of transplant centers to address these issues and to call for multicenter research. A multicenter research network would share similar evaluation approaches so that meaningful research on psychosocial variables could inform the transplant community and patients about factors that increase risk of non-adherence and other adverse psychosocial and medical outcomes. PMID:27011907

  6. Impact of Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Women’s Current HIV/STD-associated Behaviors and Psychosocial Mediators of HIV/STD Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Young, April M.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve S.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (p<.001), and more fear of condom negotiation (p=.003), none of which independently or jointly mediated the association between abuse and CCU. Notably, history of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents’ condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history. PMID:25505369

  7. Impact of Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Women's Current HIV/STD-associated Behaviors and Psychosocial Mediators of HIV/STD Risk.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Young, April M; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (p<.001), and more fear of condom negotiation (p=.003), none of which independently or jointly mediated the association between abuse and CCU. Notably, history of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents' condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history.

  8. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.

  9. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Vibeke Brogaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). A one-year follow-up study. A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥45%). Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (LDL; p < 0.001), functional capacities (metabolic equivalent of tasks (METS), p < 0.01), self-care management (p < 0.001), Health status Short Form 12 version (SF12; physical; p < 0.001 and mental; p < 0.01) and in depression symptoms (p < 0.01). At one-year follow-up these outcomes were maintained; additionally there was improvement in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.05), and high density lipoprotein (HDL; p < 0.05). There were no sex differences. CR shared between local and regional health authorities led by a NCM (GoHeart) improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up.

  10. Culturally Centered Psychosocial Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Saez-Santiago, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few decades, psychologists and other health professionals have called attention to the importance of considering cultural and ethnic-minority aspects in any psychosocial interventions. Although, at present, there are published guidelines on the practice of culturally competent psychology, there is still a lack of practical…

  11. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in France].

    PubMed

    Vidon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects.

  12. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-05-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams from an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible from either a conventional linac, or from storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend from high power free-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  13. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach's alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α = 0.85-0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Questionnaires' content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  15. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1

  16. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  17. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  18. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  19. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  20. Psychosocial adjustment and craniofacial malformations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A

    1985-02-01

    Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk.

  1. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  2. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  3. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article.

  4. European Commission project: European Guideline for Target Group-Oriented Psychosocial Aftercare-Implementation.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan; Deistler, Albert; Bering, Robert; Schedlich, Claudia; Rooze, Magda; Orengo, Francisco; Zurek, Gisela; Krtickova, Michaela

    2011-06-01

    After disasters, the individual health and well-being of first responders and affected population are affected for years. Therefore, psychosocial help is needed. Although most victims recover on their own, a minority of survivors, members of rescue teams, or relatives develop long-term, disaster-related psychic disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This subgroup especially should receive timely and appropriate psychosocial help. Many European countries offer post-disaster psychosocial care from a variety of caregivers (i.e., professionals and volunteers, non-governmental organizations, church or commercial organizations). Therefore, European standards for providing post-disaster psychosocial support currently is required. This article describes the project European Guideline for Target Group-Oriented Psychosocial Aftercare-Implementation, supported by the European Commission.

  5. Psychosocial Functioning, Personality, and Body Image Following Vertical Banded Gastroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Fortuin, Frederiek A. M.; Pelle, Aline J. M.; van Heck, Guus L.

    2007-01-01

    Background In addition to increased risks of morbidity and mortality, extreme obesity is substantially associated with psychosocial problems. Therefore, the ultimate goal of bariatric surgery should not only be reducing weight and counteracting comorbid conditions but also improving psychosocial functioning. In addition to being an important goal of bariatric surgery, enhanced psychosocial functioning may motivate patients to adhere to adequate health behavior to maintain the surgically established weight loss. Methods We evaluated early postoperative psychosocial functioning in several domains over time. Preoperatively as well as 6, 12, and 24 months after vertical banded gastroplasty, 104 patients were psychologically assessed using a semi-structured interview and psychological questionnaires focusing on psychosocial functioning, personality, and body image. Results Over time, we found significant changes in weight: 2 years excess weight loss was 58.6%. In addition, most aspects of psychosocial functioning showed significant improvements over time. However, initial improvements in depressive symptoms, sleeping problems, and neuroticism did not last. With respect to personality features, only short-term changes in self-esteem were found. The most robust improvements were seen in the case of body image. Finally, within the patient group, there was a wide variability in changes. Conclusion Vertical banded gastroplasty not only leads to considerable weight loss but also to significant improvements in psychosocial functioning. However, some improvements waned over time, and successful postoperative functioning did not apply to all patients. PMID:18080723

  6. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  7. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with

  8. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert; Riordan, Vincent; Stark, Cameron

    2011-11-18

    Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with psychiatric service.

  9. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  10. Reducing psychosocial stress: a novel mechanism of improving survival from exercise training.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J

    2009-10-01

    Exercise training reduces mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Behavioral characteristics, including depression, hostility, and overall psychosocial stress, have been shown to be independent risk factors for recurrent myocardial infarction and death in these patients. Exercise training can reduce these high-risk behaviors, but it remains uncertain as to what extent the health benefits of exercise training can be attributed to improving these behaviors. We evaluated the impact of exercise training during cardiac rehabilitation on mortality in 53 patients with coronary artery disease with high levels of psychosocial stress and in 469 patients with coronary artery disease with low levels of psychosocial stress and compared them with 27 control patients with high psychosocial stress who did not undergo formal cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training. Mortality was approximately 4-fold greater in patients with high psychosocial stress than in those with low psychosocial stress (22% vs 5%; P = .003). Exercise training decreased the prevalence of psychosocial stress from 10% to 4% (P<.0001) and similarly improved peak oxygen uptake in patients with high and low psychosocial stress. Mortality in patients who improved exercise capacity by>or=10% (high exercise change) was 60% lower than in patients who had<10% improvement in exercise capacity (low exercise change) (P=.009). Mortality was lower in patients with high psychosocial stress with high exercise change compared with patients with high psychosocial stress with low exercise change (0% vs 19%; P=.009). In contrast, there was no significant improvement in mortality in patients with high versus low exercise change with low psychosocial stress (4% vs 8%; P=.14). Psychosocial stress is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, and exercise training can effectively reduce its prevalence. Exercise training reduces mortality in patients with coronary artery disease

  11. The psychosocial environment at work: an assessment of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Join, A; Saeed, K; Arnaout, S; Kortum, E

    2012-04-01

    Psychosocial risks are widely recognised as major challenges to occupational health and safety. The risk management approach, which starts with an assessment of the risk that they pose, is acknowledged as the most effective way of preventing and managing psychosocial risks at the workplace. This paper presents the findings and action taken following a risk assessment of psychosocial risks, at the World health Organization Regional Officeforthe Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) and country offices, carried outon behalf of the Committee on Health and Safety in the Workplace in EMRO. The findings show that psychosocial risks pose a threat to the mental well-being of staff. Management and co-worker support, rewards, possibilities for development, and trust mitigate the negative impact of psychosocial risks. The results of this risk assessment are being used to develop interventions aimed at enhancing the sense of well-being of staff, initially through actions at the employee level.

  12. Adolescent Obesity and Future Substance Use: Incorporating the Psychosocial Context

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Grella, Christine E.; Chung, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents’ psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  13. The psychosocial characteristics of children with fractures.

    PubMed

    Loder, R T; Warschausky, S; Schwartz, E M; Hensinger, R N; Greenfield, M L

    1995-01-01

    We examined the psychosocial characteristics of 52 children with fractures. The parents completed questionnaires regarding injury circumstances, family functioning, home environment, and child behavior. Established psychosocial questionnaires were used: the McMaster Family Assessment Device (family environment), the Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire, and Achenback Child Behavior Checklist (child behavior). Parent's perception of family functioning fell within the average range. The children exhibited a significantly high degree of social competence problems as well as behavioral difficulties. These behavioral difficulties included conduct disorder features, psychosomatic complaints, and impulsive/hyperactive behavior. To the extent that these variables constitute risk factors unique to children with fractures, prevention strategies can be designed to decrease the incidence of pediatric fractures.

  14. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services.

  15. Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kolstrup, Christina; Lundqvist, Peter; Pinzke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for employed dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. The study was based on a Swedish translation of the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for analyses of self-perceived psychosocial work environment and the general Nordic questionnaire for analyses of self-perceived MSDs. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as "good" by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality (physical and mental strength, vigor, and energy) compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs in "the back" and in the "upper extremities." This study indicates that the psychosocial work environment for the dairy and pig farmworkers may well be improved in order to promote these workplaces as attractive and healthful. This especially seems to be the case concerning the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work for the dairy farmworkers. Furthermore, the present study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.

  16. Psychosocial Implications During Adolescence for Infant Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Vidhya; Freier Randall, Catherin; Chinnock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: As more heart transplant recipients survive into late adolescence, research addressing long-term psychosocial and neurodevelopmental outcomes is imperative. The limited literature available suggests risk for psychosocial difficulties and lower cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological functioning. This paper reviews topic-related literature and provides preliminary data examining psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning of adolescents who received their heart transplant during infancy. Method: This paper offers a literature review AND presents preliminary data from studies conducted through Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital (LLUCH). Study one examined psychosocial functioning and quality of life of adolescent infant heart transplant recipients. In study two, cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological data were analyzed. Results: Study 1: Overall psychosocial functioning fell in the Average range, however, a significant percentage of participants presented with difficulties on one or more of the psychosocial domains. Quality of life was also within normal limits, though concerns with general health and bodily discomfort were noted. Study 2: Cognitive functioning was assessed to be Below Average, with 43-62% of the participants demonstrating significant impairments. Neuropsychological functioning yielded significant weakness on language functioning, and mild weakness on visual-motor integration and executive functioning. Conclusion: While the majority of the participants demonstrate psychosocial resiliency, a subgroup present with difficulties suggesting the need for intervention. Cognitive/neuropsychological functioning suggests poorer functioning with patterns similar to other high-risk pediatric populations. These results are preliminary and further research on long-term psychosocial and neuropsychological development of pediatric heart transplant recipients is needed to better understand and ameliorate developmental

  17. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  18. Model for assessing psychosocial problems.

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, D.; McGillivray, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Model for the Assessment of Psychosocial Problems (MAPP) can help family medicine residents effectively assess patients with psychosocial problems. Following a patient-centred clinical method, MAPP provides a guide to exploring problems and an approach that allows residents and patients jointly to define problems and decide upon management. Emphasis is placed on clarifying patients' expectations of physicians. PMID:9222578

  19. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  20. Psychosocial work stress, leisure time physical exercise and the risk of chronic pain in the neck/shoulders: Longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Fanavoll, Rannveig; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holtermann, Andreas; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic neck/shoulder pain is associated with work stress and job control, and to assess if physical exercise modifies these associations. The study population comprised 29 496 vocationally active women and men in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT Study) without chronic pain at baseline in 1984-1986. Chronic neck/shoulder pain was assessed during a follow-up in 1995-1997. A generalized linear model (Poisson regression) was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs). Work stress was dosedependently associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain (ptrend < 0.001 in both sexes). The women and men who perceived their work as stressful "almost all the time" had multi-adjusted RRs = 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.47) and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.46-2), respectively, referencing those with no stressful work. Work stress interacted with sex (p < 0.001). Poor job control was not associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain among the women (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92-1.19) nor the men (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.95-1.26). Combined analyses showed an inverse dose-dependent association between hours of physical exercise/week and the risk of neck/shoulder pain in the men with no stressful work (ptrend = 0.05) and among the men who perceived their work as "rarely stressful" (ptrend < 0.02). This effect was not statistically significant among the women or among men with more frequent exposure to work stress. Work stress is an independent predictor of chronic neck/shoulder pain and the effect is stronger in men than in women. Physical exercise does not substantially reduce the risk among the persons with frequent exposure to work stress. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. A randomized, comparative pilot trial of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for reducing psychosocial symptoms, disordered-eating, and excess weight gain in at-risk preadolescents with loss-of-control-eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Matherne, Camden E; Mehari, Rim D; Olsen, Cara H; Marwitz, Shannon E; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Kelly, Nichole R; Schvey, Natasha A; Burke, Natasha L; Cassidy, Omni; Brady, Sheila M; Dietz, Laura J; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-09-01

    Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children's psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n = 15) or FB-HE (n = 14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI -7.23, -2.01, Cohen's d = 1.23) and anxiety (95% CI -6.08, -0.70, Cohen's d = .79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI -3.93, -0.03, Cohen's d = .38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI -0.72, -0.05, Cohen's d = .66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI -8.82, 0.44, Cohen's d = .69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of disordered-eating or excess

  2. Psychosocial-Environmental Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation: Findings from a Sample of 73,238 Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Baek, Ji Hyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2015-08-01

    We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide.

  3. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  4. Process for recovering acidic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, O.L. Jr.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes an improvement in a continuous process for recovering carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide-rich gas stream. The gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alknolamine solution in an absorption section contained in an absorption zone to produce a carbon dioxide-lean gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-rich liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-rich effluent stream is heated in a regeneration zone to produce a carbon dioxide-rich gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream comprising a regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution. The regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution is returned to and introduced into the absorption zone.

  5. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  6. Healthcare Providers' Perceptions of the Utility of Psychosocial Screening Tools in Childhood Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Di Battista, Ashley; Hancock, Kelly; Cataudella, Danielle; Johnston, Donna; Cassidy, Marilyn; Punnett, Angela; Shama, Wendy; Barrera, Maru

    2015-07-01

    To examine the perceptions of healthcare providers (HCPs) regarding the utility of two psychosocial screening tools designed for pediatric oncology, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Revised (PATrev) and the Psychosocial Care Checklist (PCCL). Repeated measures comparative study. Four pediatric health centers in Ontario, Canada. 15 oncologists, 14 nurses, and 8 social workers. Using a visual analog scale (VAS), participants were asked to rate how useful they found (a) the psychosocial summary derived from the parent-completed PATrev, used to assess family psychosocial risk, and (b) the HCP-completed PCCL, used to identify family psychosocial needs. Measures were completed soon after diagnosis and six months later. Mann-Whitney U tests were used for analyses. VAS scores. Pediatric oncology HCPs differ in their acceptance of the psychosocial screening tools tested. The highest utility ratings for both instruments were from nurses, and the lowest utility ratings were from social workers; moderate ratings were obtained from oncologists. Psychosocial screening tools can identify the psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families throughout the cancer trajectory. Consequently, these tools could foster communication among colleagues (medical and nonmedical) who are caring for children with cancer about the psychosocial needs of this population and the allocation of resources to address those needs. Nurses seem to value these tools more than other HCPs, which may have positive implications for their clinical practice.

  7. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    PubMed Central

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  8. Country differences of psychosocial working conditions in Europe: the role of health and safety management practices.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Thorsten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2017-04-21

    In times of demographic change, maintaining health and employability of older employees is important. In this context, studies show that stressful working conditions differ by countries. Yet, it is unclear if specific national management practices to deal with these conditions contribute towards explaining country differences. This study combines two different data sources. The first one provides detailed information on psychosocial working conditions in 17 European countries, based on 12,284 employees from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We link this information to the second data source that provides information on health and safety management practices in each of the countries under study (collected among 17,477 managers at the level of companies in the Enterprise survey on new and emerging risks (ESENER)). We distinguish six different types of risk management procedures in the analysis. Results show that levels of psychosocial risks are generally lower in countries with more developed management practices, in particular if national management practices are marked by (1) procedures to deal with work stress, (2) information about whom to address in case of work-related psychosocial problems, and (3) health and safety services provided by psychologists. The findings underline the importance of a comprehensive psychosocial risk management approach in reducing work-related stress, as lower levels of psychosocial risks are linked to specific psychosocial risk management practices within companies, in particular those pointing to clear responsibilities and coordinated procedures in dealing with psychosocial risks.

  9. Maternal schizophrenia: psychosocial treatment for mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Gearing, Robin E; Alonzo, Dana; Marinelli, Caitlin

    2012-04-01

    Psychosocial treatments that address the unique needs of mothers with schizophrenia and their children are sorely lacking. In striving to explore and understand treatment of maternal schizophrenia, this paper focuses on two objectives: 1) to identify and examine specialty psychosocial interventions for parents, notably mothers with schizophrenia and their offspring; and, 2) to describe recommendations for the development of specialty psychosocial treatment for this population. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Social Work Abstracts, and Social Service Abstracts databases prior to January 1, 2010. The authors reviewed each article for psychosocial interventions treating mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia and their children. Forty-three (n=43) studies were identified. Two areas of specialized psychosocial interventions designed to treat maternal schizophrenia and their children were identified: 1) inpatient interventions programs, primarily Mother Baby Units (MBU); and, 2) outpatient interventions programs. Interventions targeting mothers with schizophrenia spectrum illnesses and their children are lacking. Women with schizophrenia are at risk for not engaging in treatment due to fears of barriers and losing their children. Although scarce, inpatient MBUs offer focused treatment, but services are limited to the baby's first year. Minimal outpatient psychosocial treatments are available to this population. Flexible treatment approaches that incorporate environmental supports, chi