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Sample records for psychosocial risk recovering

  1. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  2. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  3. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches (Distress Thermometer [DT], Psychosocial Assessment Tool [PAT]), among many more papers calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed. PMID:22492662

  4. Screening for psychosocial risk in pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A; Reilly, Anne; Fooks Parker, Stephanie; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P

    2012-11-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches [Distress Thermometer (DT), Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT)], among many more articles calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed.

  5. [Psychosocial risks at work and occupational health].

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2012-06-01

    The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1) introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2) describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3) provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences, (4) recommendations for health promotion in the workplace, and (5) describes the objective of Occupational Health Psychology and concludes with the recommendations to promote psychosocial health in the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population.

  6. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-05

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  7. The Joanna Briggs Institute Best Practice Information Sheet: the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke.

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best available evidence on the psychosocial and spiritual experiences of elderly individuals recovering from a stroke. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability and the risk of experiencing a stroke increases with age. A wide range of issues that are related to the experience of a stroke, from the perspective of the patient, have been identified in the research literature. This information sheet focuses on qualitative evidence on the short-term and long-term recovery process from the perspective of the elderly person, with the intention of assessing the evidence that would guide nursing practice.

  8. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0493 TITLE: Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and...SUBTITLE Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perceived Stress...relationship between stress and ovarian cancer has never been evaluated in humans. In our analysis of self-reported stress and risk of ovarian cancer , we

  9. Psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal among older women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Della-Monica, Nola R

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, many older women are uninformed about the increased risk and have lower mammography screening rates than younger women. Understanding older women's perceptions of risk might assist health care providers in offering appropriate resources that result in screening. In this study, we explored psychosocial components influencing older women's breast cancer risk appraisal. To identify key psychosocial components of breast cancer risk appraisal, we conducted focus group interviews. Data saturation occurred with four groups (N = 36) of older Black (58%) and White (42%) women with no prior history of breast cancer. On analysis of the data, we found three themes representing psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal with this cohort. Our findings revealed that worry/fear/anxiety, self-regulating empowerment, and realistic optimism were psychosocial mechanisms older Black and White women in this sample used in appraising breast cancer risk.

  10. Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.

  11. Therapeutic governance: psycho-social intervention and trauma risk management,.

    PubMed

    Pupavac, V

    2001-12-01

    This paper critically analyses the significance of psycho-social intervention as a new form of international therapeutic governance based on social risk management. First, the paper examines the international psycho-social model and its origins in an Anglo-American therapeutic ethos. Second, the paper argues that psycho-social approaches jeopardise local coping strategies. Third, the paper highlights the potential political, social and psychological consequences of the pathologisation of war-affected societies. Finally the paper concludes that therapeutic governance represents the reduction of politics to administration.

  12. [Psychosocial risk factors at work as predictors of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María I; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sáez Navarro, M C; Sánchez Meca, Julio

    2007-05-01

    This work analyses the way in which various psychosocial risk indicators may predict mobbing. A sample of 638 workers, 168 men and 470 women, from the fruit-and-vegetable sector was evaluated. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all employees who were present on the evaluation days in the companies comprising the study. After analysing the data obtained with the mobbing questionnaire NAQ-RE (Sáez, García-Izquierdo, and Llor, 2003) and with the psychosocial risk factors evaluation method of the INSHT (Martín and Pérez, 1997), using canonical regression, we found that several psychosocial factors such as role definition, mental workload, interest in the workers, and supervision / participation predict two types of mobbing: personal mobbing and work-performance-related mobbing.

  13. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  14. Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and depression may alter immune and endocrine function, with possible effects on cancer incidence and survival. Although these factors have been extensively studied as risk and prognostic factors for cancer, the associations remain unclear. The author used data from prospective cohort studies in population-based and clinical databases to investigate these relations. The findings do not support the hypotheses that personality traits and depression are direct risk factors for cancer and cancer survival. Some researchers have recently reported that cancer affects the psychological status of the partners and family members of cancer patients. The mechanisms underlying this hypothesis imply the existence of not only psychological distress from caregiving and grief but also a shared unhealthy lifestyle. Only a few studies have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in partners of cancer patients. The present study used nationwide population-based data to investigate depression risk among male partners of women with breast cancer. The results support the hypothesis that such men are at increased risk of depression. In conclusion, the effects of personality traits and depression on cancer risk and survival appear to be extremely small. In addition, partners of cancer patients were at increased risk of depression. Screening partners and family members of cancer patients for depressive symptoms is therefore an important concern for research in psycho-oncology. PMID:24270060

  15. Psychosocial processes and mechanisms of risk and protection.

    PubMed

    Psychosocial research on adolescent drinking includes studies of personality and the impact of particular personality traits on drinking risk, expectancies (that is, the effects someone expects after drinking alcohol), and cognitive development. Although studies involving adolescents have not identified specific sets of personality traits that uniquely predict alcohol use, some traits have been shown to be associated with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. These traits include disinhibition or poor self-regulation, impulsiveness and aggression, novelty-seeking, and negative affectivity. Externalizing behaviors in childhood and early adolescence have been found to predict alcohol use disorders in early adulthood, as have certain internalizing behaviors. This article examines the theories and psychosocial processes thought to underlie underage drinking.

  16. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  17. Relationship of psychosocial factors to HIV risk among Haitian women.

    PubMed

    Malow, R M; Cassagnol, T; McMahon, R; Jennings, T E; Roatta, V G

    2000-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among low-income, Haitian women, identifies theoretically relevant mediating psychosocial HIV risk predictors, and provides formative data for developing culturally and gender sensitive interventions for this distinctive, high risk, and understudied population. Confidential interview surveys were administered to 101 women of Haitian descent while they awaited their medical appointments at a local low-income, community medical clinic. Moderately high levels of sexual risk behavior (i.e., unprotected sex with nonmonogamous partners; multiple lifetime partners) were reported. On average, these women reported a belief in their HIV susceptibility, relatively little HIV-related anxiety, somewhat inadequate levels of communication regarding safer sex practices, and lack of adequate confidence in their ability to negotiate safer behaviors in sexual encounters. Both personal and partner condom attitudes were unfavorable and these attitudes predicted condom use levels. It was concluded that interventions need to be developed for Haitian women to improve their attitudes toward condom use and their confidence in negotiating safer sexual practices. However, these interventions cannot be developed in a vacuum. Although it is crucial to consider the woman's individual attitudes and behaviors, it is also important to consider the male partner's attitudes toward sex and the woman's relationship with her male partner within the context of Haitian culture. Only by determining and targeting important potential motivations for safe sex within the cultural context can we most effectively reduce HIV sex risk behavior in Haitian women.

  18. Interactions between physical and psychosocial risk factors at work increase the risk of back disorders: an epidemiological approach

    PubMed Central

    Devereux, J. J.; Buckle, P. W.; Vlachonikolis, I. G.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible interactions between physical and psychosocial risk factors at work that may be associated with self reported back disorders. METHODS: 891 of 1514 manual workers, delivery drivers, technicians, customer services computer operators, and general office staff reported risk factors at work and back disorders with a self administered questionnaire (59% return rate). Of the 869 respondents with a valid questionnaire, 638 workers were classified in to one of four exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial; high physical and low psychosocial; low physical and high psychosocial; and low physical and low psychosocial. Low physical and low psychosocial was used as an internal reference group. The exposure criteria were derived from existing epidemiological publications and models for physical and psychosocial work factors. The frequency and amplitude of lifting and the duration spent sitting while experiencing vibration were used as physical exposure criteria. Ordinal values of mental demands, job control, and social support from managers and coworkers were used as psychosocial exposure criteria. RESULTS: The highest increase in risk was found in the high physical and high psychosocial exposure group for symptoms of back disorders. In the crude and multivariate analyses, a departure from an additive risk model was found for the 7 day prevalence of symptoms of a low back disorder and also for a recurrent back disorder not present before the current job but also experienced in the past 7 days. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors at work may exist to increase the risk of self reported back disorders. Ergonomic prevention strategies that aim to minimise the risks of symptoms of work related back disorders should not only focus on physical but also on psychosocial risk factors at work. The greatest benefits are likely to be realised when both physical and psychosocial

  19. An Assessment of a Psychosocial/Risk Factor Intervention Curriculum Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Judith G.; And Others

    A project that was designed to teach medical students how to use the medical history in collecting information relevant to the psychosocial and disease risk status of the patient was studied. A pilot curriculum designed to focus on the importance of preventive medicine and psychosocial aspects of the medical history was evaluated. Comparisons of…

  20. Psychosocial Illness in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence, Pattern and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Ghanshyam Singh; Sharma, Monika; Choudhary, Shyama; Nagaraj, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and psychosocial illness influence each other in multiple ways. The extent of psychosocial disorders in children with T1DM remains largely unstudied in India. Aim To assess the prevalence, severity, pattern and variables affecting psychosocial illness in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods This observational study included 84 children (6-14 years of age) having T1DM at least for 1 year and 100 non diabetic children for comparison. “DSM-5 parent/guardian-Rated Level 1 & 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure –Child age 6-17” was used to assess psychosocial illness, specific domains and severity. Socio-demographic variables were studied and HbA1c levels were measured. Results Significantly higher prevalence of psychosocial illness was observed in children with T1DM as compared with non diabetic group (55.95% vs 20%; p<0.0001). The prevalence for mild, moderate and severe psychosocial illness was 8.33%, 27.38% and 20.24% respectively in diabetic children. Most common psychosocial abnormality was irritation (38.1%), followed by depression (36.9%) and anxiety (32.1%). The prevalence of psychosocial illness was significantly higher in T1DM patients with poorer metabolic control (HbA1c>7.5, p=0.014). Significant association of psychosocial illness was also noticed with poor dietary compliance (p=0.021) and higher mean HbA1c level (p<0.001). Conclusion This study established T1DM as a risk factor for development of psychosocial illness. Irritation, depression and anxiety were most common abnormalities. Significant association of psychosocial illness with poor dietary compliance and poor metabolic control was observed. Psychosocial assessment of every diabetic child is suggested for optimal management. PMID:27790539

  1. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity.

  2. Psychosocial Risks Generated By Assets Specific Design Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Furtună; Angela, Domnariu; Petru, Lazăr

    2015-07-01

    The human activity concerning an occupation is resultant from the interaction between the psycho-biological, socio-cultural and organizational-occupational factors. Tehnological development, automation and computerization that are to be found in all the branches of activity, the level of speed in which things develop, as well as reaching their complexity, require less and less physical aptitudes and more cognitive qualifications. The person included in the work process is bound in most of the cases to come in line with the organizational-occupational situations that are specific to the demands of the job. The role of the programmer is essencial in the process of execution of ordered softwares, thus the truly brilliant ideas can only come from well-rested minds, concentrated on their tasks. The actual requirements of the jobs, besides the high number of benefits and opportunities, also create a series of psycho-social risks, which can increase the level of stress during work activity, especially for those who work under pressure.

  3. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We put on independent variables, which are sex, age, smoking and alcohol experiences, economic status, age of first Internet use, K-YSR and K-CDI score. Results The subjects consisted of addicted users (2.38%), over users (36.89%) and normal Internet users (60.72%). Attention problems, sex, delinquent problems, K-CDI scores, thought problems, age and aggressive behavior were predictable variables of internet addiction. Age of initial Internet use negatively predicted Internet addiction. Conclusion This result showed similar to other researches about sociodemographic, emotional or behavioral factors related to internet addiction. Generally, subjects with more severe internet addiction had more emotional or behavioral problems. It means that they already have had various difficulties when we found internet addiction of adolescents. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate whether the subjects have any emotional or behavioral troubles and to intervene to prevent internet addiction. PMID:25395968

  4. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  5. Why Does ADHD Confer Risk for Cigarette Smoking? A Review of Psychosocial Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…

  6. Specificity of Putative Psychosocial Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Lilly; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most psychosocial risk factors appear to have general rather than specific patterns of association with common childhood and adolescence disorders. However, previous research has typically failed to 1) control for comorbidity among disorders, 2) include a wide range of risk factors, and 3) examine sex by developmental stage effects on…

  7. Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

  8. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  9. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  10. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  11. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  12. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. 370.8 Section 370.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency...

  13. Potential Psychosocial Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychosocial factors with chronic pain in general, and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. Moreover, a handful of prospective studies suggest that pre-existing psychosocial characteristics represent risk factors for new onset TMD. The current study presents psychosocial findings from the baseline case-control study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 1,633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases completed a battery of psychosocial instruments assessing general psychosocial adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic awareness, and pain coping and catastrophizing. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, odds of TMD were associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, affective distress, somatic awareness, and pain catastrophizing. Among controls, significant gender and ethnic group differences in psychosocial measures were observed, consistent with previous findings. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychosocial symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. These findings provide further evidence of associations between psychosocial factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the premorbid presence of these psychosocial factors predicts increased risk for developing new-onset TMD. PMID:22074752

  14. Multi-risk Infants: Predicting attachment security from sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health risk among African-American preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods 112 high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads participated. Psychosocial (maternal depression, stress and self-efficacy) and sociodemographic risk (poverty, maternal education, marital status) were maternal self-report (0–4 months). Infant health risk was obtained from hospital charts. Infant-mother attachment (12 months) and maternal sensitivity (4 months) were assessed with Q-sort measures. Findings Psychosocial and sociodemographic, but not infant health risk, negatively related to attachment. Both were mediated by maternal sensitivity. Conclusions The impact of risk domains on attachment security was mediated by maternal sensitivity. Results emphasize the need for early intervention programs targeting premature infants to identify and address environmental and personal factors that place parenting at risk. PMID:21434913

  15. Perceived Neighborhood Risk as a Predictor of Drug Use among Urban Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Moderating Influences of Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Miller, Nicole L.; Ifill-Williams, Michelle; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the moderating influences of psychosocial functioning on the relation between perceived neighborhood risk and alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in inner-city, ethnic minority youths. Neighborhood risk uniquely predicted alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; however, some relations were qualified by level of psychosocial functioning.…

  16. Number of Psychosocial Strengths Predicts Reduced HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Above and Beyond Syndemic Problems Among Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Hart, Trevor A; Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Vernon, Julia R G; Brennan, David J; Gardner, Sandra; Husbands, Winston; Myers, Ted

    2017-01-03

    Syndemics research shows the additive effect of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Psychosocial strengths may predict less engagement in high-risk sexual behavior. In a study of 470 ethnically diverse HIV-negative GBM, regression models were computed using number of syndemic psychosocial problems, number of psychosocial strengths, and serodiscordant condomless anal sex (CAS). The number of syndemic psychosocial problems correlated with serodiscordant CAS (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92; p = 0.001). When adding the number of psychosocial strengths to the model, the effect of syndemic psychosocial problems became non-significant, but the number of strengths-based factors remained significant (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86; p = 0.002). Psychosocial strengths may operate additively in the same way as syndemic psychosocial problems, but in the opposite direction. Consistent with theories of resilience, psychosocial strengths may be an important set of variables predicting sexual risk behavior that is largely missing from the current HIV behavioral literature.

  17. Psychosocial risk factors for hospitalisation and death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alice J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Masters Pedersen, Jolenee L; Lange, Peter; Prescott, Eva; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-04-01

    Only a few smaller studies have addressed the effect of psychosocial factors on risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in spite of the potential for psychosocial stress to affect development of the disease through immunological and behavioural pathways. The aim of this study is to determine the relation between various psychosocial risk factors, individually and accumulated, and COPD hospitalisation and deaths. A total of 8728 women and men free of asthma and COPD participating in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, economic hardship, and sleep medication in 1991-1993 and followed in nationwide registers until 2009, with <2% loss to follow-up. During follow-up, 461 women and 352 men were hospitalized with or died from COPD. Major life events in adult life and vital exhaustion were both associated with a higher risk of COPD in an exposure-dependent manner, with high vital exhaustion being associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 2.31 (95% CI 1.69-3.16) for women and 2.48 (1.69-3.64) for men. A higher risk of COPD was also found in participants who experienced economic hardship or had a dysfunctional social network. Furthermore, the accumulation of psychosocial risk factors was associated with a higher risk of COPD in both women (HR = 2.40, 1.78-3.22) and men (HR = 1.93, 1.33-2.80). Psychosocial vulnerability may be important to consider both in clinical practice and when planning future preventive strategies against COPD.

  18. Children of Mothers at Psychosocial Risk Growing Up: A Follow up at the Age of 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran; Sydsjo, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to make a 16-year follow-up of children of psychosocial risk mothers as concerns emotional/behavioural problems, self-esteem, life events, and academic grades. Forty-three teenagers (index group) and 61 reference teenagers were personally interviewed and asked to answer the Youth Self-report (YSR), the Self-image…

  19. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900

  20. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  1. Family psychosocial screening: should we focus on high-risk settings?

    PubMed

    Kemper, K J; Osborn, L M; Hansen, D F; Pascoe, J M

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to address the question of whether or not psychosocial screening should be focused on "high-risk" populations. A cross-sectional survey of mothers of young children was conducted in various clinics: 758 in teaching clinics, 444 in private practices, and 202 at a military clinic. The self-administered questionnaire covered demographic factors, problems in mothers family of origin, maternal depression, and substance abuse. Mothers in the teaching clinics were younger and had less education and lower incomes than mothers in private practices, with intermediate levels in the military clinic. However, a substantial proportion of mothers seen in all sites reported psychosocial problems. Approximately 20% of mothers in all sites reported a family history of alcoholism. Positive screens for maternal depression ranged from about 15% to 35%. Binge drinking was reported by 10% to 20% at different sites. Psychosocial problems were common even among families seen in "low-risk" settings. Focusing screening only on high-risk clinics would miss many families with psychosocial problems.

  2. Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms in preadolescents: the role of parental psychosocial risk and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed.

  3. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  4. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  5. Psychosocial Risk Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Marold, Donna B.

    1994-01-01

    Presents evidence for a model of risk factors, including depression, hopelessness, lack of social support, and negative self-evaluations, that contribute to suicidal ideation among normative and clinically depressed adolescents. (HTH)

  6. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  7. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease risk: the role of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress and depression are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poorer prognosis, and physical (in)activity may be a key underlying biobehavioral mechanism. Physical activity has antidepressant effects, and physically fitter, more active individuals seem to be more biologically resilient to psychosocial stressors. This article will present data from a series of population cohort studies and laboratory-based psychophysiological studies to explore the role of physical activity as a protective factor against the effects of psychosocial stress on cardiovascular disease. These mechanisms may improve the treatment and prevention of stress-related illnesses and, thus, has important implications for public health and clinical care of high-risk patients.

  8. Psychosocial predictors of cannabis use in adolescents at risk.

    PubMed

    Hüsler, Gebhard; Plancherel, Bernard; Werlen, Egon

    2005-09-01

    This research has tested a social disintegration model in conjunction with risk and protection factors that have the power to differentiate relative, weighted interactions among variables in different socially disintegrated groups. The model was tested in a cross-sectional sample of 1082 at-risk youth in Switzerland. Structural equation analyses show significant differences between the social disintegration (low, moderate, high) groups and gender, indicating that the model works differently for groups and for gender. For the highly disintegrated adolescents results clearly show that the risk factors (negative mood, peer network, delinquency) are more important than the protective factors (family relations, secure sense of self). Family relations lose all protective value against negative peer influence, but personal variables, such as secure self, gain protective power.

  9. Biomechanical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain at work.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, M S; Frank, J W; Shannon, H S; Norman, R W; Wells, R P; Neumann, W P; Bombardier, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the physical and psychosocial demands of work are associated with low back pain. METHODS: A case-control approach was used. Case subjects (n = 137) reported a new episode of low back pain to their employer, a large automobile manufacturing complex. Control subjects were randomly selected from the study base as cases accrued (n = 179) or were matched to cases by exact job (n = 65). Individual, clinical, and psychosocial variables were assessed by interview. Physical demands were assessed with direct workplace measurements of subjects at their usual jobs. The analysis used multiple logistic regression adjusted for individual characteristics. RESULTS: Self-reported risk factors included a physically demanding job, a poor workplace social environment, inconsistency between job and education level, better job satisfaction, and better coworker support. Low job control showed a borderline association. Physical-measure risk factors included peak lumbar shear force, peak load handled, and cumulative lumbar disc compression. Low body mass index and prior low back pain compensation claims were the only significant individual characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified specific physical and psychosocial demands of work as independent risk factors for low back pain. PMID:11441733

  10. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Child Welfare among Postpartum Mothers with a History of Childhood Maltreatment and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, A. M.; Schury, K.; Reister, F.; Köhler-Dauner, F.; Schauer, M.; Ruf-Leuschner, M.; Gündel, H.; Ziegenhain, U.; Fegert, J. M.; Kolassa, I.-T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) can increase the risk of psychosocial risk factors in adulthood (e. g. intimate partner violence, financial problems, substance abuse or medical problems). The transition to parenthood presents those affected by CM with particular challenges, in addition to usual birth-related stressors. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 240 women were interviewed in the puerperium with respect to CM experiences, using the German version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Current psychosocial risk factors (e. g. financial concerns, maternal mental illness, single parent) were assessed using the Constance Index (KINDEX) for early childhood risk factors. Associations between CM experience and psychosocial risk factors were calculated using simple correlation. Results: The average age of participants was 33 years. On the CTQ 13.8 % of participants reported emotional abuse, 6.7 % physical abuse and 12.5 % sexual abuse, while 32.1 % reported emotional neglect and 7.5 % physical neglect during childhood. With rising severity of CM, more psychosocial risk factors (KINDEX) were present. Conclusions: This study shows a clear association between experiences of maltreatment during childhood and the presence of psychosocial stressors among women in the puerperium. Regular screening for a history of CM and parental psychosocial stressors should be conducted early, i.e. during pregnancy, to avoid negative consequences for the child. PMID:27064835

  11. Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual factors associated with sexual risk behaviors among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Amy; Kuhns, Lisa; Kinsky, Suzanne; Johnson, Amy; Garofalo, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young sexual minority women are at risk for negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, yet little is known about these risks. We examined factors that may influence sexual risk from a psychosocial and contextual perspective. Analyses were conducted to examine within group relationships between sexual behaviors, negative outcomes, and related factors in a sample of young sexual minority women. Participants (N = 131) were young (mean = 19.8) and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity (57% non-White). Sex under the influence, having multiple partners, and having unprotected sex were common behaviors, and pregnancy (20%) and sexually transmitted infection (12%) were common outcomes. Risk behaviors were associated with age, alcohol abuse, and older partners. Results support the need for further research to understand how these factors contribute to risk in order to target risk reduction programs for this population.

  12. Climatic and psychosocial risks of heat illness incidents on construction site.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunyan Andrea; Rowlinson, Steve; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The study presented in this paper aims to identify prominent risks leading to heat illness in summer among construction workers that can be prioritised for developing effective interventions. Samples are 216 construction workers' cases at the individual level and 26 construction projects cases at the organisation level. A grounded theory is generated to define the climatic heat and psychosocial risks and the relationships between risks, timing and effectiveness of interventions. The theoretical framework is then used to guide content analysis of 36 individual onsite heat illness cases to identify prominent risks. The results suggest that heat stress risks on construction site are socially constructed and can be effectively managed through elimination at supply chain level, effective engineering control, proactive control of the risks through individual interventions and reactive control through mindful recognition and response to early symptoms. The role of management infrastructure as a base for effective interventions is discussed.

  13. Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2012-01-04

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  14. The association between adolescent sexting, psychosocial difficulties, and risk behavior: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-02-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes beyond intervention. They can also play an important role in the prevention of sexting and its related risks. This article reviews the links between adolescent sexting, other types of risk behavior, and its emotional and psychosocial conditions. Seven databases were examined and nine studies remained for further review. The review of the literature shows that adolescent sexting is cross sectionally associated with a range of health-risk behaviors. Youth who engage in sexting are also found to experience peer pressure and a range of emotional difficulties. The results can guide school nurse education and practice.

  15. Developmental risks and psychosocial adjustment among low-income Brazilian youth.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Koller, Silvia H; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; De Morais, Normanda Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to developmental risks in three domains (community, economic, and family), and relations between risks and psychosocial well-being, were examined among 918 impoverished Brazilian youth aged 14-19 (M = 15.8 years, 51.9% female) recruited in low-income neighborhoods in one city in Southern Brazil. High levels of developmental risks were reported, with levels and types of risks varying by gender, age, and (to a lesser extent) race. Associations between levels of risks in the various domains and indicators of psychological (e.g., self-esteem, negative emotionality) and behavioral (e.g., substance use) adjustment differed for male and female respondents. Findings build on prior research investigating the development of young people in conditions of pervasive urban poverty and reinforce the value of international research in this endeavor.

  16. Effects of social and psychosocial factors on risk of preterm birth in black women.

    PubMed

    Misra, Dawn; Strobino, Donna; Trabert, Britton

    2010-11-01

    Our objective was to examine how social and psychosocial factors may influence the risk of preterm birth. The design of the study was a hybrid retrospective and prospective cohort. African-American women residing in Baltimore, Maryland, were enrolled prenatally if they received care at one of three Johns Hopkins Medical Institution prenatal clinics (n=384) or enrolled post-partum if they delivered at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution with late, none or intermittent prenatal care (N=459). Preterm birth was defined as less than 37 weeks completed gestation. Interview data were collected on 832 enrolled women delivering singletons between March 2001 and July 2004. The preterm birth rate was 16.4%. In both unadjusted and adjusted models, exposure to racism over a woman's lifetime had no effect on risk of preterm birth in our sample. However, we found evidence of a three-way interaction between reported lifetime experiences of racism, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and stress during pregnancy on preterm birth risk. Racism scores above the median (more racism) were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in three subgroups with the effect moderated by depressive symptoms and stress. Social and psychosocial factors may operate in a complex manner related to risk of preterm birth.

  17. [Effects of psychosocial risk at work on mental health of the forensic medical service officials in Chile].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Urra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the harmful effects of exposure to psychosocial risk at work on the mental health of workers, there are particularly hazardous occupations product of their nature and the conditions under which the work is done. This article analyzes the associations between psychosocial risk at work and mental health in the Forensic Medical Service (SML) in Chile. The national and representative sample of 757 employees (46% men and 54% women) of SML, answered an online survey in 2013, to measure risk exposure to psychosocial risk and mental health outcomes. Data analysis considered descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that workers have a high psychosocial risk: high psychological demands (83%), low social support (53%), Jobstrain (15%), Isostrain (12%), effort- rewards imbalance (69%). Also, one in three reported depressive symptoms, distress and consumption of psychotropic drugs. The workers reported that the problems of work contribute to the symptoms or consumption. Finally, subjects exposed to psychosocial risk had a greater chance of experiencing mental health problems than those not exposed. Diligent preventive interventions are needed to address this high risk population.

  18. Psychosocial Modeling of Insider Threat Risk Based on Behavioral and Word Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2013-10-01

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. A complementary Personality Factor modeling approach was developed based on analysis to derive relevant personality characteristics from word use. Several implementations of the psychosocial model were evaluated by comparing their agreement with judgments of human resources and management professionals; the personality factor modeling approach was examined using email samples. If implemented in an operational setting, these models should be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  19. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-09-15

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P < 0.002), with high vital exhaustion being associated with a 2-fold higher risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure.

  20. The Association between Cumulative Psychosocial Risk and Cervical HPV Infection Among Female Adolescents in a Free Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216

  1. Psychosocial factors and high-risk sexual behavior: race differences among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doljanac, R F; Zimmerman, M A

    1998-10-01

    Adolescence is a period of sexual experimentation. We examined psychosocial predictors of high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. The sample included 824 ninth-graders, most of whom are African American. We conducted separate analyses for whites and African Americans. Predictors included alcohol and substance use, delinquency, prosocial behaviors, and family and peer influences. We found that problem behaviors predicted high-risk sexual behavior, but the effects were stronger for white youth. We also found that friends' behaviors were more predictive than family influences, except for family conflict. In general, the models explained more variance for white youths than for African-American youths. The results suggest that problem behavior theory and social interactions theory may be most relevant for white youth and that other models may be necessary to explain high-risk sexual behavior among African-American youths.

  2. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…

  3. Patient versus professional based psychosocial risk factor screening for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Quispel, Chantal; van Veen, Mieke J; Zuijderhoudt, Christianne; Steegers, Eric A P; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P

    2014-11-01

    To identify Psychopathology, Psychosocial problems and substance use (PPS) as predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes, two screen-and-advice instruments were developed: Mind2Care (M2C, self-report) and Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction (R4U, professional's checklist). To decide on the best clinical approach of these risks, the performance of both instruments was compared. Observational study of 164 pregnant women who booked at two midwifery practices in Rotterdam. Women were consecutively screened with M2C and R4U. For referral to tailored care based on specific PPS risks, inter-test agreement of single risks was performed in terms of overall accuracy and positive accuracy (risk present according to both instruments). With univariate regression analysis we explored determinants of poor agreement (<90 %). For triage based on risk accumulation and for detecting women-at-risk for adverse birth outcomes, M2C and R4U sum scores were compared. Overall accuracy of single risks was high (mean 93 %). Positive accuracy was lower (mean 46 %) with poorest accuracy for current psychiatric symptoms. Educational level and ethnicity partly explained poor accuracy (p < 0.05). Overall low PPS prevalence decreased the statistical power. For triage, M2C and R4U sum scores were interchangeable from sum scores of five or more (difference <1 %). The probability of adverse birth outcomes similarly increased with risk accumulation for both instruments, identifying 55-75 % of women-at-risk. The self-report M2C and the professional's R4U checklist seem interchangeable for triage of women-at-risk for PPS or adverse birth outcomes. However, the instruments seem to provide complementary information if used as a guidance to tailored risk-specific care.

  4. The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M J; McKeganey, N P; Finlay, A; Barnard, M A

    1992-01-01

    Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male prostitutes' risk practices were constrained and emergent from the immediate circumstances of the sexual encounter. Unsafe sex was associated with client control. Safer sex was associated with countervailing prostitute strategies of influence. These data confirm the utility of self-empowerment approaches to health education.

  5. Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal Youth: An Ecological Analysis of Factors Associated with Psychosocial Functioning in High and Low Family Risk Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434

  6. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  7. Protection from psychosocial risks at work under the European Convention on Human Rights: is it possible?

    PubMed

    Sychenko, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper argues the possibility of establishing common principles of protection from psychosocial risks (PSR) on the basis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) expressed in recent cases on degrading treatment and occupational health. The author focuses on the positive obligations of the States to ensure the protection of the right for life and of the right to respect for private life. The prohibition of degrading treatment in relations between private persons is also considered as relevant to the issue of the protection from PSR. Analyzing the Court's case law (judgments of the Court) we substantiate the possibility of claiming protection from PSR under the European Convention on Human Rights, namely, articles 2, 3 and 6, 8.

  8. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  9. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  10. A qualitative study of migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV risk behaviour among truck drivers in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2016-09-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at: (1) determining potentially traumatic events (PTEs), labour migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviours among truck drivers in Zambia; and (2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behaviour among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use, were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviours. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV-prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population.

  11. The Prevalence of and Psychosocial Risks for Suicide Attempts in Male and Female College Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Cheng Hsiang; Ko, Huei Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of and psychosocial risks for suicide attempts was investigated in college students in Taiwan by gender, after controlling for depressive symptoms. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 2,835 college students; 11.90% of females and 8.87% of males reported they had attempted suicide in the…

  12. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Child-Reported Emotional and Physical Abuse: Rates, Risk Factors and Psychosocial Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…

  13. Computeen: A Randomized Trial of a Preventive Computer and Psychosocial Skills Curriculum for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…

  14. A pilot with computer-assisted psychosocial risk –assessment for refugees

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA) tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. Methods A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention) or usual care (control) group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Results Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA = 25; usual care = 24). On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46 % in usual care group [X2 (1)=3.47, p = 0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean = 4) and were ‘unsure’ about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean = 2.8) or to privacy of information (mean = 2.8) in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean = 4.3). Conclusion The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement needs of refugees

  15. Cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress and allostatic load in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Theall, Katherine P; Drury, Stacy S; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12-20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL. Approximately 35% of adolescents had 2 or more biomarkers of AL. A significant amount of variance in AL was explained at the neighborhood level. The likelihood of having a high AL was approximately 10% higher for adolescents living in medium-cumulative-risk neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.09), 28% higher for those living in high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.30), and 69% higher for those living in very-high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.70) as compared with adolescents living in low-risk areas. Effect modification was observed by both individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. These findings offer support for the hypothesis that neighborhood risks may culminate in a range of biologically mediated negative health outcomes detectable in adolescents.

  16. Suicide Among Soldiers: A Review of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Deming, Charlene A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C.; McCarroll, James E.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  17. Suicide among soldiers: a review of psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Deming, Charlene A; Fullerton, Carol S; Gilman, Stephen E; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C; McCarroll, James E; McLaughlin, Katie A; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future.

  18. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed.

  19. The Effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health Intervention on Psychosocial Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Behavior among Third-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Schools within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health intervention were randomized into control, school-based, and school-based plus family intervention conditions. Measures of third graders' psychosocial determinants of risk behavior indicated significant improvements in all psychosocial determinants following the interventions,…

  20. Relationship between Psychosocial Risk Factors and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Public Hospital Nurses in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and risk of WRMSDs among public hospital nurses in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 660 public hospital nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the occurrence of WRMSDs according to body regions, socio-demographic profiles, occupational information and psychosocial risk factors. 468 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71%), and 376 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. Univariate analyses were applied to test for mean and categorical differences across the WRMSDs; multiple logistic regression was applied to predict WRMSDs based on the Job Strain Model’s psychosocial risk factors. Results Over two thirds of the sample of nurses experienced discomfort or pain in at least one site of the musculoskeletal system within the last year. The neck was the most prevalent site (48.94%), followed by the feet (47.20%), the upper back (40.69%) and the lower back (35.28%). More than 50% of the nurses complained of having discomfort in region one (neck, shoulders and upperback) and region four (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). The results also revealed that psychological job demands, job strain and iso-strain ratio demonstrated statistically significant mean differences (p < 0.05) between nurses with and without WRMSDs. According to univariate logistic regression, all psychosocial risk factors illustrated significant association with the occurrence of WRMSDs in various regions of the body (OR: 1.52–2.14). Multiple logistic regression showed all psychosocial risk factors were significantly associated with WRMSDs across body regions (OR: 1.03–1.19) except for region 1 (neck, shoulders and upper back) and region 4 (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). All demographic variables except for years of employment were statistically and significantly associated with WRMSDs (p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings

  1. Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Depression among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Youth: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J

    2017-04-10

    Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer (LGBQ) youth suffer from depression. Identifying modifiable risk and protective factors for depression can inform the development of psychosocial interventions. The aim of this review is to evaluate the methodological characteristics and summarize the substantive findings of studies examining psychosocial risk and protective factors for depression among LGBQ youth. Eight bibliographic databases were searched, and 35 studies that met all inclusion criteria were included for review. Results show that prominent risk factors for depression include internalized LGBQ-related oppression, stress from hiding and managing a socially stigmatized identity, maladaptive coping, parental rejection, abuse and other traumatic events, negative interpersonal interactions, negative religious experiences, school bullying victimization, and violence victimization in community settings. Prominent protective factors include a positive LGBQ identity, self-esteem, social support from friends, and family support. LGBQ youth may face an array of threats to their mental health originating from multiple socioecological levels.

  2. [Lean production and psychosocial risks: the case of a multinational merger in a metallurgical company in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Stenger, Eunice; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Sabino, Marcos Oliveira; Miquilin, Isabella de Oliveira Campos; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the method known as "lean production" as a work-related psychosocial risk factor in a Brazilian multinational auto parts company after its merger with other multinational companies. The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of two time points: the first using on-site observation and key interviews with managers and workers during implementation of lean production in 1996; the second, 16 years later, comparing data from a document search in labor inspection records from the Ministry of Labor and Employment and legal proceedings initiated by the Office of the Public Prosecutor for Labor Affairs. The merger led to layoffs, replacements, and an increase in the workday. A class action suit was filed on grounds of aggravated working conditions. The new production model led to psychosocial risks that increased the need for workers' health precautions when changes in the production process introduced new and increased risks of physical and mental illnesses.

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings.

    PubMed

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants. Sociability and self-perception outcome expectancies predicted risk status for females. Cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies predicted risk status for men in the sample. Implications for screening and brief intervention programming efforts are discussed.

  4. Psychosocial risk and correlates of early menarche in Mexican-American girls.

    PubMed

    Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Wilkinson, Anna V; Spitz, Margaret R; Prokhorov, Alex; Bondy, Melissa; Forman, Michele R

    2011-05-15

    Mexican-American girls have one of the fastest rates of decline in age at menarche. To date, no study has addressed the role of psychosocial factors on age at menarche in this population. Using data from a longitudinal cohort of Mexican-American girls from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area recruited in 2005, the authors investigated associations between family life and socioeconomic environment and age at menarche in 523 girls. After adjusting for maternal age at menarche, daughter's age, and body mass index at baseline, perception of family life environment as conflict-prone was significantly associated with an earlier age at menarche (< 11 years). Additionally, there was a 2-fold higher risk (odds ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 4.40) of early menarche among daughters of mothers who were single parents compared with those who were not. Furthermore, girls who matured early had a 2.5-fold increased risk (odds ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 6.96) of experimenting with cigarettes compared with those who had an average-to-late age at menarche (≥ 11 years). This study provides important information regarding the role of family life environment and single parenting on age at menarche in Mexican Americans. Awareness of the impact of the family life environment and fathers' absence during the early years should be emphasized when addressing early age at menarche across cultures.

  5. Perinatal Risks and Childhood Premorbid Indicators of Later Psychosis: Next Steps for Early Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy H.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tronick, Ed; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are debilitating disorders that together affect 2%–3% of the adult population. Approximately 50%–70% of the offspring of parents with schizophrenia manifest a range of observable difficulties including socioemotional, cognitive, neuromotor, speech-language problems, and psychopathology, and roughly 10% will develop psychosis. Despite the voluminous work on premorbid vulnerabilities to psychosis, especially on schizophrenia, the work on premorbid intervention approaches is scarce. While later interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis, characterized primarily by attenuated positive symptoms, are promising, the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. This article reviews and proposes potential targets for psychosocial interventions during the premorbid period, complementing biological interventions described by others in this Special Theme issue. Beginning with pregnancy, parents with psychoses may benefit from enhanced prenatal care, social support, parenting skills, reduction of symptoms, and programs that are family-centered. For children at risk, we propose preemptive early intervention and cognitive remediation. Empirical research is needed to evaluate these interventions for parents and determine whether interventions for parents and children positively influence the developmental course of the offspring. PMID:25904724

  6. Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Case-Control Study in Belgrade (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Isidora; Vlajinac, Hristina; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Matanovic, Dragana; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Sipetic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate which psychosocial risk factors show the strongest association with occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade in peacetime, after the big political changes in Serbia. Methods A case-control study was conducted involving 154 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with MI, and 308 controls matched by gender, age, and place of residence. Results According to conditional logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for conventional coronary risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for work-related stressful events, financial stress, deaths and diseases, and general stress were 3.78 (1.83-7.81), 3.80 (1.96-7.38), 1.69 (1.03-2.78), and 3.54 (2.01-6.22), respectively. Among individual stressful life events, the following were independently related to MI: death of a close family member, 2.21 (1.01-4.84); death of a close friend, 42.20 (3.70-481.29); major financial problems, 8.94 (1.83-43.63); minor financial problems, 4.74 (2.02-11.14); changes in working hours, 4.99 (1.64-15.22); and changes in working conditions, 30.94 (5.43-176.31). Conclusions During this political transition period , stress at work, financial stress, and stress in general as they impacted the population of Belgrade, Serbia were strongly associated with occurence of MI. PMID:27274168

  7. Psychosocial factors and uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at high risk for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Bettina; Price, Melanie A; Butow, Phyllis N; Karatas, Janan; Wilson, Judy; Heiniger, Louise; Baylock, Brandi; Charles, Margaret; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Phillips, Kelly-Anne

    2013-03-01

    Bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. This study assessed factors predicting uptake of RRSO. Women participating in a large multiple-case breast cancer family cohort study who were at increased risk for ovarian and fallopian tube cancer (i.e. BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carrier or family history including at least one first- or second-degree relative with ovarian or fallopian tube cancer), with no personal history of cancer and with at least one ovary in situ at cohort enrolment, were eligible for this study. Women who knew they did not carry the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation segregating in their family (true negatives) were excluded. Sociodemographic, biological and psychosocial factors, including cancer-specific anxiety, perceived ovarian cancer risk, optimism and social support, were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews at cohort enrolment. RRSO uptake was self-reported every three years during systematic follow-up. Of 2,859 women, 571 were eligible. Mean age was 43.3 years; 62 women (10.9 %) had RRSO a median of two years after cohort entry. Factors predicting RRSO were: being parous (OR 3.3, p = 0.015); knowing one's mutation positive status (OR 2.9, p < 0.001) and having a mother and/or sister who died from ovarian cancer (OR 2.5, p = 0.013). Psychological variables measured at cohort entry were not associated with RRSO. These results suggest that women at high risk for ovarian cancer make decisions about RRSO based on risk and individual socio-demographic characteristics, rather than in response to psychological factors such as anxiety.

  8. Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders in Hispanic females of diverse ethnic background and non-Hispanic females.

    PubMed

    George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, P<.008, and the subscale score for Concern, F(7,499)=2.99, P<.004, with Dominicans, Venezuelans and Columbians having higher scores than White non-Hispanics and Central Americans/Mexicans. In addition, there was a significant difference in BMI, F(7,499)=2.70, P<.009. Both Puerto Ricans (24.27+0.81) and Venezuelans (24.66+1.00) had higher BMIs than White non-Hispanics (21.87+0.37), Cubans (21.99+0.24) and Brazilians (21.46+0.96). There was also a significant, F(7,498)=2.70, P<.009, difference among the groups in Ideal Body Image score. Puerto Ricans had the highest score and Brazilians the lowest. Acknowledging that differences in psychosocial risk factors exist among Hispanic females of diverse background can assist us in creating more targeted approaches for the prevention of potential eating disorders in this population.

  9. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    Haahr, J; Andersen, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Methods: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. Results: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related to tennis elbow (OR 3.7, CI 1.7 to 8.3). Among men, work with precision demanding movements was related to tennis elbow (OR 5.2, CI 1.5 to 17.9). Among both males and females, the results for work with hand held vibrating tools were inconsistent, partly because of few exposed subjects. A physical strain index was established based on posture, repetition, and force. The adjusted ORs for tennis elbow at low, medium, and high strain were 1.4 (CI 0.8 to 2.7), 2.0 (CI 1.1 to 3.7), and 4.4 (CI 2.3 to 8.7). Low social support at work, adjusted for physical strain, was a risk factor among women (OR 2.4, CI 1.3 to 4.6). Conclusion: Results indicate that being a new case of tennis elbow is associated with non-neutral postures of hands and arms, use of heavy hand held tools, and high physical strain measured as a combination of forceful work, non-neutral posture of hands and arms, and repetition. Furthermore, tennis elbow among women was associated with low social support at work. The results for precision demanding movements and for vibration were less consistent. PMID:12709516

  10. Interpersonal Circumplex Descriptions of Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical Illness: Application to Hostility, Neuroticism, and Marital Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Traupman, Emily K.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of three risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension. PMID:20573134

  11. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension.

  12. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Truxillo, Donald M; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  13. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.

  14. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  15. [Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-07-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market.

  16. Psychosocial risk assessment in organizations: Concurrent validity of the brief version of the Management Standards Indicator Tool.

    PubMed

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond; Kerr, Robert; Addley, Ken

    2013-10-01

    The Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT) is a 35-item self-report measure of the psychosocial work environment designed to assist organizations with psychosocial risk assessment. It is also used in work environment research. Edwards and Webster presented a 25-item version of the MSIT based on the deletion of items having a factor loading of < .65. Stress theory and research suggest that psychosocial hazard exposures may result in harm to the health of workers. Thus, using data collected from three UK organizations (N = 20,406) we compared the concurrent validity of the brief and full versions of the MSIT by exploring the strength of association between each version of the instrument and a measure of psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12 and Maslach Burnout Inventory). Analyses revealed that the brief instrument offered similar but not always equal validity to that of the full version. The results indicate that use of the brief instrument, which would be less disruptive for employees, would not elevate the risk of false negative or false positive findings in risk assessment.

  17. People with HIV in HAART-era Russia: transmission risk behavior prevalence, antiretroviral medication-taking, and psychosocial distress.

    PubMed

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Kuznetsova, Anna V; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B; Pirogov, Dmitry G

    2011-05-01

    Russia has seen one of the world's fastest-growing HIV epidemics. Transmission risk behavior, HAART-taking, and psychosocial distress of the growing population of Russian people living with HIV (PLH) in the HAART era are understudied. Participants of a systematically-recruited cross-sectional sample of 492 PLH in St. Petersburg completed measures of sexual and drug injection practices, adherence, perceived discrimination, and psychosocial distress. Since learning of their status, 58% of participants had partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus (mean = 5.8). About 52% reported unprotected intercourse with such partners, with 30% of acts unprotected. Greater perceived discrimination predicted lower condom use. A 47% of IDU PLH still shared needles, predicted by having no primary partner, lower education, and more frequently-encountered discrimination. Twenty-five percentage of PLH had been refused general health care, 11% refused employment, 7% fired, and 6% forced from family homes. Thirty-nine percentage of participants had probable clinical depression, 37% had anxiety levels comparable to psychiatric inpatients, and social support was low. Of the 54% of PLH who were offered HAART, 16% refused HAART regimens, and 5% of those on the therapy took less than 90% of their doses. Comprehensive community services for Russian PLH are needed to reduce AIDS-related psychosocial distress and continued HIV transmission risk behaviors. Social programs should reduce stigma and discrimination, and promote social integration of affected persons and their families.

  18. Perceptions of social mobility: development of a new psychosocial indicator associated with adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent "perceived social mobility." Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  19. [Psychosocial factors as risk for coronary heart disease--status with special reference to the KORA platform].

    PubMed

    Ladwig, K-H; Marten-Mittag, B; Baumert, J

    2005-08-01

    Psychosocial factors derived from concepts in health psychology and psychopathology are subject of extensive research to assess their power to predict a future coronary artery disease event in apparently healthy subjects. However, bio-behavioural factors have not been implemented in current guidelines of scoring schemes for calculating the risk of coronary events. The presented data were derived from the population-based MONICA Augsburg studies (S1-S3) conducted between 1984 and 1995. The psychosocial data set was available in approximately 13,000 subjects. The KORA follow-up study assessed the vital status for all participants (except for 56 persons) in 1998. Until then, 772 participants (531 men, 241 women) had died. The depressive symptomatology was derived from the von Zerrssen affective symptom check list combining 24 single symptom items with scores ranging from 0 to 3. Risks of total mortality and myocardial infarction were estimated from Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) models adjusted for age and survey and multiple risk factors. Male participants with high scores in depression exhibited a significantly increased risk in total mortality (adjusted HR: 1.55; 95 % CI: 1.28 - 1.83, p < 0.0001) and for fatal and non-fatal coronary events (adjusted HR: 1.36; 95 % CI: 1.02 - 1.81, p < 0.035). Female participants reported higher values in depression scores; however, depression was not predictive for subsequent total mortality and fatal and non-fatal events in females. Depression in men yielded a significant interaction with obesity and increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). The inclusion of psychosocial factors, as demonstrated for depression, is likely to improve prediction of future adverse cardiovascular and total mortality. These factors may also play a crucial role in genotype-phenotype interaction.

  20. Alcohol and cigarette use and misuse among Hurricane Katrina survivors: psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L; Kloos, Bret; Cheely, Catherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined survivors' use and misuse of cigarettes and alcohol following Hurricane Katrina. We also examined several psychosocial factors that we expected would be associated with higher or lower rates of substance use following the hurricane. Participants were 209 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina interviewed in Columbia, SC or New Orleans, LA between October 31, 2005 and May 13, 2006. Results revealed that survivors were smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, and experiencing alcohol consumption-related problems at a substantially higher rate than expected based on pre-hurricane prevalence data. Results also suggested that certain psychosocial factors were associated with participants' substance use and misuse following the hurricane.

  1. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  2. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Effects of Kindergarten Retention for At-Risk Children's Psychosocial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Schmitt, Eric; Vanlaar, Gudrun; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Kindergarten retention is a popular practice for children who are considered unready for primary school. However, past research has not yet succeeded to find consistent, strong empirical evidence supporting the practice. In the current study, kindergarten repeaters' development in nine psychosocial domains is compared with that of equally at risk…

  4. Syndemics of psychosocial problems and HIV risk: A systematic review of empirical tests of the disease interaction concept

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Burns, Bridget F.O.

    2015-01-01

    In the theory of syndemics, diseases co-occur in particular temporal or geographical contexts due to harmful social conditions (disease concentration) and interact at the level of populations and individuals, with mutually enhancing deleterious consequences for health (disease interaction). This theory has widespread adherents in the field, but the extent to which there is empirical support for the concept of disease interaction remains unclear. In January 2015 we systematically searched 7 bibliographic databases and tracked citations to highly cited publications associated with the theory of syndemics. Of the 783 records, we ultimately included 34 published journal articles, 5 dissertations, and 1 conference abstract. Most studies were based on a cross-sectional design (32 [80%]), were conducted in the U.S. (32 [80%]), and focused on men who have sex with men (21 [53%]). The most frequently studied psychosocial problems were related to mental health (33 [83%]), substance abuse (36 [90%]), and violence (27 [68%]); while the most frequently studied outcome variables were HIV transmission risk behaviors (29 [73%]) or HIV infection (9 [23%]). To test the disease interaction concept, 11 (28%) studies used some variation of a product term, with less than half of these (5/11 [45%]) providing sufficient information to interpret interaction both on an additive and on a multiplicative scale. The most frequently used specification (31 [78%]) to test the disease interaction concept was the sum score corresponding to the total count of psychosocial problems. Although the count variable approach does not test hypotheses about interactions between psychosocial problems, these studies were much more likely than others (14/31 [45%] vs. 0/9 [0%]; χ2=6.25, P=0.01) to incorporate language about “synergy” or “interaction” that was inconsistent with the statistical models used. Therefore, more evidence is needed to assess the extent to which diseases interact, either at the

  5. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pincham, Hannah L.; Bryce, Donna; Kokorikou, Danae; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R. M. Pasco

    2016-01-01

    Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention) or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing) can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32) or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32) passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images). Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP) and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change. PMID:26808519

  6. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  7. The Iranian version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for assessment of psychological risk factors at work

    PubMed Central

    Aminian, Mohammad; Dianat, Iman; Miri, Anvar; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a widely used tool for evaluation of psychosocial risk factors at work. The aims of this study were to describe the short version of Farsi COPSOQ and to present its psychometric properties. Methods: A total of 427 administrative health care staff participated in this descriptive methodological study. Forward–backward procedure was adopted to translate the questionnaire from English into Farsi. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC), respectively. The feasibility was assessed using ceiling and floor effect. Results: The short version of Farsi COPSOQ was configured with 16 dimensions (32 items).Content validity of the questionnaire was established. Factor analysis supported the conceptual multi-dimensionality (four factors), and therefore confirmed the construct validity of the Farsi COPSOQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging between 0.75 and 0.89) and test retest reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.75 to 0.89) were both approved and the results showed no ceiling or floor effect. Conclusion: The results support the use of Farsi COPSOQ for evaluation of psychological risks and for research purposes in Iranian population. PMID:28058236

  8. Effects of psychosocial and individual factors on physiological risk factors for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders while typing.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laura E; Babski-Reeves, Kari; Smith-Jackson, Tonya

    2007-02-01

    Psychosocial factors are hypothesized to contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) development, although previous research has been largely epidemiological or has focused primarily on the shoulders, back and neck. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of mental workload and time pressure on perceived workload and physiological responses of the distal upper extremity. A total of 18 typists completed nine 5-min typing sessions representing three levels of time pressure and mental workload. Levels were manipulated by adjusting typing speed and by requiring participants to perform arithmetic tasks while typing. Outcomes were measured in muscle activation levels, wrist postures and movements, key strike force and subjective assessments of workload. In general, increased time pressure increased muscle activation, key strike force and wrist deviations; and increased mental workload increased key strike force. Mental workload and time pressure mediated physical risk factors during typing to increase WMSD risk for the distal upper extremity.

  9. The role of burnout syndrome as a mediator for the effect of psychosocial risk factors on the intensity of musculoskeletal disorders: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Tahereh; Pahlavian, Ahmad Heidari; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Motamedzade, Majid; Moghaddam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of psychosocial risk factors and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 415 nurses from various wards across five hospitals of Iran's Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through three questionnaires: job content questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and visual analogue scale. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that psychosocial risk factors were significantly related to changes in burnout, which in turn affects intensity of MSDs.

  10. Risk factors of workplace bullying for men and women: the role of the psychosocial and physical work environment.

    PubMed

    Salin, Denise

    2015-02-01

    Workplace bullying has been shown to be a severe social stressor at work, resulting in high costs both for the individuals and organizations concerned. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors in a large, nationally representative sample of Finnish employees (n = 4,392). The study makes three important contributions to the existing literature on workplace bullying: first, it demonstrates the role of the physical work environment alongside the psychosocial work environment - employees with a poor physical work environment are more likely than others to report having been subjected to or having observed bullying. Second, contrary to common assumptions, the results suggest that performance-based pay is associated with a lower, rather than higher risk of bullying. Third, the findings suggest that there are gender differences in risk factors, thereby constituting a call for more studies on the role of gender when identifying risk factors. Increased knowledge of risk factors is important as it enables us to take more effective measures to decrease the risk of workplace bullying.

  11. Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…

  12. Impaired mental well-being and psychosocial risk: a cross-sectional study in female nursing home direct staff

    PubMed Central

    Pélissier, C; Fontana, L; Fort, E; Vohito, M; Sellier, B; Perrier, C; Glerant, V; Couprie, F; Agard, J P; Charbotel, B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to quantify the impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress experienced by nursing home staff and to determine the relationship between impaired mental well-being assessed on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to psychosocial stress assessed on Siegrist's effort/reward and overcommitment model. Methods A transverse study was conducted in France on 2471 female employees in 105 nursing homes for the elderly. Personal and occupational data were collected by questionnaire for 668 housekeepers, 1454 nursing assistants and 349 nurses. Results 36.8% of participants (n=896) showed impaired mental well-being, 42.7% (n=1039) overcommitment and 9% (n=224) effort/reward imbalance. Overcommitment (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.27; 95% CI (1.21 to 1.34)) and effort–reward imbalance (PR=1.19; 95% CI (1.12 to 1.27)) were significantly associated with presence of impaired mental well-being after adjustment for personal factors (age and private life events). Taking effort and reward levels into account, the frequency of impaired mental well-being was highest in case of exposure to great extrinsic effort and low rewards of any type: esteem, PR=3.53, 95% CI (3.06 to 4.08); earnings, PR=3.48, 95% CI (2.99 to 4.06); or job security, PR=3.30, 95% CI (2.88 to 3.78). Participants in situations of overcommitment and of effort/reward imbalance were at the highest risk of impaired mental well-being: PR=3.86, 95% CI (3.42 to 4.35). Conclusions Several changes in nursing home organisation can be suggested to reduce staff exposure to factors of psychosocial stress. Qualitative studies of the relation between impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress in nursing home staff could guide prevention of impaired mental well-being at work. PMID:25829371

  13. Risk for Intimate Partner Violence and Child Physical Abuse: Psychosocial Characteristics of Multirisk Male and Female Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    consisted of 775 female and 592 male Navy recruits. The psychosocial variables assessed included symptoms of dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self...Munroe et al., 1995). The psychosocial characteristics examined in the present study included symptoms of dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self...the present study, all psychosocial functioning variables (i.e., dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self- dysfunction, alcohol abuse, and drug use

  14. Preoperative psychosocial characteristics may predict body image and sexuality two years after risk-reducing mastectomy: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Hemming; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Background Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in patients at high risk has become more available and the rates of both bilateral (BRRM) and contralateral (CRRM) procedures are increasing. For women opting for RRM, psychosocial well-being, body image and sexuality are known to be important patient-reported outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate baseline health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and emotional distress (anxiety and depression) as predictors of body image and sexuality two years after RRM in women undergoing CRRM and BRRM. Methods This is a prospective cohort study including consecutive women opting for BRRM and breast cancer patients considering CRRM at Karolinska University Hospital during 1998–2010. The women were given a set of questionnaires to be completed at baseline before RRM (The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and The Sexual Activity Questionnaire) and two years after RRM (all the above-mentioned questionnaires along with The Body Image Scale). Mean scores for all questionnaires were analysed using linear regression models and adjusted for age at RRM as well as calendar year. Results In total, 253 patients consented to participate in the study. Response rate at baseline and 2 years was 88% and 71%, respectively. In the BRRM group (healthy women), preoperative HRQoL and emotional distress were associated with body image and sexual problems two years after the procedure. No similar associations were found for the patients with breast cancer who underwent CRRM. Conclusions The current study suggests that preoperative HRQoL and emotional distress may predict body image and sexual problems two years after RRM in healthy women, but not in breast cancer patients. Baseline psychosocial characteristics may be useful to identify women at risk for long-term body image and sexual problems following BRRM, but not among breast cancer patients opting for CRRM. PMID:28210554

  15. Psychosocial approaches to participation in BRCA1/2 genetic risk assessment among African American women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Kerry A; Miller, Suzanne M; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Cavanagh, Karen; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is a significant health concern for African American women. Nonetheless, uptake of genetic risk assessment (including both genetic counseling and testing) for breast cancer gene mutations among these populations remains low. This paper systematically reviews cognitive (i.e., beliefs) and affective (i.e., emotions) factors influencing BRCA1/2 genetic risk assessment among African American women as well as psychosocial interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population. A systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO was undertaken, yielding 112 published studies. Of these, 18 met the eligibility criteria. African American woman are likely to participate in genetic risk assessment if they are knowledgeable about cancer genetics, perceive a high risk of developing breast cancer, have low expectancies of stigmatization from medical professionals, view themselves as independent from family, and have fatalistic beliefs and a future temporal orientation. Anticipated negative affective responses, such as an inability to "handle" the results of testing, are barriers to uptake. Specific perceptions, beliefs, and emotional factors are associated with genetic risk assessment among African American women. Understanding these factors is key in the development of interventions to facilitate informed decision making in this population.

  16. Musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors among workers of the aircraft maintenance industry.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Helen Cristina; Diniz, Ana Carolina Parise; Barbieri, Dechristian França; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    During the recent decades Brazil has experienced an exponential growth in the aviation sector resulting in an increasing workforce. The aircraft maintenance industry stands out, where the workers have to handle different kind of objects. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychosocial indicators as well as musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders among aircraft maintenance workers. One hundred and one employees were evaluated (32.69 ± 8.25 yr, 79.8 ± 13.4 kg, and 1.75 ± 0.07 m). Musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders were assessed through the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and a standardized physical examination. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial indicators. Results of the NMQ indicate the lower back as the most affected body region. On the other hand, the physical examination has shown clinical diagnosis of shoulder disorders. Neck, upper back and ankle/foot were also reported as painful sites. Most of workers have active work-demand profile and high work engagement levels. We suggest that musculoskeletal symptoms may be related to high biomechanical demand of the tasks performed by workers, what must be further investigated.

  17. Assessing pediatric patient's risk of distress during health-care encounters: The psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Risk Assessment in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Staab, Jennifer H; Klayman, Gail Jean; Lin, Li

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Risk Assessment in Pediatrics (PRAP). PRAP is a screening tool designed to assess pediatric patients who are at risk of experiencing elevated distress during health-care encounters. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with 200 pediatric patients. Patient's distress levels were observed during their health-care encounter using the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale (CEMS). Health-care staff and parents were asked to rate the patient's level of cooperation and stress. Exploratory factor analysis supported a single latent factor structure of the PRAP tool. Cronbach's α for internal reliability was .83. PRAP score was strongly correlated with CEMS score with r = .82 (p < .0001). The PRAP is a standardized, reliable, and valid method for health-care providers to assess a patient's risk of experiencing significant distress during treatment or testing.

  18. Computeen: a randomized trial of a preventive computer and psychosocial skills curriculum for at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jason M; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L

    2009-09-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16 years old who were living in affordable housing communities participated in this randomized wait-list control study. Results showed considerable improvements in computer self-efficacy, decreases in internalizing behavior problems, and excellent attendance and consumer satisfaction. Self-esteem and school motivation results were mixed. Computer self-efficacy mediated the relationship between improved computer skills and self-esteem. Younger adolescents showed greater improvement than did older adolescents. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Although there are limitations to this study's sample size and scope, Computeen appears promising as a developmentally appropriate, strengths-based prevention program.

  19. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2015-09-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling relationships of ASD-Sibs involved less aggression, less involvement, and more avoidance than those of TD-Sibs. Partial support for a diathesis-stress conceptualization of sibling difficulties was found for ASD-Sibs. For TD-Sibs, broader autism phenotype (BAP) was related to psychosocial difficulties regardless of family stressors. For ASD-Sibs, BAP was related to difficulties only when family stressors were present. This suggests that having a sibling with ASD may be a protective factor that attenuates the negative impact of sibling BAP.

  20. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001). However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2), Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE) over lifetime (P = 0.058) and subjective well-being (P = 0.987) were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001), dominant (P = 0.03), egoistic (P < 0.001) and introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  1. A Practice/Research Collaborative: An Innovative Approach to Identifying and Responding to Psychosocial Functioning Problems and Recidivism Risk among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…

  2. Gender-specific secondary prevention? Differential psychosocial risk factors for major cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Kure, Christina E; Chan, Yih-Kai; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychosocial determinants and interhospital variability on a major acute cardiovascular event (MACE), during follow-up of a multicenter cohort of patients hospitalised with heart disease, participating in a nurse-led secondary prevention programme. Methods Outcome data were retrospectively analysed from 602 cardiac inpatients randomised to postdischarge standard care (n=296), or home-based intervention (n=306), with prolonged follow-up of individualised multidisciplinary support. Baseline psychosocial profiling comprised depressive status, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), social isolation and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Multivariate analyses examined the independent correlates of a composite 2-year MACE rate of all-cause mortality and unplanned cardiovascular-related hospitalisation, according to gender. Results Participants were aged 70±10 years, 431 (72%) were men and 377 (63%) had coronary artery disease. During 2-year follow-up, 165 (27%) participants (114 men, 51 women; p=0.431) experienced a MACE. Independent correlates of a MACE in men were depressive status (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.58; p=0.032), low physical HRQoL (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00; p=0.027) and increasing comorbidity (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25; p=0.004). In women, age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12; p=0.008), MCI (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.18; p=0.029) and hospital site predicted a MACE (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.93; p=0.029). Conclusions Psychological determinants, cognitive impairment and responses to secondary prevention are different for men and women with heart disease and appear to modulate cardiovascular-specific outcomes. Early detection of psychosocial factors through routine screening and gender-specific secondary prevention is encouraged. Trial registration number 12608000014358. PMID:27099759

  3. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: Relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Alexis E.; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E.; Fisher, Helen L.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Laurens, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9–12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11–14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size = −0.73, p = 0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness

  4. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alexis E; Zunszain, Patricia A; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E; Fisher, Helen L; Pariante, Carmine M; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-08-01

    Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11-14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size=-0.73, p=0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than

  5. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented.

  6. Reducing psychosocial risks through supervisors' development: a contribution for a brief version of the "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool".

    PubMed

    Toderi, Stefano; Gaggia, Andrea; Balducci, Cristian; Sarchielli, Guido

    2015-06-15

    With the recent changes in the world of work psychosocial risks are increasingly prevalent, causing work stress and physical and mental illnesses, which have a tremendous impact on public health and social participation. Supervisors' behaviour development was proposed as an innovative intervention that can reduce psychosocial risks. The "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool" is one of the most important questionnaires that assess managers' preventive behaviour. However, its psychometric properties have never been evaluated and the length of the questionnaire (66 items) limits its practical applicability. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of the questionnaire by providing psychometric evidence on a brief version of the tool focusing on the "Managing and Communicating existing and future Work" cluster of behaviours, which has been found to be the crucial one in terms of stress prevention. A questionnaire was administered to 178 employees of two Italian public organizations (a municipality and a hospital), measuring the supervisors' "Managing and Communicating existing and future Work" competency, and the affective well-being and work team effectiveness. The results showed excellent psychometric properties of the supervisors' behaviour scale and confirmed the expected relationships with criterion outcomes (affective well-being and team effectiveness). Overall, the factorial structure and dimensionality, the construct validity and reliability, and the concurrent validity of the tool were strongly supported by this study. We concluded that the brief version of the scale is a valid and reliable measure that can be easily used in practice and that can contribute to the development of research and practice on this topic.

  7. Hospital safety climate, psychosocial risk factors and needlestick injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Muto, Takashi; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ishikawa, Yumiko; Sayama, Shizue; Yoshida, Atsushi; Townley-Jones, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the interactions between safety climate, psychosocial issues and Needlestick and Sharps Injuries (NSI), a cross-sectional study was undertaken among nurses at a university teaching hospital in Japan (89% response rate). NSI were correlated with various aspects of hospital safety climate including supporting one another at work, the protection of staff against blood-borne diseases being a high management priority, managers doing their part to protect staff from blood-borne disease, having unsafe work practices corrected by supervisors, having the opportunity to use safety equipment to protect against blood-borne disease exposures, having an uncluttered work area, and having minimal conflict within their department. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the importance of hospital safety climate in Japanese health care practice, particularly its relationship with NSI. Although the provision of safer devices remains critical in preventing injuries, ensuring a positive safety climate will also be essential in meeting these important challenges for nurses' occupational health.

  8. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  9. Severe psychosocial stress and heavy cigarette smoking during pregnancy: an examination of the pre- and perinatal risk factors associated with ADHD and Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Maria G; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Lin, Haiqun; Kim, Young-Shin; Scahill, Lawrence; Lombroso, Paul J; King, Robert A; Peterson, Bradley S; Leckman, James F

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently diagnosed in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). The basis for this co-occurrence is uncertain. This study aimed to determine if specific pre- and perinatal risk factors, including heavy maternal smoking and severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy, were associated with one or both disorders, or neither. We compared maternal report data on pre- and perinatal risk factors on 222 children between the ages of 7 and 18 years including 45 individuals with TS alone, 52 individuals with ADHD alone, 60 individuals with condition of comorbid TS + ADHD, and 65 unaffected control children. Pre- and perinatal histories as well as psychiatric assessments were performed using standardized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with the mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio for each variable of interest. Compared to the mothers of unaffected control children, the mothers of children with ADHD alone reported higher rates of heavy smoking (>10 cigarettes per day) during pregnancy and higher levels of severe psychosocial stress during pregnancy (OR = 13.5, p < 0.01 and OR = 6.8, p < 0.002, respectively). The TS + ADHD and the TS alone patients also had higher rates heavy maternal smoking and high levels of psychosocial stress compared to the control children, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance (heavy smoking: OR = 8.5, p < 0.052, OR = 4.6, p < 0.19, respectively; severe psychosocial stress: OR = 3.1, p < 0.07, OR = 2.6, p < 0.11, respectively). Heavy maternal smoking and severe levels psychosocial stress during pregnancy were independently associated with a diagnosis of ADHD. TS patients also had higher rates of these risk factors, but the ORs failed to reach statistical significance. Efforts are needed to reduce the frequency of these risk factors in high-risk populations. Future studies, using genetically sensitive designs, are also needed

  10. Classification of psychosocial risk factors (yellow flags) for the development of chronic low back and leg pain using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Hallner, Dirk; Hasenbring, Monika

    2004-05-06

    Due to international guidelines of treatment of acute low back pain (LBP), psychosocial risk factors like depressive mood and maladaptive pain-related coping strategies ('yellow flags') have to be assessed in the early phase of acute pain. Within this longitudinal study in patients with LBP and leg pain, we used an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the pain intensity 6 months after the onset of treatment. Psychosocial risk factors were used as input neurons. The training of the three-layer ANN using the back-propagation algorithm yields to an accuracy of 83.1%. Further on, the complexity of this structure indicated the necessity of an early screening procedure that allows a differentiation between several high risk groups and a low risk profile in order to predict the long-term development of pain intensity.

  11. Psychosocial factors and substance use in high-risk youth living with HIV: a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Kolmodin, Karen; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Murphy, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to test relationships between psychosocial factors and alcohol and illicit drug use among high-risk youth living with HIV (YLH). One hundred eighty-six high-risk youth with HIV (defined as those with a substance use problem, sexual risk problem, or medication adherence problem) were enrolled across five cities (ages 16-24). Alcohol and illicit drug use were measured with the alcohol, smoking, and substance involvement screening test and a timeline follow-back interview. Questionnaires assessed constructs from the adapted Transtheoretical Model (TTM) including a continuous measure of motivational readiness in response to criticisms of the stage component. Path analysis was utilized to fit cross-sectional data collected via computer assisted personal interviewing (baseline data from intervention study). Separate models were fit for each commonly used substance. In the previous month, 47% used alcohol, 37% used cannabis, and 9% used other illicit drugs. Path models fit the data well and accounted for 30% of the variance in alcohol use and 47% in cannabis use. Higher self-efficacy predicted lower alcohol and cannabis use, but motivational readiness was only directly related to cannabis use. A reduction in pros of substance use was indirectly related to use. Social support and psychological distress were associated with TTM constructs. Interventions focusing on improving motivation and self-efficacy for healthy behaviors may reduce substance use in YLH.

  12. Epidemiological study to investigate potential interaction between physical and psychosocial factors at work that may increase the risk of symptoms of musculoskeletal disorder of the neck and upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Devereux, J; Vlachonikolis, I; Buckle, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate potential interactions between physical and psychosocial risk factors in the workplace that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorder of the neck and upper limb. Methods: 891 of 1514 manual handlers, delivery drivers, technicians, customer services computer operators, and general office staff reported on physical and psychosocial working conditions and symptoms of neck and upper limb disorders using a self administered questionnaire (59% return rate). Of the 869 valid questionnaire respondents, 564 workers were classified in to one of four exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial, high physical and low psychosocial, low physical and high psychosocial, and low physical and low psychosocial. Low physical and low psychosocial was used as an internal reference group. The exposure criteria were derived from the existing epidemiological literature and models for physical and psychosocial work factors. The frequency and amplitude of lifting and the duration spent sitting while experiencing vibration were used as physical exposure criteria. Ordinal values of mental demands, job control, and social support with managers and coworkers were used as psychosocial exposure criteria. Results: In the multivariate analyses, the highest and significant increase in risk was found in the high physical and high psychosocial exposure group for symptoms of hand or wrist and upper limb disorders after adjusting for years at the job, age, and sex. A potential interaction effect was found for the symptoms of the hand or wrist and upper limb disorders but not for the neck symptoms. Conclusion: This study showed that workers highly exposed to both physical and psychosocial workplace risk factors were more likely to report symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders than workers highly exposed to one or the other. The results suggest an interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors in the workplace that increased the risk of

  13. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  14. Narrative story stems with high risk six year-olds: differential associations with mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Page, Timothy; Boris, Neil W; Heller, Sherryl; Robinson, Lara; Hawkins, Shantice; Norwood, Rhonda

    2011-07-01

    Children's responses on a Narrative Story Stem Technique (NSST) were coded using scales reflecting essential attachment constructs, specifically, attachment, exploratory, sociability, and caregiving behavioral systems, as originally conceived by Bowlby ( 1973 , 1982 ) and elaborated upon by his followers (Cassidy, 2008 ). NSST responses were examined in relation to both mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment and risk using the MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ). Forty-six children participated (average age 6 years 10 months), 19 of whom had high-risk backgrounds, and the rest demographically matched. Findings indicate that NSST scales were associated with behavior on certain HBQ scales, in expected directions. NSST responses appeared to differentiate socially competent children from children with the specific psycho-social risks of externalizing behavior problems and social isolation, according to mother-reports, on the one hand, and peer vulnerability and internalizing problems, according to teacher-reports, on the other. Implications for clinical applications are discussed.

  15. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  16. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture.

  17. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture. PMID:26929837

  18. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  19. Psychosocial Adjustment over a Two-Year Period in Children Referred for Learning Problems: Risk, Resilience, and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…

  20. Risk among Combat Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: The Impact of Psychosocial Factors on the Escalation of Suicidal Risk

    PubMed Central

    HALIMI, Ramadan; HALIMI, Hidajete

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to (a) evaluate the influence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other comorbid disorders on suicidal risk among combat veterans and (b) evaluate the impact of psychosocial factors on the escalation of suicidal risk. Methods Data were gathered from a random and representative sample of 215 Kosovo War veterans. Subjects were assessed for the presence of lifetime and current psychiatric disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Revision (DSM-IV TR) using the following questionnaires: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (BSIS). Results Suicidal ideations were observed in 44 (20.5%) of the 215 subjects. High suicide risk was found in 31.8% veterans diagnosed with PTSD and comorbid major depressive disorder. In addition, high suicide risk was also observed in the group of unemployed veterans, veterans dissatisfied with social/economic attainment and veterans dissatisfied with living conditions. Conclusion Our study showed that socioeconomic factors contributes to the deterioration of symptoms of major depression, PTSD and other comorbid disorders, with a direct impact of worsening suicidal ideations and suicidal behavior among war veterans.

  1. Comparison of the effects of exercise participation on psychosocial risk factors and cardiovascular disease in women.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Seon-Rye

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to research the association of Type D personality with CVD risk factors and psychology through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D. [Subjects] This study included 416 middle-aged women. All participants completed the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14) to assess Type D personality. The DS14 consists of two subscales, NA and SI, both of which comprise 7 items. The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+non-Exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running were performed on a treadmill at the HRmax 60-70% level for 40 min; this was done three times a week. Blood samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL-cholesterol were determined enzymatically on a clinical chemistry analyzer. Blood glucose was measured by the hexokinase method. [Results] Weight, percent fat, social support, and waist circumference showed a significant difference between times in the Exercise groups, and the values were significantly lower than those of the non-Exercise groups. Anxiety and depression showed a significant interaction effect between groups. The average number of CVD risk factors in subjects showed a significant difference between groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D personality.

  2. [Psychosocial aspects of risk behaviour of adolescents in respect of drug abuse].

    PubMed

    Klein, M

    2004-02-01

    Children and adolescents in Germany show a high rate of substance use, esp. concerning tobacco and alcohol. Taking these and other drugs can be seen as a juvenile risk behaviour associated with adverse effects, e. g. violence, unsafe sexuality, early pregnancy, underachievement in school. Prevention and intervention measures should begin early and be designed comprehensively in order to gain decisive and long-lasting effects. Children and adolescents of addicted parents and those with substance abusing peers have to be viewed as especially in danger for increased substance abuse and associated risk behaviours. One of the main preventive tasks is the acquisition of affective self-control and self-management competences.

  3. Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit…

  4. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and…

  5. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  6. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  7. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  8. Psychosocial Functioning Problems over Time among High-Risk Youths: A Latent Class Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors report the results of latent class analyses and latent class transition analyses of antisocial behavior risk factors among 137 youths participating in a juvenile diversion program. The study examined the youths' latent classifications using baseline and 1-year follow-up measures of family, peer, education, and mental health risk…

  9. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Psychosocial Well-Being of Adopted Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmel, Cassandra

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…

  10. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with First and Recurrent Cystitis in Indian Women: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bharti; Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country. PMID:26917870

  11. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. Methods A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants’ exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Results Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (p < .05) associated with methamphetamine use in adulthood, difficulties with mood, and with symptoms of trauma. Results of a hierarchical regression equation found that report of bullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. Conclusions The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV

  12. Psychosocial Stress as a Risk Factor for Sepsis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ojard, Connor; Donnelly, John P.; Safford, Monika M.; Griffin, Russell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the relationship between stress and future risk of sepsis. We also evaluated the role of depression in this relationship. METHODS We used population-based data on 30,183 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, characterizing stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We identified incident sepsis events as hospitalizations for a serious infection with the presence of ≥2 SIRS criteria. We assessed associations between PSS and incidence of sepsis over one- and ten-years of follow-up, adjusting for demographics and chronic medical conditions and assessing the role of health behaviors and CES-D in these relationships. RESULTS During 2003–2012, 1,500 participants experienced an episode of sepsis. Mean PSS and CES-D scores were 3.2±2.9 and 1.2±2.1. PSS was associated with increased one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.21 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.06–1.38); multivariable adjustment for health behaviors and CES-D did not change this association (1.20; 1.20; 1.03–1.39). PSS was also associated with increased 10-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.07 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13). Multivariable adjustment showed that health behaviors did not affect this long-term association whereas addition of CES-D reduced the association between PSS and sepsis during 10-year follow-up (HR 1.04; 0.98–1.11). CONCLUSIONS Increased stress was associated higher one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis, even after accounting for depressive symptoms. The association between stress and ten-year adjusted incidence of sepsis was also significant, but this association was reduced when adjusting for depressive symptoms. Reduction of stress may limit short-term sepsis risk. PMID:25469683

  13. Psychosocial and physical risk factors associated with low back pain: a 24 year follow up among women and men in a broad range of occupations

    PubMed Central

    Thorbjornsson, C. O.; Alfredsson, L.; Fredriksson, K.; Koster, M.; Michelsen, H.; Vingard, E.; Torgen, M.; Kilbom, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between psychosocial and physical factors at work, as well as conditions during leisure time, and low back pain (LBP) over 24 years. METHODS: The study group consisted of 252 women and 232 men. From a previous study conducted in 1969, data on psychosocial and physical conditions and LBP were available. Data on LBP for 1971-93 were obtained retrospectively in 1993. RESULTS: The prevalence of LBP in 1969 among women and men were 34% and 24%, the cumulative incidences of LBP during 1970-92 were 38% and 43%, and the prevalences in 1993 of having had LBP during the past 12 months were 44% and 39%, respectively. Monotonous work and few or unsatisfactory social contacts outside work were risk factors for LBP in 1969 among women. LBP in 1969 and dissatisfaction with leisure time were risk factors among both sexes for LBP in 1970-92. LBP in 1969 was a risk factor for LBP in 1993 among women and dissatisfaction with leisure time a risk factor among men. Interactions between few or unsatisfactory social contacts outside work, as well as dissatisfaction with leisure time, and several factors related to work were found to increase the risk of LBP among both sexes during the studied periods. CONCLUSIONS: Conditions in leisure time exert a long term influence on LBP. In this study factors related to work had a long term effect only in interaction with leisure time factors.   PMID:9614391

  14. Protocol for a systematic review of telephone delivered psychosocial interventions on relapse prevention, adherence to psychiatric medication and health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Turner, Alyna; Haddock, Gillian; Kelly, Peter J; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mental and physical health of individuals with a psychotic illness are typically poor. When adhered to, medication can reduce relapse. However, despite adherence, relapse remains common and functional outcomes often remain compromised. Compliance is also typically low. Cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is also elevated, along with several important modifiable health risk behaviours. Access to psychosocial interventions is therefore important, but currently limited. Telephone delivered interventions represent a promising solution, although further clarity is needed. Accordingly, we aim to provide an overview and critical analysis of the current state of evidence for telephone delivered psychosocial interventions targeting key health priorities in adults with a psychotic disorder, including (1) relapse, (2) adherence to psychiatric medication and/or (3) modifiable cardiovascular health risk behaviours. Methods and analysis Our methods are informed by published guidelines. The review is registered and any protocol amendments will be tracked. Ten electronic peer-reviewed and four grey literature databases have been identified. Preliminary searches have been conducted for literature on psychosocial telephone interventions targeting relapse, medication adherence and/or health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder. Articles classified as ‘evaluation’ will be assessed against standardised criteria and checked by an independent assessor. The searches will be re-run just before final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion. A narrative synthesis will be reported, structured around intervention type and content, population characteristics and outcomes. Where possible, ‘summary of findings’ tables will be generated for each comparison. For the primary outcome of each trial, when data are available, we will calculate a risk ratio and its 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula

  15. Helping Middle School Girls at Risk for School Failure Recover Their Confidence and Achieve School Success: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Middle school girls who are at risk have experienced a disproportionate number of intense and disruptive traumatic life events. Such events can adversely affect healthy development and often contribute to higher levels of school failure and problem behavior. Few programs focus on helping at-risk middle school girls achieve school success through…

  16. Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Behavior Risk Factors Associated with Sexual Risk Behaviors among Southeastern US College Students

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Lowe, Kincaid; Stratton, Erin; Goodwin, Sherell Brown; Grimsley, Linda; Rodd, Jan; Williams, Catherine; Mattox, Cheri; Foster, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlates of 1) being a virgin; 2) drug or alcohol use prior to the last intercourse; and 3) condom use during the last intercourse in a sample of college students. Methods We recruited 24,055 students at six colleges in the Southeast to complete an online survey, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate), with complete data from 4514. Results Logistic regression indicated that correlates of virginity included being younger (p < 0.001), male (p = 0.01), being White or other ethnicity (p < 0.001), attending a four-vs. two-year school (p < 0.001), being single/never married (p < 0.001), lower sensation seeking (p < 0.001), more regular religious service attendance (p < 0.001), lower likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p = 0.002), and less frequentdrinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of alcohol or drug use prior to most recent intercourse including being older (p = 0.03), being White (p < 0.01), attending a four-year college (p < 0.001), being homosexual (p = 0.041) or bisexual (p = 0.011), having more lifetime sexual partners (p = 0.005), lower satisfaction with life (p = 0.004), greater likelihood of smoking (p < 0.001) and marijuana use (p < 0.001), and more frequent drinking (p < 0.001). Correlates of condom use during the last sexual intercourse including being older (p = 0.003), being female (p < 0.001), being White (p < 0.001), attending a two-year school (p = 0.04), being single/never married (p = 0.005), being homosexual or bisexual (p = 0.04), and a more frequent drinking (p = 0.001). Conclusions Four-year college attendees were more likely to be a virgin but, if sexually active, reported higher sexual risk behaviors. These nuances regarding sexual risk may provide targets for sexual health promotion programs and interventions. PMID:25068080

  17. Psychosocial Health Problems Associated with Increased HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Deuba, Keshab; Ekström, Anna Mia; Shrestha, Rachana; Ionita, George; Bhatta, Laxmi; Karki, Deepak Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are marginalized, hidden, underserved and at high risk for HIV in Nepal. We examined the association between MSM sub-populations, psychosocial health problems and support, access to prevention and non-use of condoms. Methods Between September-November of 2010, a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related risk behavior was performed across Nepal through snowball sampling facilitated by non-governmental organizations, recruiting 339 MSM, age 15 or older. The primary outcomes were: (a) non-use of condoms at least once in last three anal sex encounters with men and (b) non-use of condoms with women in the last encounter. The secondary outcome was participation in HIV prevention interventions in the past year. Results Among the 339 MSM interviewed, 78% did not use condoms at their last anal sex with another man, 35% did not use condoms in their last sex with a woman, 70% had experienced violence in the last 12 months, 61% were experiencing depression and 47% had thought of committing suicide. After adjustment for age, religion, marital status, and MSM subpopulations (bisexual, ta, meti, gay), non-use of condoms at last anal sex with a man was significantly associated with non-participation in HIV interventions, experience of physical and sexual violence, depression, repeated suicidal thoughts, small social support network and being dissatisfied with social support. Depression was marginally associated with non-use of condoms with women. The findings suggest that among MSM who reported non-use of condoms at last anal sex, the ta subgroup and those lacking family acceptance were the least likely to have participated in any preventive interventions. Conclusions MSM in Nepal have a prevalence of psychosocial health problems in turn associated with high risk behavior for HIV. Future HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM in Nepal should cover all MSM subpopulations and prioritize psychosocial health interventions. PMID:23516434

  18. Sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial health concerns of female-to-male transgender men screening for STDs at an urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of female-to-male (FTM) transgender men remains understudied. De-identified electronic medical records of 23 FTMs (mean age = 32, 48% racial/ethnic minority) who screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) between July and December 2007 at a Boston, Massachusetts area health center were analyzed. Almost half (48%) were on testosterone and 39% had undergone chest surgery; none had undergone genital reconstruction. The majority (57%) were bisexual, and 30% reported sex with nontransgender males only in the prior three months. One individual was HIV-infected (4.3%) and two (8.7%) had a history of STDs (all laboratory-confirmed). Overall, 26% engaged in sexual risk behavior in the prior three months (i.e., unprotected sex with a nontransgender male, condom breakage, or anonymous sex). The majority (61%) had a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis (52% depression, 52% anxiety, and 26% adjustment disorder), and regular alcohol use was common (65%). Alcohol use, psychosocial distress histories, and sex with males only (versus with males and females) were associated with sexual risk in the past three months. Transgender men have concomitant psychosocial health vulnerabilities which may contribute to sexual risk behaviors. Future research is needed to understand the myriad social, behavioral, and biological factors that contribute to HIV and STD vulnerability for FTMs. PMID:24206043

  19. Sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial health concerns of female-to-male transgender men screening for STDs at an urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; White, Jaclyn M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The sexual health of female-to-male (FTM) transgender men remains understudied. De-identified electronic medical records of 23 FTMs (mean age = 32, 48% racial/ethnic minority) who screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) between July and December 2007 at a Boston, Massachusetts area health center were analyzed. Almost half (48%) were on testosterone and 39% had undergone chest surgery; none had undergone genital reconstruction. The majority (57%) were bisexual, and 30% reported sex with nontransgender males only in the prior three months. One individual was HIV-infected (4.3%) and two (8.7%) had a history of STDs (all laboratory-confirmed). Overall, 26% engaged in sexual risk behavior in the prior three months (i.e., unprotected sex with a nontransgender male, condom breakage, or anonymous sex). The majority (61%) had a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis (52% depression, 52% anxiety, and 26% adjustment disorder), and regular alcohol use was common (65%). Alcohol use, psychosocial distress histories, and sex with males only (versus with males and females) were associated with sexual risk in the past three months. Transgender men have concomitant psychosocial health vulnerabilities which may contribute to sexual risk behaviors. Future research is needed to understand the myriad social, behavioral, and biological factors that contribute to HIV and STD vulnerability for FTMs.

  20. Do the psychosocial risks associated with television viewing increase mortality? Evidence from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Zohn; Johnson, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk of mortality, which could be caused by a sedentary lifestyle, the content of television programming (e.g., cigarette product placement or stress-inducing content), or both. Methods We examined the relationship between self-reported hours of television viewing and mortality risk over 30 years in a representative sample of the American adult population using the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset. We also explored the intervening variable effect of various emotional states (e.g., happiness) and beliefs (e.g., trust in government) of the relationship between television viewing and mortality. Results We find that for each additional hour of viewing, mortality risks increased 4%. Given the mean duration of television viewing in our sample, this amounted to about 1.2 years of life expectancy in the US. This association was tempered by a number of potential psychosocial mediators, including self-reported measures of happiness, social capital, or confidence in institutions. While none of these were clinically significant, the combined mediation power was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions Television viewing among healthy adults is correlated with premature mortality in a nationally-representative sample of US adults, and this association may be partially mediated by programming content related to beliefs or affective states. However, this mediation effect is the result of many small changes in psychosocial states rather than large effects from a few factors. PMID:23683712

  1. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    PubMed

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants (< 40 years), whereas among older participants (> 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  2. Psychosocial interventions in the treatment of youth diagnosed or at high-risk for pediatric bipolar disorder: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Cárol; Farriols, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has emerged as a research field in which psychosocial treatments have provided a plethora of empirical findings over the last decade. We addressed this issue through a systematic review aimed of establishing their effectiveness and feasibility as adjunctive therapies for youth with PBD or at high-risk for PBD. A comprehensive search of databases was performed between 1990 and September 2014. Overall, 33 studies were specifically related to the issue and 20 of them were original articles. Evidence suggests that both "multi-family psychoeducational psychotherapy' and "family-focused therapy" are possible effective treatments for PBD. Likewise, "child and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy" may be characterized as a treatment in its experimental phase. The remaining therapies fail to obtain enough empirical support due to inconsistent findings among clinical trials or data solely based on case reports. Studies of psychosocial treatments provide concluding results concerning their feasibility and acceptability. Larger sample sizes and more randomized controlled trials are mandatory for diminishing methodological shortcomings encountered in the treatments displayed.

  3. A national standard for psychosocial safety climate (PSC): PSC 41 as the benchmark for low risk of job strain and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Tessa S; Dollard, Maureen F; Richards, Penny A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research from around the world now permeating occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and guidelines, there remains a lack of tools to guide practice. Our main goal was to establish benchmark levels of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) that would signify risk of job strain (jobs with high demands and low control) and depression in organizations. First, to justify our focus on PSC, using interview data from Australian employees matched at 2 time points 12 months apart (n = 1081), we verified PSC as a significant leading predictor of job strain and in turn depression. Next, using 2 additional data sets (n = 2097 and n = 1043) we determined benchmarks of organizational PSC (range 12-60) for low-risk (PSC at 41 or above) and high-risk (PSC at 37 or below) of employee job strain and depressive symptoms. Finally, using the newly created benchmarks we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) and found that improving PSC in organizations to above 37 could reduce 14% of job strain and 16% of depressive symptoms in the working population. The results provide national standards that organizations and regulatory agencies can utilize to promote safer working environments and lower the risk of harm to employee mental health.

  4. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Andover, Margaret S; Morris, Blair W; Wren, Abigail; Bruzzese, Margaux E

    2012-03-30

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.

  5. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed. PMID:22463065

  6. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pravina

    2002-05-01

    Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.

  7. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  8. Street Workers and Internet Escorts: Contextual and Psychosocial Factors Surrounding HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Engage in Sex Work with Other Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Tinsley, Jake P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n = 19) and internet escorts (n = 13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD = 42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the “lucrativeness” of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, “why not

  9. Street workers and internet escorts: contextual and psychosocial factors surrounding HIV risk behavior among men who engage in sex work with other men.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Tinsley, Jake P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n=19) and internet escorts (n=13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD=42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the "lucrativeness" of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, "why not?" attitude, and because

  10. Psychosocial and cultural factors affecting the perceived risk of genetically modified food: an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Melissa L; Holup, Joan L

    2005-04-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for an astute understanding of cultural differences in perceptions, values, and ways of thinking about new food technologies. In this paper, we describe how socio-psychological and cultural factors may affect public perceptions of the risk of genetically modified (GM) food. We present psychological, sociological, and anthropological research on risk perception as a framework for understanding cross-national differences in reactions to GM food. Differences in the cultural values and circumstances of people in the US, European countries, and the developing world are examined. The implications of cultural theory for risk communication and decision making about GM food are discussed and directions for future research highlighted.

  11. Self-reported urge urinary incontinence (UUI) among older Mexican-American men: risk factors and psycho-social consequences.

    PubMed

    Gerst, K; Ray, L A; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D V; Markides, K S

    2011-12-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic Whites and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditions and men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey.

  12. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Design Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Setting 2 populations in East Germany. Participants CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45–83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20–79 years at baseline (2193 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. Results RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Conclusions Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular

  13. Patterns of Service Use, Individual and Contextual Risk Factors, and Resilience among Adolescents Using Multiple Psychosocial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda; Dudding, Peter; Armstrong, Mary; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very little research has examined the relationship between resilience, risk, and the service use patterns of adolescents with complex needs who use multiple formal and mandated services such as child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, and special educational supports. This article reports on a study of 497 adolescents in…

  14. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  15. A case-control study of psychosocial risk and protective factors of self-immolation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Mohammadi, Reza; Almasi, Afshin; Amini-Saman, Javad; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Svanström, Leif

    2015-03-01

    Self-immolation is the third leading cause of years of life lost (YLL) among women in Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate self-immolation-related risk and protective factors in the western region of Iran, a province with the highest prevalent of self-immolation in the country. Using a case-control design, we compared 151 cases of self-immolation attempters who were admitted to a burn center in Kermanshah with 302-matched control group from the same community/locality between March 21st, 2009, and March 20th, 2012. We conducted descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis to examine the associations of self-immolation with demographic and familial risk factors, adverse life events, mental disorders, as well as potential protective factors. According to our findings, the highest percentage of self-immolation was in the 16-25 year-old age group (60%) and in females (76%). Of the potential risk factors in the study, major depression, adjustment disorders, individual history of suicide attempts and opium dependence, were statistically significant predictors of self-immolation. Suggestions for translating the local picture of self-immolation portrayed by our findings, into meaningful prevention strategies that have a good fit with the social and interpersonal context within which self-immolation takes place are discussed.

  16. Medical nonadherence in pediatric HIV: psychosocial risks and intersection with the child protection system for medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Corry; Wade, Mark; Salter, Robyn; Macdougall, Georgina; Shouldice, Michelle; Read, Stanley; Bitnun, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment has serious health implications for HIV-infected children, at times warranting referral to child protective services (CPS). The current study of 134 children with perinatally acquired HIV infection aimed to investigate rates of treatment adherence and CPS involvement, multilevel variables associated with nonadherence, and the manner in which these risks operated together in the prediction of adherence outcomes. Risk factors for nonadherence were grouped on the basis of confirmatory factor models, and factor score regression was carried out to determine which factors were uniquely predictive of adherence. A series of indirect effects models were then tested in order to examine how these factors operated together in the prediction of adherence. Results showed that almost half of the sample demonstrated suboptimal adherence to treatment, and in one-fifth, CPS was involved for medical neglect. Caregiver Health, Caregiver Involvement, Caregiver Acceptance, and Child Adaptation were predictive of nonadherence, and together explained 54% of the variance in treatment adherence. There were significant indirect effects of Caregiver Health on adherence that operated through Caregiver Involvement and Child Adaptation and an indirect effect of Caregiver Involvement on adherence through Child Adaptation. Findings extend current literature that has independently linked various factors predictive of medical adherence in pediatric HIV by showing separate but simultaneous associations with nonadherence and unique pathways to adherence involving multilevel risks. Healthcare and child welfare implications are discussed.

  17. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  18. Indoor air quality: a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  19. Psychosocial and Behavioral Characteristics of High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Unknown HIV Positive Serostatus in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sapsirisavat, Vorapot; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Keadpudsa, Siriwan; Egan, James E; Pussadee, Kanitta; Klaytong, Preeyarach; Reuel Friedman, M; van Griensven, Frits; Stall, Ron

    2016-12-01

    HIV prevalence remains high in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok. Even though resources for HIV testing and treatment are available for all, a large proportion of MSM still do not get HIV tested. We studied high risk MSM who are unaware of their HIV status to help maximize effectiveness of our resources. Convenience sampling was conducted among MSM who came for HIV testing at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two popular drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, have not been tested positive for HIV, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection diagnosis. Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interview was used to assess psychosocial profile, sexual risks, and HIV testing patterns prior to being informed of their HIV positive status. Among 499 high-risk MSM enrolled, the median age was 24.8 years and 112 (22 %) tested HIV-positive. Among the HIV-positive participants, 92 % self-identified as gay (versus bisexual), 39 % attained a bachelors degree or higher, 65 % had monthly income 10,000-29,999 baht ($280-830 USD), 10 % had vaginal or anal sex with a woman in the past 12 months, 39 % had condomless receptive sex with men and 21 % went to Lat Phrao to find a sexual partner. Compared to HIV negative MSM, HIV-positive MSM had less HIV testing: 31 % had ever been tested for HIV, 12 % had been tested in the past 6 months; but were more likely to guess correctly their positive status (31 %). Regarding psychosocial variables among HIV-positive MSM, 7 % had regular methamphetamine use in the past 3 months, 10 % had >2 sources of discrimination, and 8 % had >2 sources of discrimination due to being MSM. In multivariable model, age<30 year old, self-identified as gay, had monthly income <50,000 baht ($1400 USD), had anal sex with men in past 12 months, had >2 sources of discrimination because of being MSM, did not

  20. Psychosocial stress related to the loss of a close relative the year before or during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    László, Krisztina D; Liu, Xiao Qin; Svensson, Tobias; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven

    2013-07-01

    The role of stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has only been investigated in a few studies, and the findings are not conclusive. We analyzed whether maternal bereavement shortly before or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. We conducted a cohort study of singleton births in Denmark during 1978-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 (n=4 122 490) by linking national population-based registers. Mothers were considered exposed to bereavement if they lost a parent, a sibling, a partner, or a child the year before or during pregnancy (n=124 553). The risk of preeclampsia was slightly increased for women who lost a close relative during the 6 months before conception (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.23) or during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29). Exposure during these periods tended to be more closely related to early preeclampsia (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation; OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67) than to late preeclampsia (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.20). The strongest association was observed between loss of a child and early preeclampsia when the exposure window was from 6 months before pregnancy until start of second trimester (OR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.46-6.61). Our results related to timing of exposure suggest that severe stress may influence early placentation. However, the public health implications of our findings are limited in populations with a low prevalence of severe stress exposures.

  1. Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landon, Lauren Blackwell; Vessey, William B.; Barrett, Jamie D.

    2015-01-01

    A team is defined as: "two or more individuals who interact socially and adaptively, have shared or common goals, and hold meaningful task interdependences; it is hierarchically structured and has a limited life span; in it expertise and roles are distributed; and it is embedded within an organization/environmental context that influences and is influenced by ongoing processes and performance outcomes" (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007, p. 189). From the NASA perspective, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. Thus, depending on context, this definition can encompass both the spaceflight crew and the individuals and teams in the larger multi-team system who are assigned to support that crew during a mission. The Team Risk outcomes of interest are predominantly performance related, with a secondary emphasis on long-term health; this is somewhat unique in the NASA HRP in that most Risk areas are medically related and primarily focused on long-term health consequences. In many operational environments (e.g., aviation), performance is assessed as the avoidance of errors. However, the research on performance errors is ambiguous. It implies that actions may be dichotomized into "correct" or "incorrect" responses, where incorrect responses or errors are always undesirable. Researchers have argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006) (Category III1). Two problems occur when focusing on performance errors: 1) the errors are infrequent and, therefore, difficult to observe and record; and 2) the errors do not directly correspond to failure. Research reveals that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures

  2. Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and HIV-related sexual risk behavior between Black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Typhanye P; Regan, Rotrease; Wilton, Leo; Harawa, Nina T; Ou, San San; Wang, Lei; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-12-01

    We assessed associations in substance use, psychosocial characteristics, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, comparing characteristics of Black men who only have sex with other men only (BMSMO; n = 839) to Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW; n = 590). The study analyzed baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061), a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Bivariate analyses compared BMSMO to BMSMW along demographics, substance use, psychosocial characteristics, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Logistic regression models then assessed multivariable associations between being BMSMW and the odds of engaging in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Adjusted analyses revealed that BMSMW remained more likely to have unprotected anal intercourse while under the influence of alcohol (AOR: 1.45; 95 % CI:1.11-1.90) and were more likely to receive money/drugs for sex (AOR: 2.11; 95 % CI:1.48-3.03), compared to BMSMO. Substance use is an important factor to be considered when developing risk-reduction interventions for BMSMW. Structural interventions that address factors that may contribute to exchange sex among these men are also warranted.

  3. Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

  4. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  5. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  6. Psychosocial Risk Factors, Interventions, and Comorbidity in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Need for Comprehensive and Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients' or HCPs' overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions, this

  7. Psychosocial Risk Factors, Interventions, and Comorbidity in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Need for Comprehensive and Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions

  8. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.

  9. Psychosocial and family functioning in spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, Grayson N; Devine, Katie A

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower socio-economic status (SES) homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB.

  10. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  11. Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome.

  12. Latent class profiles of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial health indicators are differentially associated with sexual transmission risk: Findings from the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort study of HIV-infected men engaged in primary care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Biello, Katie; Reisner, Sari L.; Crane, Heidi M.; Wilson, Johannes; Grasso, Chris; Kitahata, Mari M.; Mathews, Wm. Christopher; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether latent class indicators of negative affect and substance use emerged as distinct psychosocial risk profiles among HIV-infected men, and if these latent classes were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors that may transmit HIV. Methods Data were from HIV-infected men who reported having anal intercourse in the past six months and received routine clinical care at four U.S. sites in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort (n=1,210). Latent class membership was estimated using binary indicators for: anxiety, depression, alcohol and/or drug use during sex, and polydrug use. Generalized estimating equations modeled whether latent class membership was associated with HIV sexual transmission risk in the past six months. Results Three latent classes of psychosocial indicators emerged: (1) internalizing (15.3%) (high probability of anxiety and major depression); (2) externalizing (17.8%) (high probability of alcohol and/or drug use during sex and polydrug use); (3) low psychosocial distress (67.0%) (low probability of all psychosocial factors examined). Internalizing and externalizing latent class membership were associated with HIV sexual transmission risk, compared to low psychosocial class membership; externalizing class membership was also associated with higher sexual transmission risk compared to internalizing class membership. Conclusions Distinct patterns of psychosocial health characterize this sexually active HIV-infected male patient population and are strongly associated with HIV sexual transmission risk. Public health intervention efforts targeting HIV sexual risk transmission may benefit from considering symptom clusters that share internalizing or externalizing properties. PMID:25642839

  13. The combined effect of physical, psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental risk factors on the presence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the combined effect of physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors on the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism due to MSS) in a random sample of 3003 workers in New Zealand. By telephone interview, participants reported their current workplace exposures and MSS (neck/shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist and low back) and its consequences. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Combined exposure to physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors increased the odds of MSS in the neck/shoulder (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.79-5.52), arms/elbow regions (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.21-7.76) and low back (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.28-2.37) and its consequences, i.e. reduced activities due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.45, 95% CI 2.28-13.00), absenteeism due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.19, 95% CI 2.24-12.01) and absenteeism due to low back symptoms (OR 4.37, 95% CI 2.92-6.53). In contrast, favourable psychosocial/organisational work conditions reduced the odds of wrist symptoms due to poor physical work conditions (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.44-3.34). We conclude that to reduce MSS and its consequences, employers need to adopt a multifaceted approach: concentrate on improving physical conditions as well as the psychosocial/organisational and environmental aspects of the working environment.

  14. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Work-Related Upper Extremity Disorders: A Prospective Study of Medical, Physical, Ergonomic, and Psychosocial Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-08

    Mathis et aI., 1994). In this sample, obsessive - compulsive (9%) and paranoid (9%) personality disorders were the most common diagnoses. This pattern of...orCaadidate: "Predicdal Outcome in PatieDts with Work-blated Upper Extremity Disorders : A Prospective Study oCMeclical, Physical, EIJODomic,. ad Psychosocial...the Health Sciences ii ABSTRACT Title ofThesis: Predicting Outcome in Patients with Work-Related Upper Extremity Disorders : A Prospective Study

  15. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers—findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study

    PubMed Central

    MATSUDAIRA, Ko; KAWAGUCHI, Mika; ISOMURA, Tatsuya; INUZUKA, Kyoko; KOGA, Tadashi; MIYOSHI, Kota; KONISHI, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17–11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97–8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18–14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace. PMID:26051289

  16. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains isolated in Argentina (South America) are different from those recovered in North America and present a higher risk for humans

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Monica; Xu, Jianguo; Zielinski, Gustavo; Auger, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent causing meningitis and septicemia/septic shock. Strains are usually virulent (Eurasia) or of intermediate/low virulence (North America). Very few data regarding human and swine isolates from South America are available. Case presentation: Seventeen new human S. suis cases in Argentina (16 serotype 2 strains and a serotype 5 strain) are reported. Alongside, 14 isolates from pigs are analyzed: 12 from systemic disease, one from lungs and one from tonsils of a healthy animal. All human serotype 2 strains and most swine isolates are sequence type (ST) 1, as determined by multilocus sequence typing and present a mrp+/epf+/sly+ genotype typical of virulent Eurasian ST1 strains. The remaining two strains (recovered from swine lungs and tonsils) are ST28 and possess a mrp+/epf−/sly− genotype typical of low virulence North American strains. Representative human ST1 strains as well as one swine ST28 strain were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing and compared with genomes from GenBank. ST1 strains clustered together with three strains from Vietnam and this cluster is close to another one composed of 11 strains from the United Kingdom. Conclusion: Close contact with pigs/pork products, a good surveillance system, and the presence of potentially virulent Eurasian-like serotype 2 strains in Argentina may be an important factor contributing to the higher number of human cases observed. In fact, Argentina is now fifth among Western countries regarding the number of reported human cases after the Netherlands, France, the UK and Poland. PMID:28348788

  17. Recovering plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studying recovering plant biodiversity on Mount Pinatubo may provide valuable insights that improve our understanding of recovery of other ecosystems following disturbances of all types. Ongoing sheet and rill erosion coupled with mass waste events in the unstable pyroclastic flow deposits persist, effectively re-setting primary succession at micro-landscape scale without affecting habitat level diversity. Spatial factors and micro-habitat diversity may exert more control over continued succession as the riparian systems become more deeply dissected and complex. The number of taxa within functional groups and conservation concerns are botanical issues that deserve further research. PMID:22019638

  18. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  19. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  20. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  1. Women with heart failure are at high psychosocial risk: a systematic review of how sex and gender influence heart failure self-care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jody R; Clark, Alexander M

    2011-03-06

    To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995-2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care.

  2. Some theoretical remarks regarding the integration of somatic and psychosocial risk factors of coronary artery disease in preventive programmes in occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, F W

    1998-01-01

    In occupational medicine, as well as in many other medical areas, we still find too frequently a disturbing polarization of 'natural science oriented' versus 'psychosocial oriented' medicine. This has its roots in Descartes' traditional division of res cogitans (thinking substance) and res extensa (extended or corporeal substance). It would be important for medicine to integrate modern physics, where quantum theory plays an essential role, into its natural science base. In modern physics, the Cartesian division can no longer be consistently maintained as it has been in classical physics and related natural sciences. Taking the recent developments and new aspects of modern natural science into consideration for application in medical thinking would facilitate greatly the desirable unified, holistic approach, necessary to overcome the problems of the Cartesian division still present, and to better integrate somatic and psychosocial aspects of medicine. This is important for the general planning of programmes of preventive medicine in occupational health as well as in other medical fields. It is also essential specifically in treating individual patients and their medical problems. This is demonstrated here using the example of coronary artery disease (CAD). Treatment and prevention of CAD, a main cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, is a major challenge for all of medicine, including occupational medicine.

  3. Key psychosocial challenges in vascularized composite allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kumnig, Martin; Jowsey-Gregoire, Sheila G

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are important elements in the assessment and follow-up care for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) and require multidisciplinary evaluation protocols. This review will highlight differences between VCA with solid organ transplantation (SOT), provide information on the psychosocial selection of VCA candidates, ethical issues, psychological outcomes, and on the need for multicenter research. VCA is primarily a life-enhancing procedure to improve recipients’ quality of life and psychological well-being and it represents a potential option to provide reproduction in case of penile or uterine transplantation. The risk benefit ratio is distinctly different than SOT with candidates desiring life enhancing outcomes including improved body image, return to occupations, restored touch, and for uterine transplant, pregnancy. The Chauvet Workgroup has been convened with membership from a number of transplant centers to address these issues and to call for multicenter research. A multicenter research network would share similar evaluation approaches so that meaningful research on psychosocial variables could inform the transplant community and patients about factors that increase risk of non-adherence and other adverse psychosocial and medical outcomes. PMID:27011907

  4. Recover bromine on site

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.; Mahajan, S.; Beatty, R.D.; Rostrup-Nielsen, T.; Schubert, D.W.; Lu, Phat Tan

    1993-04-01

    Chemists have long recognized the importance of recovering bromine from waste streams, and attempts to do so catalytically date back more than 50 years. Although the early interest in bromine recovery was driven primarily by economics, increased environmental pressures are providing additional incentives to recycle this element. As the acceptability of discharging wastes into the environment decreases, the cost of doing so increases, creating a need for alternative handling. The authors interest in waste bromine recovery was driven by both economic and environmental factors. In their evaluation of a research program that included a bromination step as part of a synthesis process, Catalytica researchers found that the process would be feasible commercially only if the waste HBr produced were recycled on site to bromine. A nonbromine route was eventually adopted for this particular research program, but the need for an economical and environmentally sound process for recycling HBr to bromine was recognized. The development of this process became a project in its own right. This process eliminates the need to form and ship aqueous sodium bromide offsite. It converts the waste HBr directly to bromine by catalytic oxidation.

  5. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  6. Impact of Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Women’s Current HIV/STD-associated Behaviors and Psychosocial Mediators of HIV/STD Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Young, April M.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve S.; Wingood, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (p<.001), and more fear of condom negotiation (p=.003), none of which independently or jointly mediated the association between abuse and CCU. Notably, history of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents’ condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history. PMID:25505369

  7. Impact of Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Women's Current HIV/STD-associated Behaviors and Psychosocial Mediators of HIV/STD Risk.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Young, April M; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (p<.001), and more fear of condom negotiation (p=.003), none of which independently or jointly mediated the association between abuse and CCU. Notably, history of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents' condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history.

  8. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in France].

    PubMed

    Vidon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects.

  9. Culturally Centered Psychosocial Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Saez-Santiago, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few decades, psychologists and other health professionals have called attention to the importance of considering cultural and ethnic-minority aspects in any psychosocial interventions. Although, at present, there are published guidelines on the practice of culturally competent psychology, there is still a lack of practical…

  10. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.

  11. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  12. Psychosocial adjustment and craniofacial malformations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A

    1985-02-01

    Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk.

  13. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  14. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article.

  15. The psychosocial environment at work: an assessment of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Join, A; Saeed, K; Arnaout, S; Kortum, E

    2012-04-01

    Psychosocial risks are widely recognised as major challenges to occupational health and safety. The risk management approach, which starts with an assessment of the risk that they pose, is acknowledged as the most effective way of preventing and managing psychosocial risks at the workplace. This paper presents the findings and action taken following a risk assessment of psychosocial risks, at the World health Organization Regional Officeforthe Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) and country offices, carried outon behalf of the Committee on Health and Safety in the Workplace in EMRO. The findings show that psychosocial risks pose a threat to the mental well-being of staff. Management and co-worker support, rewards, possibilities for development, and trust mitigate the negative impact of psychosocial risks. The results of this risk assessment are being used to develop interventions aimed at enhancing the sense of well-being of staff, initially through actions at the employee level.

  16. European Commission project: European Guideline for Target Group-Oriented Psychosocial Aftercare-Implementation.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan; Deistler, Albert; Bering, Robert; Schedlich, Claudia; Rooze, Magda; Orengo, Francisco; Zurek, Gisela; Krtickova, Michaela

    2011-06-01

    After disasters, the individual health and well-being of first responders and affected population are affected for years. Therefore, psychosocial help is needed. Although most victims recover on their own, a minority of survivors, members of rescue teams, or relatives develop long-term, disaster-related psychic disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This subgroup especially should receive timely and appropriate psychosocial help. Many European countries offer post-disaster psychosocial care from a variety of caregivers (i.e., professionals and volunteers, non-governmental organizations, church or commercial organizations). Therefore, European standards for providing post-disaster psychosocial support currently is required. This article describes the project European Guideline for Target Group-Oriented Psychosocial Aftercare-Implementation, supported by the European Commission.

  17. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with

  18. Adolescent Obesity and Future Substance Use: Incorporating the Psychosocial Context

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Grella, Christine E.; Chung, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents’ psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  19. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services.

  20. Psychosocial Implications During Adolescence for Infant Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Vidhya; Freier Randall, Catherin; Chinnock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: As more heart transplant recipients survive into late adolescence, research addressing long-term psychosocial and neurodevelopmental outcomes is imperative. The limited literature available suggests risk for psychosocial difficulties and lower cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological functioning. This paper reviews topic-related literature and provides preliminary data examining psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning of adolescents who received their heart transplant during infancy. Method: This paper offers a literature review AND presents preliminary data from studies conducted through Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital (LLUCH). Study one examined psychosocial functioning and quality of life of adolescent infant heart transplant recipients. In study two, cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological data were analyzed. Results: Study 1: Overall psychosocial functioning fell in the Average range, however, a significant percentage of participants presented with difficulties on one or more of the psychosocial domains. Quality of life was also within normal limits, though concerns with general health and bodily discomfort were noted. Study 2: Cognitive functioning was assessed to be Below Average, with 43-62% of the participants demonstrating significant impairments. Neuropsychological functioning yielded significant weakness on language functioning, and mild weakness on visual-motor integration and executive functioning. Conclusion: While the majority of the participants demonstrate psychosocial resiliency, a subgroup present with difficulties suggesting the need for intervention. Cognitive/neuropsychological functioning suggests poorer functioning with patterns similar to other high-risk pediatric populations. These results are preliminary and further research on long-term psychosocial and neuropsychological development of pediatric heart transplant recipients is needed to better understand and ameliorate developmental

  1. Model for assessing psychosocial problems.

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, D.; McGillivray, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Model for the Assessment of Psychosocial Problems (MAPP) can help family medicine residents effectively assess patients with psychosocial problems. Following a patient-centred clinical method, MAPP provides a guide to exploring problems and an approach that allows residents and patients jointly to define problems and decide upon management. Emphasis is placed on clarifying patients' expectations of physicians. PMID:9222578

  2. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  3. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    PubMed Central

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  4. Hospital response to psychosocial needs of AIDS inpatients.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R; Barrett, C; Weintraub, S; Holowacz, G; Chan, M; LeBlanc, E

    1993-01-01

    Compassionate care for HIV-infected persons requires response to psychosocial needs. With no new external funding, Women's College Hospital, a 270-bed urban teaching hospital, provided effective psychosocial services for HIV-infected inpatients by developing a comprehensive policy, educating staff, organizing existing services into a psychosocial support team to provide crisis intervention, and developing liaisons with community AIDS organizations. A retrospective chart review of epidemiologic and psychosocial patient data was carried out for 59 HIV inpatients (58 men, 1 woman) admitted 1987-89. Of the cohort, 91% indicated homosexual contact as the only risk factor. A psychosocial support team contacted 90% of these inpatients. One third (36%) of the patients designated as next of kin individuals who were not legally or biologically related. Approximately 25%-30% made active arrangements for impending death, e.g. wills and funeral plans. Thirteen patients, 22%, died in hospital, and three, 5%, on first admission. Experience showed that psychosocial interventions that focus on human dignity and quality of life, normally seen as elements of palliative care, are critically important from the earliest stages of HIV disease and should not be reserved only for those who are terminally ill.

  5. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  6. Psychosocial Characteristics of Pregnancy Women with and without a History of Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcenko, Maureen O.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial characteristics and service needs of pregnant women with substance abuse histories. Interviewed 225 pregnant women defined as having high-risk pregnancies for psychosocial reasons. Compared to non-substance-abusing women, those with admitted history of substance abuse were significantly older, had more children, were more…

  7. Psychosocial-Environmental Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation: Findings from a Sample of 73,238 Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Baek, Ji Hyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2015-08-01

    We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide.

  8. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use. All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38–1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60–11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12–2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators. Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  9. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  10. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  11. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  12. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    PubMed

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (<1%), and 601 (29%) were excluded due to incomplete psychosocial data, McKenzie classification data, and missing FS at discharge, respectively. The final sample for analyses was 723 (35%). Overall R(2) for the baseline prediction FS model was 0.40. Adding classification variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in

  13. Concurrent Psychosocial Predictors of Sun Safety among Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sun-induced skin damage, which increases skin cancer risk, is initiated in early life and promoted through later sun exposure patterns. If sun safety determinants are well understood and addressed during the school years, skin cancer incidence might be reduced. This study tested psychosocial influences on youth's sun safety and…

  14. Promotive Factors and Psychosocial Adjustment among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, LaToya J.; Cotten, Shelia R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban youth are often exposed to compounded risk factors which make them more vulnerable to negative outcomes. Research examining promotive factors which may reduce vulnerabilities to poor psychosocial adjustment among this population is limited. Objective: The current study addresses this limitation by examining the impact of…

  15. Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

  16. An Evaluation of Mpowerment on Individual-Level HIV Risk Behavior, Testing, and Psychosocial Factors Among Young MSM of Color: The Monitoring and Evaluation of MP (MEM) Project.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Gene; Williams, Weston; Uhl, Gary; Hoyte, Tamoka; Eke, Adanze; Wright, Carolyn; Rebchook, Gregory; Pollack, Lance; Bell, Kelly; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Qi; Kegeles, Susan M

    2017-02-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) of color are at increased risk for HIV infection. Mpowerment (MP) is an intervention designed to reduce risky sexual behavior and increase HIV testing among young MSM ages 18-29. From 2009 to 2012, three community-based organizations with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluated MP among N = 298 participants. Following a repeated measures design, data from 3- and 6-month follow-ups were compared to baseline. HIV testing and self-efficacy for safer sex increased at both follow-up time points; self-acceptance as an MSM was higher at follow-up 2. Condomless anal/vaginal sex was lower at follow-up 1 only. Frequency of exchange of safer sex messages among gay/bisexual/transgender friends was lower at follow-up 1, but similar to baseline at follow-up 2. Exposure to MP was associated with improved perceived positive social norms about safer sex and safer sex messages among gay/bisexual/transgender friends.

  17. Psychosocial impact of cesarean section on the family: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mutryn, C S

    1993-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature linking cesarean section with maternal, paternal and infant/child/familial psychosocial impact. Cesarean section is discussed as both major surgery, with concomitant physical and psychosocial ramifications, and as an increasingly and routinely utilized method of birthing. Also considered are factors associated with the current high cesarean birthrate, as well as socio-cultural based factors contributing to varying parental conceptualizations and expectations of birthing. Empirical research published during the past 14 years associates cesarean section with adverse maternal and paternal psychosocial outcome and with possible negative consequences for the infant/child. Weaknesses/flaws of psychosocial impact studies are discussed, including timing and location of data collection, sample bias, and the difficulties of analyzing vast arrays of complex variables. Enumeration of both physical/environmental variables and psychosocial/cultural variables of maternal psychosocial impact are included. A number of these variables form a profile of a woman at relatively high risk of adverse psychosocial outcome. This profile is useful in identification of approaches and strategies for the prevention of adverse psychosocial outcome as well as in the identification of women who might benefit from focused perinatal psychotherapeutic services. The importance of psychotherapeutic services for cesarean families, including local, national and international cesarean support networks, is discussed. Emphasis is given to the importance of increased awareness of psychosocial issues and of current research on the part of medical care providers and health policy experts.

  18. Community Stress, Psychosocial Hazards, and EPA Decision-Making in Communities Impacted by Chronic Technological Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Charlton J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has emerged as an important consideration in managing environmental health risks. Stress has adverse impacts on health and may interact with environmental hazards to increase health risk. This article's primary objective was to explore psychosocial stress related to environmental contamination. We hypothesized that knowledge about stress should be used in conjunction with chemical risk assessment to inform environmental risk management decisions. Knowledge of psychosocial stress at contaminated sites began by exploring the relationships among social capital, collective efficacy, and contamination at the community level. We discussed stress at the family and individual levels, focusing on stress proliferation, available resources, and coping styles and mechanisms. We then made recommendations on how to improve the use of information on psychosocial stress in environmental decision-making, particularly in communities facing chronic technological disasters. PMID:21836109

  19. Community stress, psychosocial hazards, and EPA decision-making in communities impacted by chronic technological disasters.

    PubMed

    Couch, Stephen R; Coles, Charlton J

    2011-12-01

    Psychosocial stress has emerged as an important consideration in managing environmental health risks. Stress has adverse impacts on health and may interact with environmental hazards to increase health risk. This article's primary objective was to explore psychosocial stress related to environmental contamination. We hypothesized that knowledge about stress should be used in conjunction with chemical risk assessment to inform environmental risk management decisions. Knowledge of psychosocial stress at contaminated sites began by exploring the relationships among social capital, collective efficacy, and contamination at the community level. We discussed stress at the family and individual levels, focusing on stress proliferation, available resources, and coping styles and mechanisms. We then made recommendations on how to improve the use of information on psychosocial stress in environmental decision-making, particularly in communities facing chronic technological disasters.

  20. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  1. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  2. The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.

  3. Psychosocial factors and mental work load: a reality perceived by nurses in intensive care units1

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos-Vásquez, Paula; Rolo-González, Gladys; Hérnandez-Fernaud, Estefanía; Díaz-Cabrera, Dolores; Paravic-Klijn, Tatiana; Burgos-Moreno, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the perception of psychosocial factors and mental workload of nurses who work in intensive care units. It is hypothesised that nurses in these units could perceive psychosocial risks, manifesting in a high mental work load. The psychosocial dimension related to the position's cognitive demands is hypothesised to mostly explain mental work load. METHOD: Quantitative study, with a descriptive, cross-sectional, and comparative design. A total of 91% of the intensive care unit populations of three Chilean hospitals was surveyed, corresponding to 111 nurses. The instruments utilised included (A) a biosociodemographic history questionnaire; (b) the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 questionnaire; and (c) the Mental Work Load Subjective Scale (ESCAM, in Spanish). RESULTS: In total, 64% and 57% of participants perceived high levels of exposure to the psychosocial risks Psychosocial demands and Double shift, respectively. In addition, a medium-high level of overall mental load was observed. Positive and significant correlations between some of the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 and ESCAM dimensions were obtained. Using a regression analysis, it was determined that three dimensions of the psychosocial risk questionnaire helped to explain 38% of the overall mental load. CONCLUSION: Intensive care unit nurses felt that inadequate psychosocial factors and mental work overload existed in several of the tested dimensions. PMID:26039303

  4. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vale, S

    2005-01-01

    Fifty five years after the first finding relating mood disturbances and cardiovascular diseases, there is still debate on the formation of a cogent conception embracing all the fragments of insight within the various aspects relating psychosocial stress to cardiovascular diseases. The clinical comorbidity is empirically evident, but there are ambiguous research results limiting the value of the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. Psychosocial stress represents here any event that relates psychological phenomena to the social environment and to the associated pathophysiological changes. Stress denotes the external or environmental factors to which people are exposed, as well as the behavioural or biological reaction to it (response that some authors call "distress"). Cardiovascular diseases will be considered here only when being the consequence of chronic inflammatory disease of arteries (atherosclerosis).The question is: Are there pathophysiological reliable mechanisms relating psychosocial stress to the development of cardiovascular diseases? PMID:15998817

  5. Psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan; Colom, Francesc

    2005-06-01

    Psychosocial problems may be causes or consequences of BP relapses,and adding psychologic therapies to usual-treatment approaches may improve the prognosis of those at risk of persistent symptoms or frequent episodes. The three core individual manualized therapies (IPSRT, cognitive therapy, and FFT) have all developed specific models for use in BP. Colom et al's group psychoeducation model also has a clearly developed rationale and format, and it allows individuals to share their views of BP with others, to learn adaptive coping strategies from the other 8 to 12 members of the group, and to have regular contact with an expert therapist. Careful review of the four more extended and comprehensive approaches and the brief technique-driven interventions demonstrates that the effective therapies incorporate one or more of the modules show in Box 1. At present,the choice between the four extended models is more likely to be dictated by patient choice or the availability of a trained therapist. The technique-driven interventions are briefer than the specific therapies (about 6-9 sessions compared with about 20-22 sessions) and usually offer a generic, fixed treatment package targeted at a circumscribed issue such as medication adherence or managing early symptoms of relapse. These brief interventions can be delivered by a less-skilled or less-experienced professional than the specific model. They potentially seem to be useful in day-to-day clinical practice in general adult psychiatry settings; additional larger-scale, randomized trials should be encouraged. Given the reduction in relapse rates and hospitalizations associated with the use of psychologic therapy as an adjunct to medication, it is likely that these approaches will prove to be clinically and cost effective. They may provide a significant improvement in the quality of life of individuals with BP (and indirectly to that of their partners and family members). Brief,evidence-based therapies represent an

  6. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  7. [Psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths].

    PubMed

    Kraus, L; Müller-Kalthoff, T

    2002-10-01

    This article analyses drug-related deaths in the German Federal States of Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg counties) during 1999 and Baden-Wurttemberg (Stuttgart and Mannheim counties) during 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The persons who had been in contact with drug care services were studied for psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths. Epidemiological data from different sources (police, relatives, counselling centres, detoxification clinics, therapy and substitution treatment) were collated to estimate factors of psychosocial stress preceding drug deaths. The results in both Laender indicate high prevalence rates of a history of at least one non-fatal overdose (approx. 50%) or a suicide attempt (approx. 35%). More than 40% of the deceased had been suffering from at least one additional mental disorder, in most cases from depression. At least one critical life event (in most cases, a relapse) or a period of abstinence (i.e., due to imprisonment, therapy or detoxification) during the past three months before death was reported for more than half of the addicts. The results were discussed in the light of data on opiate users and the general population. Improved specialist training of therapeutic and medical workers as well as of any other co-operating professionals is considered a necessary prerequisite for an early detection of risk factors.

  8. Psychosocial support for youth living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jaime; Chakraborty, Rana

    2014-03-01

    This clinical report provides guidance for the pediatrician in addressing the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults living with HIV, which can improve linkage to care and adherence to life-saving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Recent national case surveillance data for youth (defined here as adolescents and young adults 13 to 24 years of age) revealed that the burden of HIV/AIDS fell most heavily and disproportionately on African American youth, particularly males having sex with males. To effectively increase linkage to care and sustain adherence to therapy, interventions should address the immediate drivers of ARV compliance and also address factors that provide broader social and structural support for HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Interventions should address psychosocial development, including lack of future orientation, inadequate educational attainment and limited health literacy, failure to focus on the long-term consequences of near-term risk behaviors, and coping ability. Associated challenges are closely linked to the structural environment. Individual case management is essential to linkage to and retention in care, ARV adherence, and management of associated comorbidities. Integrating these skills into pediatric and adolescent HIV practice in a medical home setting is critical, given the alarming increase in new HIV infections in youth in the United States.

  9. A Multidimensional Approach to Characterizing Psychosocial Health During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Valentiner, Ellis M; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Domains of psychosocial health have been separately connected to pregnancy outcomes. This study explores the relationship between five domains of psychosocial health and their joint association with prenatal health and pregnancy outcomes. Methods Women from a prospective cohort study in Durham, North Carolina were clustered based on measures of paternal support, perceived stress, social support, depression, and self-efficacy. Clusters were constructed using the K-means algorithm. We examined associations between psychosocial health and maternal health correlates, pregnancy intention, and pregnancy outcomes using Chi square tests and multivariable models. Results Three psychosocial health profiles were identified, with the first (Resilient; n = 509) characterized by low depression and perceived stress and high interpersonal support, paternal support, and self-efficacy. The second profile (Vulnerable; n = 278) was marked by high depression and perceived stress, and low interpersonal support, paternal support, and self-efficacy. The third profile (Moderate, n = 526) fell between the other profiles on all domains. Health correlates, pregnancy intention, and pregnancy outcomes varied significantly across profiles. Women with the vulnerable profile were more likely to have risky health correlates, have an unintended pregnancy, and deliver preterm. Women with the resilient profile had better birth outcomes and fewer deleterious health correlates, preconception and prenatally. Conclusions We posit that vulnerable psychosocial health, deleterious health correlates, and the stress which often accompanies pregnancy may interact to magnify risk during pregnancy. Identifying and intervening with women experiencing vulnerable psychosocial health may improve outcomes for women and their children.

  10. Psychosocial issues in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: report of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mackner, Laura M; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Szigethy, Eva; Herzer, Michele; Deer, Kate; Hommel, Kevin A

    2013-04-01

    Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can affect many areas of psychosocial functioning, and comprehensive medical care includes consideration of psychosocial issues as well as disease factors. The purpose of this clinical report is to review research on psychosocial functioning in pediatric IBD and to provide recommendations for care providers in the areas of psychopathology, health-related quality of life, and social, family, and school functioning. Youth with IBD are at increased risk for difficulty in all areas reviewed, and many psychosocial factors are associated with disease activity, which highlights the importance of monitoring psychosocial functioning as part of clinical care. Several interventions have empirical support or show promise for addressing psychosocial difficulty, and recommendations for monitoring and treating these issues are provided.

  11. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory.

  12. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  13. Process for recovering acidic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, O.L. Jr.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes an improvement in a continuous process for recovering carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide-rich gas stream. The gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alknolamine solution in an absorption section contained in an absorption zone to produce a carbon dioxide-lean gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-rich liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-rich effluent stream is heated in a regeneration zone to produce a carbon dioxide-rich gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream comprising a regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution. The regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution is returned to and introduced into the absorption zone.

  14. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  15. Psychosocial Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on the Lives of Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Ian; Smith, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Assessed the psychosocial impact of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic on the lives of homosexual men (N=301) who had not been diagnosed with AIDS or AIDS Related Complex (ARC). Found subjects reported increasing frequency of no-risk sexual activities and decreased frequency of possible risk and high-risk activities. (ABL)

  16. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in advanced age].

    PubMed

    Haag, G

    1985-02-01

    The psychosocial rehabilitation of older persons is one of the main problems in health policy. About one quarter of the over 65-year-olds face psychic problems, without, to a large extent, receiving adequate treatment and rehabilitative care. Substantial deficits exist above all in the out-patient and non-residential service sectors. In in-patient care, existing methods for psychosocial intervention (such as psychoanalysis, behavioural, client-centered, family, Gestalt, milieu, or music and dance therapy, psychodrama, reality orientation training, or resensitization techniques) are hardly ever used. This absence of applied geronto-psychology is attributable to the shortcomings of available assessment methods, multiple methodical problems of intervention research, and--above all--to insufficient staff positions for psychosocial professions in the gerontological sector. Provision of further permanent posts for psychosocial workers; development of age-specific assessment methods; interdisciplinary and systematic interventional research; the development of ambulatory, community-based services as well as intensive support for existing self-help efforts are therefore called for.

  17. PSYCHOSOCIAL PHENOMENA AND BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IZUMI, KIYOSHI

    THE DEPTH OF PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSIDERATION VARIES WITH ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTION. THESE FACTORS INCREASE AS A BUILDING USAGE BECOMES MORE ANTHROPOPHILIC. SITUATIONS RELATING TO AMBIGUOUS DESIGN MUST BE ELIMINATED IN BUILDING DESIGN. PROBLEMS INVOLVING VISUAL PERCEPTION SUCH AS (1) GLASS DOORS, (2) APPARENT INSECURITY OF STRUCTURE, (3) AMBIGUOUS SYMBOLIC…

  18. Psychosocial Maturity or Social Desirability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen

    The psychosocial maturity scale (PSM) described in several earlier papers is a self-report questionnaire. It is vulnerable, as are other questionnaires of this type, to respondents' wishes to present themselves in a socially desirable light. In this study, scores on two social desirability scales are examined in relation to PSM. Correlations…

  19. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  20. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  1. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  2. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  3. Brief Report: Teen Sexting and Psychosocial Health

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. PMID:24331302

  4. Brief report: Teen sexting and psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jeff R; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A; Temple, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health.

  5. Interdisciplinary psychosocial care for families with inherited cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Caleshu, Colleen; Kasparian, Nadine A; Edwards, Katharine S; Yeates, Laura; Semsarian, Christopher; Perez, Marco; Ashley, Euan; Turner, Christian J; Knowles, Joshua W; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Inherited cardiovascular diseases pose unique and complex psychosocial challenges for families, including coming to terms with life-long cardiac disease, risk of sudden death, grief related to the sudden death of a loved one, activity restrictions, and inheritance risk to other family members. Psychosocial factors impact not only mental health but also physical health and cooperation with clinical recommendations. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to the care of families with inherited cardiovascular disease, in which psychological care provided by specialized cardiac genetic counselors, nurses, and psychologists is embedded within the cardiovascular care team. We report illustrative cases and the supporting literature to demonstrate common scenarios, as well as practical guidance for clinicians working in the inherited cardiovascular disease setting.

  6. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors.

  7. Relation between economic disadvantage and psychosocial morbidity in children.

    PubMed Central

    Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between low income and child psychosocial morbidity cross-sectionally and longitudinally. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey with follow-up. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 4 to 16 years from families selected by means of stratified, clustered and random sampling of 1981 Canada Census data. Results were based on the responses of 2503 children interviewed in 1983 and 1076 re-interviewed in 1987. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, poor school performance and social impairment. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between low income and psychosocial morbidity, with a threshold at an income level of less than $10,000. Poor children 4 to 11 years of age were at greater risk of morbidity than poor children 12 to 16, but there were no significant age differences. Logistic regression revealed that low income and noneconomic factors (low maternal education and family dysfunction) shared significant independent influences on the prevalence of psychosocial morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Low income is strongly associated with psychosocial morbidity in children. Both economic and noneconomic factors showed independent influences on morbidity. These findings have important clinical, scientific and policy implications. PMID:8055403

  8. Psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paige

    2013-10-01

    Although a rare occurrence, cancer is sometimes diagnosed during or shortly after pregnancy. This article reviews two recent studies that specifically examine the psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy. Researchers have identified risk factors that may exacerbate women's anxiety, stress or distress during these co-occurring events. Nurses are in a unique position to support women dealing with a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

  9. Subgroup differences in psychosocial factors relating to coronary heart disease in the UK South Asian population☆

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily D.; Nazroo, James Y.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To explore the differences in psychosocial risk factors related to coronary heart disease (CHD) between South Asian subgroups in the UK. South Asian people suffer significantly higher rates of CHD than other ethnic groups, but vulnerability varies between South Asian subgroups, in terms of both CHD rates and risk profiles. Psychosocial factors may contribute to the excess CHD propensity that is observed; however, subgroup heterogeneity in psychosocial disadvantage has not previously been systematically explored. Methods With a cross-sectional design, 1065 healthy South Asian and 818 white men and women from West London, UK, completed psychosocial questionnaires. Psychosocial profiles were compared between South Asian religious groups and the white sample, using analyses of covariance and post hoc tests. Results Of the South Asian sample, 50.5% was Sikh, 28.0% was Hindu, and 15.8% was Muslim. Muslim participants were more socioeconomically deprived and experienced higher levels of chronic stress, including financial strain, low social cohesion, and racial discrimination, compared with other South Asian religious groups. In terms of health behaviors, Muslim men smoked more than Sikhs and Hindus, and Muslims also reported lower alcohol consumption and were less physically active than other groups. Conclusion This study found that Muslims were exposed to more psychosocial and behavioral adversity than Sikhs and Hindus, and highlights the importance of investigating subgroup heterogeneity in South Asian CHD risk. PMID:20846539

  10. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  11. Prevalence and Correlates for Psychosocial Distress Among In-School Adolescents in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Siziya, Seter; Mazaba, Mazyanga Lucy

    2015-01-01

    There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using the data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates’ corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p < 0.001). Significantly, more females than males were bullied (p = 0.036), involved in a fight (p = 0.019), and consumed alcohol (p = 0.012). Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females). Age <14 years, male gender, parental support for males, and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active, and parental support. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study. PMID:26236704

  12. The inconsistent mediating effects of psychosocial work characteristics on the education-health relationship.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hanyao; Bures, Regina; Shehan, Constance L

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and educational disparities in health. Informed by the evidence on the relationship between work pressure and higher education, we suggested reframing the distribution of psychosocial work characteristics in the context of education. We differentiated psychosocial work resources from demands and hypothesized that the inconsistent mediation effects of psychosocial resources and demands are associated with educational status. Using data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW), we found that psychosocial work resources and demands had inconsistent mediating effects on the education-health relationship. Higher educated employees were more likely to report autonomy, challenge and schedule control, but they were also more likely to experience overtime hours, job overload and work-family conflict. Work resources appeared to protect higher-educated workers from stress and health problems while work demands put them at risk of less favorable health outcomes. In addition we found that the 'costs' of psychosocial work demands were stronger among women, particularly those who were highly educated, suggesting that highly educated women did not reap the full health benefit of high educational attainment. Our findings illustrate that the observed positive associations between education and health mask important heterogeneity in the effects of psychosocial work characteristics. We discuss the implications of this study for health and family-based work policies.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates for Psychosocial Distress Among In-School Adolescents in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siziya, Seter; Mazaba, Mazyanga Lucy

    2015-01-01

    There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using the data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates' corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p < 0.001). Significantly, more females than males were bullied (p = 0.036), involved in a fight (p = 0.019), and consumed alcohol (p = 0.012). Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females). Age <14 years, male gender, parental support for males, and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active, and parental support. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study.

  14. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors.

  15. Emerging Adulthood: A Time of Changes in Psychosocial Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Iglesias, Katia; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-08-29

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial well-being of emerging adults using psychological states associated with this transitional phase and classic measures of emerging adulthood. We expected psychological states to be more closely associated with psychological well-being than classic markers of achieved adulthood. Data were collected in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors from 4,991 Swiss men aged 18-25 years. The assessment included the Short Form of the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-8), classic markers of achieved adulthood (e.g., financial independence, stable relationship), and psychosocial well-being. Structural equation models (SEMs) were conducted to test the association between measures of emerging adulthood and psychosocial well-being. Overall, the results highlighted contrasting associations of measures of emerging adulthood and psychosocial well-being. Youths facing negative psychological states (dimension "negativity") and exploring life without knowing how to define themselves (dimension "identity exploration") had a decreased psychosocial well-being. On the contrary, youths exploring many opportunities with an optimistic perspective (dimension "experimentation") had an increased psychosocial well-being. By contrast, classic markers of adulthood were less related to psychosocial well-being. The IDEA-8 Scale appeared to be a useful screening tool for identifying vulnerable youths, and emerging adulthood should be measured with a focus on the psychological states associated with this period. This information may be valuable for mental health systems that have not yet adapted to emerging adults' needs.

  16. Psychosocial care to affected citizens and communities in case of CBRN incidents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gouweloos, Juul; Dückers, Michel; te Brake, Hans; Kleber, Rolf; Drogendijk, Annelieke

    2014-11-01

    Disasters are associated with a substantial psychosocial burden for affected individuals (including first responders) and communities. Knowledge about how to address these risks and problems is valuable for societies worldwide. Decades of research into post-disaster psychosocial care has resulted in various recommendations and general guidelines. However, as CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) events form a distinctive theme in emergency planning and disaster preparedness, it is important to systematically explore their implications for psychosocial care. The aim of this study is to answer two questions: 1). To what extent does psychosocial care in the case of CBRN events differ from other types of events? 2). How strong is the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial care interventions in the context of a CBRN event? A systematic literature review was conducted. Searches were performed in Medline, PsychINFO, Embase and PILOTS. Studies since January 2000 were included and evaluated by independent reviewers. The 39 included studies contain recommendations, primarily based on unsystematic literature reviews, qualitative research and expert opinions. Recommendations address: 1) public risk- and crisis communication, 2) training, education and exercise of responders, 3) support, and 4) psychosocial counselling and care to citizens and responders. Although none of the studies meet the design criteria for effectiveness research, a substantial amount of consensus exists on aspects relevant to CBRN related psychosocial care. Recommendations are similar or complementary to general post-disaster psychosocial care guidelines. Notable differences are the emphasis on risk communication and specific preparation needs. Relevant recurring topics are uncertainty about contamination and health effects, how people will overwhelm health care systems, and the possibility that professionals are less likely to respond. However, the lack of evidence on

  17. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  18. Marcé International Society position statement on psychosocial assessment and depression screening in perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Austin, Marie-Paule

    2014-01-01

    The position statement aims to articulate the arguments for and against universal psychosocial assessment and depression screening, and provide guidance to assist decision-making by clinicians, policy makers and health services. More specifically it: 1. Outlines the general principles and concepts involved in psychosocial assessment and depression screening; 2. Outlines the current debate regarding benefits and risks in this area of practice including the clinical benefits and the ethical, cultural and resource implications of undertaking universal psychosocial assessment in the primary health care setting; 3. Provides a document that will assist with advocacy for the development of perinatal mental health services in the primary care setting. The statement does not set out to make specific recommendations about psychosocial assessment and depression screening (as these will need to be devised locally depending on existing resources and models of care) nor does it attempt to summarise the vast evidence-base relevant to this debate.

  19. Psychosocial Predictors of Maternal Mental Health, Parenting Attitudes, and Child Behavior in Single-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lynne A.; And Others

    Low-income, single mothers and their children constitute a rapidly growing population at risk for adverse health outcomes. The mental health of these women is particularly at risk. This study investigated the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms in low-income, single mothers of 1- to 4-year-old children; identified psychosocial predictors of…

  20. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  1. Economics of psychosocial factors in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Benjamin A; Spruill, Tanya M; Ladapo, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a causal relationship between cardiovascular disease and psychosocial factors such as mental health and behavioral disorders, acute and chronic stress, and low socioeconomic status. While this has enriched our understanding of the interaction between cardiovascular risk factors, much less is known about its economic implications. In this review, we evaluate the economic impact of psychosocial factors in persons at risk for or diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on depression and almost uniformly conclude that patients with cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression use a greater number of ambulatory and hospital services and incur higher overall costs. Additionally, comorbid depression may also reduce employment productivity in patients with cardiovascular disease, further magnifying its economic impact. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated that innovative care delivery models that target depression may reduce costs or at least be cost neutral while improving quality of life. The growing population burden and overlap of cardiovascular disease, comorbid mental illness, and other psychosocial factors suggest that future research identifying cost-effective or cost-saving treatment models may have significant health and economic implications.

  2. Working at sea and psychosocial health problems Report of an International Maritime Health Association Workshop.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tim

    2005-05-01

    Many of the recognised risk factors for psychosocial health problems impact on seafarers because of the nature and organisation of their work. The consequences are serious because of the safety critical nature of many of the tasks at sea and because of the level of health required to continue working remote from care. There is relatively little relevant research on the scale of psychosocial health problems in seafarers and so the justification for taking preventative action is not secure. The workshop was convened to develop a consensus on how psychosocial risks at sea can best be characterised, their consequences in terms of health, well being and performance and the steps which can be taken to provide better information on risks and on the validity of various forms of intervention. A number of interim measures have been proposed in advance of more definitive research results.

  3. Psychosocial factors and financial literacy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, John L

    2013-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to analyze the psychological and social variables associated with financial literacy. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of individuals older than age 50 and their spouses. An ordinary least squares linear regression analysis explores the relationship between financial literacy and several economic and psychosocial variables. After controlling for earnings, level of education, and other socioeconomic variables in this exploratory study, I find that financial satisfaction and religiosity are correlated with financial literacy.

  4. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  6. Habitus and the Psychosocial: Bourdieu with Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of habitus to provide a window on the psychosocial. The paper works with a notion of psychosocial study as inquiry into the mutual constitution of the individual and the social relations within which they are enmeshed. At the same time it attempts to deepen and enrich notions of habitus. Although the strong focus…

  7. Psychosocial Readjustment of Canadian Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretch, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the psychosocial readjustment of 164 Canadian Vietnam veterans. Found significantly greater rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with U.S. Vietnam veterans and evidence of other psychosocial adjustment problems. Suggests that problems are a result, in part, of prolonged isolation from other Vietnam veterans, lack of…

  8. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  9. Explorations in Knowing: Thinking Psychosocially about Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Anne; Ernest, Paul; Ludhra, Geeta; Mendick, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at what engaging with psychoanalysis, through psychosocial accounts of subjectivity, has contributed to our struggles for legitimacy and security within our ways of knowing. The psychosocial, with its insistence on the unconscious and the irrational, features as both a source of security and of insecurity. We use three…

  10. Psychosocial Dimensions of Learning Disability Subtypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.; Fuerst, Darren E.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence bearing on the relationships between profiles of neuropsychological assets and deficits, subtypes of learning disabilities, and patterns and degrees of psychosocial functioning is reviewed. Conclusions related to the neurodevelopmental bases of psychosocial functioning in children with nonverbal learning disabilities are emphasized. (SLD)

  11. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  12. What if we could eliminate child poverty? The theoretical effect on child psychosocial morbidity.

    PubMed

    Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the attributable risk of low income for child psychosocial morbidity. Data on 1,996 6- to 16-year-old participants from the Ontario Child Health Study, a province-wide cross-sectional study done in 1983, were used. Out-comes measured included psychiatric disorders, poor school performance, chronic health problems, and social impairment. The attributable risk for low income and child psychosocial morbidity was generally small except among selected disorders in younger children. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Bulimia Nervosa during Pregnancy: An Internal Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Knoph, Cecilie; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to internally validate previously reported relations (1) between psychosocial factors and bulimia nervosa (BN) outcomes during pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants were women enrolled during pregnancy (N = 69,030). Internal validity was evaluated by way of bootstrapped parameter estimates using the overall sample and a split sample calibration approach. Results Bootstrap bias estimates were below the problematic threshold, and extend earlier findings(1) by providing support for the validity of the models at the population level of all pregnant women in Norway. Bootstrap risk ratios indicated that prevalence, incidence, and remission of BN during pregnancy were significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The split sample procedure showed that the models developed on the training sample did not predict risks in the validation sample. Discussion This study characterizes associations between psychosocial exposures and BN outcomes among pregnant women in Norway. Women with lifetime and current self-reported psychosocial adversities were at a much higher risk for BN during pregnancy. Psychosocial factors were associated with BN remission during pregnancy, inviting the prospect of enhancing therapeutic interventions. We consider the findings in the context of reproducibility in science. PMID:25346291

  14. Profiles of Impaired, Spared, and Recovered Neuropsychological Processes in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M.; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B.; Gravitz, Zoe R.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among participants is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory, (2) executive functions, (3) emotion and psychosocial skills, (4) visuospatial cognition, and (5) psychomotor abilities. The brain systems that are most vulnerable to alcoholism are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. PMID:25307576

  15. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Clinical Report of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Mackner, Laura M.; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Szigethy, Eva; Herzer, Michele; Deer, Kate; Hommel, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can affect many areas of psychosocial functioning, and comprehensive medical care includes consideration of psychosocial issues as well as disease factors. The purpose of this clinical report is to review research on psychosocial functioning in pediatric IBD and to provide recommendations for care providers in the areas of psychopathology, health related quality of life and social, family and school functioning. Youth with IBD are at increased risk for difficulty in all areas reviewed, and many psychosocial factors are associated with disease activity, which highlights the importance of monitoring psychosocial functioning as part of clinical care. Several interventions have empirical support or show promise for addressing psychosocial difficulty, and recommendations for monitoring and treating these issues are provided. PMID:23287808

  16. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  17. Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level.

  18. Video Gaming and Children's Psychosocial Wellbeing: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Stone, Lisanne L; Burk, William J; Granic, Isabela

    2017-04-01

    The effects of video games on children's psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27-11.43 years old; male = 98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children's psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial changes. Cooperative gaming was not associated with changes in prosocial behavior. Finally, competitive gaming was associated with decreases in prosocial behavior, but only among children who played video games with high frequency. Thus, gaming frequency was related to increases in internalizing but not externalizing, attention, or peer problems, violent gaming was not associated with increases in externalizing problems, and for children playing approximately 8 h or more per week, frequent competitive gaming may be a risk factor for decreasing prosocial behavior. We argue that replication is needed and that future research should better distinguish between different forms of gaming for more nuanced and generalizable insight.

  19. Psychosocial adjustment of pediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Felder-Puig, R; Peters, C; Matthes-Martin, S; Lamche, M; Felsberger, C; Gadner, H; Topf, R

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychosocial adjustment of patients who had been treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in our clinic. Selection criteria for patients were to be aged 14-30 years at the time of the follow-up, to be at least 2 years post-SCT and to have a very good knowledge of German. Among 31 eligible patients, 26 participated (84% response rate). The patients were between 15 and 27 years old and were on average 7 years (range 2-13) post-SCT. Research instruments consisted of a demographic questionnaire and various subscales of established psychological measures for which data from a sample of bone cancer survivors and population norms were available. About 35% of patients showed high levels of anxiety, 62% appeared to be extremely sensitive and vulnerable, and 35% showed strong, unfulfilled needs in their love lives. In the other domains tested (self-esteem, family and peer relationships, school/vocational performance, etc), no noticeable differences were found between the subjects and comparable populations. There was no significant association between psychosocial outcome and demographic features or clinical data. Our results suggest that patients who underwent SCT in their childhood or adolescence are at risk of developing long-term emotional or social problems. Due to the retrospective design of our study and the small sample size, no predictive factors for psychosocial distress could be identified.

  20. Psychosocial Perspectives and the Issue of Prevention in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L.; Latzer, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140

  1. Self-esteem in recovered bipolar and unipolar out-patients.

    PubMed

    Pardoen, D; Bauwens, F; Tracy, A; Martin, F; Mendlewicz, J

    1993-12-01

    The hypothesis of a low self-esteem in depressive patients was tested using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 24 recovered unipolar and 27 recovered bipolar patients, compared with a normal control group of 26 subjects matched for age and sex. The hypothesis was confirmed only for unipolars; bipolar patients presented a self-esteem score not significantly different from normal scores. Self-esteem was not related to clinical characteristics of the affective disorder, suggesting that low self-esteem may be a basic component of a depression-prone personality. The investigation of the relationship between self-esteem and social adjustment confirmed the presence of social conformism in bipolar patients and rigidly set low self-esteem in unipolar patients. These results should stimulate the evaluation of different psychotherapeutic treatments in the long-term psychosocial management of affectively ill patients.

  2. [Psychosocial evaluation: can prematurity in a primipara be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Mamelle, N

    1989-01-01

    Consideration of psycho-social factors in monitoring pregnancy, especially in a gravida I patient, permits predicting an increased risk of unfavorable results. Research conducted in the Rhone-Alpes region concerns specifically the risk factors for prematurity related to the psycho-social environment of the woman, for the purpose of long-term prevention, i.e., from the beginning of the pregnancy. The prematurity rate remains much higher in women under 20, in foreign or French women living overseas, in unmarried women living with someone or alone, and in women of low socio-cultural level. A profession does not, per se, constitute an increased risk factor for prematurity, since women staying at home present a higher prematurity rate than that of working women. However, tiresome working conditions constitute an increased factor for prematurity. Several factors related to living habits are evaluated. Finally, the role of psychological modifications related to the pregnancy is also considered, and appears to be important, especially in women without any other known medical risk factor. In view of these results, the authors present a number of suggestions for a better prevention of prematurity.

  3. Psychosocial conditions and access to an occupational health service among farmers.

    PubMed

    Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether membership in an occupational health service program varies with correlation with psychosocial risk factors, this study was carried out among farmers in connection with a larger investigation of salutogenic factors. The study was based on information collected via questionnaires (answered on location) and standardized interviews. The material consists of 364 farmers or persons engaged in agriculture who had occupational health care and 548 without it. There were clear differences in psychosocial patterns between the groups. Those with occupational health care were less often single and had more education and more social contacts than did those without such care. Eating times were more regular and meals were better in those with occupational health care. Karasek-Theorell's indices for psychological demands and decision latitude at work were also higher in this group. Better-educated farmers and those with larger farms were more often members of an occupational health care program. In addition, this group had fewer psychosocial risk factors.

  4. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  5. Psychosocial Concepts in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    McGillivray, Donald C.

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews and tabulates some of the current concepts of the role of psychosocial factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Concepts prevalent during the 1950's are listed followed by discussion of some of the variable factors that complicate studies in this field. Studies are then cited which lead to the following conclusions: 1. Patients with RA tend to have certain personality characteristics, such as depression, rigidity, dependency, neurotic response patterns, emotional instability, feelings of guilt and low ego strength. 2. These are not specific to RA. 3. They may well be sequelae of the disease rather than pre-morbid features. 4. There is no clear evidence as to the role of psychological stress in causing or activating RA. 5. Personality factors have an influence on the course of the disease. PMID:20468900

  6. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    DOEpatents

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  7. [The psychosocial consequences of infertility and fertility treatment].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lone; Sejbæk, Camilla Sandal

    2012-10-08

    Infertility and its treatment are severe, chronic, low-control stressors. Among women unsuccessful treatment is associated with increased risk of developing depressive symptoms. Among men infertility is associated with more negative emotional responses. Lifelong involuntary childlessness is associated with reduced mental well-being. It is recommended in the future to integrate mental health professionals at fertility clinics in Denmark in order to secure that also the psychosocial consequences of infertility and fertility treatment are taken care of with the highest professional standard based on scientific knowledge within this field.

  8. Psychosocial impact of repeat HIV-negative testing: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Karen; Haubrich, Dennis J; Callà, Domenico; Myers, Ted; Burchell, Ann N; Calzavara, Liviana

    2005-12-01

    Continued sexual risk behavior following repeatedly testing HIV-negative in the Polaris HIV Seroconversion Study (Ontario, Canada) led to this follow-up study which identifies the impact of repeat negative testing among 64 men and women. Repeat HIV-negative testing frequently results in confusion as to what constitutes risk and occasionally to thoughts of HIV immunity. Narrative accounts include beliefs that monogamy constitutes safety from HIV, that psychosocial factors other than repeatedly testing negative leads to risk, and that sexual risk reduction is unsustainable. In conclusion, the repeat negative test experience for some neither clarifies risk behavior nor reinforces sustained risk reduction.

  9. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.

  10. Psychosocial Characteristics of Optimum Performance in Isolated and Confined Environments (ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Shea, Camille; Leveton, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), including the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. BHP supports and conducts research to help characteristics and mitigate the Behavioral Medicine risk for exploration missions, and in some instances, current Flight Medical Operations. The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element identified research gaps within the Behavioral Medicine Risk, including Gap BMed6: What psychosocial characteristics predict success in an isolated, confined environment (ICE)? To address this gap, we conducted an extensive and exhaustive literature review to identify the following: 1) psychosocial characteristics that predict success in ICE environments; 2) characteristics that are most malleable; and 3) specific countermeasures that could enhance malleable characteristics.

  11. [Psychosocial factors and health status of employees].

    PubMed

    Dudek, Bohdan

    2005-01-01

    An issue of relationship between exposure to psychosocial factors and health status of employees is presented in this review. It is difficult to find hard evidence that could reliably confirm this relationship. Methodological difliculties encountered in measuring psychosocial factors and health effects and in designing research procedures are responsible for equivocal study results. However, a huge number of articles presenting the results of numerous studies make us convinced that many human organs are targets of dangerous impact of stress evoked by job conditions. Bearing in mind that work processes and working conditions become more and snore stressogenic. one can expect that in the near future psychosocial factors will form a group of the most dangerous health hazards. Therefore, it is an urgent challenge facing the occupational health service (OHS) to adapt its system of prevention to the specificity of threats, and thus better protect employees against harmful impact of the psychosocial factors.

  12. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  13. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  14. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  15. Psychosocial Outcomes at 15 Years of Children with a Preschool History of Speech-Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Bishop, D. V. M.; Stothard, Susan E.; Chipchase, Barry; Kaplan, Carole

    2006-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests there is a heightened risk of psychiatric disorder in children with speech-language impairments. However, not all forms of language impairment are strongly associated with psychosocial difficulty, and some psychiatric disorders (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) are more prevalent than others in…

  16. Achievement for All: Improving Psychosocial Outcomes for Students with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA)…

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  18. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  19. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  20. Suicide Ideation and Psychosocial Distress in Sub-Saharan African Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if there is an association between psychosocial distress, health-risk behaviors and 12-month suicidal ideation among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Methods: Subjects included a cross-national sample of adolescents (N25,568) representing 7 African countries who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey…

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  2. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  3. Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain Among Rural Hand-woven Carpet Weavers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Aliyari, Roqayeh; Sadeghian, Farideh; Vatani Shoaa, Javad; Masoudi, Mahmood; Zahedi, Shiva; Bakhshi, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common and disabling problem among carpet weavers and is linked to physical and psychosocial factors of work. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSP, its psychosocial risk factors, and association of pain in each pair of anatomical sites among carpet weavers. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among 546 hand-woven carpet weavers in rural small-scale workshops of Iran. Data were collected by using parts of a standardized CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) questionnaire focused on MSP in 10 body sites, including the low-back, neck, both right and left shoulders, elbows, wrists/hands, individual, physical and psychosocial risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed applying logistic regression models. Results Prevalence of MSP in at least one body site was 51.7% over the past month. The most common sites were low back and right shoulder pain 27.4% and 20.1%, respectively. A significant difference was found between the mean number of painful anatomical sites and the level of education, age, physical loading at work, time pressure, lack of support, and job dissatisfaction. In pairwise comparisons, strongest association was found between pain in each bilateral anatomical site (odds ratio = 11.6–35.3; p < 0.001). Conclusion In home-based workshops of carpet weaving, psychosocial factors and physical loading were associated with MSP. This finding is consistent with studies conducted among other jobs. Considering the preventive programs, the same amount of attention should be paid to psychosocial risk factors and physical loading. Also, further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of psychological factors. PMID:26106511

  4. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  5. Psychosocial pathways to sexual dysfunction among female inmates.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Although health surveys on sexual issues during incarceration have shown that women report having engaged in sexual activities while in prison, studies on sexual functioning in female inmates have been largely dismissed. This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among incarcerated women and determine the psychometric and sociodemographic features that are possibly related to the risk of sexual dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study conducted inside a penitentiary for women in São Paulo, Brazil. From June 2006 to June 2010, 315 inmates convicted of robbery or homicide were recruited. High risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) was measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and participants were also evaluated for alcohol and drug misuse, impulsiveness, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial features. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to analyze the data. Among the participants, 253 (80.32 %) met the criteria for HRFSD. Older age, total time of imprisonment, and depressive symptoms were related to a higher risk, while the status of being married, being Black, having sexual relations with other inmates, and receiving conjugal visits were associated with a lower risk. As only 110 (34.92 %) inmates admitted to having sexual relationships inside prison, we evaluated this sub-sample separately. For this sub-sample, 61 (55.45 %) women met the criteria for HRFSD and the main factors associated with this risk were total time of imprisonment and depressive symptoms. Incarcerated women are uniquely vulnerable because they often have histories of deprivation and violence stemming from multiple sources and experience considerable psychological symptoms as a consequence of imprisonment. With the affected population rarely receiving psychosocial management for sexual dysfunction, service delivery efforts should be intensified to target this high-risk population.

  6. Psychosocial Research on the International Space Station: Special Privacy Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Ritsher, J.; Grund, E.; Weiss, D.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.

    Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject protections above and beyond standard scientific human subject protocols. Many of these protections have relevance for psychosocial research on the International Space Station. In our previous study of psychosocial issues involving crewmembers on the Mir space station, special precautions were taken during each phase of the missions. These were implemented in order to gain the trust necessary to ameliorate the perceived risks of divulging potentially sensitive psychological information and to encourage candid responses. Pre-flight, a standard confidentiality agreement was provided along with a special layman's summary indicating that only group-level data would be presented, and subjects chose their own ID codes known only to themselves. In-flight, special procedures and technologies (such as encryption) were employed to protect the data during the collection. Post-flight, an analytic strategy was chosen to further mask subject identifiers, and draft manuscripts were reviewed by the astronaut office prior to publication. All of the eligible five astronauts and eight cosmonauts who flew joint US/Russian missions on the Mir were successfully recruited to participate, and their data completion rate was 76%. Descriptive analyses of the data indicated that there was sufficient variability in all of the measures to indicate that thoughtful, discriminating responses were being provided (e.g., the full range of response options was used in 63 of the 65 items of the Profile of Mood States measure, and both true and false response options were used in all 126 items of the Group Environment and the Work Environment measures). This

  7. Proportion of recovered waterfowl bands reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Atwood, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    Data from the annual mail survey of waterfowl hunters in the United States were used to estimate the total numbers of banded waterfowl that were shot. These estimates were compared with Banding Office records to estimate the proportion of recovered bands that was reported. On the average, about two banded birds were recovered for each one reported. The proportion reported was higher for some areas and for some species than for others. The proportion reported was higher when more of the reports came through employees of conservation agencies.

  8. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    PubMed

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  9. Psychosocial interactions during ISS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2007-02-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.

  10. Psychosocial Follow-Up in Survivorship as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lown, E. Anne; Phillips, Farya; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Rosenberg, Abby R.; Jones, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) have a high risk of medical late effects following cancer therapy. Psychosocial late effects are less often recognized. Many CCS do not receive long-term follow-up (LTFU) care, and those who do are rarely screened for psychosocial late effects. An interdisciplinary team conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies to assess social, educational, vocational, psychological, and behavioral outcomes along with factors related to receipt of LTFU care. We propose that psychosocial screening be considered a standard of care in long-term follow-up care and that education be provided to promote the use LTFU care starting early in the treatment trajectory. PMID:26700918

  11. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  12. Lessons learned about psychosocial responses to disaster and mass trauma: an international perspective

    PubMed Central

    Reifels, Lennart; Pietrantoni, Luca; Prati, Gabriele; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Dyb, Grete; Halpern, James; Olff, Miranda; Brewin, Chris R.; O'Donnell, Meaghan

    2013-01-01

    At the 13th meeting of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in 2013, a symposium was held that brought together international researchers and clinicians who were involved in psychosocial responses to disaster. A total of six disasters that occurred in five countries were presented and discussed. Lessons learned from these disasters included the need to: (1) tailor the psychosocial response to the specific disaster, (2) provide multi-dimensional psychosocial care, (3) target at-risk population groups, (4) proactively address barriers in access to care, (5) recognise the social dimensions and sources of resilience, (6) extend the roles for mental health professionals, (7) efficiently coordinate and integrate disaster response services, and (8) integrate research and evaluation into disaster response planning. PMID:24371515

  13. Recommendations for enhancing psychosocial support of NICU parents through staff education and support

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S L; Cross, J; Selix, N W; Patterson, C; Segre, L; Chuffo-Siewert, R; Geller, P A; Martin, M L

    2015-01-01

    Providing psychosocial support to parents whose infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can improve parents' functioning as well as their relationships with their babies. Yet, few NICUs offer staff education that teaches optimal methods of communication with parents in distress. Limited staff education in how to best provide psychosocial support to families is one factor that may render those who work in the NICU at risk for burnout, compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress syndrome. Staff who develop burnout may have further reduced ability to provide effective support to parents and babies. Recommendations for providing NICU staff with education and support are discussed. The goal is to deliver care that exemplifies the belief that providing psychosocial care and support to the family is equal in importance to providing medical care and developmental support to the baby. PMID:26597803

  14. 27 CFR 19.393 - Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles. 19.393 Section 19.393 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  15. 27 CFR 19.393 - Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles. 19.393 Section 19.393 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  16. Work Related Psychosocial and Organizational Factors for Neck Pain in Workers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340

  17. Method and apparatus for recovering waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, A.B.

    1982-09-21

    Oil is recovered from a mixture of oil and water by heating the mixture, adding a de-emulsifier, passing the mixture through a first vibrating screen, adding a surface tension reducer, processing through a hydrocyclone, passing through a second vibrating screen, and separating the oil from water by settling.

  18. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  19. 27 CFR 17.168 - Recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovered spirits. 17.168 Section 17.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... separate alcohol is subject to the registration requirements of 26 U.S.C. 5179 and subpart C of part 29...

  20. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  1. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  2. Mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Dorji, Chencho

    2006-12-01

    Bhutan has taken the initiative in developing a comprehensive guideline on disaster risk preparedness and management in response to several minor disasters, namely earthquakes and flash floods in the country during the last couple of years. It is now widely accepted that the psychological symptoms of trauma resulting from devastation to lives and livelihood of affected people remain much longer and sometimes throughout their entire life span unless taken care of. Therefore, it is important to include psychosocial components of mental health protection and treatment of the affected persons in disaster risk preparedness and management to make it a comprehensive package. A four-tier system of mental health intervention and counselling has been proposed in line with the existing healthcare system and resources available in the country to make it sustainable. At the core of this programme is the mobilizing and training of volunteers from the community on psychosocial intervention, counselling and rehabilitation, backed up by three layers of trained health workers and mental health professionals.

  3. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  4. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown a protective association of moderate alcohol intake with mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship could be due to misclassification confounding. As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Methods Three cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted 1984–1995) including 11,282 subjects aged 25–74 years were followed up within the framework of KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), a population-based cohort, until 2002. The prevalences of diseases as well as of lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables were compared in different alcohol consumption categories. To assess all-cause mortality risks, hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models which included lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables. Results Diseases were more prevalent among non-drinkers than among drinkers: Moreover, non-drinkers showed a higher percentage of an unfavourable lifestyle and were more affected with psychosocial stressors at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for moderate alcohol consumption versus no consumption were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) in men and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.66-1.16) in women. In men, moderate drinkers had a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk than non-drinkers or heavy drinkers (p = 0.002) even after multivariable adjustment. In women, moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with lowered risk of death from all causes. Conclusions The present study confirmed the impact of sick quitters on mortality risk, but failed to show that the association between alcohol consumption and mortality is confounded by psychosocial stressors. PMID:24708657

  5. Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary α- Amylase Levels Authors Brandon L. Mulrine Michael F. Sheehan Lolita M. Burrell Michael...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha Amylase Levels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...stress-related conditions. The findings suggest that measuring salivary α- amylase levels may help to determine a Soldier’s resilience or risk of

  6. Psychosocial correlates of frequent indoor tanning among adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess psychosocial correlates (i.e., perceived weight, weight control strategies, substance use, and victimization) of frequent indoor tanning in adolescent boys-a group at high risk for developing skin cancer. Participants (N=7,907) were drawn from a nationally representative sample of adolescent boys attending high school in the United States. Binary logistic regression revealed that extreme weight control strategies, particularly steroid use (odds ratio=3.67) and compensatory vomiting (odds ratio=2.34), along with substance use and victimization, were significantly related to frequent indoor tanning. These results highlight the role of appearance-changing, and health-risk behaviors in the context of frequent indoor tanning. Skin cancer prevention interventions may benefit from adopting approaches that integrate the treatment of body dissatisfaction and subsequent maladaptive behaviors.

  7. Childhood peer relationship problems and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Woodward, L J; Fergusson, D M

    1999-02-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, this paper examined the relationship between teacher reported peer relationship problems at age 9 and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence. Results showed that, by age 18, children with high rates of early peer relationship problems were at increased risk of externalizing behavior problems such as criminal offending and substance abuse, but were not at increased risk of anxiety disorder or major depression. Subsequent analyses revealed that these associations were largely explained by the effects of child and family factors associated with both early peer relationship problems and later adjustment. The most influential variable in explaining associations between peer relationship problems and later adjustment was the extent of children's early conduct problems. These results suggest that reported associations between early peer problems and later adjustment are noncausal, and appear to reflect underlying continuities in behavioral adjustment.

  8. The Contribution of Psychosocial Stressors to Sleep among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dayna A.; Lisabeth, Lynda; Lewis, Tené T.; Sims, Mario; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Studies have shown that psychosocial stressors are related to poor sleep. However, studies of African Americans, who may be more vulnerable to the impact of psychosocial stressors, are lacking. Using the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) baseline data, we examined associations of psychosocial stressors with sleep in 4,863 African Americans. Methods: We examined cross-sectional associations between psychosocial stressors and sleep duration and quality in a large population sample of African Americans. Three measures of psychosocial stress were investigated: the Global Perceived Stress Scale (GPSS); Major Life Events (MLE); and the Weekly Stress Inventory (WSI). Sleep was assessed using self-reported hours of sleep and sleep quality rating (1 = poor; 5 = excellent). Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were used to examine the association of each stress measure (in quartiles) with continuous and categorical sleep duration (< 5 (“very short”), 5–6 h (“short”) and > 9 h (“long”) versus 7 or 8 h (“normal”); and with sleep quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, physical activity). Results: Mean age of the sample was 54.6 years and 64% were female. Mean sleep duration was 6.4 + 1.5 hours, 54% had a short sleep duration, 5% had a long sleep duration, and 34% reported a “poor” or “fair” sleep quality. Persons in the highest GPSS quartile had higher odds of very short sleep (odds ratio: 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02, 4.08), higher odds of short sleep (1.72, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.12), shorter average sleep duration (Δ = −33.6 min (95% CI: −41.8, −25.4), and reported poorer sleep quality (Δ = −0.73 (95% CI: −0.83, −0.63) compared to those in the lowest quartile of GPSS after adjustment for covariates. Similar patterns were observed for WSI and MLE. Psychosocial stressors were not associated with long sleep. For WSI, effects of stress on sleep

  9. The influence of substance use, social sexual environment, psychosocial factors, and partner characteristics on high-risk sexual behavior among young Black and Latino men who have sex with men living with HIV: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16-24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions.

  10. The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387

  11. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  12. Emergency destruction system for recovered chemical munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Stofleth, J.H.; Haroldsen, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    At the request of the US Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a transportable system for destroying recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions. The system uses shaped charges to access the agent and burster followed by chemical neutralization to destroy them. The entire process takes place inside a sealed pressure vessel. In this paper, they review the design, operation, and testing of a prototype system capable of containing up to one pound of explosive.

  13. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  14. Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred; Hendriks, Benno H W

    2013-02-01

    We present a novel way to recover intrinsic fluorescence in turbid media based on Monte Carlo generated look-up tables and making use of a diffuse reflectance measurement taken at the same location. The method has been validated on various phantoms with known intrinsic fluorescence and is benchmarked against photon-migration methods. This new method combines more flexibility in the probe design with fast reconstruction and showed similar reconstruction accuracy as found in other reconstruction methods.

  15. Recovering selenium from copper refinery slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Olli; Lindroos, Leo; Yllö, Erkki

    1989-07-01

    The selenium contained within copper refinery slimes may be recovered advantageously by roasting at about 600°C. While roasting in air is inefficient, roasting in a sulfating atmosphere enables practically complete selenium recovery. Based on laboratory tests, a new selenium recovery process was adopted at Outokumpu Copper Refinery. In this process, sulfation is achieved by feeding sulfur dioxide and oxygen into the roasting furnace.

  16. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree.-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000.degree.-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  17. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    2000-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  18. Method for recovering materials from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  19. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  20. Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: Update 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lederbogen, Florian; Albus, Christian; Angermann, Christiane; Borggrefe, Martin; Fischer, Denise; Fritzsche, Kurt; Haass, Markus; Jordan, Jochen; Jünger, Jana; Kindermann, Ingrid; Köllner, Volker; Kuhn, Bernhard; Scherer, Martin; Seyfarth, Melchior; Völler, Heinz; Waller, Christiane; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK) to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008. Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD), heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients. Results: A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A) was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression) or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment with implanted

  1. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    academic achievement and other factors beyond physical health; barriers of not having enough time and having too many assignments perceived to hinder frequent physical activity; and parental approval. More rigorous research on psychosocial determinants with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of students is necessary. Research with parents and school staff will be needed to understand the perceptions of these stakeholder groups key to creating the students' social environment. PMID:17880688

  2. Psychosocial benefits and implications of exercise.

    PubMed

    Gaz, Daniel V; Smith, Aynsley M

    2012-11-01

    This review is based on a case report that concerns a young female athlete who experienced some of the negative aspects of exercise. Overtraining, a negative byproduct of excessive exercise, can turn the positive psychosocial and physiologic benefits of regular physical activity into an activity detrimental to one's health. With the proper psychological skills and appropriate exercise regimen, these negatives can be turned into positives. Once learned, the psychosocial benefits of exercise, as well as the positive implications, will become more prevalent, similar to the way in which proper physical training helps one become more fit over time.

  3. Psychosocial readjustment of Canadian Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Stretch, R H

    1991-02-01

    A survey study was conducted on the psychosocial readjustment of 164 of the estimated 10,000-40,000 Canadians who served in Vietnam with the U.S. military. Results indicate significantly greater rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with U.S. Vietnam veterans. Evidence of other psychosocial adjustment problems such as depression, inability to handle frustration and anger, difficulty in getting along with and trusting others, and family and marital problems, as well as poor physical health, was also found. Results suggest these problems are due, in part, to prolonged isolation from other Vietnam veterans, lack of recognition, and no readily available treatment for PTSD in Canada.

  4. Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Treatment: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Plakun, Eric M

    2015-09-01

    Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.

  5. Suicidal Behavior and Psychosocial Outcome in Borderline Personality Disorder at 8-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2017-03-06

    We sought predictors of both suicidal behavior and psychosocial outcome in subjects with BPD followed for 8 years and asked if there was a relationship between these outcomes. One hundred twenty-three BPD subjects, recruited from inpatient (35.8%), outpatient (30.9%) and community (33.3%) sources, were assessed annually for known risk factors for suicidal behavior. Interval attempts were reported by 25 subjects (20.2%). Increased risk of suicide attempt was associated with negative affectivity, aggression, inpatient recruitment, hospitalizations, minority race, and frequent changes in employment. Decreased risk was associated with increased education. Poor psychosocial outcome was predicted by impulsivity, negative affectivity, and antisocial traits at baseline, and by comorbid MDD at 8-year follow-up. There was no significant relationship between poor psychosocial outcome at 8-year follow-up and risk of suicidal behavior. Predictors of suicidality include modifiable risk factors. Rehabilitation models are needed to address educational and vocational deficits associated with suicidality, especially among minorities.

  6. Psychosocial effects in parents and children 12 years after newborn genetic screening for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kerruish, Nicola J; Healey, Dione M; Gray, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial consequences of testing newborns for genetic susceptibility to multifactorial diseases. This study reports quantitative psychosocial evaluations of parents and children 12 years after screening for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Two parent-child cohorts participated: children at increased genetic risk of T1D and children at low genetic risk. T1D risk status was determined at birth as part of a prospective study investigating potential environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Parent measures included ratings of children's emotional, behavioural and social functioning (Child Behaviour Checklist) and parenting style (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire). Child self-concept was assessed using the self-description questionnaire (SDQ1). Statistical analyses were conducted to test for differences between the groups. Twelve years after testing there was no evidence that knowledge of a child's increased genetic risk of T1D adversely affected parental ratings of their child's emotional, behavioural or social functioning, or impacted upon parenting style. There was no adverse effect upon the child's assessment of their self-concept. This study provides important preliminary data concerning longer-term psychosocial effects of incorporating tests for genetic risk of complex disorders into NBS panels. While it is reassuring that no significant adverse effects have been detected, more data will be required to adequately inform policy.

  7. Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The summer of 2007 was the wettest in the UK since records began in 1914 and resulted in severe flooding in several regions. We carried out a health impact assessment using population-based surveys to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the psychosocial consequences of this flooding in the United Kingdom. Methods Surveys were conducted in two regions using postal, online, telephone questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Exposure variables included the presence of flood water in the home, evacuation and disruption to essential services (incident management variables), perceived impact of the floods on finances, house values and perceived health concerns. Validated tools were used to assess psychosocial outcome (mental health symptoms): psychological distress (GHQ-12), anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9) and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD checklist-shortform). Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the association between water level in the home, psychological exposure variables and incident management variables, and each mental health symptom, adjusted for age, sex, presence of an existing medical condition, employment status, area and data collection method. Results The prevalence of all mental health symptoms was two to five-fold higher among individuals affected by flood water in the home. People who perceived negative impact on finances were more likely to report psychological distress (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4), probable anxiety (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.7) probable depression (OR 2.0, 1.3-2.9) and probable PTSD (OR 3.2, 2.0-5.2). Disruption to essential services increased adverse psychological outcomes by two to three-fold. Evacuation was associated with some increase in psychological distress but not significantly for the other three measures. Conclusion The psychosocial and mental health impact of flooding is a growing public health concern and improved strategies for minimising disruption to essential services and

  8. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p < 0.05) in their use of prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p < 0.01) in prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the

  9. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  10. An investigation into the psychosocial effects of the postictal state

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, Colin B.; Engbers, Jordan D.T.; Sajobi, Tolulope T.; Jette, Nathalie; Agha-Khani, Yahya; Federico, Paolo; Murphy, William; Pillay, Neelan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether postictal cognitive and behavioral impairment (PCBI) is independently associated with specific aspects of a patient's psychosocial health in those with epilepsy and nonepileptic events. Methods: We used the University of Calgary's Comprehensive Epilepsy Clinic prospective cohort database to identify patients reporting PCBI. The cohort was stratified into those diagnosed with epilepsy or nonepileptic events at first clinic visit. Univariate comparisons and stepwise multiple logistic regression with backward elimination method were used to identify factors associated with PCBI for individuals with epilepsy and those with nonepileptic events. We then determined if PCBI was independently associated with depression and the use of social assistance when controlling for known risk factors. Results: We identified 1,776 patients, of whom 1,510 (85%) had epilepsy and 235 had nonepileptic events (13%). PCBI was independently associated with depression in those with epilepsy (odds ratio [OR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–2.83; p = 0.03) and with the need for social assistance in those with nonepileptic events (OR 4.81; 95% CI 2.02–11.42; p < 0.001). Conclusions: PCBI appears to be significantly associated with differing psychosocial outcomes depending on the patient's initial diagnosis. Although additional research is necessary to examine causality, our results suggest that depression and employment concerns appear to be particularly important factors for patients with PCBI and epilepsy and nonepileptic attacks, respectively. PMID:26819455

  11. Psychosocial Issues Related to Thyroid Examination After a Radiation Disaster.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Sanae; Tanigawa, Koichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2017-03-01

    A thyroid ultrasound examination program has been conducted in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to address concerns about the increased risk of thyroid cancer similar to those experienced by local residents after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. This is the second-largest thyroid cancer screening in younger age ever, following only that conducted after Chernobyl. As the natural history of thyroid cancer in younger populations is not well characterized, large-scale screening using thyroid ultrasound could result in overdiagnosis, even with careful planning, as has been experienced in South Korea. Awareness regarding the thyroid gland is generally low among residents, who tend to directly associate examination results with radiation exposure and are likely to develop newfound anxiety and feelings of self-condemnation and guilt. We reviewed the dilemma surrounding cancer screening and particularly underscored the need to address psychosocial issues associated with possible overdiagnosis. We modified our approach to address individual and social anxiety induced by results of screening conducted after the Fukushima accident. These findings and our experiences regarding the psychosocial issues related to thyroid examination should assist residents in their lifelong decision making and help them prepare for future disasters.

  12. Working environment conditions in rural areas according to psychosocial indices.

    PubMed

    Thelin, A G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study psychosocial working environment factors among farmers and other people living in rural areas. The study was carried out as a cross-section investigation. All persons visiting local occupational health service centres for a health check up have been asked to answer an inquiry which was based on the Karasek-Theorell questionnaire on job strain. Five extra items on worry about the future were added. The questionnaire was completed by over 3,800 persons. Three of four indices showed significant difference with respect to sex. Women experienced less stimulance at work, authority over work and had a greater fear of the future. Farmers had a significantly higher index for psychological demands, stimulance at work as well as authority over work than other occupational groups. The index for authority over work was very high in comparison with presented results for different occupations in other studies. With respect to worry about the future, the farmers had a significantly higher index than nearly all the other occupational groups. The low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among farmers reported in other studies can probably be related to good psychosocial working environment as measured by the indices in this study as well as other known life style factors.

  13. Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.

    PubMed

    Rakers, Florian; Rupprecht, Sven; Dreiling, Michelle; Bergmeier, Christoph; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias

    2017-02-22

    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). However, cortisol alone cannot fully explain all effects of maternal stress especially during early to mid pregnancy before maturation of the fetal HPAA has even begun and expression of fetal glucocorticoid receptors is limited. This review focuses on mediators of maternal fetal stress transfer that in addition to cortisol have been proposed as transmitters of maternal stress: catecholamines, cytokines, serotonin/tryptophan, reactive-oxygen-species and the maternal microbiota. We propose that the effects of psychosocial maternal stress on fetal development and health and disease in later life are not a consequence of a single pathway but are mediated by multiple stress-transfer mechanisms acting together in a synergistic manner.

  14. Molecular Signatures of Psychosocial Stress and Cognition Are Modulated by Chronic Lithium Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, Magdalena M; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Wichert, Sven P; Falkai, Peter; Rossner, Moritz J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Social defeat in rodents has been shown to be associated with maladaptive cellular and behavioral consequences including cognitive impairments. Although gene expression changes upon psychosocial stress have been described, a comprehensive transcriptome profiling study at the global level in precisely defined hippocampal subregions which are associated with learning has been lacking. In this study, we exposed adult C57Bl/6N mice for 3 weeks to "resident-intruder" paradigm and combined laser capture microdissection with microarray analyses to identify transcriptomic signatures of chronic psychosocial stress in dentate gyrus and CA3 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus. At the individual transcript level, we detected subregion specific stress responses whereas gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) identified several common pathways upregulated upon chronic psychosocial stress related to proteasomal function and energy supply. Behavioral profiling revealed stress-associated impairments most prominent in fear memory formation which was prevented by chronic lithium treatment. Thus, we again microdissected the CA3 region and performed global transcriptome analysis to search for molecular signatures altered by lithium treatment in stressed animals. By combining GSEA with unsupervised clustering, we detected pathways that are regulated by stress and lithium in the CA3 region of the hippocampus including proteasomal components, oxidative phosphorylation, and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Our study thus provides insight into hidden molecular phenotypes of chronic psychosocial stress and lithium treatment and proves a beneficial role for lithium treatment as an agent attenuating negative effects of psychosocial stress on cognition.

  15. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOEpatents

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  16. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  17. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  18. Used float shoe recovered and tested

    SciTech Connect

    Colvard, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    A cement float valve has been recovered after it was circulated through and cemented downhole. It was retrieved by coring as part of an investigation into a cementing failure. The float equipment was then analyzed for downhole performance. This is believed to be the first instance of intact recovery of full-scale cementing hardware after it has been cemented in place. In this instance, the valve performed as designed. Flash set proved to be the probable cause of job failure. This article documents the job and includes photographs of the used float shoe and its components.

  19. Psycho-social impact of orthogathic sugery

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Rocío; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery is a branch of maxillofacial surgery. It carries out the treatment of the facial skeleton asymmetries and deformities. The patients who ask for this surgery are often young people who usually refer symptoms related to dental malocclusion, difficulty eating and temporo-mandibular pain. These physical symptoms are often accompanied by psychological symptoms triggered by their physical appearance such as low self-esteem, self-confidence and negativism about their social and emotional future. Material and Methods Patients with skeletal malformation of facial bones, consisting in Class II, III, open bite and asymmetries, underwent to orthognathic surgery in our center agreed to participate voluntarily in this study. They answered a questionnaire regarding several psychosocial variables. Results Orthognathic surgery helps to improve patient’s psychosocial well-being. Conclusions Patients with dentofacial deformitiesexperience physical and psychological, oftentimes underestimated by society. A combination of orthodontic treatment and reconstructive surgery is often a necessity to restore function and psychosocial well-being. Key words:Orthogathic surgery, psychosocial consequences, mood, emotions, sense of power, motivation, satisfaction, social changes, satisfaction. PMID:27957267

  20. Psychosocial Issues in Counseling Mastectomy Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schain, Wendy S.

    1976-01-01

    This article reports that breast cancer is an increasingly widespread illness among women. It notes that there are many severe psychosocial adjustments to be made to having the disease and explores ways that counselors and therapists can help women undergoing this ordeal. (NG)

  1. Androgyny, Ego Development and Psychosocial Crisis Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Karen J.; Bailey, John M.

    The present study examined the relationship of psychological androgyny with ego development in the context of Loevinger's theory, and with psychosocial crisis resolution from the perspective of Erikson's theory. A sample of 30 male and 30 female adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the…

  2. Psycho-Social Considerations of Environmental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, K.

    Identifying psychological and sociological design considerations is a difficult matter. So much is hidden behind our normal, but biased, level of perception. The importance of psycho-social considerations can be drawn from an examination of the quantity and types of buildings produced today for human occupancy--office buildings, libraries,…

  3. The invention of the psychosocial: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Rhodri

    2012-12-01

    Although the compound adjective 'psychosocial' was first used by academic psychologists in the 1890s, it was only in the interwar period that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers began to develop detailed models of the psychosocial domain. These models marked a significant departure from earlier ideas of the relationship between society and human nature. Whereas Freudians and Darwinians had described an antagonistic relationship between biological instincts and social forces, interwar authors insisted that individual personality was made possible through collective organization. This argument was advanced by dissenting psychoanalysts such as Ian Suttie and Karen Horney; biologists including Julian Huxley and Hans Selye; philosophers (e.g. Olaf Stapledon), anthropologists (e.g. Margaret Mead) and physicians (e.g John Ryle and James Halliday). This introduction and the essays that follow sketch out the emergence of the psycho-social by examining the methods, tools and concepts through which it was articulated. New statistical technologies and physiological theories allowed individual pathology to be read as an index of broader social problems and placed medical expertise at the centre of new political programmes. In these arguments the intangible structure of social relationships was made visible and provided a template for the development of healthy and effective forms of social organization. By examining the range of techniques deployed in the construction of the psychosocial (from surveys of civilian neurosis, techniques of family observation through to animal models of psychotic breakdown) a critical genealogy of the biopolitical basis of modern society is developed.

  4. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  5. Identifying and Locating Complete Psychosocial Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Reference librarians often encounter "instrument seekers," library users who need to find a complete psychosocial test, scale, or questionnaire to use or adapt for research or clinical use. This article focuses on the resources that can help to answer these types of questions. Reference books, monographs, journal articles, and online…

  6. Toward the Measurement of Psychosocial Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; And Others

    The concept of psychosocial maturity is reviewed in preparation for the exploration of the feasibility of constructing a scale that measures maturity. Investigation produced a preliminary 54-item scale with high reliability and moderate validity, which is appended. A factor analysis of the scale supports the a priori structure by the theoretical…

  7. Black-White Differences in Psychosocial Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, B. James; And Others

    The present investigation reviews the racial comparison literature in order to make specific predictions about racial differences on the psychosocial maturity scale developed by Greenberger, Campbell, Sorensen, and O'Connor (1971). On the basis of this review, it was predicted that blacks would score lower than whites on the scale, and that this…

  8. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  9. Psychosocial Characteristics of Female Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis; And Others

    Self-perceptions of male and female medical students on various psychosocial characteristics were compared in 1980. The questionnaire consisted of: the Social Support Networks questions, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967), the General Well Being Scale (Gurin, Veroff, and Felds, 1960), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale…

  10. Psychosocial Precursors and Correlates of Migraine Headache.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levor, Robert M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Tested the interactions of migraine headache cycles and sufferers' daily experiences of stressful events, emotional arousal, and physical activity. Results support a model of migraine characterized by parallel physiological and psychosocial instability during a 4-day cycle and by an interaction of personality and behavioral (self-reported stress)…

  11. The Psychosocial Impact of Genetic Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Audrey

    1988-01-01

    Genetic diseases in children present difficulties to the children themselves and to their families. This article reviews the features of genetic disease, stresses surrounding diagnosis, difficulties associated with each developmental stage, other sources of psychosocial stress on the family (e.g., finances, hospitalization, placement decisions),…

  12. Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory: A Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary McPhail; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The 72-item Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) was factor analyzed for a group of 534 university freshmen and sophomore students. Seven factors emerged, which were labeled Initiative, Industry, Identity, Friendship, Dating, Goal Clarity, and Self-Confidence. Item's representing Erikson's factors, Trust and Autonomy, were dispersed across…

  13. Terminology and the Psychosocial Burden of Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, David

    2004-01-01

    Various denotations and connotations of the word "blindness" are examined and the inference is drawn that they constitute a psychosocial burden that perpetuates prejudice. The analysis leads on to a hypothesis in which a more progressive terminology could lead to reduction of this burden.

  14. An overview of psychosocial assessment procedures in reconstructive hand transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kumnig, Martin; Jowsey, Sheila G; Moreno, Elisa; Brandacher, Gerald; Azari, Kodi; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    There have been more than 90 hand and upper extremity transplants performed worldwide. Functional and sensory outcomes have been reported in several studies, but little is known about the psychosocial outcomes. A comprehensive systematic literature review was performed, addressing the psychosocial impact of reconstructive hand transplantation. This review provides an overview of psychosocial evaluation protocols and identifies standards in this novel and exciting field. Essentials of the psychosocial assessment are discussed and a new protocol, the 'Chauvet Protocol', representing a standardized assessment protocol for future multicenter psychosocial trials is being introduced.

  15. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  16. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOEpatents

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  17. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  18. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  19. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We will show estimates of both when the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery, and when the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels.

  20. Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbitt, R.J.F.; Michael, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1999, 43 species in the United States were reclassified from endangered to threatened or removed entirely from the Endangered Species List. Of these, 23 were identified as recovered. In 1999 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a list of 33 additional species for possible reclassification and/or delisting. We initiated this study to examine why some endangered species recover but others continue to decline and to identify differences in management activities between these two groups. We defined recovered/recovering species as previously recovered species and the additional recovered/recovering species listed by the USFWS. We defined declining species as those identified as declining in the most recent USFWS Report to Congress. Information on recovered/recovering and declining species was gathered from relevant literature, recovery plans, U.S. Federal Register documents, and individuals responsible for the recovery management of each species. We used this information to examine (1) the percentage of current and historic range covered by management activities; (2) threats affecting the species; (3) population sizes at the time of listing; (4) current versus historic range size; and (5) percentage of recovery management objectives completed. Although few statistical analyses provided significant results, those that did suggest the following differences between recovered/recovering and declining species: (1) recovered/recovering species face threats that are easier to address; (2) recovered/recovering species occupy a greater percentage of their historic range; and (3) recovered/recovering species have a greater percentage of their recovery management objectives completed. Those species with threats easier to address and that occupy a greater percentage of their historic range are recovered/recovering. In contrast, declining species face threats more difficult to address and occupy significantly less of their historic range. If this

  1. First report: Yersinia enterocolitica recovered from canine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brenda P; Drummond, Niall; Ringwood, Tamara; O'Sullivan, Edmund; Buckley, James F; Whyte, Paul; Prentice, Mike B; Fanning, Séamus

    2010-12-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is a known zoonotic pathogen and is often found in pig tonsils as the primary site of colonisation. In this study we investigated whether or not Y. enterocolitica could be recovered from canine tonsils. During a study on the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in animal populations in Ireland, 144 canine tonsils and 72 canine rectal swabs were procured over a ten-month period and subjected to microbiological examination for the presence of this human pathogen. Molecular methods were used to determine virulence and all strains were negative for the chromosomally mediated virulence factor (ail) and plasmid-encoded adhesion molecule (pYad). Y. enterocolitica was recovered from 25 of 216 (12%) samples. Twenty-four strains were from tonsils along with one from a rectal swab. All were biotype 1A. Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed two of 25 (8%) were resistant to cephalothin and the remaining strains were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin with six of these additionally resistant to streptomycin. Our evidence that a human pathogen may be harboured in the oral cavity of dogs' adds a new dimension to the epidemiology of this organism, identifying a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs.

  2. Psychosocial assessments for young people: a systematic review examining acceptability, disclosure and engagement, and predictive utility

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Sally; Rickwood, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are often turbulent periods in a person’s life. There are high rates of accidental deaths, suicide, mental health concerns, substance use, and sexual experimentation. Health care professionals need to conduct holistic assessments of clients in these developmental life stages to identify psychosocial risks and provide targeted early intervention and implement prevention strategies. The most useful psychosocial assessments for most health care professionals are those that can provide a complete picture of the young person’s life and circumstances. This article identifies psychosocial assessment instruments that can be used as an initial assessment and engagement tool with the general population of young people presenting for health care. We review the psychometric properties of each of the instruments, determining what type of instrument is most acceptable to young people, whether any can increase disclosure and improve engagement between young people and health professionals, and whether they have predictive utility. The search strategy complied with the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 89 published articles were identified, covering 31 different assessment instruments. Results indicated that those that were self-administered were most acceptable to young people, although it is unclear whether pen-and-paper or computer formats were preferred. Most psychosocial assessments can improve rates of disclosure and enhance engagement between young people and health professionals; however, worryingly, we found evidence that clinicians did not always respond to some of the most serious identified risks. Only for one instrument was there any mention of predictive utility. Future research should employ longitudinal approaches to determine the predictive utility of psychosocial assessments and focus on whether the use of new technologies can improve rates

  3. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT2.0): Psychometric Properties of a Screener for Psychosocial Distress in Families of Children Newly Diagnosed with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Ahna L. H.; Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; McSherry, Mary; Beele, David; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne T.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0), a brief screener for psychosocial risk in families of children with cancer, are presented. Methods Female (N =132) and male (N =72) caregivers of 141 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed the PAT2.0 and measures of child behavior symptoms, anxiety, acute stress, and family functioning to establish validity. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the PAT2.0 were also examined. Results Internal consistency and two-week test–retest for the PAT2.0 Total score was strong. Validity for the PAT2.0 was supported by significant correlations between the PAT2.0 subscales and measures of corresponding constructs. PAT2.0 Total scores were correlated with acute stress and child behavior symptoms for both mothers and fathers. Receiver-Operating Characteristic curves provided preliminary support for the proposed cutoffs. Conclusion The PAT2.0 Total score is a useful screening tool for family psychosocial risk in the pediatric oncology population. PMID:17609228

  4. Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  5. PERCEPTIONS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF BULLYING AMONG LUMBEE INDIAN YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ronny; Arnold, Elizabeth; Golden, Shannon; Langdon, Sarah; Anderson, Andrea; Bryant, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Although bullying has been linked to suicide among youth, little is known about bullying in American Indians, a population at high risk for suicide. Qualitative data from focus groups with Lumbee Indian youth (N = 31, 16 males, 15 females, 12–17 years of age) and in-depth interviews with gatekeepers in the Lumbee community revealed that bullying is common, and is perceived to contribute to depression and suicide. Youth expressed powerlessness to overcome bullying. Survey data (N = 79, 32 males, 47 females, 11–18 years of age) showed that bullied youth (11.5%) had lower self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Interventions are needed to address this behavior that contributes to poor psychosocial health in Lumbee youth. PMID:24788918

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN AND ASSOCIATED DISABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to the physical determinants of common musculoskeletal complaints such as back and arm pain, research points to a stronger influence of psychological factors. Multiple studies have implicated poor mental health and somatisation (a tendency to worry about common somatic symptoms) in the incidence and chronicity of musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. Also important are adverse beliefs about the prognosis of such disorders, and about the role of physical activity in their development and persistence. Differences in societal beliefs may have contributed to major variation in the prevalence of disabling musculoskeletal pain that has been observed between countries and in the same countries over time. Psychosocial aspects of work have also been linked with musculoskeletal pain, although relative risks have generally been smaller. There is a need to take account of psychological factors in the clinical management of patients with back, neck and arm pain. PMID:26612236

  7. Perceptions and psychosocial correlates of bullying among Lumbee Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ronny; Arnold, Elizabeth; Golden, Shannon; Langdon, Sarah; Anderson, Andrea; Bryant, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Although bullying has been linked to suicide among youth, little is known about bullying in American Indians, a population at high risk for suicide. Qualitative data from focus groups with Lumbee Indian youth (N = 31, 16 males, 15 females, 12-17 years of age) and in-depth interviews with gatekeepers in the Lumbee community revealed that bullying is common, and is perceived to contribute to depression and suicide. Youth expressed powerlessness to overcome bullying. Survey data (N = 79, 32 males, 47 females, 11-18 years of age) showed that bullied youth (11.5%) had lower self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms. Interventions are needed to address this behavior that contributes to poor psychosocial health in Lumbee youth.

  8. Aggregation of Lifetime Axis I Psychiatric Disorders through Age 30: Incidence, Predictors, and Associated Psychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data from representative birth cohorts on the aggregation of psychiatric disorders, or the cumulative number of unique diagnosed disorders experienced by persons within a circumscribed period, are limited. Consequently, risk factors for and psychosocial implications of lifetime disorder aggregation in the general population remain largely unknown. This research evaluates the incidence, predictors, and psychosocial sequela of lifetime disorder aggregation from childhood through age 30. Over a 14-year period, participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (probands; N = 816) were repeatedly evaluated for psychiatric disorders and assessed with multiple measures of psychosocial functioning. First-degree relatives of probands (N = 2,414) were also interviewed to establish their lifetime psychiatric history. The cumulative prevalence of common lifetime psychiatric disorders for the proband sample was 71%. Three-quarters of all proband psychiatric disorders occurred among 37% of the sample, and 82% of all disorder diagnoses were made among persons who met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder. Lifetime disorder aggregation in probands was predicted by lifetime psychiatric disorder densities among first-degree relatives and was related to heterotypic comorbidity patterns that included disorders from both internalizing and externalizing domains, most notably major depressive and alcohol use disorders. By age 30, disorder aggregation was significantly associated with mental health care service utilization and predictive of personality disorder pathology and numerous indicators of poor psychosocial functioning. Possible implications of disorder aggregation on the conceptualization of lifetime psychiatric disorder comorbidity are discussed. PMID:23421525

  9. PROCESSES OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Baird, D.O.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1958-07-15

    An improved process is described for recovering the residue of a uranium compound which has been subjected to treatment in a calutron, from the parts of the calutron disposed in the source region upon which the residue is deposited. The process may be utilized when the uranium compound adheres to a surface containing metals of the group consisting of copper, iron, chromium, and nickel. The steps comprise washing the surface with an aqueous acidic oxidizing solvent for the uranium whereby there is obtained an acidic aqueous Solution containing uranium as uranyl ions and metals of said group as impurities, treating the acidic solution with sodium acetate in the presenee of added sodium nitrate to precipitate the uranium as sodium uranyl acetate away from the impurities in the solution, and separating the sodium uranyl acetate from the solution.

  10. BACKUP -- Recovering from incremental tape backups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.

    The importance of making regular backups of your disks in well known, but it can be very frustrating to have a head crash and then discover that you cannot recover from your backups because the manuals do not tell you what to do. The DEC documentation covers most possibilities, but not the case where a removable pack is copied to a new pack, the new pack is then used as the current pack, and incremental backups to tape are then made. This situation is a fairly common one when you have two or more removable disk drives. This note covers backup and recovery in general terms, and details exactly what to do in the above mentioned case.

  11. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  12. Recovering Velocity Distributions Via Penalized Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David

    1997-07-01

    Line-of-sight velocity distributions are crucial for unravelling the dynamics of hot stellar systems. We present a new formalism based on penalized likelihood for deriving such distributions from kinematical data, and evaluate the performance of two algorithms that extract N(V) from absorption-line spectra and from sets of individual velocities. Both algorithms are superior to existing ones in that the solutions are nearly unbiased even when the data are so poor that a great deal of smoothing is required. In addition, the discrete-velocity algorithm is able to remove a known distribution of measurement errors from the estimate of N(V). The formalism is used to recover the velocity distribution of stars in five fields near the center of the globular cluster omega Centauri.

  13. Screening for Psychosocial Distress amongst War-Affected Children: Cross-Cultural Construct Validity of the CPDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordans, M. J. D.; Komproe, I. H.; Tol, W. A.; De Jong, J. T. V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Large-scale psychosocial interventions in complex emergencies call for a screening procedure to identify individuals at risk. To date there are no screening instruments that are developed within low- and middle-income countries and validated for that purpose. The present study assesses the cross-cultural validity of the brief,…

  14. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  15. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation among Low Socioeconomic Status African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical…

  16. Influence of Some Psychosocial Factors on Mobbing and Its Consequences among Employees Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo-Ferraz, Hugo; Gil-Monte, Pedro R.; Grau-Alberola, Ester; Llorca-Pellicer, Marta; Garcia-Juesas, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The problem of mobbing has attracted a great deal of attention over the past few years. This concern has increased the study of the phenomena, which has resulted in many scientific publications. Mobbing has been characterized as an emerging risk at work. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of some psychosocial factors at…

  17. Interaction between the RGS6 gene and psychosocial stress on obesity-related traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-03-31

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population. A total of 1,462 adult subjects, who participated in the Korean Association Resource cohort project, were included for this analysis. Obesity-related traits including waist circumference, body mass index, and visceral adipose tissue were recorded. A total of 4 intronic SNPs for the RGS6 gene were used for this study. We found that interactions between SNP rs2239219 and psychosocial stress are significantly associated with abdominal obesity (p = 0.007). As risk allele of this SNP increased, prevalence of abdominal obesity under high-stress conditions gradually increased (p = 0.013). However, we found no SNPs-by-stress interaction effect on other adiposity phenotypes. This study suggests that RGS6 is closely linked to stress-induced abdominal obesity in Korean adults.

  18. Psychosocial aspects of aphasia: whose perspectives?

    PubMed

    Parr, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some different meanings of the term 'psychosocial' and identifies the different ways in which the social and psychological sequelae of aphasia can be explored. These include qualitative methods, which seem well suited to addressing such complex issues. Having outlined some features of qualitative research, the paper describes a study in which fifty people talked about the consequences and significance of their long-term aphasia. Their 'insider perspective' on aphasia suggests its impacts are extensive, complex, direct and indirect, interconnected, systemic, dynamic and diversely experienced. The paper discusses the various implications of the study for clinicians and researchers concerned with the psychosocial aspects of aphasia and outlines how some of the issues raised in the interviews might be addressed.

  19. Psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, J D; Warwar, R E; Bienenfeld, D G; Marciniszyn, S L; Markert, R J

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate, for the first time, the psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis. METHODS: Two hundred ten individuals rated whole-face photographs of a series of patients on the basis of 11 different personal characteristics: intelligence, throat, friendliness, health, trustworthiness, hard work, mental illness, financial success, attractiveness, alcoholism, and happiness. Preoperative and postoperative photographs of both male and female patients with bilateral blepharoptosis and/or dermatochalasis were used. The paired t test was used to compare preoperative and postoperative ratings on the 11 characteristics. RESULTS: The preoperative photographs were rated more negatively than the postoperative photographs (P < .01-P < .001) on all 11 characteristics for both male and female patients by the 210 study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Members of society seem to view individuals with blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis negatively. These psychosocial attitudes may lead to unjust bias toward affected patients, and surgical correction likely provides benefits beyond improved visual function. PMID:11797321

  20. Psychosocial Interventions Pre and Post Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D

    2015-11-01

    Despite positive results overall, a substantial number of patients experience poor long-term outcomes following bariatric surgery. One reason for variability in weight loss may be difficulty in making and sustaining changes in dietary intake and physical activity; post-surgery binge eating has also been associated with poorer weight outcomes. In this paper, we review available evidence on adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Although the literature is limited, evidence suggests that bariatric surgery patients may benefit from a comprehensive approach targeting diet, activity and psychological factors. We think the optimal time to initiate adjunctive intervention is after surgery, but before significant weight regain has occurred. Adaptive interventions incorporating advances in technology may prove to be effective for promoting behavioural self-management and psychosocial adjustment following bariatric surgery. For some patients, pharmacotherapy and reoperation may also play a role in a personalized approach to post-surgery care.

  1. Psychosocial health conditions and HIV prevalence and incidence in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand: evidence of a syndemic effect.

    PubMed

    Guadamuz, T E; McCarthy, K; Wimonsate, W; Thienkrua, W; Varangrat, A; Chaikummao, S; Sangiamkittikul, A; Stall, R D; van Griensven, F

    2014-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok may experience multiple psychosocial health conditions, such as substance use, suicidality, and a history of sexual abuse. These factors may contribute to HIV vulnerability in a syndemic way. A syndemic is defined as a number of synergistically interacting health conditions producing excess disease in a population. The objective of this study is to examine whether psychosocial health conditions among MSM have a syndemic association with HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. To do this, we evaluated psychosocial health conditions and their associations with unprotected sex, HIV prevalence and HIV incidence in a cohort of Thai MSM (N = 1,292). There was a positive and significant association between the number of psychosocial health conditions and increased levels of unprotected sex and HIV prevalence at study baseline. The number of psychosocial health conditions at baseline was also associated with increased HIV incidence during follow-up (no conditions, HIV incidence = 15.3 %; one to three conditions, 23.7 %; four to five conditions, 33.2 %). The number of psychosocial health conditions was positively associated with HIV risk behavior and HIV prevalence and incidence. Prevention efforts among MSM need to address the existence of multiple psychosocial health conditions and their synergy to effectively decrease the spread of HIV infection.

  2. Psychosocial Health Conditions and HIV Prevalence and Incidence in a Cohort of Men Who have Sex with Men in Bangkok, Thailand: Evidence of a Syndemic Effect

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, K.; Wimonsate, W.; Thienkrua, W.; Varangrat, A.; Chaikummao, S.; Sangiamkittikul, A.; Stall, R. D.; van Griensven, F.

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok may experience multiple psychosocial health conditions, such as substance use, suicidality, and a history of sexual abuse. These factors may contribute to HIV vulnerability in a syndemic way. A syndemic is defined as a number of synergistically interacting health conditions producing excess disease in a population. The objective of this study is to examine whether psychosocial health conditions among MSM have a syndemic association with HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. To do this, we evaluated psychosocial health conditions and their associations with unprotected sex, HIV prevalence and HIV incidence in a cohort of Thai MSM (N = 1,292). There was a positive and significant association between the number of psychosocial health conditions and increased levels of unprotected sex and HIV prevalence at study baseline. The number of psychosocial health conditions at baseline was also associated with increased HIV incidence during follow-up (no conditions, HIV incidence = 15.3 %; one to three conditions, 23.7 %; four to five conditions, 33.2 %). The number of psychosocial health conditions was positively associated with HIV risk behavior and HIV prevalence and incidence. Prevention efforts among MSM need to address the existence of multiple psychosocial health conditions and their synergy to effectively decrease the spread of HIV infection. PMID:24989128

  3. Psychosocial issues during an expedition to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Much is known about psychological and interpersonal issues affecting astronauts participating in manned space missions near the Earth. But in a future long-distance, long-duration expedition to Mars, additional stressors will occur that will result in psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal effects on the crew, both negative and positive. This paper will review what is known about important psychosocial issues in space and will extrapolate them to the scenario of a future manned space mission to Mars.

  4. Unemployment and smoking: does psychosocial stress matter?

    PubMed Central

    De Vogli, R; Santinello, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Research indicates that cigarette smoking is strongly associated with unemployment. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms explaining this relationship. The aim of this study is to examine the role of psychosocial factors as potential mediators between unemployment and smoking. Participants: 4002 non-institutionalised, civilian adults living in the Veneto region of Italy. Design: The study was based on a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). Linear by linear association tests were used to examine bivariate associations between unemployment, psychosocial factors, and smoking. Logistic regression models were developed to analyse the relationship between unemployment and smoking when adjusting for psychological factors. Results: The odds of smoking among the unemployed was 2.78 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68 to 4.62) greater than that of higher managers and professionals controlling for demographic factors. The relationship between unemployment and smoking weakened (odds ratio 2.41, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.05) when psychosocial factors were entered into the analysis. The odds of the inability to control important things in life was 1.39 times (95% CI 1.11 to 1.75) greater, and the odds of emotional isolation was 1.45 times (95% CI 1.06 to 1.99) greater, among smokers compared to non-smokers controlling, for all other factors. Conclusions: Given that the data were cross sectional, firm conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the causal pathway connecting unemployment and smoking. However, this study suggests that psychosocial factors such as the inability to control and emotional isolation may be plausible mediators for the relationship. PMID:16319362

  5. Consultation to residential psychosocial rehabilitation agencies.

    PubMed

    Kupers, T A

    1996-08-01

    As non-profit psychosocial rehabilitation agencies take over providing many of the services once provided by governmental facilities in some locales, consultation to the staff of these agencies can be very productive. Using a revised community consultation model, the author lists some of the issues that are regularly raised by staff, and discusses the functions that this kind of consultation can fulfill in this important sector of community mental health services.

  6. The invention of the psychosocial: An introduction

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Rhodri

    2012-01-01

    Although the compound adjective ‘psychosocial’ was first used by academic psychologists in the 1890s, it was only in the interwar period that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers began to develop detailed models of the psychosocial domain. These models marked a significant departure from earlier ideas of the relationship between society and human nature. Whereas Freudians and Darwinians had described an antagonistic relationship between biological instincts and social forces, interwar authors insisted that individual personality was made possible through collective organization. This argument was advanced by dissenting psychoanalysts such as Ian Suttie and Karen Horney; biologists including Julian Huxley and Hans Selye; philosophers (e.g. Olaf Stapledon), anthropologists (e.g. Margaret Mead) and physicians (e.g John Ryle and James Halliday). This introduction and the essays that follow sketch out the emergence of the psycho-social by examining the methods, tools and concepts through which it was articulated. New statistical technologies and physiological theories allowed individual pathology to be read as an index of broader social problems and placed medical expertise at the centre of new political programmes. In these arguments the intangible structure of social relationships was made visible and provided a template for the development of healthy and effective forms of social organization. By examining the range of techniques deployed in the construction of the psychosocial (from surveys of civilian neurosis, techniques of family observation through to animal models of psychotic breakdown) a critical genealogy of the biopolitical basis of modern society is developed. PMID:23626408

  7. Psychosocial aspects of the functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Drossman, D; Creed, F; Olden, K; Svedlund, J; Toner, B; Whitehead, W

    1999-01-01

    The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most frequent conditions seen in gastroenterology practice and comprise a major portion of primary care. Psychosocial factors are important in these disorders with regard to: (1) their effects on gut physiology; (2) their modulation of the symptom experience; (3) their influence on illness behavior; (4) their impact on outcome; and (5) the choice of the therapeutic approach. This paper provides a review and consensus of the existing literature by gastroenterologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, physiologists, and health services investigators. Evidence is provided to support the biopsychosocial model as a basis for understanding and treating these disorders, and epidemiological and clinical information on the relations of psychosocial factors to gut physiology, symptom presentation, health behavior, and outcome is offered. Features of motility, personality, abuse history, health concerns, and treatment-seeking differ between patients with FGID and healthy controls, but they are not specific to FGID. They occur in other patients with chronic medical conditions and/or psychiatric disorders. Review of treatment trials indicates clear support for psychotherapeutic treatments, especially in the long term, as well as some evidence for the benefit of antidepressants in FGID, even in the absence of improvements in mood.


Keywords: functional gastrointestinal disorders; psychologic assessment; psychiatric diagnosis; psychosocial factors; health-related quality of life; psychological treatment; psychopharmacological treatment; Rome II PMID:10457041

  8. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  9. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  10. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  11. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  12. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  18. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression. PMID:24701010

  19. Adolescents risky MP3-player listening and its psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2011-04-01

    Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited 1687 adolescents (12- to 19-year old) of Dutch secondary schools to complete questionnaires about their MP3-player listening, sociodemographic characteristics and presumed psychosocial determinants of MP3-player listening. Of all participants, 90% reported listening to music through earphones on MP3 players; 28.6% were categorized as listeners at risk for hearing loss due to estimated exposure of 89 dBA for ≥1 hour per day. Compared with listeners not at risk for hearing loss, listeners at risk were more likely not to live with both parents, to experience rewards of listening to high-volume levels, to report a high habit strength related to risky MP3 listening, and were less likely to be motivated to protect their hearing. Habit strength was the strongest correlate of risky listening behavior, suggesting that voluntary behavior change among adolescents might be difficult to achieve and that a multiple strategy approach may be needed to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss.

  20. Method for recovering metal from waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a method for recovering metal from a waste stream to render the waste stream suitable for discharge. It comprises passing a waste stream comprised of heavy metal salts in dilute solution into a cathode chamber of an anion exchange membrane delineated electrolytic cell, wherein the metals are selected from the group having a standard reduction potential more negative than that of hydrogen in the electromotive force series and the heavy metal ion concentration of the solution is less than about 10,000 parts per million of dissolved material; subjecting the waste stream to high current density electrolysis at up to about 25 volts to enhance the controlled regular formation of a noncompressible metal hydrous oxide crystalline precipitate in the cathode chamber; separating the precipitate from the waste stream; and splitting the clarified liquid waste stream so that a portion of the clarified liquid waste stream is discharged and a portion is returned downstream for commingling with the metal ion-containing waste stream for further treatment.

  1. The relationship between psychosocial work factors, work stress and computer-related musculoskeletal discomforts among computer users in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl; Subramaniam, Indra Devi

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of workers use computer for work. So, especially among office workers, there is a high risk of musculoskeletal discomforts. This study examined the associations among 3 factors, psychosocial work factors, work stress and musculoskeletal discomforts. These associations were examined via a questionnaire survey on 30 office workers (at a university in Malaysia), whose jobs required an extensive use of computers. The questionnaire was distributed and collected daily for 20 days. While the results indicated a significant relationship among psychosocial work factors, work stress and musculoskeletal discomfort, 3 psychosocial work factors were found to be more important than others in both work stress and musculoskeletal discomfort: job demands, negative social interaction and computer-related problems. To further develop study design, it is necessary to investigate industrial and other workers who have experienced musculoskeletal discomforts and work stress.

  2. The influence of cultural and racial identification on the psychosocial adjustment of inner-city African American children in school.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Townsend, Tiffany G; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and combined influence of racial identity and Africentric values on African American children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 104 (53 males, 51 females) African American fourth-grade students attending an inner-city public school in a northeastern city. Child and teacher ratings were used to assess the relationship between racial identity, Africentric values, and several indices of child psychosocial adjustment, including child behavior control, school interest, and teacher perceptions of child strengths and problems in the classroom. Child self-esteem and the effects of gender and cohort were used as covariates in several analyses in the study. Overall, findings from the study supported the usefulness of combining racial identity and Africentric values into a single model of ethnic identification for African American children. Implications for risk prevention and enhancement of psychosocial functioning among African American children are discussed.

  3. Sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will make me feel sick: the psychosocial, somatic, and scholastic consequences of peer harassment.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana; Witkow, Melissa R

    2005-03-01

    This study examined associations among peer victimization, psychosocial problems, physical symptoms, and school functioning across the 1st year in middle school. An ethnically diverse sample of urban 6th graders (N=1,526) reported on their perceptions of peer victimization, psychosocial adjustment, and physical symptoms during fall and spring. Objective measures of school functioning (i.e., grade point average and absences) were also collected. In Model 1, peer victimization in the fall was associated with spring psychosocial maladjustment and physical symptoms, which in turn predicted poor spring school functioning. Model 2 suggested that psychosocial difficulties increase the risk of victimization, although physical symptoms did not predict victimization. No sex or ethnic group (African American, Asian, European American, and Latino) differences were found in the model structure or the strength of the path coefficients for either model, suggesting that the process is the same for boys and girls and students from different ethnic groups.

  4. Relationships Between Emotional Stability, Psychosocial Mentoring Support and Career Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the mediating role of psychosocial mentoring support on emotional stability personality disposition and career resilience relationship. In addition, this research also focuses on estimating the interrelationship between emotional stability, psychosocial mentoring support and career resilience. The results show substantive direct relations between emotional stability and psychosocial mentoring as well as between emotional stability and career resilience. Psychosocial mentoring is also seen as a significant predictor of career resilience. Further, it mediates partially the relationship between emotional stability personality and career resilience. Future and practical implications of research have also been provided. PMID:27247639

  5. Association between substance use and psychosocial characteristics among adolescents of the Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined the associations between substance use (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and cannabis use) and psychosocial characteristics at the individual and family levels among adolescents of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. Methods A school survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1432 students aged 11-17 years from all secondary schools. Data came from a self-administered anonymous questionnaire conducted along a standard methodology (Global School-based Health Survey, GSHS). Risk behaviors and psychosocial characteristics were dichotomized. Association analyses were adjusted for a possible classroom effect. Results The prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use was higher in boys than in girls and increased with age. Age-adjusted and multivariate analyses showed that several individual level characteristics (e.g. suicidal ideation and truancy) and family level characteristics (e.g. poor parental monitoring) were associated with substance use among students. Conclusions Our results suggest that health promotion programs should simultaneously address multiple risk behaviors and take into account a wide range of psychosocial characteristics of the students at the individual and family levels. PMID:21985036

  6. Which issues concerning multiple pregnancies should be addressed during psychosocial counselling?

    PubMed

    Emery, Marysa

    2007-01-01

    The global rise in multiple pregnancy rates due to assisted reproductive technology has led to the development of various strategies to diminish these rates without jeopardising pregnancy. Policies at treatment centres may include the option of fetal reduction, although each centre is subject to national laws and its own guidelines. However, personal opinions and goals may also influence practice. The development of clinical decisions, therefore, is complex and subject to change. Primary prevention is the best way to reduce multiple births. For preventative psychosocial counselling, some centres employ counsellors, but if not, this becomes the physician's task. An in-depth assessment is required to define how many embryos to transfer and what risk of multiple birth is acceptable to patients. Counselling should address the following: the relationship between pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate and the number of embryos transferred; benefits and risks of multiple pregnancy; and possibilities for primary and secondary prevention. Patients should voice how they feel facing these issues; which issues are worrisome; how they anticipate these possibilities; and what psychosocial support exists that could be mobilized. In summary, psychosocial counselling reinforces the partnership between couples and the assisted reproductive technology team, allowing for primary prevention and informed consent on multiple pregnancy issues.

  7. Maternal Weight Predicts Children's Psychosocial Development via Parenting Stress and Emotional Availability

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother–child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5–47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother–child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI–SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t1–t3) and social competence (t3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5–5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3–6: social-emotional competence). Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI–SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as

  8. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE...No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be

  9. Psychosocial Hazards in UK Universities: Adopting a Risk Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinman, Gail; Court, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of a recent national survey, this article examines the extent to which higher education institutions in the United Kingdom meet the minimum standards recommended by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for the management of work-related stressors. A comparison is also made between the average weekly working hours reported…

  10. The co-occurrence of reading disorder and ADHD: epidemiology, treatment, psychosocial impact, and economic burden.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Chris C; Gelhorn, Heather L; Bell, Jill A; Classi, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received increasing attention. This review summarizes the epidemiology, treatment strategies, psychosocial impact, and economic burden associated with the co-occurrence of these conditions. Common genetic and neuropsychological deficits may partially explain the high degree of overlap between RD and ADHD. Children who face the additive problems of both disorders are at greater risk for academic failure, psychosocial consequences, and poor long-term outcomes that persist into adulthood. However, few studies have evaluated interventions targeted to this patient population, underscoring the importance of identifying effective multimodal treatments that address the neuropsychological deficits of RD and ADHD through carefully planned clinical research.

  11. An examination of psychosocial correlates of eating disorders among female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Trent A; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine J; Carter, Jennifer E

    2009-09-01

    With female collegiate athletes, we examined the relationship of eating pathology to body image concerns, weight pressures, sociocultural internalization, and mood state. Multivariate analyses revealed that the symptomatic and eating disorder groups were similar on seven of eight weight pressures, three of four mood states, on internalization, and on five of six body image measures; in all instances, these two groups reported more pathological scores than the asymptomatic athletes. Except for pressures from coaches, the psychosocial variables differentiated the groups, correctly classifying 79% of the cases. These findings suggest that athletes symptomatic of eating disorders report similarly high levels of disturbance across a wide range of psychosocial risk factors, and both groups warrant prevention and treatment efforts.

  12. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-13

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  13. Parental psychosocial predictors of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jody S; Tyc, Vida L; Lensing, Shelly

    2012-09-01

    Children with cancer are at greater risk for the negative consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, making the identification of predictors of exposure critical. The current study investigated the impact of parents' psychosocial variables (perceived stress and vulnerability, self-efficacy), as well as health-related and demographic variables, on children's current exposure levels. Data were from 135 families whose children (M = 8.6 years old) lived with a smoker and were being treated for cancer. Self-efficacy was the consistent significant psychosocial predictor of exposure and the time since a child's diagnosis was indicative of lower exposure when limiting the sample to only smoking parents (n = 95). Both predictors of exposure have implications on motivation for behavioral change and may be suggestive of a teachable moment. Interventions may profit from tailoring programs to families based on these predictors of exposure, in particular for tobacco-based interventions for parents of medically compromised children, such as children with cancer.

  14. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  15. Psychosocial Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; McCabe, Mary; Robison, Leslie L.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Li, Yuelin; Marr, Brian P.; Abramson, David H.; Dunkel, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Survival rates for individuals diagnosed with retinoblastoma (RB) exceed 95% in the United States; however, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of these survivors. Patients and Methods Adult RB survivors, diagnosed from 1932 to 1994 and treated in New York, completed a comprehensive questionnaire adapted from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), by mail or telephone. Psychosocial outcomes included psychological distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, fear of cancer recurrence, satisfaction with facial appearance, post-traumatic growth, and post-traumatic stress symptoms; noncancer CCSS siblings served as a comparison group. Results A total of 470 RB survivors (53.6% with bilateral RB; 52.1% female) and 2,820 CCSS siblings were 43.3 (standard deviation [SD], 11) years and 33.2 (SD, 8.4) years old at the time of study, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, RB survivors did not have significantly higher rates of depression, somatization, distress, or anxiety compared with CCSS siblings. Although RB survivors were more likely to report post-traumatic stress symptoms of avoidance and/or hyperarousal (both P < .01), only five (1.1%) of 470 met criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Among survivors, having a chronic medical condition did not increase the likelihood of psychological problems. Bilateral RB survivors were more likely than unilateral RB survivors to experience fears of cancer recurrence (P < .01) and worry about their children being diagnosed with RB (P < .01). However, bilateral RB survivors were no more likely to report depression, anxiety, or somatic complaints than unilateral survivors. Conclusion Most RB survivors do not have poorer psychosocial functioning compared with a noncancer sample. In addition, bilateral and unilateral RB survivors seem similar with respect to their psychological symptoms. PMID:26417002

  16. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adolescent Care: Psychosocial and Medical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Guss, Carly; Shumer, Daniel; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Transgender individuals display incongruence between their assigned birth sex and their current gender identity, and may identify as male, female or elsewhere on the gender spectrum. Gender nonconformity describes an individual whose gender identity, role, or expression are not typical for individuals in a given assigned sex category. This update highlights recent literature pertaining to the psychosocial and medical care of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) adolescents with applications for the general practitioner. Recent findings The psychological risks and outcomes of TGN adolescents are being more widely recognized. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that social and medical gender transition reduces gender dysphoria, defined as distress that accompanies the incongruence between one’s birth sex and identified gender. Unfortunately, lack of education about TGN adolescents in medical training persists. Summary Recent literature highlights increased health risks in TGN adolescents and improved outcomes following gender dysphoria treatment. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with the range of treatment options and referral resources available to TGN adolescents in order to provide optimal and welcoming care to all adolescents. PMID:26087416

  17. Low Back Pain Exacerbated by Psychosocial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Derebery, V. Jane; Tullis, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with low back pain can pose a considerable challenge when there is evidence of a nonorganic or functional overlay. These patients can become frustrating examples of chronicity if proper guidelines in diagnosis and management are not followed. An exploration into the psychosocial factors affecting a patient is essential. Several simple questions and tests can facilitate this process. Significant organic lesions should be ruled out with a minimum of appropriate diagnostic procedures. A supportive and conservative treatment regimen with the goal of returning patients to full functioning as soon as possible is recommended. Patients should be encouraged to take an active role in their own treatment. PMID:2940754

  18. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss.

  19. Social work perspective on psychosocial dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Silverton, R

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the family pathology affecting five children with growth retardation. Psychosocial dwarfism was suspected in all of them. Emotional trauma from the social environment is believed to have contributed to the children's retarded growth pattern. Striking similarity in the pattern of disturbance in parent-child interaction with child abuse and maltreatment cases is shown. The social worker's responsibility and the difficulties encountered in both assessment and treatment of these families is highlighted. Guidelines are delineated for social work practitioners in approaching these families. Implications of the findings are examined and directions for future studies identified.

  20. Psychosocial program standards for NICU parents

    PubMed Central

    Hynan, M T; Hall, S L

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for and brief description of the process of developing recommendations for program standards for psychosocial support of parents with babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multidisciplinary workgroup of professional organizations and NICU parents was convened by the National Perinatal Association. Six interdisciplinary committees (family-centered developmental care, peer-to-peer support, mental health professionals in the NICU, palliative and bereavement care, follow-up support and staff education and support) worked to produce the recommendations found in this supplemental issue. NICU parents contributed to the work of each committee. PMID:26597799

  1. [Psychosocial intervention in hospitalization due to alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Bejarano, J; Solano, S

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a descriptive-type research on the findings of a 1-year follow-up experiment on a 72-inpatient at the Instituto sobre Alcoholismo y Fármacodependencia of the city of San José, Costa Rica. Information wa obtained from a 59-question instrument aimed at exploring: Sociodemographic aspects, alcohol ingestion-abstention patterns; interpersonal, family and labor relationships, autodiagnosis, and evaluation of the treatment program. During the 3-week inpatient treatment, a psychosocial treatment was administered to all subjects. Owing to the substantial changes patients evidenced in the above mentioned areas, findings suggest that the objectives were fulfilled satisfactorily enough.

  2. [The psychosocial roots of racism and xenophobia].

    PubMed

    Alonso-Fernández, F

    1999-01-01

    The concept of race is only a human particularity. In spite of this, the racism, as a construction of imagination or a paranocial delusion or an ethnic attitude, is spread among the narcissist personalities and the environment dominated by nationalist or religious fanaticism and anyway generates collective violence. There is also a psychosocial racism almost always actual in the common human relations, appeared in form of positive attitudes towards similar others and negative attitudes towards different others. The best defence against these both phenomena are the attitudes of tolerance, understanding and liking.

  3. Self-perceived stress reactivity is an indicator of psychosocial impairment at the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Work related stress is associated with a range of debilitating health outcomes. However, no unanimously accepted assessment tool exists for the early identification of individuals suffering from chronic job stress. The psychological concept of self-perceived stress reactivity refers to the individual disposition of a person to answer stressors with immediate as well as long lasting stress reactions, and it could be a valid indicator of current as well as prospective adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived stress reactivity correlates with various parameters of psychosocial health, cardiovascular risk factors, and parameters of chronic stress and job stress in a sample of middle-aged industrial employees in a so-called "sandwich-position". Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 174 industrial employees were assessed for psychosocial and biological stress parameters. Differences between groups with high and low stress reactivity were analysed. Logistic regression models were applied to identify which parameters allow to predict perceived high versus low stress reactivity. Results In our sample various parameters of psychosocial stress like chronic stress and effort-reward imbalance were significantly increased in comparison to the normal population. Compared to employees with perceived low stress reactivity, those with perceived high stress reactivity showed poorer results in health-related complaints, depression, anxiety, sports behaviour, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance. The educational status of employees with perceived low stress reactivity is higher. Education, cardiovascular complaints, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance were moderate predictors for perceived stress reactivity. However, no relationship was found between stress reactivity and cardiovascular risk factors in our sample. Conclusions Job stress is a major burden in a relevant subgroup of industrial

  4. The Significance of the Psychosocial Factors Influence in Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Alajbegovic, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world today. Risk factors are those factors that influence the development of CVD. Risk factors can be divided into materialistic (genetic predisposition, smoking, alcohol) and non-materialistic (psychosocial factors). Our goal is to note the role of the health system, to emphasize the importance of psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of CVD, explain the relationship between psychosocial factors and other risk factors, stress the importance of prevention through the provision of management of the cardiovascular system (CVS) diseases. Methods: A descriptive analysis was performed on scientific studies in several published articles in journals on CVS: Public Health Reviews, CVD, European Heart Journal, Materia Socio Medica and other indexed journals that publish articles on CVS. Results and Conclusions: The importance and role of the health system in the early detection, diagnosis, therapy and CVS disease prevention is presented through three thematic areas: (a) The incidence and prevalence of CVS diseases; (b) treatment of CVS diseases and (c) promotion of health in patients with CVS disease and those the risk of their occurrence. Health promotion is the most important aspect of the health system monitoring. Health promotion is adequately implemented ifthe management ofCVD is proper. The main objectives of CVD management are: Preventing or delaying the occurrence of CVD, reducing the number and severity of worsening and complications of CVD. Management Includes: Individual and family, the health system and the community. Materialistic and non-materialistic risk factors together contribute to the development of CVD. PMID:24404370

  5. Psychosocial Well-Being and a Multicultural Personality Disposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummett, Bradley R.; Wade, Jay C.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Thombs, Brett; Lewis, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychosocial well-being and a multicultural personality disposition in undergraduates (N = 124). Measures of universal-diverse orientation, hardiness, psychosocial-interpersonal functioning, self-esteem, and political correctness ideology were administered. Results indicated that the multicultural…

  6. Psychosocial Predictors of Women's Physical Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    Although health is a key element in one's experience of middle adulthood as a time of productivity and personal fulfillment, research on psychosocial factors predictive of mid-life health is sparse, especially for women. Psychosocial variables are not only highly salient to health, but also are potentially modifiable by women themselves. This…

  7. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  8. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  9. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  10. High Suicidal Ideation and Psychosocial Variables in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…

  11. The Psychosocial Problems of Cancer Patients: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Wayne; And Others

    The course of psychosocial adjustment to cancer was examined in 105 adults with cancer of the lung, breast and skin. Half of the patients received a program of systematic psychosocial rehabilitation plus evaluation, and the other half received only an evaluation, consisting of a series of psychometric instruments and a problem-oriented structured…

  12. Gifted Children and Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2001-01-01

    After presenting an overview of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the theory is applied to the development of gifted children. The psychosocial crisis experienced by children when they are infants, toddlers, preschoolers, elementary-aged, and during adolescence are examined, along with ways parents and teachers can help at each…

  13. Progeria: Medical Aspects, Psychosocial Perspectives, and Intervention Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses progeria (or Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome), a rare childhood disorder that invariably results in death during adolescence. Describes the major medical aspects of progeria, and discusses the psychosocial implications of the disorder with particular emphasis on grief-triggered reactions. Presents an overview of psychosocial intervention…

  14. Psychosocial Factors and Behavioral Medicine Interventions in Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E.; Trueba, Ana F.; Fritzsche, Anja; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This review examines the evidence for psychosocial influences in asthma and behavioral medicine approaches to its treatment. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on psychosocial influences and the evidence for behavioral interventions in asthma with a focus on research in the past 10 years and clinical trials.…

  15. Phenomenological Aspects of Psychosocial Maturity in Adolescence. Report No. 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    Forty-one subjects who score at the high and low extremes of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory were intensively interviewed. These interview data were analyzed to contrast the phenomenological and psychodynamic forces in the lives of these subjects that influence their current state of psychosocial maturity. Case material is presented.…

  16. Psychosocial Functioning of Young Children with Learning Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Background: In this study, psychosocial functioning of different groups of young children with learning problems was investigated using a diverse set of psychosocial variables (including behaviour problems, academic motivation, social preference, and self-concept). Methods: For this purpose, children with low academic achievement, with a specific…

  17. Psychosocial effects of enhanced external counterpulsation in the angina patient.

    PubMed

    Fricchione, G L; Jaghab, K; Lawson, W; Hui, J C; Jandorf, L; Zheng, Z S; Cohn, P F; Soroff, H

    1995-01-01

    Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive pantaloon device designed to increase coronary artery flow in the treatment of angina. This pilot study, conducted in 1992-1993, which used psychosocial testing pre- and posttreatment, yielded data suggesting that EECP is well tolerated psychosocially and produces improvement in the anginal syndrome. More comprehensive research is under way to test these preliminary conclusions.

  18. Building psychosocial programming in geriatrics fellowships: a consortium model.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Ronald D; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E; Ehrlich, Amy R; Greene, Michele G; Greenberg, Debra F; Raik, Barrie L; Raymond, Joshua J; Clabby, John F; Fields, Suzanne D; Breznay, Jennifer B

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area collaboratively created the New York Metropolitan Area Consortium to Strengthen Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships in 2007 to address this shortfall. The goal of the Consortium is to develop model educational programs for geriatrics fellows that highlight psychosocial issues affecting elder care, share interinstitutional resources, and energize fellowship program directors and faculty. In 2008, 2009, and 2010, Consortium faculty collaboratively designed and implemented a psychosocial educational conference for geriatrics fellows. Cumulative participation at the conferences included 146 geriatrics fellows from 20 academic institutions taught by interdisciplinary Consortium faculty. Formal evaluations from the participants indicated that the conference: a) positively affected fellows' knowledge of, interest in, and comfort with psychosocial issues; b) would have a positive impact on the quality of care provided to older patients; and c) encouraged valuable interactions with fellows and faculty from other institutions. The Consortium, as an educational model for psychosocial learning, has a positive impact on geriatrics fellowship training and may be replicable in other localities.

  19. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  20. Psychosocial screening and assessment in oncology and palliative care settings.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Sabato, Silvana; Massarenti, Sara; Nanni, Maria G; The UniFe Psychiatry Working Group Coauthors

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this, the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g., life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes) and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g., psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life) which are possibly implicated not only in "classical" psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools [e.g., and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g., the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research)] represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.

  1. Integrating Psychosocial Programs in Multisector Responses to International Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Joseph Orlando Prewitt

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the role of psychosocial support programs in American Red Cross-sponsored humanitarian assistance efforts in international disasters. The American Red Cross psychosocial support program consists of four specific components: participatory crisis assessment, dealing with survivors' root shock, community mobilization, and…

  2. Psychosocial correlates of immune responsiveness and illness episodes in US Air Force Academy cadets undergoing basic cadet training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. J.; Meehan, R. T.; Robinson, C.; Smith, M. L.; Mabry, T. R.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial correlates of immune function and illness in 89 male first-year US Air Force Academy cadets. A psychosocial questionnaire was administered to cadets prior to their arrival at the academy and was readministered during cadet orientation and during the stressful environment of Basic Cadet Training (BCT). Immune responsiveness was analyzed by PHA-, PMA-, or anti-CD3-stimulated thymidine uptake in mononuclear leucocytes. Illness episodes were assessed via medical chart review and self-reported symptoms. There were significant increases in distress levels as cadets entered BCT. No psychosocial measure assessed prior to arrival at the academy predicted level of PHA-, PMA-, and anti-CD3-stimulated thymidine uptake or risk of illness. However, hostility levels reported during BCT predicted risk of illness in the four weeks following psychosocial assessment (odds ratio = 7.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-36.1). Elevated response to environmental stressors and lower well-being levels also predicted impending illness, but only in the cohort of cadets who had not contracted food poisoning prior to assessment during BCT (OR = 9.3, CI = 1.9-46.7; OR = 0.09, CI = 0.02-0.53). These results suggest that self-report measures of hostility, response to environmental stressors and well-being may be useful predictors of impending illness episodes in males encountering high stress environments.

  3. Effects of psychosocial and individual psychological factors on the onset of musculoskeletal pain: common and site-specific effects

    PubMed Central

    Nahit, E; Hunt, I; Lunt, M; Dunn, G; Silman, A; Macfarlane, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adverse psychosocial and individual psychological factors increase the risk of pain across regional sites. Methods: A prospective study was conducted of newly employed workers from 12 diverse occupational groups. Near to the beginning of subjects' employment, details of work related psychosocial factors and individual psychological distress were obtained by means of a self completed questionnaire. Questionnaire follow up after 12 months provided data on these same exposures and ascertained pain at any of four anatomical sites: the low back, shoulder, wrist/forearm, and knee. Results: Of the original 1081 subjects, 829 (77%) provided full details at the one year follow up. Psychosocial work demands and high levels of individual psychological distress were found to have a common effect across sites. Psychological distress was associated with a doubling of the risk of reported pain (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.7), while aspects of job demand, poor support from colleagues, and work dissatisfaction were all associated with increased odds of reported pain onset of between 1.4 and 1.7. These effects were almost all common across the four regional pain sites. Conclusions: In cohorts of newly employed workers, certain work related psychosocial factors and individual psychological distress are associated with the subsequent reporting of musculoskeletal pain, and generally this effect is common across anatomical sites. PMID:12860731

  4. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  5. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy: a wider approach

    PubMed Central

    Mula, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Epilepsy is one of the most serious neurological conditions and has an impact not only on the affected individual but also on the family and, indirectly, on the community. A global approach to the individual must take into account cognitive problems, psychiatric comorbidities and all psychosocial complications that often accompany epilepsy. We discuss psychosocial issues in epilepsy with special focus on the relationship between stigma and psychiatric comorbidities. Social barriers to optimal care and health outcomes for people with epilepsy result in huge disparities, and the public health system needs to invest in awareness programmes to increase public knowledge and reduce stigma in order to minimise such disparities. Declarations of interest J.W.S. receives research support from the Dr Marvin Weil Epilepsy Research Fund, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline, the World Health Organization and the EU’s FP7 programme, and has been consulted by, and has received fees for lectures from, GlaxoSmithKline, Eisai, Lundbeck, Teva and UCB. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703786

  6. Welcome Biological Breakthroughs, Supply Psychosocial Insights

    PubMed Central

    Tekkalaki, Bheemsain; Tripathi, Adarsh; Trivedi, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour, emotions, and cognition are complex to understand and explain. It is even more difficult to understand the basis for abnormal behaviour, disturbed emotions, and impaired cognitions, something mental health professionals are trying for long. In these pursuits, psychiatry has traversed through eras of humours, witchcraft, spirits, psychoanalysis, and gradually deviated from other medical specialities. Now, with recent biological breakthroughs like advances in psychopharmacology, neuroimaging and genetics, increasingly more emphasis is being given to the biological model of psychiatric disorders. These new biological models have given a more scientific appearance to the speciality. It has also revolutionised the management strategies and outcome of many psychiatric disorders. However, this rapid development in biological understanding of psychiatry also leads to a new wave of reductionism. In an attempt to deduce everything in terms of neurons, neurochemicals, and genes, can we neglect psychosocial aspects of mental health? Patients’ personality, expectations, motives, family background, sociocultural backgrounds continue to affect mental health no matter how much ‘biological’ psychiatry gets. Biological and psychosocial approaches are not mutually exclusive but complementary. Integrating them harmoniously is the skill psychiatry demands for comprehensive understanding of mental and behavioural disorders. PMID:24891799

  7. [Hereditary and psychosocial causes of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Leonhard, K

    1979-10-01

    On the basis of the examination of patients with endogenic psychosis, indications were obtained that there are forms that mainly develop on a hereditary basis, and forms determined by psychosocial causes. In unsystematic schizophrenia the chief factors are hereditary, above all in periodic catatonia. On the other hand, there are a few indications of a hereditary genesis in systematic schizophrenia although it is just these forms that are distinguished by the severity of their course. By studying twins, cases of schizophrenia in infancy, and the circumstances of brothers and sisters, strong indications of psychosocial causes of systematic schizophrenia were found. Lack of contacts in the course of development appears to the determing factor. In motility psychosis, one of the cycloid psychoses, indications were found that excessive encouragement by other children can be a cause of overstrain and thus may be detrimental. The conclusions drawn are based on concrete findings obtained in a total of 1,114 cases and are for the most part statistically significant.

  8. Psychosocial Factors and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Potential Biobehavioral Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jennifer M.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Liesveld, Jane L.; Moynihan, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    While psychosocial factors are known to affect cancer progression via biobehavioral pathways in many patient populations, these relationships remain largely unexplored in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) patients. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the literature regarding psychosocial and endocrine/immune aspects of HCT, with an emphasis on exploring pathways that may mediate the associations between psychosocial factors and disease outcomes. These include the roles of catecholamines, glucocorticoids, inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), immune reconstitution and infectious susceptibility, as well as the new opportunities available in genomics research. We also discuss the implications for potential immunomodulating psychosocial interventions. Elucidating the biological pathways that account for the associations between psychosocial factors and clinical course could ultimately lead to improved outcomes for this psychologically and immunologically vulnerable population. PMID:23845514

  9. On the Validity of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory: An Examination of Psychosocial Maturity and Dogmatism. Report No. 203.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd; And Others

    Form D of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory and the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale were administered to 325 10th grade students to test a predicted correlation between the Dogmatism Scale and the Change and Tolerance subscales of the PSM battery, and to examine the pattern of covariation between psychosocial maturity and dogmatism. A substantial…

  10. Effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background Stoma can pose extensive challenges for colorectal cancer survivors. Identifying the psychological and social adjustment among them and how it differs by gender will aid in identifying those particularly at risk of having poor adjustment and in planning programs to improve their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the stoma clinic of B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. A purposive sample of 122 patients with ostomy was taken from the above mentioned setting. Selection criteria included colorectal cancer survivors having ostomy for at least 6 months. Data on socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 (OAI-23). Results A total of 122 patients were included in the study. Mean time since ostomy surgery was 2.53 and 1.98 years for men and women respectively. Both men and women had significant impairment in the psychosocial adjustment, however, men had significantly lower psychosocial adjustment score (37.68±12.96 vs. 43.45±12.81, t=−2.47, P=0.015) at 95% CI as compared to women and they reported more negative emotions. Furthermore, men significantly predicted low acceptance {β=−3.078, P=0.023, ΔR2=0.036, F [4,117] =7.90, P<0.001} and social engagement score {β=−2.501, P<0.001, ΔR2=0.098, F [4,117] =6.03, P<0.001}. Conclusions Colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should be monitored for psychosocial concerns in regular basis and health care providers should tailor care based on their need. Approaches of survivorship care and psychosocial interventions in colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should take into account gender specific concerns and requirements to aid adjustment. PMID:28078117

  11. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  12. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  13. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:27462898

  14. Psychosocial factors and work related sickness absence among permanent and non-permanent employees

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, D.; Benavides, F.; Amick, B.; Benach, J.; Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the association between psychosocial work factors and work related sickness absence among permanent and non-permanent employees by sex. Design: A cross sectional survey conducted in 2000 of a representative sample of the European Union total active population, aged 15 years and older. The independent variables were psychological job demands and job control as measures of psychosocial work environment, and work related sickness absence as the main outcome. Poisson regression models were used to compute sickness absence days' rate ratios. Setting: 15 countries of the European Union. Participants: A sample of permanent (n = 12 875) and non-permanent (n = 1203) workers from the Third European Survey on Working Conditions. Results: High psychological job demands, low job control, and high strain and passive work were associated with higher work related sickness absence. The risks were more pronounced in non-permanent compared with permanent employees and men compared with women. Conclusions: This work extends previous research on employment contracts and sickness absence, suggesting different effects depending on psychosocial working conditions and sex. PMID:15365115

  15. CBRC and psychosocial counselling: assessing needs and developing an ethical framework for practice.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Eric; Thorn, Petra; Wischmann, Tewes

    2011-11-01

    Encountering infertility and involuntary childlessness and undergoing infertility treatment are acknowledged as stressful experiences that impact on individuals' psychological and emotional health – and for which access to psychosocial counselling by a skilled mental health professional may be beneficial. Evidence of patients', gamete donors' and surrogates' experiences indicates that utilization of infertility treatment in another country may not only exacerbate these psychosocial adversities, but may also pose additional risks to the psychological or physical health of participants, thus further emphasizing the need for competent psychosocial counselling services in cross-border reproductive care. However, this is a largely neglected topic in recent discussions of both CBRC itself and of infertility counselling practice. This paper extends the previous work undertaken by two of the authors to begin to map out practice issues within an ethical framework for counsellors when working with clients, donors, surrogates, individuals conceived following infertility treatment and existing children in clients', donor's and surrogates' families where cross-border reproductive treatment is considered or undertaken.

  16. A review of psychosocial issues in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Ashrafi, Mandana; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Psychosocial issues and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are important components of care in patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (CHBV). In this review, we searched Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) website (until January 2012) using relevant terms and we categorized the retrieved content into three areas: HRQOL, mental health, and psychosocial issues such as stigma and coping.  Increasing severity of CHBV leads to a decline in HRQOL. Cirrhosis worsens HRQOL, whereas treatment and psycho-education improves it. Frequency of mood disorders seems to be increased in patients with CHBV, although not all studies have shown this trend. Some factors such as alcohol consumption and low social support negatively impact patients' mental health. Those with CHBV generally have better HRQOL and mental health than their hepatitis C (HCV) counterparts. Patients with psychiatric disorders, particularly those with prolonged institutionalization, have a generally higher risk of acquiring CHBV infection compared to the general population. Robust studies regarding the stigma in patients with CHBV are lacking, although some studies have suggested a higher degree of perceived stigma in these patients.   HRQOL and mental health are significantly affected in CHBV patients, particularly in those with more severe forms of the disease. There are few studies that addressed the effects of intervention in CHBV patients with psychosocial problems. Other subjects necessitating additional research include stigma, coping mechanisms, and other less common, yet important psychosomatic disorders.

  17. Psychosocial Syndemics are Additively Associated with Worse ART Adherence in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Bedoya, C. Andres; Mayer, Kenneth H.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Pinkston, Megan; Remmert, Jocelyn E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected individuals is necessary to both individual and public health, and psychosocial problems have independently been associated with poor adherence. To date, studies have not systematically examined the effect of multiple, co-occurring psychosocial problems (i.e., “syndemics”) on ART adherence. Participants included 333 HIV-infected individuals who completed a comprehensive baseline evaluation, as part of a clinical trial to evaluate an intervention to treat depression and optimize medication adherence. Participants completed self-report questionnaires, and trained clinicians completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. ART non-adherence was objectively measured via an electronic pill cap (i.e., MEMS). As individuals reported a greater number of syndemic indicators, their odds of non-adherence increased. Co-occurring psychosocial problems have an additive effect on the risk for poor ART adherence. Future behavioral medicine interventions are needed that address these problems comprehensively, and/or the core mechanisms that they share. PMID:25331267

  18. Psychosocial Syndemics are Additively Associated with Worse ART Adherence in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Bedoya, C Andres; Mayer, Kenneth H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Pinkston, Megan M; Remmert, Jocelyn E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A

    2015-06-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected individuals is necessary to both individual and public health, and psychosocial problems have independently been associated with poor adherence. To date, studies have not systematically examined the effect of multiple, co-occurring psychosocial problems (i.e., "syndemics") on ART adherence. Participants included 333 HIV-infected individuals who completed a comprehensive baseline evaluation, as part of a clinical trial to evaluate an intervention to treat depression and optimize medication adherence. Participants completed self-report questionnaires, and trained clinicians completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. ART non-adherence was objectively measured via an electronic pill cap (i.e., MEMS). As individuals reported a greater number of syndemic indicators, their odds of non-adherence increased. Co-occurring psychosocial problems have an additive effect on the risk for poor ART adherence. Future behavioral medicine interventions are needed that address these problems comprehensively, and/or the core mechanisms that they share.

  19. Systematic comparative content analysis of 17 psychosocial work environment questionnaires using a new taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Many questionnaires have been developed to measure how psychosocial characteristics are perceived in a work environment. But the content validity of these questionnaires has rarely been questioned due to the absence of a reference taxonomy for characteristics of work environments. Objectives To propose an exhaustive taxonomy of work environment characteristics involved in psychosocial risks and to apply this taxonomy to questionnaires on workplace psychosocial factors. Methods The taxonomy was developed by categorizing factors present in the main theoretical models of the field. Questionnaire items most frequently cited in scientific literature were retained for classification. Results The taxonomy was structured into four hierarchical levels and comprises 53 categories. The 17 questionnaires analyzed included 927 items: 59 from the “physical environment” category, 116 from the “social environment” category, 236 from the “work activity” category, 255 from the “activity management” category, and 174 from the “organizational context” category. Conclusions There are major content differences among analyzed questionnaires. This study offers a means for selecting a scale on the basis of content. PMID:27367232

  20. Psychosocial environment: definitions, measures and associations with weight status--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Glonti, K; Mackenbach, J D; Ng, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; McKee, M; Rutter, H

    2016-01-01

    Socio-ecological models suggest that many elements of the social environment act as upstream determinants of obesity. This systematic review examined definitions, measures and strength of associations between the psychosocial environment and adult weight status. Studies were included if they were conducted on adults, the outcome was weight status, carried out in any developed country and investigated at least one psychosocial environmental construct. Six databases for primary studies were searched: EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. We restricted our search to studies published in English between January 1995 and February 2015. An adapted 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' was used to evaluate risk of bias of included studies. Out of 14,784 screened records, 42 articles were assessed using full text. A total of 19 studies were included. The strongest associations with weight status were found for social capital and collective efficacy, although few studies found significant associations. There was heterogeneity in the definitions and metrics of psychosocial environmental constructs. There is limited evidence that greater social capital and collective efficacy are associated with healthier weight status. The research conducted to date has not robustly identified relations. We highlight challenges to undertaking research and establishing causality in this field and provide recommendations for further research.