Armijo, Julio; Méndez, Emmanuel; Morales, Ricardo; Schilling, Sara; Castro, Ariel; Alvarado, Rubén; Rojas, Graciela
Background: In Chile, the clinical guidelines “for the treatment of people from first episode of schizophrenia” aim to support individuals with schizophrenia to live independently, establishment occupational goals, and gain an adequate quality of life and social interaction. This requires the implementation of a treatment model that integrates psychosocial and pharmacological dimensions. Community intervention strategies ensure the achievement of these goals. Objectives: This study compiles and synthesizes available scientific evidence from the last 14 years on the effectiveness of community intervention strategies for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Methodology: An electronic search was carried out using PUBMED, LILACS, and Science Direct as databases. Criteria of inclusion: (i) randomized clinical trials, (ii) Community-based interventions, (iii) diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (section F2 of ICD-10). Exclusion Criteria: (i) treatments exclusively pharmacological, (ii) interventions carried out in inpatient settings, (iii) bipolar affective disorder or substance-induced psychosis (greater than 50% of sample). Results: Sixty-six articles were reviewed. Community strategies for integrated treatment from the first outbreak of schizophrenia significantly reduced negative and psychotic symptoms, days of hospitalization, and comorbidity with substance abuse and improved global functioning and adherence to treatment. In other stages, there were improved outcomes in negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Psychoeducation for patients and families reduced the levels of self-stigma and domestic abuse, as well as improved knowledge of the disease and treatment adherence. Training focused on cognitive, social, and labor skills has been shown to improve yields in social functioning and employment status. Conclusion: Community-based intervention strategies are widely supported in the treatment of patients with
Singh, S K; Agrawal, J K; Srivastava, A S; Bhardwaj, V K; Bose, B S
A variable array of neuroglycopenic symptoms are frequently encountered in the hypoglycemic stage, but acute psychotic disorders are quite rare. A fifty five year old female presented with an acute psychosis following oral sulfonylurea induced hypoglycemia without preceding features of adrenomedullary stimulation. This case report suggests that an acute and transient psychotic disorder may be an important neuroglycopenic feature and its early recognition protects the patient from severe hypoglycemic brain damage in a state of hypoglycemia unawareness.
... short-term display of psychotic behavior, such as hallucinations or delusions, which occurs with a stressful event. ... Hearing or seeing things that aren't real (hallucinations) Strange speech or language The symptoms are not ...
In emergency situations the general practitioner is often the first professional contact psychotic patients have. The following article conveys basic knowledge about psychotic disorders and their clinical features typically seen in general practice.
Vermersch, Charles; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Fovet, Thomas; Thomas, Pierre; Amad, Ali
Psychotic disorders are frequent among travelers (10 to 20 % of medical evacuations). The travel is a concentrate of stressors. Psychotic disorders are not a contraindication to travel. Special precautions should be taken for patients with psychotic disorders wishing to travel. These precautions could apply to patients at risk of transition to a psychotic disorder.
Chen, Ziyi; Lusicic, Ana; O'Brien, Terence J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Adams, Sophia J; Kwan, Patrick
Antiepileptic drug treatment can induce psychosis in some patients. However, there are no agreed definitions or diagnostic criteria for antiepileptic drug-induced psychotic disorder in the classification systems of either epileptology or psychiatry. In this study we investigated the clinical spectrum of antiepileptic drug-induced psychotic disorder in patients with epilepsy. The medical records of all patients with epilepsy who were diagnosed by a neuropsychiatrist as having a psychotic disorder at the Royal Melbourne Hospital from January 1993 to June 2015 were reviewed. Data were extracted regarding epilepsy and its treatment, psychotic symptoms profile and outcome. The diagnosis of epilepsy was established in accordance to the classification system of the International League Against Epilepsy while that of psychotic disorder was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition and the proposal on neuropsychiatric disorders in epilepsy. Patients with antiepileptic drug-induced psychotic disorder were compared to those with psychotic disorders unrelated to antiepileptic drugs assessed over the same period (non-antiepileptic drug induced psychotic disorder group). Univariate comparisons were performed and variables with a value of P < 0.1 were selected for the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The records of 2630 in-patients and outpatients with epilepsy were screened, from which 98 (3.7%) with psychotic disorders were identified. Among these, 14 (14.3%) were diagnosed to have antiepileptic drug-induced psychotic disorder. Excluding one patient who developed psychosis after valproate withdrawal, 76.9% in the antiepileptic drug induced psychotic disorder group were female and the percentage of temporal lobe involvement was higher in the antiepileptic drug induced psychotic disorder group (69.2% versus 38.1%, P < 0.05). Current use of levetiracetam was higher in antiepileptic drug-induced psychotic disorder group (84
Tang, Yilang; Martin, Nancy L; Cotes, Robert O
Cocaine, the third mostly commonly used illicit drug in the United States, has a wide range of neuropsychiatric effects, including transient psychotic symptoms. When psychotic symptoms occur within a month of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal, the diagnosis is cocaine-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD). Current evidence suggests those with CIPD are likely to be male, have longer severity and duration of cocaine use, use intravenous cocaine, and have a lower body mass index. Differentiating CIPD from a primary psychotic disorder requires a detailed history of psychotic symptoms in relation to substance use and often a longitudinal assessment. Treatment includes providing a safe environment, managing agitation and psychosis, and addressing the underlying substance use disorder. This review begins with a clinical case and summarizes the literature on CIPD, including clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, mechanism and predictors of illness, and treatment.
Hides, Leanne; Dawe, Sharon; McKetin, Rebecca; Kavanagh, David J; Young, Ross McD; Teesson, Maree; Saunders, John B
This study investigates the rates of primary psychotic disorders (PPD) and substance-induced psychotic disorders (SIPDs) in methamphetamine (MA) users accessing needle and syringe programs (NSPs). The aim was to determine if there are systematic differences in the characteristics of MA users with PPDs and SIPDs compared to those with no psychotic disorder. Participants were 198 MA users reporting use in the previous month. Diagnosis was determined using the Psychiatric Research Interview for DSM-IV Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM-IV). Current psychiatric symptoms and substance use were also measured. Just over half (n=101) of participants met DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime psychotic disorder, including 81 (80%) with a SIPD and 20 (20%) with a PPD. Those with a younger age of onset of weekly MA use were at increased risk of a lifetime SIPD. A current psychotic disorder was found in 62 (39%), comprising 49 SIPDs (79%) and 13 PPDs (21%). MA users with a current PPD were more likely to have received psychiatric treatment in the past month than those with a current SIPD, despite a similar level of psychotic symptom severity. A high proportion of MA users accessing NSPs have psychotic disorders, the majority of which are substance-induced.
Salvatore, Paola; Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Maggini, Carlo; Baldessarini, Ross J.
Background Misidentification phenomena, including the delusion of “imposters” named after Joseph Capgras, occur in various major psychiatric and neurological disorders but have rarely been studied systematically in broad samples of modern patients. This study investigated the prevalence and correlated clinical factors of Capgras phenomenon in a broad sample of patient-subjects with first-lifetime episodes of psychotic affective and non affective disorders. Methods We evaluated 517 initially hospitalized, first-episode psychotic-disorder patients for prevalence of Capgras phenomenon and its association with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses including schizophreniform, brief psychotic, unspecified psychotic, delusional, and schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar-I disorder and major depression with psychotic features, and with characteristics of interest including antecedent psychiatric and neurological morbidity, onset-type and presenting psychopathological phenomena, using standard bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Capgras syndrome was identified in 73/517 (14.1%) patients (8.2%–50% across diagnoses). Risk was greatest with acute or brief psychotic disorders (schizophreniform [50%], brief [34.8%], or unspecified [23.9%] psychoses), intermediate in major depression (15%), schizophrenia (11.4%) and delusional disorder (11.1%), and lowest in bipolar-I (10.3%) and schizoaffective disorders (8.2%). Associated were somatosensory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, Schneiderian (especially delusional perception), and cycloid features as described by Perris and Brockington including polymorphous psychotic phenomena, rapidly shifting psychomotor and affective symptoms, pan-anxiety, ecstasy, over-concern with death, and perplexity or confusion, as well as rapid-onset, but not sex, age, abuse-history, dissociative features, or indications of neurological disorders. Conclusions Capgras syndrome was prevalent across a broad spectrum of first
Zammit, Stanley; Kounali, Daphne; Cannon, Mary; David, Anthony S; Gunnell, David; Heron, Jon; Jones, Peter B; Lewis, Shôn; Sullivan, Sarah; Wolke, Dieter; Lewis, Glyn
OBJECTIVE The authors examined the development of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in a large population-based sample of young adults and explored their relationship to psychotic phenomena earlier in childhood. METHOD The authors conducted a longitudinal birth cohort study of individuals assessed with the semistructured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interviews at ages 12 and 18 years. RESULTS Of the 4,724 individuals interviewed at age 18, 433 (9.2%) had either suspected (N=203 [4.3%]) or definite (N=230 [4.9%]) psychotic experiences. Of these, 79 (1.7%) met criteria for a psychotic disorder, and of those, only 50% sought professional help. All psychotic outcomes were more likely in young women and in those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. Of the participants who had psychotic experiences at age 12, 78.7% had remitted by age 18. The risk of psychotic disorders at age 18 was greater in those with suspected (odds ratio=5.6, 95% CI=2.6-12.1) and especially in those with definite (odds ratio=12.7, 95% CI=6.2-26.1) psychotic experiences at age 12, and also among those with psychotic experiences at age 12 attributed to sleep or fever or with nonpsychotic experiences such as depersonalization. The positive predictive values for increasing frequency of experiences at age 12 predicting psychotic disorders at age 18 ranged from 5.5% to 22.8%. CONCLUSIONS Despite evidence for a continuum of psychotic experiences from as early as age 12, positive predictive values for predicting psychotic disorders were too low to offer real potential for targeted interventions. Psychotic disorders in young adults are relatively uncommon, but they constitute an important unmet need for care given that half of the individuals in this study who met criteria for a psychiatric disorder had not sought help for these problems despite high levels of associated distress and impairment.
Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K.; Burdick, Katherine E.
Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders. PMID:25153535
Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, M; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K; Burdick, Katherine E
Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders.
Pandurangi, Anand K
The DSM-5 lists 13 psychotic disorders and introduces modest but significant changes in their diagnosis. Asian Americans bring unique issues to the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. They may exhibit greater prevalence of culturally influenced psychosis-like experiences that may or may not constitute a pathological condition such as psychosis risk syndrome or attenuated psychosis. Acute psychotic disorders with good prognosis may be more prevalent in Asians and may sometimes be misdiagnosed as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Catatonic disorders are also more prevalent in Asians, and are likely to receive more appropriate labeling with DSM-5. The expanded cultural formulation in DSM-5 is a progressive step but its benefits might be limited by lack of culturally trained clinicians and/or limited time for assessment. There is a dearth of systematic data on psychotic disorders in Asian Americans and it is hoped that the DSM-5 will stimulate this much needed research.
Heckers, Stephan; Barch, Deanna M; Bustillo, Juan; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Gur, Raquel; Malaspina, Dolores; Owen, Michael J; Schultz, Susan; Tandon, Rajiv; Tsuang, Ming; Van Os, Jim; Carpenter, William
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders attract great interest among clinicians, researchers, and the lay public. While the diagnostic features of schizophrenia have remained unchanged for more than 100 years, the mechanism of illness has remained elusive. There is increasing evidence that the categorical diagnosis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders contributes to this lack of progress. The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) continues the categorical classification of psychiatric disorders since the research needed to establish a new nosology of equal or greater validity is lacking. However, even within a categorical system, the DSM-5 aims to capture the underlying dimensional structure of psychosis. The domains of psychopathology that define psychotic disorders are presented not simply as features of schizophrenia. The level, the number, and the duration of psychotic signs and symptoms are used to demarcate psychotic disorders from each other. Finally, the categorical assessment is complemented with a dimensional assessment of psychosis that allows for more specific and individualized assessment of patients. The structure of psychosis as outlined in the DSM-5 may serve as a stepping-stone towards a more valid classification system, as we await new data to redefine psychotic disorders.
Romain, J L; Dermain, P; Greslé, P; Grignon, S; Moisan, P; Nore, D; Pech, G; Benyaya, J; Perret, I
The first scale evaluating psychotic anxiety specifically is the "Psychotic Anxiety Scale": PAS was proposed and validated by O. Blin et al. in 1988. Zuclopenthixol acetate formulation is a both rapid and middle prolonged (2-3 days) acting neuroleptic used to start the treatment in an acute episode of the psychotic illness. It has been established as an effective drug for a broad spectrum of symptoms in schizophrenia and other psychosis, but its "angolytic" effect had never been quantified. It was interesting to study the efficacy of zuclopenthixol acetate on psychotic anxiety with PAS during the first 9 days of hospitalisation of psychotic patients. During the study, the clinical evaluation was made with the Psychotic Anxiety Scale (PAS) for the main criteria; Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Nordic side effect scale (UKU) for the secondary criteria. Assessments were performed at days, 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9. Zuclopenthixol acetate was administered at Day 0, Day 3, and Day 6. Protocol allowed an additional injection at D1 in case of insufficient efficacy. Forty six patients were included into this open non comparative multicenter study: 23 patients were male and 23 female. Their mean age (X +/- S) was 32 +/- 10 years, and according to DSM III-R, 28 of them got schizophrenia diagnosis, 13 suffered from brief psychotic disorder and 3 from schizophreniform disorder (diagnosis was missing for two subjects). The mean dosage of zuclopenthixol acetate by injection, foreseen in the protocol, was between 126 to 138 mg. Four patients were treated with high dose: more than 800 mg during the 9 days of the study and 6 patients had 5 injections or more. Between D0 and D9, the total PAS score decreased from 63 (from moderated to severe anxiety) to 25 (absence of anxiety) and the reduction of score was statistically significant from 24 hours after the first injection (p < 0.01). Various items analysis of PAS has showed a statistically significant reduction from 24 hours
Goulding, Sandra M; Holtzman, Carrie W; Trotman, Hanan D; Ryan, Arthur T; Macdonald, Allison N; Shapiro, Daniel I; Brasfield, Joy L; Walker, Elaine F
The psychosis prodrome offers great promise for identifying neural mechanisms involved in psychotic disorders and offers an opportunity to implement empirical interventions to delay, and ultimately ameliorate, illness onset. This article summarizes the literature on individuals in the putatively prodromal phase of psychosis/deemed at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis onset. Standardized measurement and manifestation of the CHR syndromes are discussed, followed by empirical findings that highlight the psychological deficits and biological abnormalities seen in CHR syndromes and psychotic disorders. Current controversies surrounding the diagnosis of CHR syndromes and issues related to the treatment of CHR individuals are also presented.
Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Norkett, Emily; Graber, Kelsey; Tembulkar, Sahil; Morelli, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; D'Angelo, Eugene
Suicide is the leading cause of premature death in individuals with psychotic disorders. Risk for onset of suicidal behaviors tends to begin in adolescence, remaining high into young adulthood. The present study aims to evaluate the interplay of early onset psychosis and suicide risk by examining suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders (PD) compared to typically developing peers (TD). Twenty five youths were recruited and were diagnostically evaluated for psychosis. We found that the PD children exhibited significantly higher levels of suicidal behaviors than TD children, even when parsed into individual at-risk behaviors.
Grove, Tyler; Taylor, Stephan; Dalack, Gregory; Ellingrod, Vicki
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a well-described complication of schizophrenia, however, mechanisms connecting CVD with other facets of psychotic disorders, such as neurocognition, are not understood. The current study examined folate metabolism as a potential mechanism of CVD and neurocognitive deficits by: 1) using endothelial dysfunction as a biomarker of CVD, and 2) comparing enzymes associated with neurocognition, CVD, and critical to folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT). Endothelial function was assessed in 147 participants with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified grouped by MTHFR and COMT allele status. Regression models were used to compare neurocognitive performance based on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Overall, endothelial function predicted BACS composite z-scores after controlling for age, race, level of education, serum folate levels, and MTHFR/COMT risk allele status. Participants with at least one or more MTHFR and/or COMT risk alleles had lower BACS Composite and BACS Symbol Coding adjusted mean z-scores than those with both MTHFR CC and COMT Met/Met genotypes. Thus, endothelial dysfunction may contribute to the neurocognitive deficits seen in psychotic disorders. CVD interventions may not only reduce CVD-related morbidity, but also lessen progressive neurocognitive deficits reported in psychotic disorders.
Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric
Psychosis and substance abuse are intimately related. Psychotic spectrum illnesses commonly co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs), and many substances of abuse can cause or exacerbate psychotic symptoms along a temporal spectrum from acute to chronic presentations. Despite the common co-occurrence between psychotic spectrum illnesses and SUDs, they are often under-recognized and undertreated, leading to poor treatment outcomes. Accurate detection and diagnosis of individuals with psychotic illness co-occurring with addictive disorders is key to properly treat such disorders. This article will review the nature of the relationship between psychosis and substance abuse by examining prevalence rates of each disorder alone and their rates of co-occurrence, the neurobiological basis for substance abuse comorbidity in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, key and salient aspects related to accurate diagnosis along a continuum from acute to subacute to chronic conditions, and pitfalls associated with diagnostic dilemmas. A case example will be used to highlight key points related to diagnostic challenges.
Bourque, François; van der Ven, Elsje; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Malla, Ashok
The recent decade has been characterized by a resurging interest for socio-environmental determinants of psychotic disorders, largely as a result of findings from studies of migration and psychotic disorders. This contribution reviews recent meta-analytic findings which confirm higher incidence rates of schizophrenia and related disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants than in non-immigrant populations, as well as substantial risk variation according to both ethnic minority groups and host society contexts. The relevance of social contexts in the onset of psychosis is also suggested by incidence variation according to the neighbourhood level ethnic density. While limited, an emerging literature suggests potential variations in psychotic-like experiences and at-risk mental states according to ethnic minority status. We then discuss the meaning of findings from migrant studies, as well as integrative models that attempt to account for ethnic variations in the incidence of psychosis and psychotic-like phenomena. In conclusion, there remain numerous gaps in our understanding of the relation between migration, ethnicity, social contexts and the onset of psychosis and we propose future research avenues to address these. In particular, there is a need for multilevel approaches integrating disciplines and methodologies across the psychosis continuum.
Pearse, Laura J; Dibben, Claire; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Denman, Chess; McKenna, Peter J
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) report psychotic symptoms, but it has been questioned whether they are intrinsic to BPD. Thirty patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), criteria for BPD were drawn from a specialist personality disorder service. Exclusion criteria included a preexisting clinical diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorder. Participants underwent structured psychiatric interview using the Present State Examination (PSE), lifetime version. Approximately 60% of the patients reported psychotic symptoms unrelated to drugs or affective disorder. Auditory hallucinations were the most common symptom (50%), which were persistent in the majority of cases. A fifth of the patients reported delusions, half of whom (three patients) also met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, who were previously undiagnosed. The form of auditory hallucinations was similar to that in schizophrenia; the content was predominantly negative and critical. Persistent auditory hallucinations are intrinsic symptoms of BPD. This may inform current diagnostic criteria and have implications for approaches to treatment, both pharmacological and psychological. The presence of delusions may indicate a comorbid axis I disorder.
Kokurcan, Ahmet; Atbaşoğlu, Eşref Cem
This review focuses on the differentiation of schizophrenia in the setting of adult psychiatry from neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD's) and psychosis due to other medical conditions (PDMC). Psychotic disorders in early adulthood are most frequently diagnosed with the schizophrenia spectrum or mood disorders. However, they may be the manifestation of neurologic, endocrine or immunologic disease. Individuals with NDD's such as the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) may also present initially in adulthood. Therefore it is not uncommon that the psychiatrist is the first physician to assess a psychotic patient with underlying medical illness or a NDD. Failure to identify the underlying cause will delay appropriate management. Overdiagnosis of primary psychiatric disorders may be misleading in planning the treatment, as evidence-based treatment algorithms relevant to psychosis are intended for primary psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, and symptomatic treatment may result in unnecessary exposure to antipsychotic drugs. Exclusion of other medical conditions and NDD's is essential before establishing a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Biedermann, Falko; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013, and the Work Group on the Classification of Psychotic disorders (WGPD), installed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is expected to publish the new chapter about schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders in 2017. We reviewed the available literature to summarize the major changes, innovations, and developments of both manuals. If available and possible, we outline the theoretical background behind these changes. Due to the fact that the development of ICD-11 has not yet been completed, the details about ICD-11 are still proposals under ongoing revision. In this ongoing process, they may be revised and therefore have to be seen as proposals. DSM-5 has eliminated schizophrenia subtypes and replaced them with a dimensional approach based on symptom assessments. ICD-11 will most likely go in a similar direction, as both manuals are planned to be more harmonized, although some differences will remain in details and the conceptual orientation. Next to these modifications, ICD-11 will provide a transsectional diagnostic criterion for schizoaffective disorders and a reorganization of acute and transient psychotic and delusional disorders. In this manuscript, we will compare the 2 classification systems.
Suvisaari, Jaana; Mantere, Outi
Recent research suggests that inflammation and immunity may have a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. There is evidence of proinflammatory activation of the innate immune system and an activation of the T-cells of the adaptive immune system in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies of antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis have found that inflammation is present already at this stage. Some of these abnormalities resolve after the initiation of treatment, suggesting that they are state markers of acute psychosis, but other abnormalities persist. There is also evidence for prenatal infections being involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several hypotheses link inflammation and immunity with psychotic disorders. In this review, we focus on hypotheses related to prenatal development, disturbed regulation of neurogenesis, microglial activation, autoimmunity and microbial environment, and consider the potential confounding effects related to stress, childhood adversities, lifestyle and medical comorbidity as well as some methodological limitations. We also review the current evidence for the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory medication in the treatment of psychotic disorders.
Landin-Romero, Ramón; Amann, Benedikt L; Sarró, Salvador; Guerrero-Pedraza, Amalia; Vicens, Victor; Rodriguez-Cano, Elena; Vieta, Eduard; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Radua, Joaquim
Patients with schizophrenia are known to have increased prevalence of abnormalities in midline brain structures, such as a failure of the septum pellucidum to fuse (cavum septum pellucidum) and the absence of the adhesio interthalamica. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these abnormalities across a large multidiagnostic sample. Presence of cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica was assessed in 639 patients with chronic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or a first episode of psychosis, mania or unipolar depression. This was compared with 223 healthy controls using logistic-regression-derived odds ratios (OR). Patients with psychotic or mood disorders showed an increased prevalence of both abnormalities (OR of cavum septum pellucidum = 2.1, OR of absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 2.6, OR of both cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 3.8, all P < .001). This increased prevalence was separately observed in nearly all disorders as well as after controlling for potential confounding factors. This study supports a general increased prevalence of midline brain abnormalities across mood and psychotic disorders. This nonspecificity may suggest that these disorders share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.
Landin-Romero, Ramón; Amann, Benedikt L.; Sarró, Salvador; Guerrero-Pedraza, Amalia; Vicens, Victor; Rodriguez-Cano, Elena; Vieta, Eduard; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Radua, Joaquim
Patients with schizophrenia are known to have increased prevalence of abnormalities in midline brain structures, such as a failure of the septum pellucidum to fuse (cavum septum pellucidum) and the absence of the adhesio interthalamica. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these abnormalities across a large multidiagnostic sample. Presence of cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica was assessed in 639 patients with chronic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or a first episode of psychosis, mania or unipolar depression. This was compared with 223 healthy controls using logistic-regression-derived odds ratios (OR). Patients with psychotic or mood disorders showed an increased prevalence of both abnormalities (OR of cavum septum pellucidum = 2.1, OR of absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 2.6, OR of both cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 3.8, all P < .001). This increased prevalence was separately observed in nearly all disorders as well as after controlling for potential confounding factors. This study supports a general increased prevalence of midline brain abnormalities across mood and psychotic disorders. This nonspecificity may suggest that these disorders share a common neurodevelopmental etiology. PMID:26187283
Good, Kimberley P; Sullivan, Randii Lynn
Olfactory deficits on measures of identification, familiarity, and memory are consistently noted in patients with psychotic disorders relative to age-matched controls. Olfactory intensity ratings, however, appear to remain intact while the data on hedonics and detection threshold are inconsistent. Despite the behavioral abnormalities noted, no specific regional brain hypoactivity has been identified in psychosis patients, for any of the olfactory domains. However, an intriguing finding emerged from this review in that the amygdala and pirifom cortices were not noted to be abnormal in hedonic processing (nor was the amygdala identified abnormal in any study) in psychotic disorders. This finding is in contrast to the literature in healthy individuals, in that this brain region is strongly implicated in olfactory processing (particularly for unpleasant odorants). Secondary olfactory cortex (orbitofrontal cortices, thalamus, and insula) was abnormally activated in the studies examined, particularly for hedonic processing. Further research, using consistent methodology, is required for better understanding the neurobiology of olfactory deficits. The authors suggest taking age and sex differences into consideration and further contrasting olfactory subgroups (impaired vs intact) to better our understanding of the heterogeneity of psychotic disorders. PMID:26110122
Woodward, Neil D
Neuropsychological impairment and abnormalities in brain structure are commonly observed in psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Shared deficits in neuropsychological functioning and abnormalities in brain structure suggest overlapping neuropathology between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder which has important implications for psychiatric nosology, treatment, and our understanding of the etiology of psychotic illnesses. However, the emergence and trajectory of brain dysfunction in psychotic disorders is less well understood. Differences in the course and progression of neuropsychological impairment and brain abnormalities among psychotic disorders may point to unique neuropathological processes. This article reviews the course of neuropsychological impairment and brain structure abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Peralta, V; Cuesta, M J
This study evaluated the prevalence and clinical correlates of abnormal subjective experiences across functional psychotic disorders. Patients were recruited from consecutive admissions with the following diagnoses; schizophrenia (n = 40), schizophreniform disorder (n = 40), schizoaffective disorder (n = 21), mood disorder (n = 18), brief reactive psychosis (n = 15), and atypical psychosis (n = 16). Subjective experiences were assessed using the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), and the clinical status was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS) and the Manual for the Assessment and Documentation of Psychopathology (AMDP). Neither the FCQ total score nor individual subjective experiences displayed significant differences across diagnoses. When the clinical predictors of subjective experiences were studied by multiple regression analyses, a different pattern resulted for individual psychotic disorders. In schizophrenic patients, subjective experiences were predicted by female gender, euphoria, lack of insight, greater illness severity, and more positive symptoms. The only predictors of subjective experiences in the schizophreniform disorder group were the negative symptoms. Within the affective disorders group, subjective experiences had no clinical predictors.
Marek, Gerard; Merchant, Kalpana
Although the second-generation or atypical antipsychotic drugs have been breakthrough medicines for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, cognitive dysfunction and to some extent negative symptoms of the disease continue to be the main cause of poor vocational status of the patients. Thus, the majority of investigational drug development efforts today target these unmet medical needs. This review postulates that the field of schizophrenia research has advanced sufficiently to develop biochemical hypotheses of the etiopathology of the disease and target the same for revolutionary disease modifying therapy. This postulate is based on recent studies that have begun to provide a testable etiopathology model that integrates interactions between genetic vulnerability factors, neurodevelopmental anomalies, and neurotransmitter systems. This review begins with a brief overview of the nosology and etiopathology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders to establish a context for subsequent detailed discussions on drug discovery and development for psychotic disorders. Particular emphasis is placed on recent advances in genetic association studies of schizophrenia and how this can be integrated with evidence supporting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with the disease to generate a testable model of the disease etiopathology. An in-depth review of the plethora of new targets and approaches targeting the unmet medical need in the treatment of schizophrenia exemplify the challenges and opportunities in this area. We end the review by offering an approach based on emerging genetic, clinical, and neurobiological studies to discover and validate novel drug targets that could be classified as disease modifying approaches.
Lindley, Steven E; Carlson, Eve B; Hill, Kimberly R
Apparent psychotic symptoms are often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but these symptoms are poorly understood. In a sample of 30 male Vietnam combat veterans with severe and chronic PTSD, we conducted detailed assessments of psychotic symptom endorsement, insight, symptom severity, neurocognitive function, and feigning. Two thirds of the subjects endorsed a psychotic item but did not believe that the experiences were real. Those endorsing psychotic items were higher in PTSD severity, general psychopathology, and dissociation but not depression, functional health, cognitive function, or feigned effort. Severity of psychotic symptoms correlated with dissociation, combat exposure, and attention but not PTSD, depression, or functional health. Those endorsing psychotic items scored higher on a screen but not on a detailed structured interview for malingering. Endorsement of psychotic experiences by combat veterans with PTSD do not seem to reflect psychotic symptoms or outright malingering.
Wilkinson, Samuel T; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril
The link between cannabis use and psychosis comprises three distinct relationships: acute psychosis associated with cannabis intoxication, acute psychosis that lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication, and persistent psychosis not time-locked to exposure. Experimental studies reveal that cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and synthetic cannabinoids reliably produce transient positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in healthy volunteers. Case-studies indicate that cannabinoids can induce acute psychosis which lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication but resolves within a month. Exposure to cannabis in adolescence is associated with a risk for later psychotic disorder in adulthood; this association is consistent, temporally related, shows a dose-response, and is biologically plausible. However, cannabis is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause a persistent psychotic disorder. More likely it is a component cause that interacts with other factors to result in psychosis. The link between cannabis and psychosis is moderated by age at onset of cannabis use, childhood abuse and genetic vulnerability. While more research is needed to better characterize the relationship between cannabinoid use and the onset and persistence of psychosis, clinicians should be mindful of the potential risk of psychosis especially in vulnerable populations, including adolescents and those with a psychosis diathesis.
Harenski, Carla L; Brook, Michael; Kosson, David S; Bustillo, Juan R; Harenski, Keith A; Caldwell, Michael F; Van Rybroek, Gregory J; Koenigs, Michael; Decety, Jean; Thornton, David M; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A
Relative to the general population, individuals with psychotic disorders have a higher risk of suicide. Suicide risk is also elevated in criminal offenders. Thus, psychotic-disordered individuals with antisocial tendencies may form an especially high-risk group. We built upon prior risk analyses by examining whether neurobehavioral correlates of social cognition were associated with suicidal behavior in criminal offenders with psychotic disorders. We assessed empathic accuracy and brain structure in four groups: (i) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and past suicide attempts, (ii) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and no suicide attempts, (iii) incarcerated offenders without psychotic disorders and (iv) community non-offenders without psychotic disorders. Established suicide risk variables were examined along with empathic accuracy and gray matter in brain regions implicated in social cognition. Relative to the other groups, offenders with psychotic disorders and suicide attempts had lower empathic accuracy and smaller temporal pole volumes. Empathic accuracy and temporal pole volumes were significantly associated with suicide attempts independent of other risk variables. The results indicate that brain and behavioral correlates of social cognition may add incremental value to models of suicide risk.
Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Koglin, Ute; Lincoln, Tania M
Prodromal symptoms of psychosis are associated with an increased risk of transition, functional impairment, poor mental health, and unfavorable developmental prospects. Existing interventions targeting the prodrome are non-satisfactory. It may thus be more promising to attempt to identify risk factors in the premorbid phase preceding the prodrome to increase the chances of successful preventive approaches. Here, we investigate whether childhood mental disorders in general and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specifically indicate a risk for subsequent psychotic experiences and disorders. We used a sample from the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 5528). When the participants were 7 years old, mental disorders were assigned according to the DSM-IV. In standardized interviews, psychotic experiences were assessed at age 12 and psychotic disorders at age 18. We examined the associations of each of the childhood mental disorders alone and in combination with psychotic experiences at age 12 and psychotic disorders at age 18 using logistic regression. Compared to participants without a disorder, participants with a mental disorder had a higher risk of psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.28-2.27) and of psychotic disorders at age 18 (OR 2.31, 95 % CI 1.03-5.15). Particularly, the ADHD combined subtype at age 7 was strongly associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.26, 95 % CI 1.74-6.10). As expected, childhood mental disorders are risk indicators of psychotic experiences and disorders. To improve prevention, health care professionals need to screen for psychotic experiences in children with non-psychotic disorders.
Rutten, Bart P. F.; Mill, Jonathan
The major psychotic disorders schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are etiologically complex involving both heritable and nonheritable factors. The absence of consistently replicated major genetic effects, together with evidence for lasting changes in gene expression after environmental exposures, is consistent with the concept that the biologic underpinnings of these disorders are epigenetic in form rather than DNA sequence based. Psychosis-associated environmental exposures, particularly at key developmental stages, may result in long-lasting epigenetic alterations that impact on the neurobiological processes involved in pathology. Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced. This means that we are at the exciting stage where it is feasible to start investigating molecular modifications to DNA and histones and examine the mechanisms by which environmental factors can act upon the genome to bring about epigenetic changes in gene expression involved in the etiology of these disorders. Given the dynamic nature of the epigenetic machinery and potential reversibility of epigenetic modifications, the understanding of such mechanisms is of key relevance for clinical psychiatry and for identifying new targets for prevention and/or intervention. PMID:19783603
Kitamura, H.; Shioiri, T.; Itoh, M.; Sato, Y.; Shichiri, K.; Someya, T.
Background: Evidence suggests that, as a group, patients with schizophrenia have intellectual deficits that may precede the manifestation of psychotic symptoms; however, how successfully intelligence tests are able to discriminate schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders has yet to be investigated in detail. Methods: Using Wechsler Adult…
Joshi, Kaustubh G; Frierson, Richard L; Gunter, Tracy D
We present a case of shared psychotic disorder involving three sisters who were successful in establishing an insanity defense on numerous felony charges in the South Carolina criminal court system. Two of the authors of this article were court-appointed examiners in this case. We then present a history of shared psychotic disorder, an overview of the use of this diagnosis in the defense of insanity, and a discussion of the disposition of individuals with "temporary insanity." Finally, we compare shared psychotic disorder, culturally based belief systems, and religious cults, with a focus on their common and contrasting characteristics.
Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M
Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD.
Brand, Sarel J.; Möller, Marisa; Harvey, Brian H.
Despite significant research efforts aimed at understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of mood (depression, bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders, the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment of these disorders are still based solely on relatively subjective assessment of symptoms as well as psychometric evaluations. Therefore, biological markers aimed at improving the current classification of psychotic and mood-related disorders, and that will enable patients to be stratified on a biological basis into more homogeneous clinically distinct subgroups, are urgently needed. The attainment of this goal can be facilitated by identifying biomarkers that accurately reflect pathophysiologic processes in these disorders. This review postulates that the field of psychotic and mood disorder research has advanced sufficiently to develop biochemical hypotheses of the etiopathology of the particular illness and to target the same for more effective disease modifying therapy. This implies that a “one-size fits all” paradigm in the treatment of psychotic and mood disorders is not a viable approach, but that a customized regime based on individual biological abnormalities would pave the way forward to more effective treatment. In reviewing the clinical and preclinical literature, this paper discusses the most highly regarded pathophysiologic processes in mood and psychotic disorders, thereby providing a scaffold for the selection of suitable biomarkers for future studies in this field, to develope biomarker panels, as well as to improve diagnosis and to customize treatment regimens for better therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26411964
Peeters, Sanne C. T.; van de Ven, Vincent; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M; Patel, Ameera X.; Habets, Petra; Goebel, Rainer; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld
Background Research suggests that altered interregional connectivity in specific networks, such as the default mode network (DMN), is associated with cognitive and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition, frontal and limbic connectivity alterations have been associated with trauma, drug use and urban upbringing, though these environmental exposures have never been examined in relation to DMN functional connectivity in psychotic disorder. Methods Resting-state functional MRI scans were obtained from 73 patients with psychotic disorder, 83 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 72 healthy controls. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed-based correlation analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity within the DMN. DMN functional connectivity was examined in relation to group (familial risk), group × environmental exposure (to cannabis, developmental trauma and urbanicity) and symptomatology. Results There was a significant association between group and PCC connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the precuneus (PCu) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Compared to controls, patients and siblings had increased PCC connectivity with the IPL, PCu and MPFC. In the IPL and PCu, the functional connectivity of siblings was intermediate to that of controls and patients. No significant associations were found between DMN connectivity and (subclinical) psychotic/cognitive symptoms. In addition, there were no significant interactions between group and environmental exposures in the model of PCC functional connectivity. Discussion Increased functional connectivity in individuals with (increased risk for) psychotic disorder may reflect trait-related network alterations. The within-network “connectivity at rest” intermediate phenotype was not associated with (subclinical) psychotic or cognitive symptoms. The association between familial risk and DMN connectivity was not conditional on environmental exposure. PMID
Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
Objective This study analyzed men and women separately by age at hospital diagnosis of psychotic disorder or schizophrenia and by maternal or paternal disease after taking several possible confounders into account. Methods The Multigeneration Register, in which all men and women born in Sweden from 1932 onwards are registered together with their parents, was linked to hospital data. This yielded 21,199 male and 19,029 female cases of psychotic disorders in addition to 12,799 paternal and 23,021 maternal cases of psychotic disorders (including schizophrenia). Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed and expected number of cases among men and women with mothers and/or fathers affected by psychotic disorders or schizophrenia, compared with men and women whose mothers and/or fathers were not affected by psychotic disorders or schizophrenia. Results The overall significant SIRs among men and women with a mother, father or both parents hospitalized for psychotic disorder varied between 2.86 and 20.30. Maternal transmission of psychotic disorder was stronger than paternal, and the highest SIRs were found in the youngest age groups. Similar results were found when the subgroup schizophrenia was analyzed separately. Maternal or paternal schizophrenia implied higher risks for the offspring than maternal or paternal psychotic disorders. Conclusions Hereditary factors have a strong influence on the onset of psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. Young people and individuals with both parents affected by these diseases need special attention as their SIRs were particularly increased. PMID:17933494
Lake, Charles Raymond
Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called “paranoid depression,” but “paranoid” became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whether paranoia associates more with schizophrenia or mood disorders, a selected literature is reviewed and 11 cases are summarized. Comparative clinical and recent molecular genetic data find phenotypic and genotypic commonalities between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder lending support to the idea that paranoid schizophrenia could be the same disorder as psychotic bipolar disorder. A selected clinical literature finds no symptom, course, or characteristic traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia that cannot be accounted for by psychotic bipolar disorder patients. For example, it is hypothesized here that 2 common mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. Mania explains paranoia when there are grandiose delusions that one's possessions are so valuable that others will kill for them. Similarly, depression explains paranoia when delusional guilt convinces patients that they deserve punishment. In both cases, fear becomes the overwhelming emotion but patient and physician focus on the paranoia rather than on underlying mood symptoms can cause misdiagnoses. This study uses a clinical, case-based, hypothesis generation approach that warrants follow-up with a larger representative sample of psychotic patients followed prospectively to determine the degree to which the clinical course observed herein is typical of all such patients. Differential diagnoses, nomenclature, and treatment implications
Lake, Charles Raymond
Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called "paranoid depression," but "paranoid" became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whether paranoia associates more with schizophrenia or mood disorders, a selected literature is reviewed and 11 cases are summarized. Comparative clinical and recent molecular genetic data find phenotypic and genotypic commonalities between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder lending support to the idea that paranoid schizophrenia could be the same disorder as psychotic bipolar disorder. A selected clinical literature finds no symptom, course, or characteristic traditionally considered diagnostic of schizophrenia that cannot be accounted for by psychotic bipolar disorder patients. For example, it is hypothesized here that 2 common mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. Mania explains paranoia when there are grandiose delusions that one's possessions are so valuable that others will kill for them. Similarly, depression explains paranoia when delusional guilt convinces patients that they deserve punishment. In both cases, fear becomes the overwhelming emotion but patient and physician focus on the paranoia rather than on underlying mood symptoms can cause misdiagnoses. This study uses a clinical, case-based, hypothesis generation approach that warrants follow-up with a larger representative sample of psychotic patients followed prospectively to determine the degree to which the clinical course observed herein is typical of all such patients. Differential diagnoses, nomenclature, and treatment implications are
Schwartz, Robert C; Blankenship, David M
Psychotic disorder diagnoses are common in the United States and internationally. However, racial disparities in rates of psychotic disorder diagnoses have been reported across time and mental health professions. This literature review provides an updated and comprehensive summary of empirical research on race and diagnosis of psychotic disorders spanning a 24-year period. Findings reveal a clear and pervasive pattern wherein African American/Black consumers show a rate of on average three to four higher than Euro-American/White consumers. Latino American/Hispanic consumers were also disproportionately diagnosed with psychotic disorders on average approximately three times higher compared to Euro-American/White consumers. In addition, a trend among international studies suggests that immigrant racial minority consumers receiving mental health services may be assigned a psychotic disorder diagnosis more frequently than native consumers sharing a majority racial background. Potential explanations for this phenomenon are discussed, including possible clinical bias and sociological causes such as differential access to healthcare and willingness to participate in mental health services. Directions for future research should include the exploration of disproportionate diagnoses according to race through qualitative interviewing as well as empirical investigation. PMID:25540728
Sabharwal, Amri; Szekely, Akos; Kotov, Roman; Mukherjee, Prerona; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Barch, Deanna M; Mohanty, Aprajita
Deficits in working memory (WM) and emotion processing are prominent impairments in psychotic disorders, and have been linked to reduced quality of life and real-world functioning. Translation of knowledge regarding the neural circuitry implementing these deficits into improved diagnosis and targeted treatments has been slow, possibly because of categorical definitions of disorders. Using the dimensional Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework, we investigated the clinical and practical utility of transdiagnostic behavioral and neural measures of emotion-related WM disruption across psychotic disorders. Behavioral and functional MRI data were recorded while 53 participants with psychotic disorders and 29 participants with no history of psychosis performed a modified n-back task with fear and neutral distractors. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that psychotic symptoms entered after diagnosis accounted for unique variance in fear versus neutral accuracy and activation in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, but diagnostic group entered after psychotic symptoms did not. These results remained even after controlling for negative symptoms, disorganized symptoms, and dysphoria. Finally, worse accuracy and greater prefrontal activity were associated with poorer social functioning and unemployment across diagnostic groups. Present results support the transdiagnostic nature of behavioral and neuroimaging measures of emotion-related WM disruption as they relate to psychotic symptoms, irrespective of diagnosis. They also provide support for the practical utility of these markers in explaining real-world functioning. Overall, these results elucidate key aspects of the RDoC construct of WM maintenance by clarifying its transdiagnostic importance and clinical utility in psychotic disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record
Benedetti, Alessandra; Di Paolo, Antonello; Lastella, Marianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Candiracci, Chiara; Litta, Antonella; Ciofi, Laura; Danesi, Romano; Lattanzi, Lorenzo; Del Tacca, Mario; Cassano, Giovanni Battista
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the augmentation of clozapine with aripiprazole in patients with treatment-resistant schizoaffective and psychotic bipolar disorders in a retrospective manner. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between the two drugs were also investigated. Patients: Three men and 4 women (median age 36 and 40 years, respectively) who had mean scores at BPRS and CGI-Severity of 59.1±12.0 and 5.4±0.5, respectively, were treated with clozapine (mean dose 292.9±220.7 mg/day). Patients received an adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole (mean dose 6.8 ± 3.7 mg/day). Clozapine, norclozapine and aripiprazole plasma levels were measured by means of a high performance liquid chromatograpy with UV detection. Results: Total scores at BPRS decreased significantly (from 59.1±12.0 to 51.1±15.6, p=0.007) after aripirazole augmentation. In particular, the factors “thought disorder” (from 10.4±4.4 to 9.0±4.5, p=.047) and “anergia” (from 10.0±2.7 to 8.0±2.4, p=.018) significantly improved. Concomitant administration of aripiprazole and clozapine did not result in an increase in side effects over the period of treatment. Dose-normalized plasma levels of both clozapine and norclozapine and the clozapine/norclozapine metabolic ratio in all patients did not vary as well. Conclusion: The augmentation of clozapine with aripirazole was safe and effective in severe psychotic schizoaffective and bipolar disorders which failed to respond to atypical antipsychotics. A possible pharmacokinetic interaction between clozapine and aripiprazole does not account for the improved clinical benefit obtained after aripiprazole augmentation. PMID:20648219
Goodnick, P J; Barrios, C A
in a variety of other psychiatric disorders, behavioural disorders of dementia (including Alzheimer's disease), pervasive developmental disorder of childhood, obsessive-compulsive disorder and borderline personality disorder. In each of these latter diagnoses, double-blind studies are either underway or are planned to establish efficacy.
Hearon, Bridget A; Garner, Lauryn; Beard, Courtney; Björgvinsson, Thröstur
Individuals with psychotic disorders are at increased risk for suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared in individuals with psychotic disorders reporting either high or low suicidality. Among this sample of 259 partial hospital patients, 116 (44.8%) were classified as high risk on the suicidality section of the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview, and 143 (55.2%) were considered low risk. Bivariate analyses revealed that patients classified as high risk demonstrated greater depression severity, more relationship difficulties, greater emotional lability, and more substance use problems. A logistic regression model indicated that substance use was the most powerful predictor of higher levels of suicidality. Monitoring and intervention for substance use should be targeted as a particularly important aspect of treatment for acutely ill patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders.
Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe
The aims of this study were to assess the relative contribution of symptoms and specific psychosocial factors to different domains of quality of life (QoL) in patients with psychotic disorders. Positive, negative, and depressive symptoms; Five-Factor Model personality traits; and attachment dimensions were assessed in 110 patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders. Hierarchical and stepwise regression analyses were conducted. Psychosocial factors were able to predict all domains of QoL, when symptom severity was controlled for. Furthermore, the physical QoL domain was best predicted by attachment, personality, and sex (R = 43.1%); the psychological QoL domain, by personality and depressive symptoms (R = 60.5%); the social domain, by personality and positive symptoms (R = 30.3%); and the environmental domain, by personality and negative symptoms (R = 27.9%). Our findings highlight the role that specific individual characteristics play in different aspects of QoL in patients with psychotic disorders.
van Winkel, Ruud; van Beveren, Nico J M; Simons, Claudia
Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use. Investigation of the effect of this interaction on relevant intermediate phenotypes for psychosis, such as cognition, may help to clarify the underlying mechanism. Thus, verbal memory (visually presented Word Learning Task), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT), AKT1 rs2494732 genotype, and cannabis use were examined in a large cohort of patients with psychotic disorder. No evidence was found for AKT1 × cannabis interaction on verbal memory. Cannabis use preceding onset of psychotic disorder did interact significantly with AKT1 rs2494732 genotype to affect CPT reaction time (β=8.0, SE 3.9, p=0.037) and CPT accuracy (β=-1.2, SE 0.4, p=0.003). Cannabis-using patients with the a priori vulnerability C/C genotype were slower and less accurate on the CPT, whereas cannabis-using patients with the T/T genotype had similar or better performance than non-using patients with psychotic disorder. The interaction was also apparent in patients with psychotic disorder who had not used cannabis in the 12 months preceding assessment, but was absent in the unaffected siblings of these patients and in healthy controls. In conclusion, cannabis use before onset of psychosis may have long-lasting effects on measures of sustained attention, even in the absence of current use, contingent on AKT1 rs2494732 genotype. The results suggest that long-term changes in cognition may mediate the risk-increasing effect of the AKT1 × cannabis interaction on psychotic disorder.
Ethridge, Lauren E; Soilleux, Melanie; Nakonezny, Paul A; Reilly, James L; Hill, S Kristian; Keefe, Richard S E; Gershon, Elliot S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Sweeney, John A
Difficulty inhibiting context-inappropriate behavior is a common deficit in psychotic disorders. The diagnostic specificity of this impairment, its familiality, and its degree of independence from the generalized cognitive deficit associated with psychotic disorders remain to be clarified. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar patients with history of psychosis (n=523), their available first-degree biological relatives (n=656), and healthy participants (n=223) from the multi-site B-SNIP study completed a manual Stop Signal task. A nonlinear mixed model was used to fit logistic curves to success rates on Stop trials as a function of parametrically varied Stop Signal Delay. While schizophrenia patients had greater generalized cognitive deficit than bipolar patients, their deficits were similar on the Stop Signal task. Further, only bipolar patients showed impaired inhibitory control relative to healthy individuals after controlling for generalized cognitive deficit. Deficits accounted for by the generalized deficit were seen in relatives of schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients, but not in relatives of bipolar patients. In clinically stable patients with psychotic bipolar disorder, impaired inhibitory behavioral control was a specific cognitive impairment, distinct from the generalized neuropsychological impairment associated with psychotic disorders. Thus, in bipolar disorder with psychosis, a deficit in inhibitory control may contribute to risk for impulsive behavior. Because the deficit was not familial in bipolar families and showed a lack of independence from the generalized cognitive deficit in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, it appears to be a trait related to illness processes rather than one tracking familial risk factors.
Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Indic, Premananda; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio
Objectives Plausible candidates of psychopathological phenomena that may associate with or anticipate suicidal risk, include negative affects, including admixtures of dysphoria, depression and anxiety described mainly in nonpsychotic disorders. We ascertained the distribution of such affective features in various first-episode psychotic disorders and correlated these and other clinical and antecedent features with intake suicidal status. Methods We evaluated 516 adult subjects in first-lifetime episodes of various DSM-IV-TR psychotic disorders. Blinded, protocol-guided, assessments of clinical features ascertained in SCID examinations, self- and family reports and clinical records supported analyses of associations of suicide attempts at first-psychotic episodes with antecedent and intake clinical characteristics, including negative affects and diagnoses, using standard bivariate and multivariate methods. Results Negative affective features in various combinations were prevalent (90%) and at >75% in both affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders; anxious depression was most common (22%). We identified antecedent and intake clinical factors preliminarily associated with suicide attempts. Factors remaining independently associated in multivariate logistic modelling (ranked by OR) were: (a) prior suicide attempt, (b) prior aggressive assault, (c) bipolar-mixed state or psychotic major depression diagnosis, (d) prior dysphoria, (e) intake dysphoric-anxiousdepression, (f) prior impulsivity, (g) previous affective instability, (h) previous nonpsychotic depression, (i) previous decline in vital drive, and (j) prior sleep disturbances. Conclusions Various types and combinations of negative affective features (especially anxious depression with and without dysphoria) were prevalent across nonaffective as well as affective first psychotic episodes and strongly associated with suicide attempts. These findings extend previous observations in nonpsychotic disorders. PMID
Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perez, Jesus; Faedda, Gianni L.; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio
Objective Since initial episode-type can predict later morbidity in bipolar disorder, we tested the hypothesis that clinical antecedents might predict initial episode-types. Method We studied 263 first-episode, adult, DSM-IV-TR type-I bipolar disorder (BD-I) subjects within the McLean-Harvard-International First-Episode Project. Based on blinded assessments of antecedents from SCID examinations and clinical records, we compared first-lifetime Manic vs. Other (mixed, depressive, or nonaffective) major psychotic-episodes. Results We identified 32 antecedents arising at early, intermediate or later times, starting 12.3±10.7 years prior to first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes. Based on multivariate modeling, antecedents associated significantly and independently with Other (n=113) more than Manic (n=150) first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes ranked by Odds Ratio: more early attentional disturbances, more late depression, more early perplexity, more detoxification, more early unstable-mixed affects, more antidepressants, more early dysphoria, more intermediate depression, more early impulsivity, more late anhedonia, longer early-to-intermediate intervals, more intermediate substance abuse, more family history of major depression, and younger at earliest antecedents. Antecedents selectively preceding Manic more than Other first-psychotic episodes included more late behavioral problems and more risk of familial BD-I. Conclusion Clinical antecedents in adult, BD-I patients, beginning a decade before first major-episodes and progressing through sequential stages were dissimilar in Manic versus Other first-psychotic-episodes. PMID:23837831
Varghese, Susan; Banerjee, Subimal
The aim of the audit was to evaluate the current clinical practice for learning-disabled individuals with psychotic disorders. We evaluated the existing clinical practice in 910 individuals who were under the care of learning disability psychiatrists in Buckinghamshire (population of 480 000). This was compared with the National Institute for…
Scott, Charles L; Resnick, Phillip J
This article reviews important components to consider when evaluating the relationship of psychotic and mood disorder symptoms to violence. Particular attention is given to assessing persecutory delusions and command auditory hallucinations. Clinical implications of research findings to evaluating violence risk in psychiatric patients are reviewed.
Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T
Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.
Tıkır, Baise; Göka, Erol; Aydemir, Makbule Çiğdem; Gürkan, Şahin
Sheehan's Syndrome -also called postpartum hypopituitarism- is a syndrome which characterized by lots of bleeding during or after delivery and necrosis of pituitary gland due to hypovolemic shock. It appears with not only agalactorrhea, amenorrhea, hypoythyroidism and hypoglycemia but also psychiatric disorders like psychosis. In this study, we reported a case presented with psychotic disorder and diagnosed as Sheehan's Syndrome at the same time. 44 year-old, female patient, married. She was admitted for withdrawal, irritability, insomnia, hearing voices -especially insult her- thoughts about that her husband was cheating on her and people would do evil. She was diagnosed as psychotic disorder and she was treated with olanzapine 20 mg/day. She had hypopituitarism symptoms so hormone tests and cranial MRI are done. Sheehan's syndrome was also diagnosed and prednisolone and tyroxine were added to the treatment. Her symptoms were disappeared one months later Olanzapine was stopped after 4 months and her treatment continued with prednisolone and tyroxine. Studies about etiology of psychotic symptoms refer to endocrine and autoimmune systems. In this study, we discussed a case that diagnosed as psychotic disorder and Sheehan's Syndrome -diagnosed 24 years later and etiological aspect with the follow-up period and treatment.
Canellas, Francesca; Lin, Ling; Julià, Maria Rosa; Clemente, Antonio; Vives-Bauza, Cristofol; Ollila, Hanna M.; Hong, Seung Chul; Arboleya, Susana M.; Einen, Mali A.; Faraco, Juliette; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Mignot, Emmanuel
Objective: Cases of narcolepsy in association with psychotic features have been reported but never fully characterized. These patients present diagnostic and treatment challenges and may shed new light on immune associations in schizophrenia. Method: Our case series was gathered at two narcolepsy specialty centers over a 9-year period. A questionnaire was created to improve diagnosis of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder in patients with narcolepsy. Pathophysiological investigations included full HLA Class I and II typing, testing for known systemic and intracellular/synaptic neuronal antibodies, recently described neuronal surface antibodies, and immunocytochemistry on brain sections to detect new antigens. Results: Ten cases were identified, one with schizoaffective disorder, one with delusional disorder, two with schizophreniform disorder, and 6 with schizophrenia. In all cases, narcolepsy manifested first in childhood or adolescence, followed by psychotic symptoms after a variable interval. These patients had auditory hallucinations, which was the most differentiating clinical feature in comparison to narcolepsy patients without psychosis. Narcolepsy therapy may have played a role in triggering psychotic symptoms but these did not reverse with changes in narcolepsy medications. Response to antipsychotic treatment was variable. Pathophysiological studies did not reveal any known autoantibodies or unusual brain immunostaining pattern. No strong HLA association outside of HLA DQB1*06:02 was found, although increased DRB3*03 and DPA1*02:01 was notable. Conclusion: Narcolepsy can occur in association with schizophrenia, with significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Dual cases maybe under diagnosed, as onset is unusually early, often in childhood. Narcolepsy and psychosis may share an autoimmune pathology; thus, further investigations in larger samples are warranted. Citation: Canellas F, Lin L, Julià MR, Clemente A, Vives-Bauza C, Ollila HM, Hong
Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Schimmelmann, Benno G
This article provides an overview of the main changes in the chapter "Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders" from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5, which, once again, does not make allowance for potential characteristics of children and adolescents. Changes in the main text include abandoning the classical subtypes of Schizophrenia as well as of the special significance of Schneider's first-rank symptoms, resulting in the general requirement of two key features (one having to be a positive symptom) in the definition of Schizophrenia and the allowance for bizarre contents in Delusional Disorders. Further introduced are the diagnosis of a delusional obsessive-compulsive/body dysmorphic disorder exclusively as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, the specification of affective episodes in Schizoaffective Disorder, and the formulation of a distinct subchapter "Catatonia" for the assessment of catatonic features in the context of several disorders. In Section III (Emerging Measures and Models) there is a recommendation for a dimensional description of psychoses. A likely source of confusion lies in the double introduction of an "Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome." On the one hand, a vague description is provided among "Other Specified Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders" in the main text; on the other hand, there is a precise definition in Section III as a "Condition for Further Study." There is some cause to worry that this vague introduction of the attenuated psychosis syndrome in the main text might indeed open the floodgates to an overdiagnosis of subthreshold psychotic symptoms and their early pharmacological treatment.
Tang, Sephora M.; Ansarian, Aylar; Courtney, Darren B.
Objectives To examine the association between clozapine treatment and frequency of cannabis use in adolescents with co-occurring psychotic and cannabis use disorder in a retrospective cohort chart review. Method We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and concurrent cannabis use disorder admitted to a tertiary care youth inpatient unit from 2010–2012. Longitudinal exposure and outcome data was coded month-by-month. Frequency of cannabis use was measured using a 7-point ordinal scale. Severity of psychosis was measured on a 3-point ordinal scale. Mixed effects regression modeling was used to describe the relationship between exposure and outcome variables. Results Thirteen patients had exposure to clozapine and fourteen had no exposure to clozapine. Cannabis use decreased in patients treated with clozapine, compared to patients treated with other antipsychotics (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.97–7.9). Compared to no medication, clozapine exposure was associated with significantly less cannabis use (OR 7.1; 95% CI 2.3–22.3). Relative to treatment with other antipsychotics, clozapine exposure was significantly associated with lower severity of psychotic symptoms (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.2–11.8). Conclusions Clozapine may lead to decreased cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in adolescents with concurrent psychosis and substance use. Clinical trials are warranted. PMID:28331504
Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Verweij, Kim; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe
Earlier studies indicated that personality characteristics contribute to symptomatic outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to further explore this connection by examining the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and a dimensional liability for psychosis. FFM traits according to the NEO-FFI and levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms according to the CAPE were assessed in 217 patients with psychotic disorders, 281 of their siblings and 176 healthy controls. Psychotic symptoms according to the PANSS were assessed in the patient group. Patients differed from siblings and controls on four of the five FFM traits, all but Openness. Siblings reported higher levels of Neuroticism than controls, but lower levels than patients. Particularly lower Agreeableness, and to a lesser degree, higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion were associated with more severe symptoms in patients. Furthermore, higher Neuroticism and higher Openness were associated with higher levels of subclinical psychotic experiences in all three groups. Associations were strongest in patients. Our findings suggest that levels of Neuroticism increase with the level of familial risk for psychosis. Levels of Openness may reflect levels of impairment that distinguish clinical from subclinical symptomatology.
Peeters, Sanne; Simas, Tiago; Suckling, John; Gronenschild, Ed; Patel, Ameera; Habets, Petra; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld
Background Dysconnectivity in schizophrenia can be understood in terms of dysfunctional integration of a distributed network of brain regions. Here we propose a new methodology to analyze complex networks based on semi-metric behavior, whereby higher levels of semi-metricity may represent a higher level of redundancy and dispersed communication. It was hypothesized that individuals with (increased risk for) psychotic disorder would have more semi-metric paths compared to controls and that this would be associated with symptoms. Methods Resting-state functional MRI scans were obtained from 73 patients with psychotic disorder, 83 unaffected siblings and 72 controls. Semi-metric percentages (SMP) at the whole brain, hemispheric and lobar level were the dependent variables in a multilevel random regression analysis to investigate group differences. SMP was further examined in relation to symptomatology (i.e., psychotic/cognitive symptoms). Results At the whole brain and hemispheric level, patients had a significantly higher SMP compared to siblings and controls, with no difference between the latter. In the combined sibling and control group, individuals with high schizotypy had intermediate SMP values in the left hemisphere with respect to patients and individuals with low schizotypy. Exploratory analyses in patients revealed higher SMP in 12 out of 42 lobar divisions compared to controls, of which some were associated with worse PANSS symptomatology (i.e., positive symptoms, excitement and emotional distress) and worse cognitive performance on attention and emotion processing tasks. In the combined group of patients and controls, working memory, attention and social cognition were associated with higher SMP. Discussion The results are suggestive of more dispersed network communication in patients with psychotic disorder, with some evidence for trait-based network alterations in high-schizotypy individuals. Dispersed communication may contribute to the clinical
Elbogen, Eric B; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Van Dorn, Richard
Although studies have consistently shown a strong relationship between medication nonadherence and substance abuse in psychotic disorders, less is understood about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationship between substance abuse and medication nonadherence in psychosis is mediated by depressive symptoms and social stability. Participants interviewed (N = 528) were adults with schizophrenia and related disorders receiving public mental health services in four US states. Multivariate analyses showed substance abuse, depressive symptoms, and living stability each contributed to medication nonadherence; thus, the relationship between substance abuse and medication adherence in psychotic disorders did not appear to be mediated by the selected variables. Instead, a robust association between depressive symptoms and medication adherence was found, attesting to the utility of assessing for depression when evaluating adherence among people with psychosis. Living instability was common and related to medication nonadherence, too, warranting further investigation.
Predescu, A; Damsa, C; Riegert, M; Bumb, A; Pull, C
A 38-year old male patient with no history of psychiatric illness developed a progressive psychotic disorder after bilateral (predominantly left) mesencephalo-thalamic cerebral ischaemia. The reason of the emergency hospitalization was the sudden onset of a confusional state, culminating in a fluctuating comatose status. The neurological examination found mild right hemiparesia, praxic disorders and reactive left mydriasis with paresia of the downward vertical stare, leading to the hospitalisation in the neurology department for suspicion of a cerebral vascular ischaemic accident. The psychiatric symptoms started with acoustic-verbal hallucinations, poorly structured paranoid delusions, progressively developed over two weeks, followed by behavioural disorders with psychomotor agitation and heteroaggressivity. The patient was transferred to the psychiatric department, because of the heteroaggressive risk and lack of morbid consciousness, in spite of recovering from the confusional status. An intensive psychiatric management was proposed, combining a psychotherapeutic approach with 4 mg of risperidone and adjustable doses of benzodiazepine according to the psychomotor agitation. During the next days, there was a net recovery of the behavioural disorders, in spite of the persistence of the ideas of persecution. All the neurological symptoms also decreased. An anomaly of the polygon of Willis was found on a cerebral arteriography (the posterior cerebral arteries had a foetal origin, dependent on carotidal axes and not on the vertebro-basilar system). The main emboligen risk factor was the presence of a permeable foramen ovale, discovered during a transoesophageal echography. The patient underwent a surgical correction of the permeable foramen ovale. The psychiatric hospitalization for three months was continued by ambulatory follow-up. The initial positive symptoms (delusions, acoustic-verbal hallucinations) progressively diminished while negative symptoms became
Frissen, Aleida; van Os, Jim; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Habets, Petra; Gronenschild, Ed; Marcelis, Machteld
Background The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent. Methods T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 89 patients with a psychotic disorder, 95 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 87 healthy control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure CT. Developmental urban exposure was classified as low, medium, and high, reflecting the population density and the number of moves between birth and the 15th birthday, using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics and the equivalent database in Belgium. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the association between group, sex, and urban upbringing (as well as their interactions) and cortical CT as the dependent variable. Results CT was significantly smaller in the patient group compared to the controls (B = -0.043, p <0.001), but not in the siblings compared to the controls (B = -0.013, p = 0.31). There was no main effect of developmental urbanicity on CT (B = 0.001, p = 0.91). Neither the three-way group × urbanicity × sex interaction (χ2 = 3.73, p = 0.16), nor the two-way group × urbanicity interaction was significant (χ2 = 0.51, p = 0.77). Conclusion The negative association between (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and CT was not moderated by developmental urbanicity, suggesting that reduced CT is not the outcome of familial sensitivity to the proxy
Background It is an open question as to whether differential developmental trajectories, potentially representing underlying pathophysiological processes, can form the basis of a more useful typology in young persons who present for mental health care. Methods A cohort of 605 young people was recruited from youth mental health services that target the early phases of anxiety, mood or psychotic disorders. Participants were assigned to one of three clinical sub-types (anxious-depression; mania-fatigue; developmental-psychotic) according to putative developmental trajectories. Results The distribution of subtypes was: 51% anxiety-depression, 25% mania-fatigue and 24% developmental-psychotic, with key differences in demographic, clinical, family history and neuropsychological characteristics. When analyses were limited to 286 cases with ‘attenuated’ or sub-threshold syndromes, the pattern of differences was similar. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that compared to the developmental-psychotic subtype, both the mania-fatigue and anxiety-depression subtypes were younger and more depressed at presentation, but less functionally impaired. Other discriminating variables between the developmental-psychotic and mania-fatigue sub-types were that the latter were significantly more likely to have a family history of bipolar disorder but have less likelihood of impaired verbal learning; whilst the anxious-depression group were more anxious, more likely to have a family history of depression, and had a higher premorbid IQ level. Conclusions This cross-sectional evaluation provides preliminary support for differing developmental trajectories in young persons presenting for mental health care. Prospective follow-up is needed to examine the predictive validity of this approach and its relationships to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:24215120
Mausbach, Brent T.; Bucardo, Jesus; Cardenas, Veronica; McKibbin, Christine L.; Barrio, Concepcion; Goldman, Sherrill R.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.
Fifty-nine Latino participants diagnosed with persistent psychotic disorders were assigned to either a culturally tailored skills-training intervention (n = 21), an equivalent non-tailored intervention (n = 15), or a community-based support group (n = 23). Participants completed a number of skills-based performance assessments (e.g., UCSD performance-based skills assessment; UPSA) and a well-being measure prior to and immediately post-treatment. Compared to those in the non-tailored intervention, participants receiving the tailored intervention showed significant improvement in several outcomes. These results indicate that Latino individuals with persistent psychotic disorders benefit from interventions which consider cultural values and mores. PMID:19779589
Del Grande, Claudia; Contini, Carlo; Schiavi, Elisa; Rutigliano, Grazia; Maritati, Martina; Seraceni, Silva; Pinto, Barbara; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Bruschi, Fabrizio
Recent evidence suggests the involvement of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the emergence of psychotic and affective disorders. In this report, we describe the case of a young Brazilian woman affected by recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis and presenting with a manic episode with psychotic features in the context of a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD), type I. We observed a relationship between ocular manifestations and the clinical course of bipolar illness, confirmed by molecular analyses (nested-PCR), as well as by the high level of T. gondii specific IgG. This case report is the first showing the presence of circulating parasite DNA at the time of occurrence of psychiatric symptoms, thus providing further support for a possible role of the parasite in the pathogenesis of some cases of BD.
Chow, W.C.; Bassett, A.S.; Weksberg, R.
Psychiatric disorders have been reported in over 10% of patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) in long-term follow-up. To further explore the behavioral and psychiatric findings associated with VCFS in adulthood, detailed clinical histories of two patients - one with VCFS who developed a psychotic illness, and one with schizophrenia who was found to have dysmorphological features associated with VCFS - are described in the current report. The observed overlap of physical and psychiatric symptoms in these two patients suggests that VCFS and psychotic disorders may share a pathogenetic mechanism. This could be consistent with a contiguous gene model for VCFS and psychosis, suggesting chromosome 22q11 as a possible candidate region for genetic studies of schizophrenia. 26 refs., 2 tabs.
Kerner, Berit; Jasinska, Anna J.; DeYoung, Joseph; Almonte, Maricel; Choi, Oi-Wa; Freimer, Nelson B.
We reported previously a significant linkage signal between psychotic bipolar disorder (BP) and microsatellite markers on chromosome 5q31–34 in the National Institute of Mental Health Bipolar Genetics Initiative (NIMH-BPGI) data set, Wave 1. In an attempt to fine-map this linkage signal we genotyped 1,134 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) under the linkage peak in 23 informative families (131 individuals) with evidence of linkage. We tested family based association in the presence of linkage with the computer software package FBAT. The most significant association in these families was with a SNP in the second intron of GRIA1 (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) subunit 1 receptor gene) (rs490922, Z-score = 3.3, P= 0.001). The analysis of 37 additional families with psychotic BP from NIMH-BPGI data sets, Waves 2, 3, and 4 revealed a signal at a SNP in intron 5 of the GRIA1 gene (rs4385264, Z-score = 3.2, P-value = 0.002). A combined analysis of all 60 families continued to support evidence for association of GRIA1 with psychotic BP; however, individual SNPs could not be replicated across datasets. The AMPA1 receptor has been shown to influence cognitive function, such as working memory and reward learning. Our findings suggest that variations in this receptor may contribute to the pathophysiology of BP with psychotic features in some families. PMID:18484081
Kerner, Berit; Jasinska, Anna J; DeYoung, Joseph; Almonte, Maricel; Choi, Oi-Wa; Freimer, Nelson B
We reported previously a significant linkage signal between psychotic bipolar disorder (BP) and microsatellite markers on chromosome 5q31-34 in the National Institute of Mental Health Bipolar Genetics Initiative (NIMH-BPGI) data set, Wave 1. In an attempt to fine-map this linkage signal we genotyped 1,134 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) under the linkage peak in 23 informative families (131 individuals) with evidence of linkage. We tested family based association in the presence of linkage with the computer software package FBAT. The most significant association in these families was with a SNP in the second intron of GRIA1 (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) subunit 1 receptor gene) (rs490922, Z-score = 3.3, P = 0.001). The analysis of 37 additional families with psychotic BP from NIMH-BPGI data sets, Waves 2, 3, and 4 revealed a signal at a SNP in intron 5 of the GRIA1 gene (rs4385264, Z-score = 3.2, P-value = 0.002). A combined analysis of all 60 families continued to support evidence for association of GRIA1 with psychotic BP; however, individual SNPs could not be replicated across datasets. The AMPA1 receptor has been shown to influence cognitive function, such as working memory and reward learning. Our findings suggest that variations in this receptor may contribute to the pathophysiology of BP with psychotic features in some families.
Rosen, Kayla; Stoklosa, Joseph
This column argues for the importance of patient-centered approaches in psychiatry and describes the development and pilot implementation, inspired by the Finnish Open Dialogue model, of a program designed to increase the "patient-centeredness" of an inpatient psychotic disorders unit at McLean Hospital. Preliminary evidence shows that an inpatient psychiatry unit can implement patient-centered changes that are acceptable to staff and patients without additional cost or time.
Cuoco, Valentina; Colletti, Chiara; Anastasia, Annalisa; Weisz, Filippo; Bersani, Giuseppe
Shared psychotic disorder (folie à deux) is a rare condition characterized by the transmission of delusional aspects from a patient (the "dominant partner") to another (the "submissive partner") linked to the first by a close relationship. We report the case of two Moroccan sisters who have experienced a combined delusional episode diagnosed as shared psychotic disorder. In these circumstances, assessment of symptoms from a cross-cultural perspective is a key factor for proper diagnostic evaluation.
Belmonte Mahon, Pamela; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Goes, Fernando S; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Steele, Jo; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Huang, Jie; Hamshere, Marian L; Depaulo, J Raymond; Kelsoe, John R; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W; Craddock, Nick; Schulze, Thomas G; McMahon, Francis J; Potash, James B; Zandi, Peter P
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several susceptibility loci for bipolar disorder (BP), most notably ANK3. However, most of the inherited risk for BP remains unexplained. One reason for the limited success may be the genetic heterogeneity of BP. Clinical sub-phenotypes of BP may identify more etiologically homogeneous subsets of patients, which can be studied with increased power to detect genetic variation. Here, we report on a mega-analysis of two widely studied sub-phenotypes of BP, age at onset and psychotic symptoms, which are familial and clinically significant. We combined data from three GWAS: NIMH Bipolar Disorder Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN-BP), NIMH Bipolar Disorder Genome Study (BiGS), and a German sample. The combined sample consisted of 2,836 BP cases with information on sub-phenotypes and 2,744 controls. Imputation was performed, resulting in 2.3 million SNPs available for analysis. No SNP reached genome-wide significance for either sub-phenotype. In addition, no SNP reached genome-wide significance in a meta-analysis with an independent replication sample. We had 80% power to detect associations with a common SNP at an OR of 1.6 for psychotic symptoms and a mean difference of 1.8 years in age at onset. Age at onset and psychotic symptoms in BP may be influenced by many genes of smaller effect sizes or other variants not measured well by SNP arrays, such as rare alleles.
El-Khoury, Joseph; Sahakian, Nayiri
The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.
ERSAN, Etem Erdal; YILDIZ, Mustafa
Introduction The aim of this survey is to determine the pattern of antipsychotic drug use in patients with psychotic disorders, living in board and care facilities and to investigate the related factors. Methods We evaluated the antipsychotic drug use pattern in outpatients with psychotic disorders according to DSM-IV, living in board and care facilities. Patients using polypharmacy at least one month were compared with patients using monotherapy in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Results Antipsychotic polypharmacy (with two: 34%, with more than two: 28%) was identified in 62% of the patients. The most frequently prescribed combination was olanzapine+quetiapine (13%), the rate of first and second generation combination was 50%, the rate of second generation antipsychotic combination was 44%, and the rate of first generation anytipsychotic combination was 4% in the two antipsychotic drug combination group. The rate of clozapine use was 3%. Use of polypharmacy was associated with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, young age, suicidal behavior, multiple hospitalizations, clinical severity, and the need of anticholinergic drug. Conclusion The ratio of using more than two antipsychotic drug combination is high (28%) in psychotic patients living in board and care, and rate of clozapine use is low, which shows that clinical practice is inconsistent with the treatment guidelines recommendations. It appears that further education to rationale antipsychotic drug use in psychiatric practices is required.
McGrath, John J.; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Have, Margreet ten; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of PEs and mental disorders. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of PEs and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Results Temporally primary PEs were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of 8 of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse), with ORs (95%CI) ranging from 1.3 (1.2–1.5; major depressive disorder) to 2.0 (1.5–2.6; bipolar disorder). In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of PEs, with ORs (95% CI) ranging from 1.5 (1.0–2.1; childhood separation anxiety disorder) to 2.8 (1.0–7.8; anorexia nervosa). Conclusions While temporally primary PEs are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, we found that most mental disorder are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent PEs. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships might shed light on the etiology of PEs. PMID:26988628
Craciun, Georgiana; Cucoş, Liliana; Ungureanu, Elena; Pendefunda, L; Petrariu, F D; Nechita, Petronela
Encephalitis is a brain inflammation, which could involve also the meninges. The etiology of encephalitis could be: viral, bacterial, fungal or autoimmune. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an immune disorder, easy to diagnose and is a treatable condition. Most patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis develop a multistage illness that progresses from psychosis, memory deficits, seizures, to catatonic state and breathing instability. We present a case report of a 20-year old woman, who presented: amnesia, visual hallucination, illusions, seizures after that occurred following autoimmune encephalitis. The exact incidence of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is unknown, but it seems to be more frequent than any other known paraneoplastic encephalitis. The present case is important considering that autoimmune encephalitis is a rare frequency disorder in Romania, with patients presenting resounding psychiatric and neurological manifestations.
Maier, W; Hauth, I; Berger, M; Saß, H
Some mental and neurobiological disorders are associated with an increased risk for violence against others. The stigmatization of people with mental illnesses essentially emerges from a distorted perception of this condition. This review article summarizes the available literature on the determinants, prevention, therapy and tools for prediction of serious interpersonal aggression in the context of people with mental disorders. The risks for violence against other people show substantial variation between the various diagnoses. Schizophrenia and mania carry a clearly increased risk particularly at the onset of the disorder but disease-specific pharmacological therapy can reduce these risks. The highest risk factors are in particular previous violence, misuse of alcohol and drugs, male gender and young age. Probabilistic predictions of subsequent aggression against others on an individual-specific basis are only feasible in enriched populations (especially persons with mental illnesses and a previous history of assaults). Valid individual-specific predictions of future violence in the general population or on the basis of diagnoses of mental illness are, however, currently not feasible with sufficient accuracy.
Kuz Tekşut, Tuba; Özcan, Halil; Işık, Mein; Karslı, Fatih
Chorea gravidarum (CG) is a rare movement disorder characterized by rapid, irregular randomly distributed involuntary movements during pregnancy. Similar to Sydenham chorea, psychiatric symptoms may be observed in cases of CG. CG may be idiopathic or secondary to an underlying cause. One of the most common causes of CG is antiphospholipid syndrome. Herein we present a case of recurrent CG that was considered to be due to antiphospholipid syndrome. The patient had a history of 3 pregnancy losses and her fourth pregnancy was treated appropriately, resulting in the birth of healthy full-term baby. During the patient's first pregnancy CG was accompanied by psychotic symptoms and was misdiagnosed as conversion disorder.
Swets, Marije; Van Dael, Frank; Roza, Sabine; Schoevers, Robert; Myin-Germeys, Inez; de Haan, Lieuwe
The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in subjects with psychotic disorder is much higher than in the general population. The higher than chance co-occurrence has also been demonstrated at the level of subclinical expression of both phenotypes. Both extended phenotypes have been shown to cluster in families. However, little is known about the origins of their elevated co-occurrence. In the present study, evidence for a shared etiological mechanism was investigated in 3 samples with decreasing levels of familial psychosis liability: 987 patients, 973 of their unaffected siblings and 566 healthy controls. The association between the obsessive-compulsive phenotype and the psychosis phenotype c.q. psychosis liability was investigated. First, the association was assessed between (subclinical) obsessive-compulsive symptoms and psychosis liability. Second, in a cross-sib cross-trait analysis, it was examined whether (subclinical) obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the patient were associated with (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in the related unaffected sibling. Evidence was found for both associations, which is compatible with a partially shared etiological pathway underlying obsessive-compulsive and psychotic disorder. This is the first study that used a cross-sib cross-trait design in patients and unaffected siblings, thus circumventing confounding by disease-related factors present in clinical samples.
Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte
Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care.
Scoriels, L; Salek, R M; Goodby, E; Grainger, D; Dean, A M; West, J A; Griffin, J L; Suckling, J; Nathan, P J; Lennox, B R; Murray, G K; Bullmore, E T; Jones, P B
Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are biologically complex and carry huge population morbidity due to their prevalence, persistence and associated disability. Defined by features such as delusions and hallucinations, they involve cognitive dysfunction and neurotransmitter dysregulations that appear mostly to involve the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. A number of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these disorders but it has been difficult to identify the biological pathways underlying the principal symptoms. The endophenotype concept of stable, heritable traits that form a mechanistic link between genes and an overt expression of the disorder has potential to reduce the complexity of psychiatric phenotypes. In this study, we used a genetically sensitive design with individuals with a first episode of psychosis, their non-affected first-degree relatives and non-related healthy controls. Metabolomic analysis was combined with neurocognitive assessment to identify multilevel endophenotypic patterns: one concerned reaction times during the performance of cognitive and emotional tests that have previously been associated with the glutamate neurotransmission system, the other involved metabolites involved directly and indirectly in the co-activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, a major receptor of the glutamate system. These cognitive and metabolic endophenotypes may comprise a single construct, such that genetically mediated dysfunction in the glutamate system may be responsible for delays in response to cognitive and emotional functions in psychotic disorders. This focus on glutamatergic neurotransmission should guide drug discovery and experimental medicine programmes in schizophrenia and related disorders.
van der Leeuw, Christine; Marcelis, Machteld; Peeters, Sanne C. T.; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Menheere, Paul P. C. A.; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; van Beveren, Nico J. M.
Background S100B is a potential marker of neurological and psychiatric illness. In schizophrenia, increased S100B levels, as well as associations with acute positive and persisting negative symptoms, have been reported. It remains unclear whether S100B elevation, which possibly reflects glial dysfunction, is the consequence of disease or compensatory processes, or whether it is an indicator of familial risk. Methods Serum samples were acquired from two large independent family samples (n = 348 and n = 254) in the Netherlands comprising patients with psychotic disorder (n = 140 and n = 82), non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder (n = 125 and n = 94) and controls (n = 83 and n = 78). S100B was analyzed with a Liaison automated chemiluminescence system. Associations between familial risk of psychotic disorder and S100B were examined. Results Results showed that S100B levels in patients (P) and siblings (S) were not significantly different from controls (C) (dataset 1: P vs. C: B = 0.004, 95% CI −0.005 to 0.013, p = 0.351; S vs. C: B = 0.000, 95% CI −0.009 to 0.008, p = 0.926; and dataset 2: P vs. C: B = 0.008, 95% CI −0.011 to 0.028, p = 0.410; S vs. C: B = 0.002, 95% CI −0.016 to 0.021, p = 0.797). In patients, negative symptoms were positively associated with S100B (B = 0.001, 95% CI 0.000 to 0.002, p = 0.005) in one of the datasets, however with failure of replication in the other. There was no significant association between S100B and positive symptoms or present use or type of antipsychotic medication. Conclusions S100B is neither an intermediate phenotype, nor a trait marker for psychotic illness. PMID:24358202
Rubin, Leah H; Carter, C Sue; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Drogos, Lauren L; Hill, S Kristian; Ruocco, Anthony C; Keedy, Sarah K; Reilly, James L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Gershon, Elliot S; Sweeney, John A
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust influence on social affiliation and specific cognitive processes in healthy individuals. Abnormalities in these neuroendocrine systems have been observed in psychotic disorders, but their relation to impairments in behavioral domains that these endocrines modulate is not well understood. We compared abnormalities of OT and AVP serum concentrations in probands with schizophrenia (n = 57), schizoaffective disorder (n = 34), and psychotic bipolar disorder (n = 75); their first-degree relatives without a history of psychosis (n = 61, 43, 91, respectively); and healthy controls (n = 66) and examined their association with emotion processing and cognition. AVP levels were lower in schizophrenia (P = .002) and bipolar probands (P = .03) and in relatives of schizophrenia probands (P = .002) compared with controls. OT levels did not differ between groups. Familiality estimates were robust for OT (h(2) = 0.79, P = 3.97e-15) and AVP (h(2) = 0.78, P = 3.93e-11). Higher levels of OT were associated with better emotion recognition (β = 0.40, P < .001) and general neuropsychological function (β = 0.26, P = .04) in healthy controls as expected but not in any proband or relative group. In schizophrenia, higher OT levels were related to greater positive symptom severity. The dissociation of OT levels and behavioral function in all proband and relative groups suggests that risk and illness factors associated with psychotic disorders are not related to reduced OT levels but to a disruption in the ability of physiological levels of OT to modulate social cognition and neuropsychological function. Decreased AVP levels may be a marker of biological vulnerability in schizophrenia because alterations were seen in probands and relatives, and familiality was high.
Larson, Molly K; Walker, Elaine F; Compton, Michael T
During recent decades, interest in the prevention of mental illnesses has increased. Improved diagnostic tools, the advent of atypical antipsychotic medications and the development of phase-specific psychosocial treatments have made intervention research in people at ultra-high risk for developing schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder possible. Preliminary data suggest that low doses of atypical antipsychotic medications augmented by psychosocial treatments may delay the onset of psychosis in some individuals. Findings support further research for the establishment of best-practice standards.
Larson, Molly K; Walker, Elaine F; Compton, Michael T
During recent decades, interest in the prevention of mental illnesses has increased. Improved diagnostic tools, the advent of atypical antipsychotic medications and the development of phase-specific psychosocial treatments have made intervention research in people at ultra-high risk for developing schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder possible. Preliminary data suggest that low doses of atypical antipsychotic medications augmented by psychosocial treatments may delay the onset of psychosis in some individuals. Findings support further research for the establishment of best-practice standards. PMID:20662758
Fujii, Daryl; Fujii, Daniel C
The present study utilized methodology from a previous descriptive study that analyzed case studies of psychotic disorder due to traumatic brain injury (PD-TBI) reported in psychiatry and neurology journals. The purpose was to replicate findings from the PD-TBI literature and to elucidate a pattern of characteristics that would differentiate PD-TBI from schizophrenia. The findings supported both objectives. PD-TBI data were highly consistent with previous studies: PD-TBI differed from schizophrenia in showing more focal frontal and temporal abnormalities on neurological studies and a lower rate of negative symptoms. The authors discuss implications of these findings for conceptualizing psychosis as a neurobiological syndrome.
Krishna, Nithin; Fischer, Bernard A; Miller, Moshe; Register-Brown, Kelly; Patchan, Kathleen; Hackman, Ann
We report the case of a young man diagnosed with schizophrenia who presented with stalking behaviors that may have been caused by problematic use or participation in social media networks (SMN). We review the possible role of SMN in the formation of his romantic delusion and offer suggestions for clinicians around incorporation of SMN questions into assessments. It is imperative to identify populations at risk of SMN-related stalking behaviors to stratify mental health resources and interventions. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the role of SMN in psychotic disorders.
Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Silverstein, Steven Michael; Spiga, Ralph
Impulsivity is a risk-factor associated with substance use disorders. On paper-and-pencil measures, people with comorbid psychotic disorders and substance abuse have been shown to be more impulsive than their non-using counterparts. However, there has been little research on the behavioral components that, collectively, define the construct of impulsivity, which have been identified as: temporal discounting, risk taking, underestimating time, and failure to inhibit extraneous responding. This study compared people with psychotic disorders who did and did not use cocaine on behavioral measures of these components. One group (COC-now) had a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine (N=20). A second group (COC-past) had a negative UDS, but a positive cocaine history (N=20). Finally, the third group (control) had no history of cocaine use (N=20). Those with a current or past history of cocaine use engaged in more risk-taking behaviors and seemed to be less affected by anticipated loss and more attuned to monetary gains. However, contrary to our hypothesis, patients in the COC-now group selected larger, delayed rewards over the smaller, immediate rewards. Performance on the immediate/delay task also suggested greater attentiveness to the magnitude of the monetary reward for patients with a positive UDS.
... Two of the main symptoms are delusions and hallucinations. Delusions are false beliefs, such as thinking that ... that the TV is sending you secret messages. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or ...
Trotman, Hanan D; Holtzman, Carrie W; Ryan, Arthur T; Shapiro, Daniel I; MacDonald, Allison N; Goulding, Sandra M; Brasfield, Joy L; Walker, Elaine F
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". The notion that adolescence is characterized by dramatic changes in behavior, and often by emotional upheaval, is widespread and longstanding in popular western culture. In recent decades, this notion has gained increasing support from empirical research showing that the peri- and post-pubertal developmental stages are associated with a significant rise in the rate of psychiatric symptoms and syndromes. As a result, interest in adolescent development has burgeoned among researchers focused on the origins of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Two factors have fueled this trend: 1) increasing evidence from longitudinal research that adolescence is the modal period for the emergence of "prodromal" manifestations, or precursors of psychotic symptoms, and 2) the rapidly accumulating scientific findings on brain structural and functional changes occurring during adolescence and young adulthood. Further, gonadal and adrenal hormones are beginning to play a more prominent role in conceptualizations of adolescent brain development, as well as in the origins of psychiatric symptoms during this period (Walker and Bollini, 2002; Walker et al., 2008). In this paper, we begin by providing an overview of the nature and course of psychotic disorders during adolescence/young adulthood. We then turn to the role of hormones in modulating normal brain development, and the potential role they might play in the abnormal brain changes that characterize youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. The activational and organizational effects of hormones are explored, with a focus on how hormone-induced changes might be linked with neuropathological processes in the emergence of psychosis.
Melkersson, K; Hulting, A L
Three patients with psychoses and concomitant prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours are described. Patients A and B had bipolar and schizoaffective disorders, respectively. They had both been treated with neuroleptics for 20 years before the prolactinomas were revealed. Patient C developed a paranoid psychosis after two years of continuous bromocriptine treatment for a pituitary tumour. In patient A the prolactin level was successfully normalized and a good antipsychotic effect was maintained by combined therapy with haloperidol and quinagolide but not bromocriptine. In patient B the prolactinoma was removed by surgery, in view of the serious nature of the psychotic disorder, to avoid psychotic relapse by treatment with a dopamine agonist. In patient C a good result was obtained with the combination of clozapine and bromocriptine. These case reports support the view that neuroleptics being dopamine antagonists and dopamine agonistic agents which are the primary treatment of prolactinomas can cancel out each other's effects. The combination of clozapine and quinagolide is recommended as the treatment of choice for most patients.
David, Anthony S; Chis Ster, Irina; Zavarei, Hooman
Improving insight in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders is a worthwhile goal. Previous work has suggested that patients' insight may improve if they see videos of themselves taken when ill. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients improve their insight after viewing videos of themselves when unwell more so than after viewing an actor. Forty patients admitted with an acute psychotic disorder underwent a videotaped recording of a clinical interview. The patients were then randomized to viewing this or a "control" video of a same-sex actor displaying psychotic symptoms approximately 3 weeks later. Insight, psychopathology, and mood were assessed before and 24 to 48 hours after viewing the videos. All participants showed general improvement across all measures. There was a trend for scores on the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight to improve more in those who viewed themselves when ill, but there were no clear statistically significant differences between the "self" and "other" video groups. In conclusion, video self-confrontation seems to be a safe and potentially effective means of enhancing insight, but evidence for a specific effect is lacking.
Flyckt, Lena; Fatouros-Bergman, Helena; Koernig, Thomas
Background: In a previous study, the objective burden of informal caregiving to patients with psychotic disorders amounted to 22 hours/week, and the subjective burden was huge with predominately anxiety and depression as main symptoms. In this study, determinants of the informal caregiving burden are analyzed to find foci for interventions to ease the size of burden. Methods: Patients with psychotic disorders (n = 107) and their informal caregivers (n = 118) were included. They were assessed with a comprehensive battery of rating scales including patient and caregiver characteristics as well as the amount and quality of health-care provision. Results: A multiple linear regression analysis showed that the subjective burden was significantly lower when patients had higher levels of functioning and when the health status of the informal caregivers was good. No significant determinants were found for the objective burden, but an association was found between a higher socioeconomic status of the caregivers and the amount of money provided for the patient. An association was also found between a positive perception of caregiving and more hours spent on caregiving. Conclusion: The functioning level of the patients was the main determinant of the subjective burden of informal care. For the objective burden, no main determinant was found. PMID:25770207
Odenwald, Michael; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas; Catani, Claudia; Lingenfelder, Birke; Hinkel, Harald; Häfner, Heinz; Rockstroh, Brigitte
Background Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects similar to those of amphetamine. We aimed to explore the prevalence of psychotic disorders among the general population and the association between khat use and psychotic symptoms. Methods In an epidemiological household assessment in the city of Hargeisa, North-West Somalia, trained local interviewers screened 4,854 randomly selected persons from among the general population for disability due to severe mental problems. The identified cases were interviewed based on a structured interview and compared to healthy matched controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the items of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview and quantified with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. Statistical testing included Student's t-test and ANOVA. Results Local interviewers found that rates of severe disability due to mental disorders were 8.4% among males (above the age of 12) and differed according to war experiences (no war experience: 3.2%; civilian war survivors: 8.0%; ex-combatants: 15.9%). The clinical interview verified that in 83% of positive screening cases psychotic symptoms were the most prominent manifestations of psychiatric illness. On average, cases with psychotic symptoms had started to use khat earlier in life than matched controls and had been using khat 8.6 years before positive symptoms emerged. In most cases with psychotic symptoms, a pattern of binge use (> two 'bundles' per day) preceded the onset of psychotic symptoms, in contrast to controls of the same age. We found significant correlations between variables of khat consumption and clinical scales (0.35 to 0.50; p < 0.05), and between the age of onset of khat chewing and symptom onset (0.70; p <0.001). Conclusion Evidence indicates a relationship between the consumption of
Mariné, Rosa; Creus, Marta; Solé, Montse; Cabezas, Ángel; Algora, Maria José; Moreno, Irene; Izquierdo, Eduard; Stojanovic-Pérez, Alexander; Labad, Javier
We studied the clinical correlates of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions in 109 individuals with early psychosis (31 At-Risk Mental States [ARMS], 78 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness) and 59 healthy subjects. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. We also assessed the severity of psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and functioning. ARMS and psychotic disorder patients reported more obsessive-compulsive symptoms than did healthy subjects. The ARMS individuals also reported more overall and checking obsessive-compulsive symptoms compared with the PD patients. Different types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were related with depressive symptoms in both diagnostic groups. However, a different pattern was observed in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive dimensions and functioning by diagnosis (better functioning in ARMS; poorer functioning in psychotic disorders). Our study suggests that obsessive-compulsive symptoms are present in the early stages of psychotic illness, as well as in individuals at risk for psychosis. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate how obsessive-compulsive symptoms in ARMS may influence the prognosis in terms of global functioning and the risk of psychosis transition.
van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Domen, Patrick; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld
Altered estrogen-induced neuroprotection has been implicated in the etiology of psychotic disorders. Using bone mineral density as a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, a longitudinal family study was conducted to discriminate between etiological mechanisms and secondary effects of disease and treatment. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were acquired twice, with an interval of 3 years, in 30 patients with psychotic disorder (male (M)/female (F): 24/6, mean age of 32 years at second measurement), 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder (M/F: 26/18, mean age 32) and 27 controls (M/F: 7/20, mean age 35). Total bone mineral density, Z-scores and T-scores were measured in the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Associations between group and bone mineral density changes were investigated with multilevel random regression analyses. The effect of prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was evaluated. (Increased risk of) psychotic disorder was not associated with disproportionate bone mineral density loss over a three year period. Instead, femoral bone mineral density measures appeared to decrease less in the patient versus control comparison (total BMD: B = 0.026, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.050, p = 0.037; Z-score: B = 0.224, 95% CI 0.035 to 0.412, p = 0.020; and T-score: B = 0.193, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.382, p = 0.046). Current or past use of a prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was not associated with bone mineral density changes. In this small longitudinal study, there was no evidence of ongoing estrogen deficiency in psychotic disorder as there was no excessive loss of bone mineral density over a 3-year period in patients using antipsychotic medication. PMID:26309037
Saugstad, Letten F
The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic antidepressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.
Saugstad, Letten F
The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.
A comprehensive literature stresses a high percentage of severe childhood maltreatment in the history of many psychotically ill patients treated in mental health services. Early childhood abuse seems to be associated among other things with a more severe clinical state, a more chronic course of illness and a more unfavourable psychosocial adaptation. In order not to jump to unwarranted causal conclusions, several conceptual und methodological problems have to be clarified before. From a conceptual perspective psychotic disorders diagnosed according to conventional criteria define only a minor subgroup within a much broader psychosis continuum in general population. Early childhood abuse has to be differentiated according to type, severity, timing, and context. The rates of early childhood abuse are high in general population. The methods of measurement of psychotic symptoms on the one side, of early trauma on the other side have to be critically evaluated. There is an empirically well founded association of childhood maltreatment and psychological and psychosomatic morbidity during adult years in general. In order to establish a potential conditional link also to psychotic disorders, clinical populations have to be compared to adequate control groups at least. A systematic literature search shows a very small number of studies including control groups at all. These studies underline that early childhood abuse may be significantly associated to the risk of psychosis indeed. The conditional role of early childhood abuse, however, has to be investigated only within a multifactorial biopsychosocial model of psychotic illness.
Castagnini, Augusto; Berrios, German E
The tenth revision of the International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (ICD-10) introduced the category F23 'Acute and transient psychotic disorders' (ATPD) to incorporate clinical concepts such as the French bouffée délirante, cycloid psychosis (Germany), and the Scandinavian reactive and schizophreniform psychoses. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on ATPD and to examine how it has been differentiated from the other categories of F2 group 'schizophrenia and related disorders'. Papers published between 1993 and 2007 were found through searches in Medline, PsychInfo and Google Scholar. Further references were identified from book chapters and comprehensive reviews of the topic. ATPD is reported as being prevalent in females and as having onset in early-middle adulthood. Although follow-up studies suggest that its outcome is more favourable than other disorders in the F2 group, ATPD tends to recur and half of cases convert mainly into either schizophrenia or affective disorders. No evidence supports the view that the traditional conditions subsumed under ATPD all refer to this diagnostic category. The lack of defining features and poor prognostic validity argue against the separation of ATPD from borderland categories.
Lencer, Rebekka; Sprenger, Andreas; Reilly, James L; McDowell, Jennifer E; Rubin, Leah H; Badner, Judith A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Gershon, Elliot S; Clementz, Brett A; Sweeney, John A
Smooth pursuit eye tracking deficits are a promising intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia and possibly for psychotic disorders more broadly. The Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium investigated the severity and familiality of different pursuit parameters across psychotic disorders. Probands with schizophrenia (N=265), schizoaffective disorder (N=178), psychotic bipolar disorder (N=231), their first-degree relatives (N=306, N=217, N=273, respectively) and healthy controls (N=305) performed pursuit tracking tasks designed to evaluate sensorimotor and cognitive/predictive aspects of pursuit. Probands from all diagnostic groups were impaired on all pursuit measures of interest compared to controls (p<0.001). Schizophrenia probands were more impaired than other proband groups on both early pursuit gain and predictive gain. Relatives with and without enhanced psychosis spectrum personality traits were impaired on initial eye acceleration, the most direct sensorimotor pursuit measure, but not on pursuit gain measures. This suggests that alterations in early sensorimotor function may track susceptibility to psychosis even in the absence of psychosis related personality traits. There were no differences in pursuit measures between relatives of the three proband groups. Familiality estimates of pursuit deficits indicate that early pursuit gain was more familial than predictive gain, which has been the most widely used measure in previous family studies of psychotic disorders. Thus, while disease-related factors may induce significant impairments of pursuit gain, especially in schizophrenia, the pattern of deficits in relatives and their familiality estimates suggest that alterations in sensorimotor function at pursuit onset may indicate increased susceptibility across psychotic disorders.
Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Jansen, Lucres M C
The vulnerabilty stress model is an intriguing concept to look into the etiology of psychotic disorders and, in particular, into the "nature nurture" principle. That stress affects a vulnerable nature may be obvious, but its mechanism is not well understood, and many questions remain to be answered, let alone how to define "vulnerability". The present review tries to focus on the core issues of the vulnerability stress concept--identifying vulnerability, the way stress interferes with it, and the possiblilities of modulating their interaction. Attention is drawn to the biologic stress response systems, the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) system, and the immune system, and highlights the plasticity of the HPA system as the mediator of adaptation.
The evaluation of personality traits is important for the better understanding of the person suffering from psychosis and for treatment individualization. However literature on patients’ personality and character in such disorders is limited. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on sensation/novelty seeking (SNS), a trait which is biologically based and highly heritable and is associated with dopamine activity, and refers to a person’s tendency to seek varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences. A total of 38 studies were included in this review, involving 2808 patients and 2039 healthy controls. There is consistent evidence that this trait is independently associated with alcohol and substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders. The estimation of SNS would help clinicians to identify patients at risk for abuse. There is also some evidence that higher SNS levels may relate to medication non-adherence and seem to increase the risk of patients’ aggressive and violent behavior, but studies are scarce. SNS was found not to be related to suicidality, whereas in the fields of patients’ quality of life and psychopathology results are contradictory, but most studies show no possible association. Several studies suggest that SNS is lower in psychotic patients compared to controls, whereas most yield no differences. The evidence for this trait as a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia is weak. SNS may be implicated in psychotic disorders’ course and prognosis in several ways and should be always inquired for. This trait can be reliably measured with the use of easily applicable self-rated instruments, and patients’ accounts could inform clinicians when planning management and delivering individualized treatment. PMID:25815257
Nair, Akshay; Palmer, Emma Claire; Aleman, André; David, Anthony S
The neurocognitive theory of insight posits that poor insight in psychotic illnesses is related to cognitive deficits in cognitive self-appraisal mechanisms. In this paper we perform a comprehensive meta-analysis examining relationships between clinical insight and neurocognition in psychotic disorders. We have also completed a meta-analysis of studies examining 'cognitive insight', as measured by the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), and its relationship with neurocognitive function in patients with psychosis. The clinical insight analysis included data from 72 studies and a total population of 5429 patients. We found that insight in psychosis was significantly associated with total cognition (r=0.16, p<0.001), IQ (r=0.16, p<0.001), memory (r=0.13, p<0.001) and executive function (r=0.14, p<0.001). All of these correlations were stronger when examined in patients with schizophrenia only. In the BCIS analysis we included 7 studies and 466 patients in total. We found that no significant associations were found between the self-reflectiveness sub-component and neurocognition. By contrast there were significant correlations between the self-certainty subcomponent and memory (r=-0.23, p<0.001), IQ (r=-0.19, p<0.001) and total cognition (r=-0.14, p=0.01). We did not find evidence of significant publication bias in any analyses. Overall, our results indicate that there is a small but significant relationship between clinical insight, some aspects of cognitive insight and neurocognition. These findings reflect the complexity of the insight construct and indicate that while the neurocognitive model is important it is likely to be one of many which contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon.
Hochberger, W.C.; Hill, S. K.; Nelson, C.L.M.; Reilly, J.L.; Keefe, R.S.E.; Pearlson, G.D.; Keshavan, M.S.; Tamminga, C.A.; Clementz, B.A.; Sweeney, J.A.
Despite robust evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction in psychotic patients, the degree of similarity in cognitive architecture across psychotic disorders and among their respective first-degree relatives is not well delineated. The present study examined the latent factor structure of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) neuropsychological battery. Analyses were conducted on 783 psychosis spectrum probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, psychotic bipolar), 887 of their first-degree relatives, and 396 non-psychiatric controls from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium. Exploratory factor analysis of BACS subtest scores indicated a single-factor solution that was similar across all groups and provided the best overall data fit in confirmatory analyses. Correlations between the standard BACS composite score and the sum of subscale scores weighted by their loadings on this unitary factor was very high in all groups (r ≥.99). Thus, the BACS assesses a similar unitary cognitive construct in probands with different psychotic disorders, in their first-degree relatives, and in healthy controls, and this factor is well measured by the test’s standard composite score. PMID:26645510
Hochberger, W C; Hill, S K; Nelson, C L M; Reilly, J L; Keefe, R S E; Pearlson, G D; Keshavan, M S; Tamminga, C A; Clementz, B A; Sweeney, J A
Despite robust evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction in psychotic patients, the degree of similarity in cognitive architecture across psychotic disorders and among their respective first-degree relatives is not well delineated. The present study examined the latent factor structure of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) neuropsychological battery. Analyses were conducted on 783 psychosis spectrum probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, psychotic bipolar), 887 of their first-degree relatives, and 396 non-psychiatric controls from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium. Exploratory factor analysis of BACS subtest scores indicated a single-factor solution that was similar across all groups and provided the best overall data fit in confirmatory analyses. Correlations between the standard BACS composite score and the sum of subscale scores weighted by their loadings on this unitary factor were very high in all groups (r≥.99). Thus, the BACS assesses a similar unitary cognitive construct in probands with different psychotic disorders, in their first-degree relatives, and in healthy controls, and this factor is well measured by the test's standard composite score.
Ungvari, Gabor S; Caroff, Stanley N; Gerevich, Jozsef
To provide a rational basis for reconceptualizing catatonia in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition), we briefly review historical sources, the psychopathology of catatonia, and the relevance of catatonic schizophrenia in contemporary practice and research. In contrast to Kahlbaum, Kraepelin and others (Jaspers, Kleist, and Schneider) recognized the prevalence of motor symptoms in diverse psychiatric disorders but concluded that the unique pattern and persistence of certain psychomotor phenomena defined a "catatonic" subtype of schizophrenia, based on intensive long-term studies. The enduring controversy and confusion that ensued underscores the fact that the main problem with catatonia is not just its place in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders but rather its lack of conceptual clarity. There still are no accepted principles on what makes a symptom catatonic and no consensus on which signs and symptoms constitute a catatonic syndrome. The resulting heterogeneity is reflected in treatment studies that show that stuporous catatonia in any acute disorder responds to benzodiazepines or electroconvulsive therapy, whereas catatonia in the context of chronic schizophrenia is phenomenologically different and less responsive to either modality. Although psychomotor phenomena are an intrinsic feature of acute and especially chronic schizophrenia, they are insufficiently recognized in practice and research but may have significant implications for treatment outcome and neurobiological studies. While devising a separate category of catatonia as a nonspecific syndrome has heuristic value, it may be equally if not more important to re-examine the psychopathological basis for defining psychomotor symptoms as catatonic and to re-establish psychomotor phenomena as a fundamental symptom dimension or criterion for both psychotic and mood disorders.
Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD), introduced in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic system in 1992, are not receiving much attention in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to review the literature related to the diagnostic stability of ATPD in developing countries. A PubMed search was conducted to review the studies concerned with this issue in the context of developing countries, as diagnostic stability is more of a direct test of validity of psychiatric diagnoses. Four publications were found. According to the literature search, the stability percentage of the ICD-10 ATPD diagnosis is 63-100%. The diagnostic shift is more commonly either towards bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, if any. Shorter duration of illness (<1 month) and abrupt onset (<48 hours) predict a stable diagnosis of ATPD. Based on available evidence, the diagnosis of ATPD appears to be relatively stable in developing countries. However, it is difficult to make a definitive conclusion, as there is a substantial lack of literature in developing country settings. PMID:26266021
Peritogiannis, Vaios; Manthopoulou, Thiresia; Mavreas, Venetsanos
Introduction: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment in patients with mental disorders is widespread in clinical practice, and this is also the case of patients with schizophrenia, although the evidence is weak and BZD prescription is discouraged by guidelines and medical authorities. Data on BZD prescription are usually derived from national or regional databases whereas information on the use of BZD by patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in general population-based samples is limited. Materials and Methods: Information for 77 patients with psychotic disorders who were regularly attending follow-up appointments with the multidisciplinary Mobile Mental Health Unit of the prefectures of Ioannina and Thesprotia, Northwest Greece, during 1-year period (2015) was obtained from our database. Results: From the total of 77 engaged patients, 30 (39%) were regularly prescribed BZDs in the long term, as part of their treatment regimen. Prescribed BZDs were mostly diazepam and lorazepam, in 43.3% of cases each. The mean daily dose of these compounds was 13 mg and 3.77 mg, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a correlation of long-term BZD use with the history of alcohol/substance abuse. Most patients were receiving BZD continuously for several years, and the mean dose was steady within this interval. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with psychotic disorders were regularly prescribed BZD in long term. It appears that when BZDs are prescribed for some period in the course of a psychotic disorder, their use commonly exceeds the recommended interval and then becomes a regular part of the chronic treatment regimen. Future research should address the factors that may be related to the long-term BZD use by patients with psychotic disorders. Interventions for the reduction of regular BZD prescription should target the primary care setting and all those who treat first episode patients. PMID:28163499
Bratlien, Unni; Øie, Merete; Haug, Elisabeth; Møller, Paul; Andreassen, Ole A; Lien, Lars; Melle, Ingrid
Etiologies of psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) are conceptualized as interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The adolescent period is characterized by changes in social roles and expectations that may interact with biological changes or psychosocial stressors. Few studies focus on the adolescents' own reports of perceived risk factors. To assess differences at age 16 between persons who later develop psychotic disorders ("Confirmed Psychosis", CP) and their class-mates ("Population Controls", PC) we collected information on: (1) Social support factors (size of social network and expectancies of social support from friends), (2) Cognitive functioning (concentrating in the classroom, actual grades and expectancies of own academic achievements) and (3) Problems and stressors in families (illness or loss of work for parents), and in relationship with others (exposure to bullying, violence or sexual violation). Self-reported data from students at 15-16 years of age were linked to the case-registers from the "Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) Study". The CP group reported more economic problems in their families, smaller social network and lower academic expectation than the PC group. The results support the notion that long-term socioeconomic stressors in adolescence may serve as risk factors for the development of psychotic disorders.
Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen; Kostas, Demetrios; Perkins, Jennifer; Rounsaville, Bruce
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a brief treatment approach for helping patients develop intrinsic motivation to change addictive behaviors. While initially developed to target primary substance using populations, professionals are increasingly recognizing the promise this approach has for addressing the motivational dilemmas faced by patients who have co-occurring psychiatric and psychoactive substance use disorders. Unfortunately, this recognition has not lead to a clear explication of how MI might be adopted for specific diagnostic populations of dually diagnosed patients. In this article we describe how we have applied the principles and practices of MI to patients who have psychotic disorders and co-occurring drug or alcohol use problems. Specifically, we provide two supplemental guidelines to augment basic MI principles (adopting an integrated dual diagnosis approach, accommodating cognitive impairments and disordered thinking). We present recommended modifications to primary MI skill sets (simplifying open-ended questions, refining reflective listening skills, heightening emphasis on affirmations, integrating psychiatric issues into personalized feedback and decisional balance matrices). Finally, we highlight other clinical considerations (handling psychotic exacerbation and crisis events, recommended professional qualifications) when using MI with psychotic disordered dually diagnosed patients. PMID:12495791
Background Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a high prevalence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and lipid abnormalities, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein. More detailed molecular information on the metabolic abnormalities may reveal clues about the pathophysiology of these changes, as well as about disease specificity. Methods We applied comprehensive metabolomics in serum samples from a general population-based study in Finland. The study included all persons with DSM-IV primary psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, n = 45; other non-affective psychosis (ONAP), n = 57; affective psychosis, n = 37) and controls matched by age, sex, and region of residence. Two analytical platforms for metabolomics were applied to all serum samples: a global lipidomics platform based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, which covers molecular lipids such as phospholipids and neutral lipids; and a platform for small polar metabolites based on two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). Results Compared with their matched controls, persons with schizophrenia had significantly higher metabolite levels in six lipid clusters containing mainly saturated triglycerides, and in two small-molecule clusters containing, among other metabolites, (1) branched chain amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, and (2) proline, glutamic, lactic and pyruvic acids. Among these, serum glutamic acid was elevated in all psychoses (P = 0.0020) compared to controls, while proline upregulation (P = 0.000023) was specific to schizophrenia. After adjusting for medication and metabolic comorbidity in linear mixed models, schizophrenia remained independently associated with higher levels in seven of these eight clusters (P < 0.05 in each cluster). The metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced in persons with ONAP or affective psychosis. Conclusions Our
Manuel, Jennifer I.; Covell, Nancy H.; Jackson, Carlos T.; Essock, Susan M.
OBJECTIVE This study analyzed data from a randomized trial to examine the impact on medication adherence of integrated treatment delivered via assertive community treatment (ACT) versus standard clinical case management (SCCM). METHOD Data from the original study included 198 study participants with co-occurring psychotic and substance use disorders who were randomly assigned to receive integrated treatment via ACT or SCCM and were followed for 3 years. We applied mixed-effects logistic regression to estimate group (ACT vs. SCCM) by time effects on a self-report measure of medication adherence. Adherence was dichotomized as 20% or more missed medication days (“poor adherence”) versus less than 20% missed medication days (“adequate adherence”). RESULTS Participants who were assigned to ACT reported significant improvement in medication adherence compared with those assigned to SCCM. CONCLUSIONS Integrated treatment delivered via ACT may benefit persons with co-occurring psychotic and substance use disorders who are poorly adherent to medications. PMID:21659294
Lo Cascio, Nella; Saba, Riccardo; Hauser, Marta; Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Borenstein, Yehonatan; Sheridan, Eva M; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Girardi, Paolo; Gebhardt, Eva; Kane, John M; Auther, Andrea; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Correll, Christoph U
While attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and basic symptoms (BS) are the main current predictors of psychosis in adults, studies in adolescents are scarce. Thus, we (1) described the prevalence and severity of positive, negative, disorganization, general, and basic symptoms in adolescent patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), with other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (PC) and with early-onset psychosis (EOP); and (2) investigated BS criteria in relation to UHR criteria. Sixty-nine 12-18-year-old adolescents (15.3 ± 1.7 years, female = 58.0 %, UHR = 22, PC = 27, EOP = 20) were assessed with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes (SIPS) and the schizophrenia proneness instrument-child and youth version (SPI-CY). Despite similar current and past 12-month global functioning, both UHR and EOP had significantly higher SIPS total and subscale scores compared to PC, with moderate-large effect sizes. Expectedly, UHR had significantly lower SIPS positive symptom scores than EOP, but similar SIPS negative, disorganized, and general symptom scores. Compared to PC, both EOP and UHR had more severe basic thought and perception disturbances, and significantly more often met cognitive disturbances criteria (EOP = 50.0 %, UHR = 40.9 %, PC = 14.8 %). Compared to UHR, both EOP and PC significantly less often met cognitive-perceptive BS criteria (EOP = 35.0 %, UHR = 68.2 %, PC = 25.9 %). BS were significantly more prevalent in both EOP and UHR than PC, and UHR were similar to EOP in symptom domains. Given the uncertain outcome of adolescents at clinical high-risk of psychosis, future research is needed to determine whether the combined assessment of early subjective disturbances with observable APS can improve the accuracy of psychosis prediction.
Narayanan, B; Soh, P; Calhoun, V D; Ruaño, G; Kocherla, M; Windemuth, A; Clementz, B A; Tamminga, C A; Sweeney, J A; Keshavan, M S; Pearlson, G D
Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) are disabling psychiatric illnesses with complex and unclear etiologies. Electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory abnormalities in SZ and PBP probands are heritable and expressed in their relatives, but the neurobiology and genetic factors mediating these abnormalities in the psychosis dimension of either disorder are less explored. We examined the polygenic architecture of eyes-open resting state EEG frequency activity (intrinsic frequency) from 64 channels in 105 SZ, 145 PBP probands and 56 healthy controls (HCs) from the multisite BSNIP (Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes) study. One million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from DNA. We assessed eight data-driven EEG frequency activity derived from group-independent component analysis (ICA) in conjunction with a reduced subset of 10 422 SNPs through novel multivariate association using parallel ICA (para-ICA). Genes contributing to the association were examined collectively using pathway analysis tools. Para-ICA extracted five frequency and nine SNP components, of which theta and delta activities were significantly correlated with two different gene components, comprising genes participating extensively in brain development, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Delta and theta abnormality was present in both SZ and PBP, while theta differed between the two disorders. Theta abnormalities were also mediated by gene clusters involved in glutamic acid pathways, cadherin and synaptic contact-based cell adhesion processes. Our data suggest plausible multifactorial genetic networks, including novel and several previously identified (DISC1) candidate risk genes, mediating low frequency delta and theta abnormalities in psychoses. The gene clusters were enriched for biological properties affecting neural circuitry and involved in brain function and/or development. PMID:26101851
Narayanan, B; Soh, P; Calhoun, V D; Ruaño, G; Kocherla, M; Windemuth, A; Clementz, B A; Tamminga, C A; Sweeney, J A; Keshavan, M S; Pearlson, G D
Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) are disabling psychiatric illnesses with complex and unclear etiologies. Electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory abnormalities in SZ and PBP probands are heritable and expressed in their relatives, but the neurobiology and genetic factors mediating these abnormalities in the psychosis dimension of either disorder are less explored. We examined the polygenic architecture of eyes-open resting state EEG frequency activity (intrinsic frequency) from 64 channels in 105 SZ, 145 PBP probands and 56 healthy controls (HCs) from the multisite BSNIP (Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes) study. One million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from DNA. We assessed eight data-driven EEG frequency activity derived from group-independent component analysis (ICA) in conjunction with a reduced subset of 10,422 SNPs through novel multivariate association using parallel ICA (para-ICA). Genes contributing to the association were examined collectively using pathway analysis tools. Para-ICA extracted five frequency and nine SNP components, of which theta and delta activities were significantly correlated with two different gene components, comprising genes participating extensively in brain development, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Delta and theta abnormality was present in both SZ and PBP, while theta differed between the two disorders. Theta abnormalities were also mediated by gene clusters involved in glutamic acid pathways, cadherin and synaptic contact-based cell adhesion processes. Our data suggest plausible multifactorial genetic networks, including novel and several previously identified (DISC1) candidate risk genes, mediating low frequency delta and theta abnormalities in psychoses. The gene clusters were enriched for biological properties affecting neural circuitry and involved in brain function and/or development.
Sobin, Christina; Roos, J Louw; Pretorius, Herman; Lundy, Laura S; Karayiorgou, Maria
In a previous study early non-psychotic deviant behaviors in US adult schizophrenic patients recruited for a large-scale genetic study were examined (Psychiatry Research, 101, 101). Early deviance characterized a distinct subgroup of patients at rates that were consistent with earlier reports. In addition, specific early non-psychotic deviant behaviors were meaningfully associated with later disease outcomes. In the present study, we examined the demographic, syndrome course, symptom and early deviant behavior history of 109 Afrikaner probands who met criteria for DSM schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and compared them to 109 age- and gender-matched US probands. Consistent with past findings, 68% of Afrikaner probands, as compared to 67% of age- and gender-matched US probands, reported one or more forms of early non-psychotic deviance, including poor socialization, extreme fears/chronic sadness, and/or attention/learning impairment. The remaining 32 and 33% of probands, respectively, were without behavioral deviance until the onset of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The frequency and distribution of individual deviant behaviors were strikingly consistent between the samples. However, logistic regression analyses revealed different patterns of associations between the early deviant behaviors manifested and disease outcome. Afrikaner participants with early fears/chronic sadness were 3 times more likely to attempt suicide, while among US participants, this form of early deviance conferred 3.5 times more risk for later schizoaffective disorder, and 3 times greater likelihood of later sensory (tactile and/or olfactory) hallucinations. Afrikaner participants with attention/learning impairment were 2.5 times more likely to experience later auditory hallucinations, while US participants with these early difficulties were 3 times more likely to experience thought disorder. We concluded that early non-psychotic childhood deviance in this independently
Farrelly, Simone; Lester, Helen
Individuals with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders remain among the most marginalised in our communities. There has been increasing criticism of the current state of clinical treatment of such individuals as technological developments in medication provide little, if any, improvement in the lived experiences of mental health service users (SUs). In this context, there is a call for a re-orientation away from medication in the treatment of 'common factors' such as the therapeutic relationship (TR). The TR is well researched in psychotherapy settings; however, the components of beneficial TRs in the treatment of individuals with psychotic disorders are poorly understood. A critical interpretive synthesis was conducted to determine the current understanding of the TRs between individuals with psychotic disorders and their clinicians in community case management settings. A search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Social Policy and Practice Databases and grey literature between 1990 and 2011 identified 13 papers to be included in the synthesis. Three key components of beneficial TRs were identified: mutual trust, demonstration of mutual respect and shared decision-making. However, the synthesis revealed that such interactions are difficult to achieve in routine practice. The main barrier identified was a lack of clarity regarding the goal of interactions, which in turn created stakeholders with poorly defined roles and possibly oppositional needs. In this context of ambiguity, clinicians appear to de-emphasise interactions characteristic of beneficial TRs, and prioritise interactions that protect the SU and themselves in the case of a relapse. Structural symbolic interactionism is used to interpret these findings. For interactions characteristic of TRs to be prioritised in the treatment of individuals with psychotic disorders, a clearer evidence base for the importance of the TR and a clear statement of purpose of treatment are required.
Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B.; Szöke, Andrei
Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux’s model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02–1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation. PMID:27189529
Attademo, Luigi; Bernardini, Francesco; Garinella, Raffaele; Compton, Michael T
Environmental pollution is a global problem with diverse and substantial public health implications. Although many environmental (i.e., non-genetic) risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been identified, there has been comparatively little research on pollution as a possible risk factor. This is despite the fact that gene-by-environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized as likely facets of the etiology of schizophrenia, and the fact that pollution could potentially mediate the association between urban birth/upbringing and elevated risk. We conducted a review of the literature to date in order to summarize and synthesize work in this area. We identified 13 research reports and 16 review articles. Based on the extant knowledge in this area and what is known about the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, it is feasible that exposure to xenobiotic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium, constituents of air pollution such as particulate matter and nitrogen and sulfur oxides, organic solvents, and other constituents of environmental pollution could be component causes. Further research-from the cellular to epidemiological levels-is clearly needed. If causation is proven, enhancements of policy intended to reduce human exposure to environmental pollution could reduce the burden of schizophrenia and possibly other mental illnesses.
Background Studies show that the Internet has become an influential source of information for people experiencing serious psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders, among which the rate of Internet users is growing, with rates ranging from 33.3% to 79.5% given the country. Between 20.5% and 56.4% of these Internet users seek mental health information. Objective Focusing on this population’s Web searches about their mental health, this paper examines what type of content they look for and what could be the benefits and disadvantages of this navigation. Methods We conducted a literature review through medical and psychological databases between 2000 and 2015 using the keywords “Internet,” “Web,” “virtual,” “health information,” “schizophrenia,” “psychosis,” “e-mental health,” “e-support,” and “telepsychiatry.” Results People experiencing schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders wish to find on the Internet trustful, nonstigmatizing information about their disease, flexibility, security standards, and positive peer-to-peer exchanges. E-mental health also appears to be desired by a substantial proportion of them. In this field, the current developments towards intervention and early prevention in the areas of depression and bipolar and anxiety disorders become more and more operational for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and other psychotic disorders as well. The many benefits of the Internet as a source of information and support, such as empowerment, enhancement of self-esteem, relief from peer information, better social interactions, and more available care, seem to outbalance the difficulties. Conclusions In this paper, after discussing the challenges related to the various aspects of the emergence of the Internet into the life of people experiencing schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders, we will suggest areas of future research and
Background We have previously demonstrated that routinely collected primary care data can be used to identify potential participants for trials in depression . Here we demonstrate how patients with psychotic disorders can be identified from primary care records for potential inclusion in a cohort study. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach; assess its potential value and report challenges encountered. Methods We designed an algorithm with which we searched for patients with a lifetime diagnosis of psychotic disorders within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) database of routinely collected health data. The algorithm was validated against the "gold standard" of a well established operational criteria checklist for psychotic and affective illness (OPCRIT). Case notes of 100 patients from a community mental health team (CMHT) in Swansea were studied of whom 80 had matched GP records. Results The algorithm had favourable test characteristics, with a very good ability to detect patients with psychotic disorders (sensitivity > 0.7) and an excellent ability not to falsely identify patients with psychotic disorders (specificity > 0.9). Conclusions With certain limitations our algorithm can be used to search the general practice data and reliably identify patients with psychotic disorders. This may be useful in identifying candidates for potential inclusion in cohort studies. PMID:22333117
Tessner, Kevin D; Mittal, Vijay; Walker, Elaine F
Psychosocial stress preceding the onset or recurrence of psychotic symptoms has been identified in patients with schizophrenia; yet there is limited understanding of the effects of stress in typically developing adolescents or those who show behavioral signs of risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. This study examined the developmental course of symptom progression as a function of stressful life events and daily hassles in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), other personality disorders, or no Axis II disorder. In this prospective longitudinal study, life events and daily stressors were assessed in adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Results revealed that adolescents with SPD and other personality disorders reported significantly greater total, independent, and undesirable life events than individuals with no Axis II disorders. Youth with SPD report daily hassles to cause more distress compared to peers. Correlational analyses and hierarchal linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship of life events and daily stressors with psychiatric symptoms measured concurrently and 1 year later. Across diagnostic groups, the incidence of independent and undesirable life events were associated with current prodromal symptoms, while the frequency of daily stressors predicted a significant increment in positive, but not negative, prodromal symptoms over time. Therefore, adolescents who report greater daily stressors exhibit an increase in prodromal symptoms over a 1 year period. Psychosocial stress has been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia, and these findings suggest the importance of life events and daily hassles as potential risk factors in the onset of psychotic symptoms during adolescence.
Grossman, Linda S; Harrow, Martin; Rosen, Cherise; Faull, Robert; Strauss, Gregory P
This longitudinal study was designed to provide data on sex differences in the course of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Ninety-seven participants (43 women and 54 men) were assessed during index hospitalization when they were in the acute phase of illness and then reassessed prospectively at 6 consecutive follow-ups over a 20-year period. Patients were evaluated by a series of standardized measures on many aspects of illness including the presence of psychosis, global outcome, and rate of recovery. When women were compared to men in this sample, the data demonstrated a lower percentage of psychotic activity for women over the course of illness (significant at the 7.5- and 20-year follow-ups), and a significant improvement in psychotic activity over 20 years for women (P < .05), but not for men. In addition, women showed significantly better global functioning (P < .05) at 3 of the 6 follow-ups (the 2-, 7.5-, and 10-year follow-ups). Significantly higher percentages (P < .05) of women were in recovery at 2 of the 6 follow-up years (the 2- and 10-year follow-ups). Cumulatively, 61% of the women with schizophrenia showed a period of recovery at some point during the 20-year period compared to 41% of the men. The sex difference patterns were similar for patients with schizophrenia and for those with other types of psychotic disorders. Sex differences in this sample were specifically not attributable to differences in age of onset or premorbid developmental achievements.
Sarrazin, Samuel; d’Albis, Marc-Antoine; McDonald, Colm; Linke, Julia; Wessa, Michèle; Phillips, Mary; Delavest, Marine; Emsell, Louise; Versace, Amelia; Almeida, Jorge; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Le Dudal, Katia; Daban, Claire; Hamdani, Nora; Leboyer, Marion; Houenou, Josselin
Background Previous studies have reported MRI abnormalities of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), although only a few studies have directly compared callosal areas in psychotic versus nonpsychotic patients with this disorder. We sought to compare regional callosal areas in a large international multicentre sample of patients with BD and healthy controls. Methods We analyzed anatomic T1 MRI data of patients with BD-I and healthy controls recruited from 4 sites (France, Germany, Ireland and the United States). We obtained the mid-sagittal areas of 7 CC subregions using an automatic CC delineation. Differences in regional callosal areas between patients and controls were compared using linear mixed models (adjusting for age, sex, handedness, brain volume, history of alcohol abuse/dependence, lithium or antipsychotic medication status, symptomatic status and site) and multiple comparisons correction. We also compared regional areas of the CC between patients with BD with and without a history of psychotic features. Results We included 172 patients and 146 controls in our study. Patients with BD had smaller adjusted mid-sagittal CC areas than controls along the posterior body, the isthmus and the splenium of the CC. Patients with a positive history of psychotic features had greater adjusted area of the rostral CC region than those without a history of psychotic features. Limitations We found small to medium effect sizes, and there was no calibration technique among the sites. Conclusion Our results suggest that BD with psychosis is associated with a different pattern of interhemispheric connectivity than BD without psychosis and could be considered a relevant neuroimaging subtype of BD. PMID:26151452
Paulzen, M; Schneider, F
With the introduction of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) numerous changes in the area of the schizophrenia spectrum and psychotic disorders have been implemented. Establishing a metastructure based on the characteristics of the spectrum of psychopathological disturbances should improve clarity. The classical subtypes of schizophrenia were eliminated and specific psychopathological dimensions for the assessment of disease severity were added. The special role of Schneiderian first rank symptoms was abandoned and a higher delineation towards schizoaffective disorders is made. The nosological status of catatonia is clarified and occurs together with a consistent use of catatonic disturbances over all chapters. The attenuated psychosis syndrome is added as a new condition for further study. The shared psychotic disorder in the sense of a folie à deux is no longer maintained. However, the initial goal to integrate more disorder-specific etiopathogenetic information into the reconceptualization could not be achieved. Contemporaneously to the development process of DSM-5 the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) carried out the research domain criteria project (RDoC) attempting to incorporate the current growth in knowledge of genetics, neurocognitive and cognitive sciences in future diagnostic systems. This article gives an overview of the changes that have been made within the revision process from DSM-IV to DSM-5.
Background Acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) has been described as an acute psychosis with brief onset and polymorphous symptomatology (WHO, 1993). The study of ATPD is growing increasingly relevant as scientists start an active discussion of the possibility of changing the ATPD classification in the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of the index episode of ATPD in patients in Latvia, to analyse the stability and longitudinal changes of the diagnosis, to explore potential correlations between the sociodemographic and disease characteristics and to describe stressful life events before the first ATPD episode. Methods A prospective follow-up study of all first-time admitted patients from the Riga Centre of Psychiatry and Addiction Disorders who fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for ATPD (WHO, 1993) during the 15-month period from 9 January 2010 to 30 March 2011 and followed up until 31 October 2012. Stressful life events, demographics and clinical features during the index episode were assessed. Results One hundred two patients were admitted with first-episode ATPD. The majority were females (60.7%). Over an average 26.5-month follow-up period, 59.8% of the patients were not readmitted. The overall stability rate of ATPD diagnosis in our sample was 67.4% (p = 0.0001). In the subgroup of patients who were readmitted, 70.7% had their diagnosis converted to schizophrenia in subsequent visits. Stressful life events before the first episode were found in 49.0% of first-episode ATPD patients. Thought disorder was found to be the strongest statistically significant predictor of ATPD diagnosis conversation to schizophrenia (odds ratio 4.3), with high Wald's criterion (9.435) in binary logistic regression. Conclusions ATPD is prevalent in Latvia, with rather high overall stability rate. Combining these data from first-episode ATPD patients in Latvia with data from other countries
Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: comparisons with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).
Owoeye, Olabisi; Kingston, Tara; Scully, Paul J; Baldwin, Patrizia; Browne, David; Kinsella, Anthony; Russell, Vincent; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Waddington, John L
While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.
McKetin, Rebecca; Baker, Amanda L; Dawe, Sharon; Voce, Alexandra; Lubman, Dan I
We examined the lifetime experience of hallucinations and delusions associated with transient methamphetamine-related psychosis (MAP), persistent MAP and primary psychosis among a cohort of dependent methamphetamine users. Participants were classified as having (a) no current psychotic symptoms, (n=110); (b) psychotic symptoms only when using methamphetamine (transient MAP, n=85); (c) psychotic symptoms both when using methamphetamine and when abstaining from methamphetamine (persistent MAP, n=37), or (d) meeting DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania (primary psychosis, n=52). Current psychotic symptoms were classified as a score of 4 or more on any of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale items of suspiciousness, hallucinations or unusual thought content in the past month. Lifetime psychotic diagnoses and symptoms were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Transient MAP was associated with persecutory delusions and tactile hallucinations (compared to the no symptom group). Persistent MAP was additionally associated with delusions of reference, thought interference and complex auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, while primary psychosis was also associated with delusions of thought projection, erotomania and passivity. The presence of non-persecutory delusions and hallucinations across various modalities is a marker for persistent MAP or primary psychosis in people who use methamphetamine.
Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.
Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In…
Patelaros, E; Zournatzis, E; Kontstantakopoulos, G
The associations of insight into psychosis (i.e., awareness of illness) with clinical variables have been examined by a great number of studies. Most of these studies revealed that the level of insight is negatively correlated with psychotic symptoms but positively correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to test these findings in a Greek sample of patients. Forty-three outpatients (30 men and 13 women) with schizophrenia or delusional disorder being followed up at the Mental Health Centre of Kavala took part in the study. Patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Patients' mean age was 40.7 years and the mean duration of illness was 18.67 years. All participants were under treatment and clinically stable at the time of the study. We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for the assessment of positive and negative symptoms, the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) to assess the insight into psychosis, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) for the evaluation of depression recording separately the score for item 10 as an estimate of suicidal ideation. All the scales used have been adapted to Greek population. We used Spearman rho coefficient to assess the strength of correlations between the scales because the distributions of some scores were not normal. In order to assess the predictive value of insight for depression and suicidal ideation, we used hierarchical linear regression analysis. Correlation coefficients between SAI-E and the clinical scales of psychopathology, depression and suicide ideation was statistically significant at the p<0.01 level. The correlations between the clinical scales and the three subscales of SAI-E were also significant at the aforementioned p level. The regression analysis showed that our model of positive and negative psychopathology and insight explained 47.4% of the variance of depression and 32.2% of the variance of
Wirgenes, K V; Sønderby, I E; Haukvik, U K; Mattingsdal, M; Tesli, M; Athanasiu, L; Sundet, K; Røssberg, J I; Dale, A M; Brown, A A; Agartz, I; Melle, I; Djurovic, S; Andreassen, O A
TCF4 is involved in neurodevelopment, and intergenic and intronic variants in or close to the TCF4 gene have been associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, the functional role of TCF4 at the level of gene expression and relationship to severity of core psychotic phenotypes are not known. TCF4 mRNA expression level in peripheral blood was determined in a large sample of patients with psychosis spectrum disorders (n = 596) and healthy controls (n = 385). The previously identified TCF4 risk variants (rs12966547 (G), rs9960767 (C), rs4309482 (A), rs2958182 (T) and rs17512836 (C)) were tested for association with characteristic psychosis phenotypes, including neurocognitive traits, psychotic symptoms and structural magnetic resonance imaging brain morphometric measures, using a linear regression model. Further, we explored the association of additional 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the TCF4 gene to these phenotypes. The rs12966547 and rs4309482 risk variants were associated with poorer verbal fluency in the total sample. There were significant associations of other TCF4 SNPs with negative symptoms, verbal learning, executive functioning and age at onset in psychotic patients and brain abnormalities in total sample. The TCF4 mRNA expression level was significantly increased in psychosis patients compared with controls and positively correlated with positive- and negative-symptom levels. The increase in TCF4 mRNA expression level in psychosis patients and the association of TCF4 SNPs with core psychotic phenotypes across clinical, cognitive and brain morphological domains support that common TCF4 variants are involved in psychosis pathology, probably related to abnormal neurodevelopment.
Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van Dam, Daniëlla; Meijer, Carin; Velthorst, Eva; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez
Background: Patients with psychotic disorders who experienced childhood trauma show more social dysfunction than patients without traumatic experiences. However, this may not hold for all patients with traumatic experiences. Little is known about the potential compensating role of Five-Factor Model personality traits within this group, despite their strong predictive value for social functioning and well-being in the general population. Methods: Our sample consisted of 195 patients with psychotic disorders (74% diagnosed with schizophrenia) and 132 controls. Cluster analyses were conducted to identify and validate distinct personality profiles. General linear model analyses were conducted to examine whether patients with different profiles differed in social functioning and quality of life (QoL), while controlling for possible confounders. Mediation models were tested to assess potential causal links. Results: In general, patients with higher levels of self-reported traumatic experiences (PT+) showed lower QoL and more social withdrawal compared with patients with lower traumatic experiences (PT−). Two clusters reflecting personality profiles were identified. PT+ with the first profile (lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) presented higher levels of QoL and better social functioning in several areas, including less withdrawal, compared with both PT+ and PT− with the second profile. PT+ and PT− with the first personality profile did not differ in QoL and social functioning. Mediation analyses suggested that personality traits mediate the relation between traumatic experiences and QoL and social withdrawal. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that personality may “buffer” the impact of childhood traumatic experiences on functional outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. PMID:24771304
Haram, Marit; Tesli, Martin; Bettella, Francesco; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Melle, Ingrid
Social dysfunction is common in patients with psychotic disorders. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide with a central role in social behavior. This study aims to explore the relationship between oxytocin pathway genes and symptoms related to social dysfunction in patients with psychotic disorders. We performed association analyses between four oxytocin pathway genes (OXT, OXTR, AVP, and CD38) and four areas of social behavior-related psychopathology as measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. For this purpose, we used both a polygenic risk score (PGRS) and single OXTR candidate single nucleotide polymorphism previously reported in the literature (rs53576, rs237902, and rs2254298). A total of 734 subjects with DSM-IV psychotic spectrum disorders and 420 healthy controls were included. Oxytocin pathway PGRSs were calculated based on the independent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium study sample. There was a significant association between symptom of Emotional Withdrawal and the previously reported OXTR risk allele A in rs53576. No significant associations between oxytocin pathway gene variants and a diagnosis of psychotic disorder were found. Our findings indicate that while oxytocin pathway genes do not appear to contribute to the susceptibility to psychotic disorders, variations in the OXTR gene might play a role in the development of impaired social behavior. PMID:25667571
Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying
Rovera, Chiara; Cremaschi, Laura; Thanju, Amod; Fiorentini, Alessio; Mauri, Massimo Carlo; Serati, Marta; Lindenmayer, Jean Pierre; Altamura, A Carlo
Up to date, only a small evidence of psychosis induced by cabergoline is available in literature. Herein, the case of a 34-year-old bipolar patient treated with cabergoline has been described. Cabergoline is generally a safe and effective method of reducing prolactin levels and it may be associated with psychiatric side effects, including psychotic features.
Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S; Schröder, Johanna; Martin, Brice; Cermolacce, Michel; Allé, Mélissa C; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V; Moritz, Steffen
Patients with schizophrenia and people with subclinical psychotic symptoms have difficulties getting a clear and stable representation of their self. The cognitive mechanisms involved in this reduced clarity of self-concept remain poorly understood. The present study examined whether an altered way of thinking or reasoning about one's past may account for the reduced clarity of self-concept in individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS). An online study comprising 667 participants examined the capacity to give a meaning to past events and to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand him/herself. Our results showed that in this sample, individuals with APS (n=49) have a lower clarity of self-concept and a higher tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory than controls subjects (n=147). A mediation analysis performed on the full sample revealed that the relation between APS and clarity of self-concept was mediated by a tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory. Our results suggest that the weakness of self-concept, which increases with the intensity of psychotic symptoms, may be related to an altered function of autobiographical memory, so that examining past events may fail to sustain a stable and clear representation of the self when psychotic symptoms increase.
van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Gronenschild, Ed; Michielse, Stijn; Verbeek, Marcel; Menheere, Paul; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld
S100B is a protein with dose-dependent neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. Whether S100B in psychotic disorder mirrors pathophysiological mechanisms (which elicit exacerbation of disease) or compensatory action is unclear, as is its validity as a proxy marker for brain status. Insight may be gained by examining associations between serum S100B and indices of grey (cortical thickness (CT)) and white matter (fractional anisotropy (FA)), in relation to the absence or presence of (increased risk of) psychotic disorder. Blood samples and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired in 32 patients with psychotic disorder, 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 26 controls. Interactions between S100B and group were examined in separate models of CT and FA measures with multilevel regression analyses weighted for number of vertices and voxels (i.e. units of volume) respectively. All analyses were adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), scan sequence, handedness and highest level of education. Neither CT nor FA was associated with S100B. There were no significant S100B × group interactions (CT: χ2 = 0.044, p = 0.978; FA: χ2 = 3.672, p = 0.159). No evidence was present for S100B as a proxy marker of grey or white matter status. The association between S100B and brain measures was not moderated by psychosis risk. PMID:28358925
van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Gronenschild, Ed; Michielse, Stijn; Verbeek, Marcel; Menheere, Paul; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld
S100B is a protein with dose-dependent neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. Whether S100B in psychotic disorder mirrors pathophysiological mechanisms (which elicit exacerbation of disease) or compensatory action is unclear, as is its validity as a proxy marker for brain status. Insight may be gained by examining associations between serum S100B and indices of grey (cortical thickness (CT)) and white matter (fractional anisotropy (FA)), in relation to the absence or presence of (increased risk of) psychotic disorder. Blood samples and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired in 32 patients with psychotic disorder, 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 26 controls. Interactions between S100B and group were examined in separate models of CT and FA measures with multilevel regression analyses weighted for number of vertices and voxels (i.e. units of volume) respectively. All analyses were adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), scan sequence, handedness and highest level of education. Neither CT nor FA was associated with S100B. There were no significant S100B × group interactions (CT: χ2 = 0.044, p = 0.978; FA: χ2 = 3.672, p = 0.159). No evidence was present for S100B as a proxy marker of grey or white matter status. The association between S100B and brain measures was not moderated by psychosis risk.
Simons, Claudia J. P.; van Winkel, Ruud
Psychotic disorders are associated with neurocognitive alterations that aggregate in unaffected family members, suggesting that genetic vulnerability to psychotic disorder impacts neurocognition. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with (1) neurocognitive functioning across populations at different genetic risk for psychosis (2) and psychotic disorder. The association between 152 SNPs in 43 candidate genes and a composite measure of neurocognitive functioning was examined in 718 patients with psychotic disorder. Follow-up analyses were carried out in 750 unaffected siblings and 389 healthy comparison subjects. In the patients, 13 associations between SNPs and cognitive functioning were significant at P < .05, situated in DRD1, DRD3, SLC6A3, BDNF, FGF2, SLC18A2, FKBP5, and DNMT3B. Follow-up of these SNPs revealed a significant and directionally similar association for SLC18A2 (alternatively VMAT2) rs363227 in siblings (B = −0.13, P = .04) and a trend association in control subjects (B = −0.10, P = .12). This association was accompanied by a significantly increased risk for psychotic disorder associated with the T allele (linear OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.10–2.07, P = .01), which was reduced when covarying for cognitive performance (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.92–1.81, P = .14), suggesting mediation. Genetic variation in VMAT2 may be linked to alterations in cognitive functioning underlying psychotic disorder, possibly through altered transport of monoamines into synaptic vesicles. PMID:22532702
Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André
H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A 1H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate. PMID:26903078
Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André
H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A (1)H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate.
Andrews, Michelle; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Lewin, Terry J; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha L; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M; Clark, Vanessa; Callister, Robin
Engaging and retaining individuals with psychotic disorders in psychosocial treatments is difficult. Early therapeutic alliance, treatment retention, and 12-month outcomes were examined in a subsample of smokers with a psychotic disorder (N = 178) participating in a healthy lifestyles study comparing a telephone versus face-to-face delivered intervention. Therapeutic alliance was assessed using the Agnew Relationship Measure; primary outcomes were treatment retention and changes in symptoms and health behaviors. Contrary to expectations, early alliance did not predict treatment retention. However, elements of both client- and therapist-rated alliance predicted some clinical outcomes (e.g., higher confidence in the therapeutic alliance at session 1 predicted improvements in 12-month depression). Some modest interactions between early alliance and intervention condition were also identified (e.g., clients initially with lower self-perceived initiative, or higher therapist-perceived bonding benefited preferentially from the telephone-delivered intervention), highlighting the need to further examine the interplay between therapeutic alliance and treatment modality.
Moreno, Carmen; Nuevo, Roberto; Chatterji, Somnath; Verdes, Emese; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis
This study explored whether physical health problems are related to psychotic symptoms independently of a mental disorder diagnosis. A total of 224,254 subjects recruited for the World Health Organization World Health Survey were subdivided into those with both a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis and at least one psychotic symptom in the 12 months prior to the evaluation, those with at least one psychotic symptom in the past 12 months but no lifetime diagnosis of psychosis, and those without psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months and without a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis. The three groups were compared for the presence of medical conditions, health problems, and access to health care. Medical conditions and health problems (angina, asthma, arthritis, tuberculosis, vision or hearing problems, mouth/teeth problems, alcohol consumption, smoking, and accidents), medication consumption, and hospital admissions (but not regular health care visits) were more frequent in individuals with psychotic symptoms but no psychosis diagnosis, compared to those with no symptoms and no diagnosis. The number of medical conditions increased with the number of psychotic symptoms. Given the sample analyzed, this trend seems to be independent from the socio-economic development of the country or the specific health care system.
Contreras, Javier; Hare, Liz; Camarena, Beatriz; Glahn, David; Dassori, Albana; Medina, Rolando; Contrerasa, Salvador; Ramirez, Mercedes; Armas, Regina; Munoz, Rodrigo; Mendoza, Rick; Raventos, Henriette; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Nicolini, Humberto; Palmer, Raymond; Escamilla, Michael
Objective Variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter region has been shown to influence depression in persons who have been exposed to a number of stressful life events. Method We evaluated whether genetic variation in 5-HTTLPR, influences current depression, lifetime history of depression and quantitative measures of depression in persons with chronic psychotic disorders. This is an association study of a genetic variant with quantitative and categorical definitions of depression conducted in the Southwest United States, Mexico, and Costa Rica. We analyzed 260 subjects with a history of psychosis, from a sample of 129 families. Results We found that persons carrying at least one short allele had a statistically significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (p<.02, Odds Ratio=2.18, 95% CI=1.10–4.20). Conclusion The “ss” or “sl” genotype at the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphic locus increases the risk of psychotic individuals to develop major depression during the course of their illness. PMID:19016667
Knapman, A; Heinzmann, J-M; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R; Touma, C
Increased stress reactivity has repeatedly been reported in patients suffering from psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and major depression. These disorders also have other symptoms in common, such as cognitive deficits and psychotic-like behavior. We have therefore investigated if increased stress reactivity is associated with these phenotypic endpoints in an animal model of affective disorders. The stress reactivity mouse model used in this study consists of three CD-1-derived mouse lines, that have been selectively bred for high (HR), intermediate (IR) or low (LR) stress reactivity. Male mice from these three breeding lines were subjected to a reversal learning task and latent inhibition (Li) was assessed using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Furthermore, as the dopaminergic system is involved in both Li and reversal learning, the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression levels were assessed in relevant brain areas of these animals. The results demonstrate that HR mice show perseveration in the reversal learning task and have disrupted Li. Furthermore, compared to LR mice, HR mice have decreased D2R mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area, as well as decreased D1R mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex, and an increased expression of D2R mRNA in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the HR mice display cognitive deficits associated with psychotic-like behavior, similar to those observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia and major depression and could be utilized in the search for better treatment strategies for these symptoms of psychiatric disorders.
The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder
García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D.; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa
Abstract Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients’ education than PVF FAS tests. PMID:26426640
The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder.
García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa
Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients' education than PVF FAS tests.
Hill, S Kristian; Reilly, James L; Ragozzino, Michael E; Rubin, Leah H; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Gur, Ruben C; Gershon, Elliot S; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Keefe, Richard S E; Sweeney, John A
Difficulty switching behavioral response sets is established in psychotic disorders. In rodent models, prefrontal lesions cause difficulty initially switching to new response sets (perseverative errors) while striatal lesions cause difficulty suppressing responses to previous choice preferences (regressive errors). Studies of psychotic disorders have not previously assessed these 2 error types. Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) participants included probands with schizophrenia (N = 212), psychotic bipolar (N = 192), and schizoaffective disorder (N = 131), their first-degree relatives (N = 267,226,165 respectively), and healthy controls (N = 258). Participants completed the Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET) to assess cognitive set switching and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess generalized neuropsychological dysfunction. All proband groups displayed elevated rates of perseverative and regressive errors compared to controls. After correcting for generalized cognitive deficits to identify specific deficits in set shifting and maintenance, there were no significant group differences for perseverative errors, while the increased rate of regressive errors remained significant. Level of regressive errors was similar across proband groups with minimal correlations with antipsychotic medication dose, clinical ratings, and demographic characteristics. Relatives of schizophrenia patients showed increased rates of regressive errors, but familiality of this trait was significant only in bipolar pedigrees. Regressive errors were partially independent of generalized cognitive deficits, suggesting a potentially informative and specific cognitive deficit across psychotic disorders. Preclinical data indicate that this deficit could be related to altered function in a neural system that may include the dorsal striatum or other elements of frontostriatal systems.
Decoster, Jeroen; van Os, Jim; Kenis, Gunter; Henquet, Cecile; Peuskens, Joseph; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud
Discovering modifiable predictors for age at onset may help to identify predictors of transition to psychotic disorder in the "at-risk mental state." Inconsistent effects of sex, BDNF Val66Met (rs6265), and cannabis use on age of onset were previously reported. BDNF Val66Met and cannabis use before illness onset were retrospectively assessed in a sample of 585 patients with schizophrenia and their association with age at onset was evaluated. Cannabis use was significantly associated with earlier age at onset of psychotic disorder (AOP; average difference 2.7 years, P < 0.001), showing dose-response effects with higher frequency and earlier age at first use. There was a weak association between BDNF Val66Met genotype and AOP (difference 1.2 years; P = 0.050). No evidence was found for BDNF × cannabis interaction (interaction χ(2) (1) = 0.65, P = 0.420). However, a significant BDNF × cannabis × sex interaction was found (interaction χ(2) (1) = 4.99, P = 0.026). In female patients, cannabis use was associated with earlier AOP in BDNF Met-carriers (difference 7 years), but not in Val/Val-genotypes. In male patients, cannabis use was associated with earlier AOP irrespective of BDNF Val66Met genotype (difference 1.3 years). BDNF Val66Met genotype in the absence of cannabis use did not influence AOP, neither in female or male patients with psychotic disorder. Complex interactions between cannabis and BDNF may shape age at onset in female individuals at risk of psychotic disorder. No compelling evidence was found that BDNF genotype is associated with age at onset of psychotic disorder in the absence of cannabis use.
Frydecka, Dorota; Eissa, Abeer M; Hewedi, Doaa H; Ali, Manal; Drapała, Jarosław; Misiak, Błażej; Kłosińska, Ewa; Phillips, Joseph R; Moustafa, Ahmed A
Comparisons of cognitive impairments between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have produced mixed results. We applied different working memory (WM) measures (Digit Span Forward and Backward, Short-delay and Long-delay CPT-AX, N-back) to patients with SZ (n = 23), psychotic BPD (n = 19) and non-psychotic BPD (n = 24), as well as to healthy controls (HC) (n = 18) in order to compare the level of WM impairments across the groups. With respect to the less demanding WM measures (Digit Span Forward and Backward, Short-delay CPT-AX), there were no between group differences in cognitive performance; however, with respect to the more demanding WM measures (Long-delay CPT-AX, N-back), we observed that the groups with psychosis (SZ, psychotic BPD) did not differ from one another, but performed poorer than the group without a history of psychosis (non-psychotic BPD). A history of psychotic symptoms may influence cognitive performance with respect to WM delay and load effects as measured by Long-delay CPT-AX and N-back tests, respectively. We observed a positive correlation of WM performance with antipsychotic treatment and a negative correlation with depressive symptoms in BPD and with negative symptoms in SZ subgroup. Our study suggests that WM dysfunctions are more closely related to a history of psychosis than to the diagnostic categories of SZ and BPD described by psychiatric classification systems.
Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2) = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and
Reilly, James L; Sweeney, John A
A growing body of research suggests that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share overlapping clinical, neurobiological, and genetic features, raising important questions about the boundaries and distinctiveness of these 2 major psychiatric disorders. A generalized cognitive impairment has long been understood to be a core feature of schizophrenia. More recently, it has become apparent that cognitive impairment also occurs in bipolar disorder, particularly in those patients with a history of psychotic symptoms. Whether a generalized deficit exists across a spectrum of psychotic disorders is less clearly established. Additionally, in the context of a broad impairment, it remains a significant challenge to identify deficits in specific cognitive processes that may have distinct neurochemical or regional brain substrates and linkages to particular risk-associated genetic factors. In this article, we review the findings from neuropsychological studies across a spectrum that includes schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders, and conclude the available evidence strongly supports that a generalized deficit is present across psychotic disorders that differs in severity more so than form. We then consider the implications of generalized and specific deficits in psychosis for 2 areas of research--the evaluation of pharmacological treatments targeting cognitive deficits, and the investigation of cognitive intermediate phenotypes in family genetic studies. Examples from the literature that touch on the relevance of the generalized deficit in these contexts are provided, as well as consideration for the continued need to identify specific impairments that are separable from the generalized deficit in order to advance drug and gene discovery.
Kelly, Deanna L.; Myers, Carol S.; Abrams, Michael T.; Feldman, Stephanie; Park, Junyong; McMahon, Robert P.; Shim, Joo-Cheol
Osteoporosis is a major public health concern. Substance abuse and psychosis may be risk factors, however frequency of screening and disease risk in women with psychotic disorders and substance use disorder (SUD) remains unknown. Methods This study examined rates (FY 2005) of osteoporosis screening and disease risk in Medicaid enrolled women aged 50 to 64 (N=18,953). Four diagnostic groups were characterized: 1) Psychosis; 2) SUD; 3) Major mood disorder and 4) Controls. The interaction of psychosis and SUD on screening and disease prevalence of osteoporosis was tested. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis across the entire population was 6.7%. Four percent of those without an osteoporosis diagnosis received osteoporosis screening with no notable differences between psychosis and controls. Those with SUD, however, had a significant reduction in screening compared to controls (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.91, p=0.016). Women with a major mood disorder were more likely to have osteoporosis in their administrative record (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.03–1.70, p=0.028) compared to controls. Those who were dually diagnosed (SUD and psychosis) in the oldest ages (55–64 years) had a markedly higher prevalence of osteoporosis compared to controls (OR=6.4 CI 1.51–27.6, p=0.012), whereas this interaction (SUD and psychosis) was not significant in the entire population over age 49. Conclusions Osteoporosis screening in the Medicaid population is significantly lower for women with SUD, after adjusting for age, race and Medicaid enrollment category. The prevalence of osteoporosis appears markedly elevated in those with major mood disorders and those over age 55 dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and SUD. PMID:20533029
Brent, Benjamin K; Holt, Daphne J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Fonagy, Peter
Disturbances of mentalization have been increasingly associated with the symptoms and functional impairment of people with psychotic disorders. it has been proposed that psychotherapy designed to foster self and other understanding, such as mentalization-based treatment (mBt), may play an important part in facilitating recovery from psychosis. Here, we present an attachment-based understanding of mentalization impairments. We then outline a neuropsychological model that links disruptions of mentalization associated with disturbances in the caregiving environment to the pathophysiology of psychosis in genetically at-risk individuals. this is followed by an illustration of some of the core mBt techniques for the rehabilitation of the capacity to mentalize as applied to the treatment of a patient with a psychotic disorder.
Meda, Shashwath A.; Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; O’Neil, Kasey; Berwise, Clifton; Dunn, Sabra M.; Boccaccio, Leah E.; Narayanan, Balaji; Kocherla, Mohan; Sprooten, Emma; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Sweeney, John A.; Clementz, Brett A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.
The brain’s default mode network (DMN) is highly heritable and is compromised in a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, genetic control over the DMN in schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) is largely unknown. Study subjects (n = 1,305) underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and were analyzed by a two-stage approach. The initial analysis used independent component analysis (ICA) in 324 healthy controls, 296 SZ probands, 300 PBP probands, 179 unaffected first-degree relatives of SZ probands (SZREL), and 206 unaffected first-degree relatives of PBP probands to identify DMNs and to test their biomarker and/or endophenotype status. A subset of controls and probands (n = 549) then was subjected to a parallel ICA (para-ICA) to identify imaging–genetic relationships. ICA identified three DMNs. Hypo-connectivity was observed in both patient groups in all DMNs. Similar patterns observed in SZREL were restricted to only one network. DMN connectivity also correlated with several symptom measures. Para-ICA identified five sub-DMNs that were significantly associated with five different genetic networks. Several top-ranking SNPs across these networks belonged to previously identified, well-known psychosis/mood disorder genes. Global enrichment analyses revealed processes including NMDA-related long-term potentiation, PKA, immune response signaling, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis that significantly influenced DMN modulation in psychoses. In summary, we observed both unique and shared impairments in functional connectivity across the SZ and PBP cohorts; these impairments were selectively familial only for SZREL. Genes regulating specific neurodevelopment/transmission processes primarily mediated DMN disconnectivity. The study thus identifies biological pathways related to a widely researched quantitative trait that might suggest novel, targeted drug treatments for these diseases. PMID:24778245
Meda, Shashwath A; Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; O'Neil, Kasey; Berwise, Clifton; Dunn, Sabra M; Boccaccio, Leah E; Narayanan, Balaji; Kocherla, Mohan; Sprooten, Emma; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Clementz, Brett A; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D
The brain's default mode network (DMN) is highly heritable and is compromised in a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, genetic control over the DMN in schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) is largely unknown. Study subjects (n = 1,305) underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and were analyzed by a two-stage approach. The initial analysis used independent component analysis (ICA) in 324 healthy controls, 296 SZ probands, 300 PBP probands, 179 unaffected first-degree relatives of SZ probands (SZREL), and 206 unaffected first-degree relatives of PBP probands to identify DMNs and to test their biomarker and/or endophenotype status. A subset of controls and probands (n = 549) then was subjected to a parallel ICA (para-ICA) to identify imaging-genetic relationships. ICA identified three DMNs. Hypo-connectivity was observed in both patient groups in all DMNs. Similar patterns observed in SZREL were restricted to only one network. DMN connectivity also correlated with several symptom measures. Para-ICA identified five sub-DMNs that were significantly associated with five different genetic networks. Several top-ranking SNPs across these networks belonged to previously identified, well-known psychosis/mood disorder genes. Global enrichment analyses revealed processes including NMDA-related long-term potentiation, PKA, immune response signaling, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis that significantly influenced DMN modulation in psychoses. In summary, we observed both unique and shared impairments in functional connectivity across the SZ and PBP cohorts; these impairments were selectively familial only for SZREL. Genes regulating specific neurodevelopment/transmission processes primarily mediated DMN disconnectivity. The study thus identifies biological pathways related to a widely researched quantitative trait that might suggest novel, targeted drug treatments for these diseases.
Reilly, James L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Rubin, Leah H.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Sweeney, John A.
Difficulty switching behavioral response sets is established in psychotic disorders. In rodent models, prefrontal lesions cause difficulty initially switching to new response sets (perseverative errors) while striatal lesions cause difficulty suppressing responses to previous choice preferences (regressive errors). Studies of psychotic disorders have not previously assessed these 2 error types. Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) participants included probands with schizophrenia (N = 212), psychotic bipolar (N = 192), and schizoaffective disorder (N = 131), their first-degree relatives (N = 267,226,165 respectively), and healthy controls (N = 258). Participants completed the Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET) to assess cognitive set switching and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess generalized neuropsychological dysfunction. All proband groups displayed elevated rates of perseverative and regressive errors compared to controls. After correcting for generalized cognitive deficits to identify specific deficits in set shifting and maintenance, there were no significant group differences for perseverative errors, while the increased rate of regressive errors remained significant. Level of regressive errors was similar across proband groups with minimal correlations with antipsychotic medication dose, clinical ratings, and demographic characteristics. Relatives of schizophrenia patients showed increased rates of regressive errors, but familiality of this trait was significant only in bipolar pedigrees. Regressive errors were partially independent of generalized cognitive deficits, suggesting a potentially informative and specific cognitive deficit across psychotic disorders. Preclinical data indicate that this deficit could be related to altered function in a neural system that may include the dorsal striatum or other elements of frontostriatal systems. PMID:25194139
McCarthy, James; Rabinowitz, Dena; Habib, Mandy; Goldman, Heather; Miley, Diana; Stefanyshyn, Hanna Yim; Freeman, Shuamis; Murray, Tracey; Clauselle, Renee
To investigate the short-term visual memory ability of children and adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders, 82 child and adolescent inpatients and day hospital patients in a state psychiatric hospital were administered the Bender Gestalt Test as part of a psychological assessment and then asked to reproduce the designs from memory. No significant differences were found between groups on either the Bender Gestalt Recall, or the WISC-III IQs and the Digit Span and Symbol Search subtests for Psychotic Disorders (Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Mood Disorders or Mood Disorders with co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Coding subtest scores of the Psychotic Disorders group were significantly lower than the ADHD group. Analyses showed that the Bender Gestalt Recall was significantly related to age. Performance IQ, and sex. The results were discussed in terms of both the poor cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with persistent, severe mental illness, and the importance of developmental level when using the Bender Gestalt Recall as a rough measure of short-term visual memory.
Steen, Nils Eiel; Aas, Monica; Simonsen, Carmen; Dieset, Ingrid; Tesli, Martin; Nerhus, Mari; Gardsjord, Erlend; Mørch, Ragni; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Vaskinn, Anja; Spigset, Olav; Andreassen, Ole A
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis spectrum disorders. Antipsychotics have at best small positive effects on cognitive performance. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the effects of antidepressants on cognitive functioning in these disorders. In the present study cognitive performance was investigated in relation to serum levels of antidepressants in persons with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Serum concentrations of escitalopram, citalopram and venlafaxine plus O-desmethylvenlafaxine were measured in a total of 187 participants with bipolar disorder (N=74) or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N=113), and analyzed in relation to neuropsychological tests performance of verbal learning, verbal memory, attention, working memory, executive functioning and processing speed. Analyses were performed using linear regression adjusting for a range of confounders. There was a significant positive association between the serum level of venlafaxine plus O-desmethylvenlafaxine and verbal memory (immediate recall: Logical Memory Test immediate recall [p=0.015], and long term delayed recall: Logical Memory Test delayed recall [p=0.011]). No significant associations were seen between citalopram or escitalopram and verbal memory. There were no significant associations between the tested antidepressants and verbal learning, attention, working memory, executive functioning, or processing speed. Venlafaxine seem to be associated with better verbal memory in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This suggests a possible beneficial role of certain antidepressants on cognitive dysfunction, which may have clinical implications and provide insight into underlying pathophysiology. However, the current findings should be replicated in independent samples.
Abbass, Allan; Bernier, Denise; Kisely, Steve; Town, Joel; Johansson, Robert
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in symptom severity and long-term health care cost after intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with psychotic disorders undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 13 one-hour sessions of graded ISTDP to 38 patients with psychotic disorders. Costs for health care services were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP (baseline) along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Results revealed that health care cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, for both physician costs and hospital costs, and the reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Furthermore, at treatment termination self-reported symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and reduce costs in selected patients with psychotic disorders, and that gains are sustained in long-term follow-up. Future research directions are discussed.
Schirmbeck, Frederike; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van der Valk, Renate; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Van, Rien; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René S; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez
High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors.
The author investigated 11 verdicts of Japanese civil suits brought against hospitals involving crimes committed by mental hospital inpatients with psychotic disorders, principally by victims of injuries or by surviving relatives of homicide victims. About the half of the verdicts are based on the same logic. First, a detailed, case-specific investigation was performed. In some cases it was proven that the accidents could not have been predicted, and the suits were dismissed. In others the plaintiffs won the suits, because it was found that the violent acts were predictable and that the hospital staff had the means to prevent them. These verdicts require the hospital staff to predict the patient's actions according to the psychiatric history and present condition and then to make an appropriate response. This process is similar to the clinical decision-making process, although there have been some dubious findings in some of the court cases. However, the author also found that some verdicts were inappropriate and insufficient in that there was no individual investigation of the offender. Examining all 11 verdicts, the author found that the type of admission procedure adopted for the offender, whether they had a past history of violence, and whether the hospital was public or private did not seem to be significant to the judges in making their decisions.
Bergqvist, Anette; Karlsson, Maria; Foldemo, Anniqa; Wärdig, Rikard; Hultsjö, Sally
The aim of this study was to explore mental health staffs' experiences of assisting people with psychotic disorders to implement lifestyle changes in an effort to prevent metabolic syndrome. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 health care professionals working in psychosis outpatient care in Sweden. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The results illustrate that implementation of lifestyle changes among people with psychotic disorders was experienced as difficult, but possible. The greatest obstacles experienced in this work were difficulties due to the reduction of cognitive functions associated with the disease. Guidelines available to staff in order to help them identify and prevent physical health problems in the group were not always followed and the content was not always relevant. Staff further described feelings of uncertainty about having to motivate people to take anti-psychotic medication while simultaneously being aware of the risks of metabolic deviations. Nursing interventions focusing on organising daily routines before conducting a more active prevention of metabolic syndrome, including information and practical support, were experienced as necessary. The importance of healthy eating and physical activity needs to be communicated in such a way that it is adjusted to the person's cognitive ability, and should be repeated over time, both verbally and in writing. Such efforts, in combination with empathic and seriously committed community-based social support, were experienced as having the best effect over time. Permanent lifestyle changes were experienced as having to be carried out on the patient's terms and in his or her home environment.
Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koike, Junko; Kouda, Minoru; Inamoto, Atsuko; Morota, Nobuaki
In psychiatric care practice, patients are often seen who have difficulty with their social lives due to protracted psychiatric symptoms despite years without drug abuse. The difficulty of dealing with such cases and the lack of preparedness of the legal system leave circumstantial care as the only option. Western.countries have recently begun using the name 'concurrent disorder' as a diagnosis for patients deemed unable to recover solely through such treatment for drug addiction, signifying the presence of both a substance use disorder (SUD) and a mental health disorder. Various assessment and intervention methods are being investigated, and many studies have been reported. Based on the hypothesis that Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center (DARC) are partly involved in supporting those with psychotic concurrent disorders (PSCD) in Japan, we conducted a survey to clarify the actual support for PSCD patients at DARC and the challenges they face. Surveys were administered to DARC-related institutions all over Japan (44 governing organizations and 66 institutions). Complete responses from 86 full-time employees and 445 DARC users were analyzed. DARC users were divided into two groups: psychiatric concurrent disorders (PSCD group, n = 178) and those without such symptoms (SUD group, n = 267), with the PSCD group accounting for 40% of the DARC users surveyed. Compared to the SUD group, the PSCD group was significantly less satisfied with their lifestyle and interpersonal relations at the DARC and a significantly higher proportion of the PSCD group requested assistance in communicating with others. When employees were presented with a hypothetical PSCD case and asked what was needed to deal with it, some responses were, "an institution that can treat both drug addiction and other mental health disorders," "a psychiatric care institution that provides 24-hour care," and "sufficient manpower and training." In the future, a treatment system must be established based on
Matrisciano, Francesco; Panaccione, Isabella; Grayson, Danis R; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Guidotti, Alessandro
Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder are chronic psychiatric disorders, both considered as "major psychosis"; they are thought to share some pathogenetic factors involving a dysfunctional gene x environment interaction. Alterations in the glutamatergic transmission have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Our group developed an epigenetic model of schizophrenia originated by Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) paradigm in mice. PRS mice developed some behavioral alterations observed in schizophrenic patients and classic animal models of schizophrenia, i.e. deficits in social interaction, locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition. They also showed specific changes in promoter DNA methylation activity of genes related to schizophrenia such as reelin, BDNF and GAD67, and altered expression and function of mGlu2/3 receptors in the frontal cortex. Interestingly, behavioral and molecular alterations were reversed by treatment with mGlu2/3 agonists. Based on these findings, we speculate that pharmacological modulation of these receptors could have a great impact on early phase treatment of psychosis together with the possibility to modulate specific epigenetic key protein involved in the development of psychosis. In this review, we will discuss in more details the specific features of the PRS mice as a suitable epigenetic model for major psychosis. We will then focus on key proteins of chromatin remodeling machinery as potential target for new pharmacological treatment through the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors.
Matrisciano, Francesco; Panaccione, Isabella; Grayson, Danis R.; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Guidotti, Alessandro
Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder are chronic psychiatric disorders, both considered as “major psychosis”; they are thought to share some pathogenetic factors involving a dysfunctional gene x environment interaction. Alterations in the glutamatergic transmission have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Our group developed an epigenetic model of schizophrenia originated by Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) paradigm in mice. PRS mice developed some behavioral alterations observed in schizophrenic patients and classic animal models of schizophrenia, i.e. deficits in social interaction, locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition. They also showed specific changes in promoter DNA methylation activity of genes related to schizophrenia such as reelin, BDNF and GAD67, and altered expression and function of mGlu2/3 receptors in the frontal cortex. Interestingly, behavioral and molecular alterations were reversed by treatment with mGlu2/3 agonists. Based on these findings, we speculate that pharmacological modulation of these receptors could have a great impact on early phase treatment of psychosis together with the possibility to modulate specific epigenetic key protein involved in the development of psychosis. In this review, we will discuss in more details the specific features of the PRS mice as a suitable epigenetic model for major psychosis. We will then focus on key proteins of chromatin remodeling machinery as potential target for new pharmacological treatment through the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:26813121
Man, K K C; Coghill, D; Chan, E W; Lau, W C Y; Hollis, C; Liddle, E; Banaschewski, T; McCarthy, S; Neubert, A; Sayal, K; Ip, P; Wong, I C K
Previous studies have suggested that risk of psychotic events may be increased in children exposed to methylphenidate (MPH). However, this risk has not been fully examined, and the possibility of confounding factors has not been excluded. Patients aged 6–19 years who received at least one MPH prescription were identified using Hong Kong population-based electronic medical records on the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System (2001–2014). Using the self-controlled case series design, relative incidence of psychotic events was calculated comparing periods when patients were exposed to MPH with non-exposed periods. Of 20,586 patients prescribed MPH, 103 had an incident psychotic event; 72 (69.9%) were male and 31 (30.1%) female. The mean age at commencement of observation was 6.95 years and the mean follow-up per participant was 10.16 years. On average, each participant was exposed to MPH for 2.17 years. The overall incidence of psychotic events during the MPH exposure period was 6.14 per 10,000 patient-years. No increased risk was found during MPH-exposed compared with non-exposed periods (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.02 (0.53–1.97)). However, an increased risk was found during the pre-exposure period (IRR 4.64 (2.17–9.92)). Results were consistent across all sensitivity analyses. This study does not support the hypothesis that MPH increases risk of incident psychotic events. It does indicate an increased risk of psychotic events before the first prescription of MPH, which may be because of an association between psychotic events and the behavioural and attentional symptoms that led to psychiatric assessment and initiation of MPH treatment. PMID:27845780
Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L
While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.
Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Di Forti, Marta; Sham, Pak C.; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Mondelli, Valeria; Aitchison, Katherine J.; Murray, Robin M.
A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to number or severity of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing genetic vulnerability. Research on gene-environment interaction in psychosis has primarily focused on candidate genes, although the genetic effects are now known to be polygenic. This pilot study investigated whether the effect of childhood adversity on psychosis is moderated by the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS). Data were utilised from the Genes and Psychosis (GAP) study set in South London, UK. The GAP sample comprises 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 unaffected controls with information on childhood adversity. We studied only white subjects (80 cases and 110 controls) with PRS data, as the PRS has limited predictive ability in patients of African ancestry. The occurrence of childhood adversity was assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and the PRS was based on genome-wide meta-analysis results for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Higher schizophrenia PRS and childhood adversities each predicted psychosis status. Nevertheless, no evidence was found for interaction as departure from additivity, indicating that the effect of polygenic risk scores on psychosis was not increased in the presence of a history of childhood adversity. These findings are compatible with a multifactorial threshold model in which both genetic liability and exposure to environmental risk contribute independently to the etiology of psychosis. PMID:27648571
Resch, F; Koch, E; Möhler, E; Parzer, P; Brunner, R
Based on the results of adult studies that have shown a subgroup of basic symptoms to have a predictive value for later schizophrenic disorder, a cross-sectional study on 36 schizophrenic and 75 nonschizophrenic adolescent psychiatric inpatients was performed to elucidate the specificity of prodromal signs in early age groups. The occurrence of any single basic symptom does not show schizophrenic specificity in adolescents, but the number of basic symptoms in the categories of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms is increased in schizophrenic patients compared with subjects with other diagnoses. The interrelation between minus symptoms and cognitive symptoms exerts a higher amount of cognitive disturbances given a certain level of irritation in schizophrenic adolescents. With the help of odds ratios, the seven most discriminating cognitive items could be elucidated including perception, information processing and action tendency.
Hornig, Tobias; Grüning, Björn; Kundu, Kousik; Houwaart, Torsten; Backofen, Rolf; Biber, Knut; Normann, Claus
Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a glutamate-gated ionotropic cation channel that is composed of several subunits and modulated by a glycine binding site. Many forms of synaptic plasticity depend on the influx of calcium ions through NMDA receptors, and NMDA receptor dysfunction has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a family with a strong history of psychotic disorders over three generations. We used an iterative strategy to obtain condense and meaningful variants. In this highly affected family, we found a frameshift mutation (rs10666583) in the GRIN3B gene, which codes for the GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor in all family members with a psychotic disorder, but not in the healthy relatives. Matsuno et al., also reported this null variant as a risk factor for schizophrenia in 2015. In a broader sample of 22 patients with psychosis, the allele frequency of the rs10666583 mutation variant was increased compared to those of healthy population samples and unaffected relatives. Compared to the 1000 Genomes Project population, we found a significant increase of this variant with a large effect size among patients. The amino acid shift degrades the S1/S2 glycine binding domain of the dominant modulatory GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor, which subsequently affects the permeability of the channel pore to calcium ions. A decreased glycine affinity for the GluN3B subunit might cause impaired functional capability of the NMDA receptor and could be an important risk factor for the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders.
Sariaslan, A; Larsson, H; Fazel, S
Patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders (for example, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) have elevated risks of committing violent acts, particularly if they are comorbid with substance misuse. Despite recent insights from quantitative and molecular genetic studies demonstrating considerable pleiotropy in the genetic architecture of these phenotypes, there is currently a lack of large-scale studies that have specifically examined the aetiological links between psychotic disorders and violence. Using a sample of all Swedish individuals born between 1958 and 1989 (n=3 332 101), we identified a total of 923 259 twin-sibling pairs. Patients were identified using the National Patient Register using validated algorithms based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 8–10. Univariate quantitative genetic models revealed that all phenotypes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, substance misuse, and violent crime) were highly heritable (h2=53–71%). Multivariate models further revealed that schizophrenia was a stronger predictor of violence (r=0.32; 95% confidence interval: 0.30–0.33) than bipolar disorder (r=0.23; 0.21–0.25), and large proportions (51–67%) of these phenotypic correlations were explained by genetic factors shared between each disorder, substance misuse, and violence. Importantly, we found that genetic influences that were unrelated to substance misuse explained approximately a fifth (21% 20–22%) of the correlation with violent criminality in bipolar disorder but none of the same correlation in schizophrenia (Pbipolar disorder<0.001; Pschizophrenia=0.55). These findings highlight the problems of not disentangling common and unique sources of covariance across genetically similar phenotypes as the latter sources may include aetiologically important clues. Clinically, these findings underline the importance of assessing risk of different phenotypes together and integrating interventions for psychiatric disorders, substance misuse, and
Keedy, Sarah K.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Weiden, Peter J.; Sweeney, John A.; Rosen, Cherise; Marvin, Robert; Reilly, James L.
Neurocognitive deficits are associated with most psychotic disorders, but may differ across diagnosis and by treatment status. This ambiguity is partly addressed in longitudinal pre/post treatment studies with first episode patients. Antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients have shown intact performance on a predictive saccade task that assesses simple motor learning, spatial abilities, and response planning. After antipsychotic treatment, however, schizophrenia patients performing this task show a selective impairment in the accuracy of anticipatory responses, generated from learned internal representations of the task stimulus. This finding is in line with other observations of antipsychotic medication effects on frontostriatal systems, particularly dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We sought to replicate this provocative finding with an independent sample of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and extend it by including a group of patients with first episode bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP). Matched healthy controls were also studied in parallel. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact performance pretreatment followed by impairment post-treatment for accuracy of anticipatory responses, and worse accuracy was associated with higher antipsychotic dose. BDP patients displayed saccade accuracy deficits before and after treatment and had no correlation of performance and antipsychotic dose. The findings suggest different neural alterations early in the course of each psychotic disorder, and different vulnerabilities to antipsychotic treatment effects between schizophrenia and BDP. PMID:25112158
Keedy, Sarah K; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Weiden, Peter J; Sweeney, John A; Rosen, Cherise; Marvin, Robert; Reilly, James L
Neurocognitive deficits are associated with most psychotic disorders, but may differ across diagnosis and by treatment status. This ambiguity is partly addressed in longitudinal pre/post treatment studies with first episode patients. Antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients have shown intact performance on a predictive saccade task that assesses simple motor learning, spatial abilities, and response planning. After antipsychotic treatment, however, schizophrenia patients performing this task show a selective impairment in the accuracy of anticipatory responses, generated from learned internal representations of the task stimulus. This finding is in line with other observations of antipsychotic medication effects on frontostriatal systems, particularly dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We sought to replicate this provocative finding with an independent sample of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and extend it by including a group of patients with first episode bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP). Matched healthy controls were also studied in parallel. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact performance pretreatment followed by impairment post-treatment for accuracy of anticipatory responses, and worse accuracy was associated with higher antipsychotic dose. BDP patients displayed saccade accuracy deficits before and after treatment and had no correlation of performance and antipsychotic dose. The findings suggest different neural alterations early in the course of each psychotic disorder, and different vulnerabilities to antipsychotic treatment effects between schizophrenia and BDP.
Du, Yuhui; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Lin, Dongdong; Sui, Jing; Chen, Jiayu; Salman, Mustafa; Tamminga, Carol A; Ivleva, Elena I; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Clementz, Brett A; Bustillo, Juan; Calhoun, Vince D
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown altered brain dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in mental disorders. Here, we aim to explore DFC across a spectrum of symptomatically-related disorders including bipolar disorder with psychosis (BPP), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and schizophrenia (SZ). We introduce a group information guided independent component analysis procedure to estimate both group-level and subject-specific connectivity states from DFC. Using resting-state fMRI data of 238 healthy controls (HCs), 140 BPP, 132 SAD, and 113 SZ patients, we identified measures differentiating groups from the whole-brain DFC and traditional static functional connectivity (SFC), separately. Results show that DFC provided more informative measures than SFC. Diagnosis-related connectivity states were evident using DFC analysis. For the dominant state consistent across groups, we found 22 instances of hypoconnectivity (with decreasing trends from HC to BPP to SAD to SZ) mainly involving post-central, frontal, and cerebellar cortices as well as 34 examples of hyperconnectivity (with increasing trends HC through SZ) primarily involving thalamus and temporal cortices. Hypoconnectivities/hyperconnectivities also showed negative/positive correlations, respectively, with clinical symptom scores. Specifically, hypoconnectivities linking postcentral and frontal gyri were significantly negatively correlated with the PANSS positive/negative scores. For frontal connectivities, BPP resembled HC while SAD and SZ were more similar. Three connectivities involving the left cerebellar crus differentiated SZ from other groups and one connection linking frontal and fusiform cortices showed a SAD-unique change. In summary, our method is promising for assessing DFC and may yield imaging biomarkers for quantifying the dimension of psychosis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2683-2708, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Protocol for a systematic review of telephone delivered psychosocial interventions on relapse prevention, adherence to psychiatric medication and health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder
Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Turner, Alyna; Haddock, Gillian; Kelly, Peter J; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra
Introduction The mental and physical health of individuals with a psychotic illness are typically poor. When adhered to, medication can reduce relapse. However, despite adherence, relapse remains common and functional outcomes often remain compromised. Compliance is also typically low. Cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is also elevated, along with several important modifiable health risk behaviours. Access to psychosocial interventions is therefore important, but currently limited. Telephone delivered interventions represent a promising solution, although further clarity is needed. Accordingly, we aim to provide an overview and critical analysis of the current state of evidence for telephone delivered psychosocial interventions targeting key health priorities in adults with a psychotic disorder, including (1) relapse, (2) adherence to psychiatric medication and/or (3) modifiable cardiovascular health risk behaviours. Methods and analysis Our methods are informed by published guidelines. The review is registered and any protocol amendments will be tracked. Ten electronic peer-reviewed and four grey literature databases have been identified. Preliminary searches have been conducted for literature on psychosocial telephone interventions targeting relapse, medication adherence and/or health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder. Articles classified as ‘evaluation’ will be assessed against standardised criteria and checked by an independent assessor. The searches will be re-run just before final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion. A narrative synthesis will be reported, structured around intervention type and content, population characteristics and outcomes. Where possible, ‘summary of findings’ tables will be generated for each comparison. For the primary outcome of each trial, when data are available, we will calculate a risk ratio and its 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula
Sanmukhani, Jayesh; Satodia, Vimal; Trivedi, Jaladhi; Patel, Tejas; Tiwari, Deepak; Panchal, Bharat; Goel, Ajay; Tripathi, Chandra Bhanu
Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, 60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination. The primary efficacy variable was response rates according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAM-D17 ). The secondary efficacy variable was the mean change in HAM-D17 score after six weeks. We observed that curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. .
Schlosser, Danielle; Nahum, Mor
Background Numerous psychosocial interventions for individuals with chronic psychotic disorders (CPD) have shown positive effects on social cognitive and functional outcome measures. However, access to and engagement with these interventions remains limited. This is partly because these interventions require specially trained therapists, are not available in all clinical settings, and have a high scheduling burden for participants, usually requiring a commitment of several weeks. Delivering interventions remotely via mobile devices may facilitate access, improve scheduling flexibility, and decrease participant burden, thus improving adherence to intervention requirements. To address these needs, we designed the Creating Live Interactions to Mitigate Barriers (CLIMB) digital intervention, which aims to enhance social functioning in people with CPD. CLIMB consists of two treatment components: a computerized social cognition training (SCT) program and optimized remote group therapy (ORGT). ORGT is an innovative treatment that combines remote group therapy with group texting (short message service, SMS). Objectives The objectives of this single-arm study were to investigate the feasibility of delivering 6 weeks of CLIMB to people with CPD and explore the initial effects on outcomes. Methods Participants were recruited, screened and enrolled via the Internet, and delivered assessments and interventions remotely using provided tablets (iPads). Participants were asked to complete 18 hours of SCT and to attend 6 remote group therapy sessions. To assess feasibility, adherence to study procedures, attrition rates, engagement metrics, and acceptability of the intervention were evaluated. Changes on measures of social cognition, quality of life, and symptoms were also explored. Results In total, 27 participants were enrolled over 12 months. Remote assessments were completed successfully on 96% (26/27) of the enrolled participants. Retention in the 6-week trial was 78% (21
Baquero, G.A.; Molero, P.; Pla, J.; Ortuño, F.
We describe a case of delusional psychosis that was terminated by neurosurgical removal of a large arachnoid cyst. The patient was suffering his first psychotic episode and had symptoms typical of schizophrenia. The case underscores the importance of considering that an arachnoid cyst can induce psychopathological symptoms, even those of schizophrenia. Indeed, such symptoms may be the cyst's only clinical manifestation. In addition, the case highlights the importance of doing a structural imaging test when confronted with a first episode of psychosis, especially if the episode is relatively late in appearance. Such imaging may lead to a diagnosis that in turn can enable a definitive neurosurgical resolution of the psychosis. PMID:24653786
Background No controlled trials have evaluated the long term efficacy of exercise activity to improve the treatment of patients with Major Depressive Disorders. The aim of the present study was to confirm the efficacy of the adjunctive physical activity in the treatment of major depressive disorders, with a long term follow up (8 months). Methods Trial with randomized naturalistic control. Patients selected from the clinical activity registries of the Psychiatric Unit of the University of Cagliari, Italy. Inclusion criteria: female, between 40 and 60 years, diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorders (DSM-IV TR) resistant to the ongoing treatment. Exclusion criteria: diagnosis of psychotic disorders; any contraindications to physical activity. 30 patients (71.4% of the eligible) participated to the study. Cases: 10 randomized patients undergoing pharmacological treatment plus physical activity. Controls: 20 patients undergoing only pharmacological therapy. The following tools were collected from each patient by two different psychiatric physicians at baseline and 8 month after the beginning of exercise program: SCID-I, HAM-D, CGI (Clinical Global Impression), GAF. Results The patients that made physical activity had their HAM-D, GAF and CGI score improved from T0 to T8, all differences were statistically significant. In the control group HAM-D, GAF and CGI scores do not show any statistically significant differences between T0 and T8. Limits Small sample size limited to female in adult age; control group was not subject to any structured rehabilitation activity or placebo so it was impossible to evaluate if the improvement was due to a non specific therapeutic effect associated with taking part in a social activity. Conclusion Physical activity seems a good adjunctive treatment in the long term management of patients with MDD. Randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to confirm the results. PMID:17620123
Kondo, Kenji; Ikeda, Masashi; Kajio, Yusuke; Saito, Takeo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Aleksic, Branko; Yamada, Kazuo; Toyota, Tomoko; Hattori, Eiji; Ujike, Hiroshi; Inada, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Kato, Tadafumi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Ozaki, Norio; Iwata, Nakao
Background Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) investigating bipolar disorder (BD) have detected a number of susceptibility genes. These studies have also provided novel insight into shared genetic components between BD and schizophrenia (SCZ), two major psychotic disorders. To examine the replication of the risk variants for BD and the pleiotropic effect of the variants associated with BD, we conducted a genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected based upon previous BD GWASs, which targeted psychotic disorders (BD and SCZ) in the Japanese population. Methods Forty-eight SNPs were selected based upon previous GWASs. A two-stage analysis was conducted using first-set screening (for all SNPs: BD = 1,012, SCZ = 1,032 and control = 993) and second-set replication samples (for significant SNPs in the screening analysis: BD = 821, SCZ = 1,808 and control = 2,149). We assessed allelic association between BD, SCZ, psychosis (BD+SCZ) and the SNPs selected for the analysis. Results Eight SNPs revealed nominal association signals for all comparisons (Puncorrected<0.05). Among these SNPs, the top two SNPs (associated with psychosis: Pcorrected = 0.048 and 0.037 for rs2251219 and rs2709722, respectively) were further assessed in the second-set samples, and we replicated the signals from the initial screening analysis (associated with psychosis: Pcorrected = 0.0070 and 0.033 for rs2251219 and rs2709722, respectively). The meta-analysis between the current and previous GWAS results showed that rs2251219 in Polybromo1 (PBRM1) was significant on genome-wide association level (P = 5×10−8) only for BD (P = 9.4×10−9) and psychosis (P = 2.0×10−10). Although the association of rs2709722 in Sp8 transcription factor (SP8) was suggestive in the Asian population (P = 2.1×10−7 for psychosis), this signal weakened when the samples size was increased by including data from a
Francesconi, Marta; Minichino, Amedeo; Carrión, Ricardo E; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Parisi, Maurizio; Rullo, Santo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Cadenhead, Kristin
A large body of studies provides evidence for a link between neurocognition, theory of mind (ToM) and functioning in psychotic spectrum disorders (PSDs), with ToM mediating the effect that neurocognition has on functioning. These three constructs and the related mediation effect may characterize different psychiatric syndromes other than PSDs. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to baseline data from a longitudinal study of 138 young individuals with a recent-onset psychiatric disorder. Using SEM, we tested the hypothesis that ToM mediates the effect of neurocognition on functioning independent of the level of psychosis risk and the diagnostic category. In the mediation model the bootstrapping estimate revealed a significant indirect effect that was the association of social cognition with neurocognition and with functional outcome. ToM was significantly associated with neurocognition and the path from neurocognition to functioning was no longer significant as soon as the mediator (ToM) was entered into the mediation model consistent with a complete mediation effect through ToM. This mediation was independent of the psychosis-risk status and the psychiatric diagnoses. Our results provide useful information on a young psychiatric sample, in which specific therapeutic interventions have the potential to significantly limit functional disability.
McKetin, Rebecca; Gardner, Jonathon; Baker, Amanda L; Dawe, Sharon; Ali, Robert; Voce, Alexandra; Leach, Liana S; Lubman, Dan I
This study examined correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms among people dependent on methamphetamine. A longitudinal prospective cohort study of dependent methamphetamine users who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania. Four non-contiguous one-month observation periods were used to identify participants who had a) no psychotic symptoms, (n=110); (b) psychotic symptoms only when using methamphetamine (transient psychotic symptoms, n=85); and, (c) psychotic symptoms both when using methamphetamine and when abstaining from methamphetamine (persistent psychotic symptoms, n=37). Psychotic symptoms were defined as a score of 4 or greater on any of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale items of suspiciousness, hallucinations or unusual thought content. Relative no psychotic symptoms, both transient and persistent psychotic symptoms were associated with childhood conduct disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders. Earlier onset methamphetamine use and being male were more specifically related to transient psychotic symptoms, while a family history of a primary psychotic disorder and comorbid major depression were specifically related to persistent psychotic symptoms. We conclude that there are overlapping but also distinct clinical correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms, suggesting potentially heterogeneous etiological pathways underpinning the psychotic phenomena seen amongst people who use methamphetamine.
Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…
Bahor, Zsanett; Nunes-Fonseca, Cristina; Thomson, Lindsay D G; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R
Psychosis represents a set of symptoms against which current available treatments are not universally effective and are often accompanied by adverse side effects. Clinical management could potentially be improved with a greater understanding of the underlying biology and subsequently with the introduction of novel treatments. Since many clinical drug candidates are identified through in vivo modelling, a deeper understanding of the pre-clinical field, might help us understand why translation of results from animal models to inform mental health clinical practice has so far been weak. We set out to give a shallow, but broad unbiased overview of experiments looking at the in vivo modelling of psychotic disorders using a systematic review and meta-analysis. This protocol describes the exact methodology we propose to follow in order to quantitatively review both studies characterizing a model and those experiments that investigate the effects of novel therapeutic options. We are interested in assessing the prevalence of the reporting of measures to reduce risk of bias, and the internal and external validity of the animal models and outcome measures used to validate these models. This generation of strong empirical evidence has the potential to identify areas for improvement, make suggestions for future research avenues, and ultimately inform what we think we know to improve the current attrition rate between bench and bedside in psychosis research. A review like this will also support the reduction of animal numbers used in research and the refinement of experiments to maximize their value in informing the field.
Compton, Michael T; Ionescu, Dawn F; Broussard, Beth; Cristofaro, Sarah L; Johnson, Stephanie; Haggard, Patrick J; Potts, Amy A; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Walker, Elaine F
Research findings are mixed as to whether or not the inability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) might represent an endophenotypic trait marker for schizophrenia. We hypothesized associations between PTC-tasting status and select clinical characteristics and trait markers in patients with psychotic disorders that, if present, would provide support for the inability to taste PTC as a trait marker. In a first-episode psychosis sample (n=93), we measured PTC tasting, family history of psychosis, age at onset of prodrome and psychosis, severity of positive and negative symptoms, global impairment in functioning, neurological soft signs, and four neurocognitive domains (verbal learning/memory, visual learning/memory, verbal working memory, and spatial working memory). Associations between PTC-non-tasting and clinical/neurocognitive variables were examined with χ(2) tests and independent samples t tests. Among participants, 67.7% tasted PTC in comparison to a strip of control paper, and 25.8% were non-tasters. Tasters and non-tasters did not show statistically significant differences with respect to family history, age at onset, severity of symptoms, neurological soft signs, or the four neurocognitive domains. In conjunction with other findings, it is unlikely that PTC-non-tasting is a trait marker of schizophrenia, though a conclusive study is warranted.
Mundo, Emanuela; Cattaneo, Elisabetta; Zanoni, Silvia; Altamura, A Carlo
Background and rationale Atypical antpsychotics have been sucessfully used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), either as adjunctive or as monotherapy. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic extensively used in the treatment of psychotic disorders. It has serotonergic and dopaminergic activity and it appears to be selective for the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine system. The aim of this paper was to review the recent literature on the use of quetiapine in the treatment of BD. Methods The literature databases currently available online were searched for papers on quetiapine and BD. Papers and reports published between January 1995 and June 2005 were selected and reviewed critically. Results Augmentative low dose quetiapine was found to be effective in BD partially responsive to conventional mood-stabilizers. Manic and mixed episodes have been the best studied, and quetiapine was found to be effective either as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy in both randomized clinical trials and open-label studies. Data on the use of quetiapine in bipolar depression showed a significant efficacy and high remission rates. Maintenance data suggested a role of quetiapine as a good alternative to classical mood stabilizers in reducing recurrence rates of BD. A few studies on the efficacy in rapid cycling BD have also been published. Conclusions Quetiapine is an effective agent for the short- and long-term treatment of BD. The mechanism of action of quetiapine as a mood stabilizer is still unknown. Some preliminary data suggest the involvement of glutamate pathways but further studies are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:19412458
Ly, Verena; Bottelier, Marco; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N
Nutrition plays an important role in neurodevelopment. This insight has led to increasing research into the efficacy of nutrition-related interventions for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. This review discusses an elimination diet as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, with a focus on the efficacy of the food additives exclusion diet, gluten-free/casein-free diet and oligoantigenic diet. Furthermore, we discuss the potential mechanisms of elimination diets' effects in these neurodevelopmental disorders. The main candidate mechanism is the microbiome-gut-brain axis possibly involving complex interactions between multiple systems, including the metabolic, immune, endocrine, and neural system. We conclude with practical implications and future directions into the investigation of an elimination diet's efficacy in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.
Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Naslund, John A.; Gill, Lydia E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Ben-Zeev, Dror
Objective Mobile health (mHealth) approaches have the potential to transform prevention, wellness, and illness management for people with dual diagnosis consisting of co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders by providing timely and cost-effective interventions in clients’ natural environments. However, little is known about how clients interact with mHealth interventions to manage their illness. This qualitative study explored the content of mobile phone text messages between clients with dual diagnosis and a clinician who engaged them in daily assessment and intervention text exchanges. Methods Seventeen participants with psychotic disorders and substance use were enrolled in a 12-week single-arm trial of an mHealth intervention focusing on illness management. The clinician (i.e., mobile interventionist) sent daily text messages to participants’ privately-owned mobile phones to assess their medication adherence and clinical status. The clinician provided other illness management and wellness suggestions flexibly, in response to participants’ needs and preferences. In this qualitative study we conducted a thematic analysis of the client-clinician text exchanges that occurred over the course of the intervention. Results Seven major content themes in client-clinician text message exchanges were identified: mental health symptoms; mental health coping strategies; mental health treatment and management; lifestyle behaviors; social relationships and leisure activities; motivation and personal goal setting; and independent living. Participants were interested in discussing strategies for coping with mental health symptoms (e.g., cognitive restructuring, social support) and health behavior change (e.g., increased physical activity, dietary changes). Conclusions Our findings suggest that client-centered text messaging has the potential to be an important component of illness management for people with dual diagnosis. This approach is able to offer
This paper explores the development of psychological treatments as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorders. Randomized controlled treatment trials of specific therapy models, such as cognitive therapy, that tackle a spectrum of complex psychological and social problems associated with bipolar disorders are reviewed. A systematic review of the most recent treatment outcome studies suggest that adjunctive psychological therapies reduce overall rates of relapse, but are more effective for depression than for mania. There is no evidence that any particular therapy has a unique mechanism of action or any specific advantages over any other approach. Finally, it is suggested that gaps in the theory and available evidence for effectiveness need to be addressed if we are to enable clinicians to target psychological therapies towards those individuals with bipolar disorder who are most likely to benefit.
Kishi, Taro; Oya, Kazuto; Iwata, Nakao
This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the advantages of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI-APs) over oral antipsychotics (OAPs) with regard to efficacy and safety for patients with recent-onset psychotic disorders. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. We identified five RCTs (1022 patients, mean study duration=18±7.59 months) that compared LAI-APs (paliperidone or risperidone) with OAPs. Pooled LAI-APs did not outperform OAPs in terms of the preventing of relapse (N=3, n=875). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2)=76%), with one study showing no superiority of LAI-APs over OAPs [Malla 2013: risk ratio (RR)=1.83, 95%CI=0.70-4.77, n=77] and the other two studies showing LAI-APs to be superior [Schreiner 2015: [RR=0.71, 95%CI=0.51-0.97, number needed to treat (NNT)=-17, n=715, Subotnik 2015: RR=0.15, 95%CI=0.04-0.63, NNT=-4, n=83]. Pooling the studies, there were no significant differences between LAI-APs and OAPs in the improvement of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores or in discontinuation due to all-cause, adverse events (AEs), and death, but LAI-APs outperformed OAPs in terms of discontinuation due to inefficacy (RR=0.34, NNT=-50) and nonadherence (RR=0.30, NNT=-33). However, the LAI-APs were associated with a higher incidence of at least one AE (RR=1.13) and tremor (RR=2.38) compared with OAPs.
Client Perceptions of the Mental Health Engagement Network: A Secondary Analysis of an Intervention Using Smartphones and Desktop Devices for Individuals Experiencing Mood or Psychotic Disorders in Canada
Donelle, Lorie; Ethridge, Paige; Warner, Laura
Background The use of innovative technologies in mental health care has the potential to improve system efficiency, enhance quality of care, and increase patient engagement. The Mental Health Engagement Network (MHEN) project developed, delivered, and evaluated an interactive Web-based personal health record, the Lawson SMART Record (LSR), to assist mental health clients in managing their care and connecting with their care providers. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data collected in the MHEN project regarding clients’ perceptions of technology and the use of these technologies in their care. Objective We aimed to answer six questions: (1) What is the level of comfort with technology within a sample of individuals experiencing mood or psychotic disorders? (2) How easy to use and helpful are the MHEN technologies from the perspective of individuals experiencing a mental illness? (3) Are there differences in how helpful or useful individuals find the smartphone compared to the LSR? (4) Are there specific functions of MHEN technologies (eg, reminders for medications or appointments) that are more valued than others? (5) What are the other ways that individuals are using MHEN technologies in their daily lives? (6) How likely are individuals to be able to retain and maintain their smartphone? Methods Mental health clients aged 18-80 (N=400) and diagnosed with a mood or psychotic disorder were provided with a smartphone (iPhone 4S) and participating care providers (n=52) were provided with a tablet (iPad) in order to access and engage with the LSR. A delayed implementation design with mixed methods was used. Survey and interview data were collected over the course of 18 months through semistructured interviews conducted by experienced research assistants every 6 months post-implementation of the intervention. Paired t tests were used to determine differences between 6 and 12-month data for perceptions of the MHEN technologies. A paired t test was used to
Allen, Melissa M.
Purpose: Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Method: Fifty-four preschool children with…
Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Mostafavi, Ashraf; Thiagalingam, Sam
Due to the lack of genetic association between individual genes and schizophrenia (SCZ) pathogenesis, the current consensus is to consider both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here, we report the examination of DNA methylation status of DTNBP1 promoter region, one of the most credible candidate genes affected in SCZ, assayed in saliva and post-mortem brain samples. The Illumina DNA methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of representative samples were used to identify methylation status of the DTNBP1 promoter region. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) was employed to assess methylation of DTNBP1 promoter CpGs flanking a SP1 binding site in the saliva of SCZ patients, their first-degree relatives and control subjects (30, 15, and 30/group, respectively) as well as in post-mortem brains of patients with SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) versus controls (35/group). qRT-PCR was used to assess DTNBP1 expression. We found DNA hypermethylation of DTNBP1 promoter in the saliva of SCZ patients (∼12.5%, P = 0.036), particularly in drug-naïve patients (∼20%, P = 0.011), and a trend toward hypermethylation in their first-degree relatives (P = 0.085) versus controls. Analysis of post-mortem brain samples revealed an inverse correlation between DTNBP1 methylation and expression, and normalization of this epigenetic change by classic antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, BD patients with psychotic depression exhibited higher degree of methylation versus other BD patients (∼80%, P = 0.025). DTNBP1 promoter DNA methylation may become a key element in a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis, prevention, or therapy in SCZ and at risk individuals pending confirmatory studies with larger sample sizes to attain a higher degree of significance.
Löve, J; Hensing, G; Söderberg, M; Torén, K; Waern, M; Åberg, M
Objective Large-scale studies examining future trajectories of marginalisation and health in adolescents with mental illness are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine if non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (NPDs) were associated with future indicators of marginalisation and mortality. We also aimed to determine whether these associations might be mediated by education level and attenuated by high cognitive ability. Design This is a prospective cohort study with baseline data from the Swedish Conscription register. Setting The study was carried out in Sweden from 1969 to 2005. Participants All of the participants were 18-year-old men at mandatory conscription in Sweden between 1969 and 2005 (n=1 609 690). Measures NPDs were clinically diagnosed at conscription. Cognitive ability was measured by a standardised IQ test at conscription. National register data covered information on welfare support, long-term unemployment, disability pension (DP) and mortality over a period of 1–36 years. Results NPD at the age of 18 years was a predictor of future welfare support, OR 3.73 (95% CI 3.65 to 3.80); long-term unemployment, OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.94 to 2.01); DP, HR 2.95 (95% CI 2.89 to 3.02); and mortality, HR 2.45 (2.33–2.52). The adjusted models suggested that these associations were not confounded by fathers’ educational level, cognitive ability had only a minor attenuating effect on most associations and the mediating effect of own educational level was small. Conclusions The present study underlines a higher prevalence of future adversities in young men experiencing NPDs at the age of 18 years. It also indicates that higher cognitive ability may work as a potential resilience factor against future marginalisation and mortality. PMID:27515748
Horsselenberg, Ellen M. A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Aleman, Andre; Pijnenborg, Gerdine H. M.
Objective Self-stigma is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and can be seen as an important factor leading to low self-esteem. It is however unclear how psychological factors and actual adverse events contribute to self-stigma. This study empirically examines how symptom severity and the experience of being victimized affect both self-stigma and self-esteem. Methods Persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N = 102) were assessed with a battery of self-rating questionnaires and interviews. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was subsequently applied to test the fit of three models: a model with symptoms and victimization as direct predictors of self-stigma and negative self-esteem, a model with an indirect effect for symptoms mediated by victimization and a third model with a direct effect for negative symptoms and an indirect effect for positive symptoms mediated by victimization. Results Results showed good model fit for the direct effects of both symptoms and victimization: both lead to an increase of self-stigma and subsequent negative self-esteem. Negative symptoms had a direct association with self-stigma, while the relationship between positive symptoms and self-stigma was mediated by victimization. Conclusions Our findings suggest that symptoms and victimization may contribute to self-stigma, leading to negative self-esteem in individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Especially for patients with positive symptoms victimization seems to be an important factor in developing self-stigma. Given the burden of self-stigma on patients and the constraining effects on societal participation and service use, interventions targeting victimization as well as self-stigma are needed. PMID:27783677
de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Bentall, Richard P
Thought disorder (TD) has been shown to vary in relation to negative affect. Here we examine the role internal source monitoring (iSM, i.e. ability to discriminate between inner speech and verbalized speech) in TD and whether changes in iSM performance are implicated in the affective reactivity effect (deterioration of TD when participants are asked to talk about emotionally-laden topics). Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and thirty healthy controls received interviews that promoted personal disclosure (emotionally salient) and interviews on everyday topics (non-salient) on separate days. During the interviews, participants were tested on iSM, self-reported affect and immediate auditory recall. Patients had more TD, poorer ability to discriminate between inner and verbalized speech, poorer immediate auditory recall and reported more negative affect than controls. Both groups displayed more TD and negative affect in salient interviews but only patients showed poorer performance on iSM. Immediate auditory recall did not change significantly across affective conditions. In patients, the relationship between self-reported negative affect and TD was mediated by deterioration in the ability to discriminate between inner speech and speech that was directed to others and socially shared (performance on the iSM) in both interviews. Furthermore, deterioration in patients' performance on iSM across conditions significantly predicted deterioration in TD across the interviews (affective reactivity of speech). Poor iSM is significantly associated with TD. Negative affect, leading to further impaired iSM, leads to increased TD in patients with psychosis. Avenues for future research as well as clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Rodriguez, Mabel; Spaniel, Filip; Konradova, Lucie; Sedlakova, Katerina; Dvorska, Karolina; Prajsova, Jitka; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Levcik, David; Vlcek, Kamil; Fajnerova, Iveta
Objectives: Deficit in visuospatial functions can influence both simple and complex daily life activities. Despite the fact that visuospatial deficit was reported in schizophrenia, research on visuospatial functions as an independent entity is limited. Our study aims to elucidate the impact of visuospatial deficit in comparison with verbal deficit on global functioning and quality of life in the first psychotic episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (FES). The significance of clinical symptoms and antipsychotic medication was also studied. Methods: Thirty-six FES patients and a matched group of healthy controls (HC group) were assessed with a neuropsychological battery focused on visuospatial (VIS) and verbal (VERB) functions. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the cumulative effect of VERB and VIS functions, psychiatric symptoms (PANSS) and antipsychotic medication on global functioning (GAF) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) in the FES group. Results: The FES group demonstrated significant impairment both in VIS and VERB cognitive abilities compared to the HC group. Antipsychotic medication did not significantly affect either VIS or VERB functioning. PANSS was not related to cognitive functioning, apart from the Trail Making Test B. In the FES group, the GAF score was significantly affected by the severity of positive symptoms and VERB functioning, explaining together 60% of GAF variability. The severity of negative and positive symptoms affected only the Physical health domain of WHOQOL-BREF. The degree of VERB deficit was associated with both Physical and Psychological health. Although we did not find any relation between VIS functioning, GAF, and WHOQOL-BREF, a paradoxical finding emerged in the Environment quality domain, where a worse quality of the environment was associated with better VIS functioning. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the deficit in VIS functions is an integral part of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia spectrum
Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial. Case reports have suggested a role for ECT in two specific atypical psychotic disorders: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309
Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez
Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress
Bakker, Geor; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A. M.; da Silva- Alves, Fabiana; de Koning, Mariken; Boot, Erik; Nieman, Dorien H.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bloemen, Oswald J.; Booij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse A. M. J.
Introduction Subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) share a risk of approximately 30% to develop a psychotic disorder. Studying these groups helps identify biological markers of pathophysiological processes involved in the development of psychosis. Total cortical surface area (cSA), total cortical grey matter volume (cGMV), cortical thickness (CT), and local gyrification index (LGI) of the cortical structure have a distinct neurodevelopmental origin making them important target markers to study in relation to the development of psychosis. Materials and Methods Structural T1-weighted high resolution images were acquired using a 3 Tesla Intera MRI system in 18 UHR subjects, 18 22q11DS subjects, and 24 matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Total cSA, total cGMV, mean CT, and regional vertex-wise differences in CT and LGI were assessed using FreeSurfer software. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to assess psychotic symptom severity in UHR and 22q11DS subjects at time of scanning. Results 22q11DS subjects had lower total cSA and total cGMV compared to UHR and HC subjects. The 22q11DS subjects showed bilateral lower LGI in the i) prefrontal cortex, ii) precuneus, iii) precentral gyrus and iv) cuneus compared to UHR subjects. Additionally, lower LGI was found in the left i) fusiform gyrus and right i) pars opercularis, ii) superior, and iii) inferior temporal gyrus in 22q11DS subjects compared to HC. In comparison to 22q11DS subjects, the UHR subjects had lower CT of the insula. For both risk groups, positive symptom severity was negatively correlated to rostral middle frontal gyrus CT. Conclusion A shared negative correlation between positive symptom severity and rostral middle frontal gyrus CT in UHR and 22q11DS may be related to their increased vulnerability to develop a psychotic disorder. 22q11DS subjects were characterised by widespread lower degree of cortical gyrification linked to
Blaya, Carolina; Seganfredo, Ana Carolina; Dornelles, Marina; Torres, Mariana; Paludo, Angela; Heldt, Elizeth; Manfro, Gisele G
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of milnacipran in the acute treatment of patients with panic disorder. Thirty-one patients who met Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV criteria for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were included in the study. Patients were initially treated with milnacipran 25 mg twice daily and then 50 mg twice daily until the 10th week. The treatment outcome and panic disorder severity were determined by the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, Panic Inventory, Clinical Global Impression and Hamilton Anxiety Scale, all of which were applied during every evaluation interview. Quality of life (WHOQOL-bref) was evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Missing data were handled by using the last observation carried forward for all participants who had taken at least one dose of study medication. Intention-to-treat was used in the analyses. Pharmacological treatment resulted in a clinically and statistically significant mean reduction in all severity measures. Remission (Clinical Global Impression < or = 2) was obtained in 58.1% of the sample. Regarding WHOQOL, we found a significant improvement (P<0.05) across treatment in all the domains studied. Although results may be influenced by the open design of this pilot study and by the small sample size, our findings suggest that milnacipran may be effective for the treatment of panic disorder and justify further research.
Papakostas, George I.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Swee, Michaela B.; Jaeger, Adrienne; Bobo, William V.; Shelton, Richard C.
Objective To test the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with non-psychotic unipolar major depression experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. Method This was a multi-center, parallel randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at three academic medical centers in the United States. The participant pool consisted of 139 outpatients with persistent symptoms of major depressive disorder following an 8-week open label trial of escitalopram (phase 1). Subjects were randomized (1:1, n=139) to adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram+ziprasidone, n=71) or adjunctive placebo (escitalopram+placebo, n=68), with 8 weekly follow-up assessments. Primary outcome was defined by clinical response according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and determined by a 50% or greater reduction in scale scores. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A) and Visual Analogue Scale for Pain were defined a priori as key secondary outcome measures. Results Rates of clinical response (35.2% vs. 20.5%, p=0.04) and mean improvement in HAMD-17 total scores (−6.4 ± 6.4 vs. −3.3 ± 6.2, p=0.04) were significantly greater for the escitalopram+ziprasidone group. Several secondary measures of antidepressant efficacy were also in favor of adjunctive ziprasidone. Escitalopram+ziprasidone also resulted in significantly greater improvement in HAM-A, but not Visual Analogue Scale for Pain scores. Ten (14%) patients discontinued escitalopram+ziprasidone due to intolerance versus none for escitalopram+placebo (p<0.01 versus placebo). Conclusions Adjunctive ziprasidone, when added to escitalopram, demonstrated antidepressant efficacy in adult patients with major depressive disorder experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. PMID:26085041
Lim, Anastasia; Hoek, Hans W; Blom, Jan Dirk
Patients with an Islamic background who suffer from hallucinations or other psychotic symptoms may attribute these experiences to jinn (i.e., invisible spirits). In this paper, we review the medical literature on jinn as an explanatory model in the context of psychotic disorders. We conducted a systematic search for papers on jinn and psychosis in Pubmed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases. Our search yielded 105 scientific texts on jinn and their relationship with mental disorders, including 47 case reports. Among the case reports a definite biomedical diagnosis was provided in 66% of the cases, of which 45.2% involved a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Fully 10 of 16 hallucinating patients experienced multimodal hallucinations. Although infrequently documented in the biomedical literature, the attribution of psychiatric symptoms to jinn appears to be quite common among Islamic patients, and to have significant impact on the diagnosis, treatment, and course of mental disorders, particularly psychotic disorders.
Rode, Sibylle; Wagner, Petra; Bräunig, Peter
On the basis of a vulnerability-stress-model psycho-educative, cognitive-behavioural, family-oriented and interpersonal approaches of psychotherapy for bipolar disorders are described. This is followed by a review of randomised controlled trials investigating the treatment efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions. These studies show positive results particularly for psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioural therapy and family-oriented therapy. Finally, it is discussed in which respects evidence for the successful implementation of psychotherapy is still missing and why it is so important to move towards manualized psychotherapeutic programs.
Craske, Michelle G.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Bystritsky, Alexander
Anxiety disorders are common, costly and debilitating, and yet often unrecognized or inadequately treated in real world, primary care settings. Our group has been researching ways of delivering evidence-based treatment for anxiety in primary care settings, with special interest to preserving the fidelity of the treatment while at the same time promoting its sustainability once the research is over. In this paper, we describe the programs we have developed and our directions for future research. Our first study evaluated the efficacy of CBT and expert pharmacotherapy recommendations for panic disorder in primary care, using a collaborative care model of service delivery (CCAP). Symptom, disability and mental health functioning measures were superior for the intervention group compared to treatment as usual both in the short term and the long term, although also more costly. In our ongoing CALM study, we have extended our population to include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic disorder, while at the same time utilizing clinicians with limited mental health care experience. In addition to pharmacotherapy management, we developed a computer-assisted CBT that guides both novice clinician and patient, thereby contributing to sustainability once the research is over. We have also incorporated a measurement based approach to treatment planning, using a web-based tracking system of patient status. To date, the computer-assisted CBT program has been shown to be acceptable to clinicians and patients. Clinicians rated the program highly, and patients engaged in the program. Future directions for our research include dissemination and implementation of the CALM program, testing potential alternations to the CALM program, and distance delivery of CALM. PMID:19632667
Lieb, M; Hummel, I; Fürst, S; Baghai, T C; Mokhtari-Nejad, R; Palm, U
We report about two patients with denial of pregnancy. While the first patient was free of psychopathological symptoms besides denial of pregnancy until rupture of the membranes, and was able to accomodate the new born, the second patient with psychotic denial of pregnancy could not accomodate the child because of the schizophrenia, so that an adoption was necessary. On the basis of the two cases aetiological, epidemiological, clinical und prognostic implications of psychotic and non-psychotic denial of pregnancy are discussed.
Kelleher, Ian; Wigman, Johanna T W; Harley, Michelle; O'Hanlon, Erik; Coughlan, Helen; Rawdon, Caroline; Murphy, Jennifer; Power, Emmet; Higgins, Niamh M; Cannon, Mary
Psychotic experiences are far more common in the population than psychotic disorder. They are associated with a number of adverse outcomes but there has been little research on associations with functioning and distress. We wished to investigate functioning and distress in a community sample of adolescents with psychotic experiences. Two hundred and twelve school-going adolescents were assessed for psychotic experiences, mental distress associated with these experiences, global (social/occupational) functioning on the Children's Global Assessment Scale, and a number of candidate mediator variables, including psychopathology, suicidality, trauma (physical and sexual abuse and exposure to domestic violence) and neurocognitive functioning. Seventy five percent of participants who reported psychotic experiences reported that they found these experiences distressing (mean score for severity of distress was 6.9 out of maximum 10). Participants who reported psychotic experiences had poorer functioning than participants who did not report psychotic experiences (respective means: 68.6, 81.9; OR=0.25, 95% CI=0.14-0.44). Similarly, participants with an Axis-1 psychiatric disorder who reported psychotic experiences had poorer functioning than participants with a disorder who did not report psychotic experiences (respective means: 61.8, 74.5; OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.12-0.63). Candidate mediator variables explained some but not all of the relationship between psychotic experiences and functioning (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.22-1.05, P<0.07). Young people with psychotic experiences have poorer global functioning than those who do not, even when compared with other young people with psychopathology (but who do not report psychotic experiences). A disclosure of psychotic experiences should alert treating clinicians that the individual may have significantly more functional disability than suggested by the psychopathological diagnosis alone.
Bousman, Chad A.; McKetin, Rebecca; Burns, Richard; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Everall, Ian P.; Grant, Igor
Background and Objectives Understanding methamphetamine associated psychotic (MAP) symptom typologies could aid in identifying individuals at risk of progressing to schizophrenia and guide early intervention. Methods Latent class analysis (LCA) of psychotic symptoms collected from 40 methamphetamine dependent individuals with a history of psychotic symptoms but no history of a primary psychotic disorder. Results Three typologies were identified. In one, persecutory delusions dominated (Type 1), in another persecutory delusions were accompanied by hallucinations (Type 2), and in the third a high frequency of all the assessed hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed (Type 3). Discussion and Conclusion MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. Scientific Significance This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. PMID:25864598
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José
Psychotic disorders, as well as psychotic-like experiences and substance use, have been found to be associated. The main goal of the present study was to analyse the relationship between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in college students. The simple comprised a total of 660 participants (M = 20.3 years, SD = 2.6). The results showed that 96% of the sample reported some delusional experience, while 20.3% reported at least one positive psychotic-like experience. Some substance use was reported by 41.1% of the sample, differing in terms of gender. Substance users reported more psychoticlike experiences than non-users, especially in the positive dimension. Also, alcohol consumption predicted in most cases extreme scores on measures of delusional ideation and psychotic experiences. The association between these two variables showed a differentiated pattern, with a stronger relationship between substance use and cognitive-perceptual psychotic-like experiences. To some extent, these findings support the dimensional models of the psychosis phenotype and contribute a better understanding of the links between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in young adults. Future studies should further explore the role of different risk factors for psychotic disorders and include models of the gene-environment interaction.
McGrath, J J; Miettunen, J; Jääskeläinen, E; Dark, F
As one would expect for a heterogeneous syndrome like schizophrenia, at the individual level the course of symptoms and disability vary widely. Mindful that the definition of recovery/remission varies widely between studies, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis reported that the proportion of those with schizophrenia who recover on both symptom and functional outcome is modest (approximately 14%). A 10-year follow-up of the English multicentre AESOP incidence study provides more 'fine-grained' insights into the time course of symptom fluctuation for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. We highlight selected findings from the new study and speculate on the role of different outcome domains for future study (e.g., symptom, occupational/functional, cognition, physical health, patient-nominated outcomes). Because recovery is a multifaceted process, we need to develop a panel of practical and operationalizable criteria for remission and recovery.
Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.
Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…
Ploesser, Jennifer; Weinstock, Leonard B; Thomas, Erin
Use of low dose naltrexone has been advocated for a variety of medical problems. Only a few articles published in peer review journals have documented side effects of low dose naltrexone. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of adverse effects of low dose naltrexone in patients who have been treated for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. The secondary purpose was to determine global efficacy in a retrospective survey. Patients (206) form a single gastroenterologist's clinical practice who had been prescribed naltrexone were mailed a survey to evaluate the side effects and efficacy of naltrexone. Patients had either irritable bowel syndrome without evidence for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, chronic idiopathic constipation, or inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with diarrhea were given 2.5 mg daily, constipation 2.5 mg twice daily, and inflammatory bowel disease 4.5 mg daily. In the patients who returned the survey, 47/121 (38.8%) had no side effects. Of the 74/121 (61.2%) patients who had side effects, 58 had one or more neurological complaints, and 32 had one or more gastrointestinal side effects. In the patients with side effects, 24/74 (32.4%) had short lived symptoms. Low dose naltrexone was terminated owing to side effects in 20/74 patients (27.0%). In 13 patients with idiopathic irritable bowel syndrome, 2 were markedly worse. In 85 patients with irritable bowel syndrome-small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, 15 were markedly improved, 32 were moderately worse, and 1 was markedly worse. In 12 patients with chronic constipation, 7 were markedly improved, 1 was moderately improved, 1 was mildly improved, and 4 were unchanged. Low dose naltrexone frequently has side effects but in most is tolerable. It appears to be helpful for a member of patients with gastrointestinal disorders.
Elbing, U; Rohmann, U H
The development of severely disturbed and socially accepted behavior in mentally handicapped persons with autistic or psychotic symptoms is documented before, during and after an intensive therapy program conducted in a residential institution for mentally handicapped persons. Seven single case studies were made as long term observation with a duration between 18 and 33 weeks, mostly with a multiple baseline design. One or two follow ups with at least four weeks length were conducted in six out of seven cases up to four years after the end of the intensive therapy. The main results show (1) the decrease of disturbed behavior and the increase of socially accepted behavior during the therapy program, and (2) the significant reduction of the disturbed behavior patterns taking place during the baseline phase before the beginning of the therapy in all cases but one. The results are discussed under the aspects of a possible explanation for the findings and their impact on the discussion about psychotherapy research.
Kelleher, Ian; Cederlöf, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul
Psychotic experiences are far more prevalent in the population than psychotic disorders and are associated with a wide range of depressive, anxiety and behavioral disorders, as well as increased risk for psychotic disorder. Recently, psychotic experiences have been highlighted as a potentially valuable clinical marker of risk for suicidal behavior. There have been few studies to date, however, to assess psychotic experiences as a predictor of suicidality over time. We wished to assess whether young persons with suicidal ideation at baseline assessment who reported psychotic experiences were at higher risk for persistence of suicidal ideation at follow-up than young persons who also reported suicidal ideation at baseline but who did not report co-occurring psychotic experiences. A total of 2,263 adolescents were assessed at age 13 to 14 years for psychotic experiences, suicidal ideation and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Participants were re-assessed at ages 16 to 17 years and 19 to 20 years. Among 13- to 14-year olds with suicidal ideation, co-occurring psychotic experiences did not predict an increased odds of persistence of suicidal ideation to age 16 to 17 years (OR=0.94, 95% CI: 0.19-4.78). Among 16- to 17-year olds with suicidal ideation, however, co-occurring psychotic experiences predicted a 6-fold increased odds of persistence of suicidal ideation to age 19 to 20 years (OR=5.53, 95% CI: 1.33-23.00). Psychotic experiences are an important but under-recognized marker of risk for persistence of suicidal ideation, in particular from mid-adolescence. An increased emphasis on the clinical assessment of psychotic experiences in mental health services should be a priority. PMID:24890071
Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen
To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…
Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M
Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other.
Catalan, Ana; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Bustamante, Sonia; Olazabal, Nora; Ruiz, Eduardo; Gonzalez de Artaza, Maider; Penas, Alberto; Maurottolo, Claudio; González, Andrea; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel
Background Jumping to conclusions (JTC) is associated with psychotic disorder and psychotic symptoms. If JTC represents a trait, the rate should be (i) increased in people with elevated levels of psychosis proneness such as individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and (ii) show a degree of stability over time. Methods The JTC rate was examined in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP), BPD patients and controls, using the Beads Task. PANSS, SIS-R and CAPE scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. Four WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ. Results A total of 61 FEP, 26 BPD and 150 controls were evaluated. 29 FEP were revaluated after one year. 44% of FEP (OR = 8.4, 95% CI: 3.9–17.9) displayed a JTC reasoning bias versus 19% of BPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8–7.8) and 9% of controls. JTC was not associated with level of psychotic symptoms or specifically delusionality across the different groups. Differences between FEP and controls were independent of sex, educational level, cannabis use and IQ. After one year, 47.8% of FEP with JTC at baseline again displayed JTC. Conclusions JTC in part reflects trait vulnerability to develop disorders with expression of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26147948
Fisher, Helen L; Murphy, Therese M; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Viana, Joana; Hannon, Eilis; Pidsley, Ruth; Burrage, Joe; Dempster, Emma L; Wong, Chloe C Y; Pariante, Carmine M; Mill, Jonathan
Childhood psychotic symptoms are associated with increased rates of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood; thus, elucidating early risk indicators is crucial to target prevention efforts. There is considerable discordance for psychotic symptoms between monozygotic twins, indicating that child-specific non-genetic factors must be involved. Epigenetic processes may constitute one of these factors and have not yet been investigated in relation to childhood psychotic symptoms. Therefore, this study explored whether differences in DNA methylation at age 10 were associated with monozygotic twin discordance for psychotic symptoms at age 12. The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study cohort of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) was assessed for age-12 psychotic symptoms and 24 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for symptoms were identified for methylomic comparison. Children provided buccal samples at ages 5 and 10. DNA was bisulfite modified and DNA methylation was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with psychotic symptoms were subsequently tested in post-mortem prefrontal cortex tissue from adult schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls. Site-specific DNA methylation differences were observed at age 10 between monozygotic twins discordant for age-12 psychotic symptoms. Similar DMPs were not found at age 5. The top-ranked psychosis-associated DMP (cg23933044), located in the promoter of the C5ORF42 gene, was also hypomethylated in post-mortem prefrontal cortex brain tissue from schizophrenia patients compared to unaffected controls. These data tentatively suggest that epigenetic variation in peripheral tissue is associated with childhood psychotic symptoms and may indicate susceptibility to schizophrenia and other mental health problems.
Feltner, Douglas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Kavoussi, Richard; Brock, Jerri; Baldinetti, Francesca; Pande, Atul C
A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin in preventing relapse of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) after response to short-term treatment. Outpatients (n=624) with GAD for > or =1 year received open-label pregabalin (450 mg/day) for 8 weeks and, if a clinical response was observed, were randomized to receive either pregabalin (450 mg/day; n=168) or placebo (n=170) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was time to relapse. Among responders to open-label acute treatment with pregabalin, time to relapse of GAD was significantly longer for patients treated with pregabalin compared with placebo (P<0.0001). Fifty per cent of the placebo group had relapsed by day 23, and at study endpoint, 65% had relapsed. In the pregabalin group, only 42% had relapsed by study end. Total attrition during double-blind treatment was somewhat higher on pregabalin compared with placebo (21.4 vs. 15.3%); attrition owing to adverse events (AEs) was also somewhat higher on pregabalin (6.0 vs. 2.4%). AEs were relatively low in the double-blind phase; only three AEs occurred with an incidence of more than 5% on pregabalin and placebo, respectively: infection (14.9 vs. 11.2%), headache (10.1 vs. 11.2%), and somnolence (6.0 vs. 0%). No safety concerns were identified with long-term treatment. The study indicates that pregabalin is an effective treatment for the prevention of relapse in patients with GAD.
Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried
Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…
Nazou, M; Parlapani, E; Nazlidou, E-I; Athanasis, P; Bozikas, V P
Thyroid hormones are crucial in adult brain metabolic activity. As a result, abnormal thyroid gland function and in particular hypofunction, might cause principally depression and neurocognitive dysfunction. Psychosis, presented mainly with thought disorders and perceptual disturbances, is a much rarer manifestation of hypothyreoidism. A correlation between hypothyreoidism and psychosis has been described since 1888, especially in cases of advanced hypothyreoidism. A few years later (1949), Asher first added the terminology "myxedema madness" to the literature. Psychotic symptoms typically appear after the onset of physical symptoms, usually with a delay of months or years. The case of a female patient who presented a psychotic episode as a first manifestation of hypothyroidism will be described. NE, a 48 yearold female patient, was admitted for the first time to an inpatient mental health care unit due to delusions of persecution and reference, as well as auditory hallucinations that appeared a few weeks ago. After the patient admission, routine laboratory examination was conducted. In order to relieve the patient from her sense of discomfort and while awaiting laboratory results, olanzapine, 5 mg/day, was administered. Neurological examination and cranial computed tomography scan were unremarkable. Hormonal laboratory tests though revealed severe low thyroid hormone levels. Thyroid antibody testing certified Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Olanzapine was discontinued and the patient received thyroid hormone substitution, levothyroxine 75 μg/day, instead. The patient was discharged showing a significant improvement of psychotic symptoms after a 12-day hospitalization. A month later the patient was reevaluated. She had fully recovered from the psychotic episode. A year later, the patient continues to remain free from psychiatric symptoms, while thyroid hormone levels have been restored within normal range. The patient continues receiving only thyroid hormone substitution
Bandelow, Borwin; Reitt, Markus; Röver, Christian; Michaelis, Sophie; Görlich, Yvonne; Wedekind, Dirk
To our knowledge, no previous meta-analysis has attempted to compare the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). Pre-post and treated versus control effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all evaluable randomized-controlled studies (n = 234), involving 37,333 patients. Medications were associated with a significantly higher average pre-post ES [Cohen's d = 2.02 (1.90-2.15); 28,051 patients] than psychotherapies [1.22 (1.14-1.30); 6992 patients; P < 0.0001]. ES were 2.25 for serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (n = 23 study arms), 2.15 for benzodiazepines (n = 42), 2.09 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 62) and 1.83 for tricyclic antidepressants (n = 15). ES for psychotherapies were mindfulness therapies, 1.56 (n = 4); relaxation, 1.36 (n = 17); individual cognitive behavioural/exposure therapy (CBT), 1.30 (n = 93); group CBT, 1.22 (n = 18); psychodynamic therapy 1.17 (n = 5); therapies without face-to-face contact (e.g. Internet therapies), 1.11 (n = 34); eye movement desensitization reprocessing, 1.03 (n = 3); and interpersonal therapy 0.78 (n = 4). The ES was 2.12 (n = 16) for CBT/drug combinations. Exercise had an ES of 1.23 (n = 3). For control groups, ES were 1.29 for placebo pills (n = 111), 0.83 for psychological placebos (n = 16) and 0.20 for waitlists (n = 50). In direct comparisons with control groups, all investigated drugs, except for citalopram, opipramol and moclobemide, were significantly more effective than placebo. Individual CBT was more effective than waiting list, psychological placebo and pill placebo. When looking at the average pre-post ES, medications were more effective than psychotherapies. Pre-post ES for psychotherapies did not differ from pill placebos; this finding cannot be explained by heterogeneity, publication bias or allegiance effects. However, the decision on whether to choose
PORPORATTI, André Luís; COSTA, Yuri Martins; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi; CALDERON, Patrícia dos Santos
OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the influence of Primary Headache (PH) on efficacy of a Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) conservative therapy and its association with the presence of self-reported parafunctional habits. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Sample was composed of 400 medical records, divided into four groups: I) Muscular TMD (n=64); II) Muscular TMD+PH (n=48); III) Muscular TMD+Articular TMD (n=173); IV) Muscular TMD+Articular TMD+PH (n=115). All groups had undergone a TMD therapy for three months with a stabilization appliance and counseling for habits and behavioral changes, with no specific headache management. Current pain intensity and existence or not of self-reported bruxism were assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA and Chi-Square test followed by Odds were used for statistical analysis, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: results of this study showed that: (1) A conservative therapy with stabilization appliance and counseling for habits and behavioral changes was effective in the TMD pain relief; (2) Groups with an additional diagnosis of PH had worsened the pain improvement significantly; and (3) no association between the presence of self-reported bruxism and PH was found. CONCLUSIONS: this study could elucidate the important effect that headache may have on the TMD management. PMID:25004051
Kaplan, S.; Heiligenstein, J.; West, S.; Busner, J.; Harder, D.; Dittmann, R.; Casat, C.; Wernicke, J. F.
Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of atomoxetine, a selective inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter, versus placebo in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Methods: A subset analysis of 98 children from two identical, multi-site, double-blind, randomized,…
Bevan Jones, Rhys; Mars, Becky; Collishaw, Stephan; Potter, Robert; Thapar, Ajay; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Zammit, Stanley
Psychotic experiences in young people are substantially more common than psychotic disorders, and are associated with distress and functional impairment. Family history of depression as well as of schizophrenia increases risk for psychotic experiences, but the prevalence of such experiences and their clinical relevance in offspring of depressed parents is unknown. Our objectives were to explore i) the prevalence of psychotic experiences amongst offspring of parents with recurrent unipolar depression and ii) the relationship between psychotic experiences and other psychopathology. Data were drawn from the 'Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression' longitudinal study of high-risk offspring (aged 9-17 years at baseline) of 337 parents with recurrent depression. Three assessments were conducted over four years. Psychopathology was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Seventy-eight percent of families (n=262) had complete data on psychotic experiences at each of the three time points. During the study, 8.4% (n=22; 95% CI 5.0%, 11.8%) of offspring reported psychotic experiences on at least one occasion, and these were associated with psychiatric disorder, specifically mood and disruptive disorders, and suicidal thoughts/behaviour. Psychotic experiences amongst offspring of depressed parents index a range of psychopathology. Further research is needed to examine their clinical significance and long-term consequences.
Curcio, Frank; Piserchia, Elizabeth Ann
Twenty-four psychotic children (5-15 years old) were required to represent absent objects (e.g. toothbrush) via pantomime after receiving verbal instructions or instructions accompanied by a model demonstrating the pantomime. (Author/CL)
Compton, Michael T.; Broussard, Beth; Ramsay, Claire E.; Stewart, Tarianna
Introduction Limited research indicates that pre-illness cannabis use may result in an earlier age at onset of psychosis, though little is known about the influence of prior cannabis use on the premorbid and prodromal phases. This study examined effects of prior or concurrent cannabis (as well as nicotine and alcohol) use on: (1) early adolescent (12–15 years) premorbid functioning, (2) late adolescent (16–18 years) premorbid functioning, (3) two features of the prodrome, and (4) mode of onset of psychosis. Methods Participants included 109 well-characterized first-episode patients hospitalized in public-sector settings. Assessments included ages at initiation of first, weekly, and daily use of substances, the Premorbid Adjustment Scale, the Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia inventory, and a consensus-based best estimate of mode of onset. Results Participants having used cannabis at ≤15 years had better early adolescence social functioning than those who had not used cannabis (p=0.02). Conversely, those who had used cannabis at ≤18 years had poorer late adolescence academic functioning (p<0.001). Participants having used cannabis before onset of psychotic symptoms did not differ from those who had not in terms of having had an identifiable prodrome or the number of prodromal symptoms experienced. Whereas 42% of those having used cannabis daily had an acute mode of onset of psychosis, only 20% of those without prior daily cannabis use had an acute onset (p=0.04). Conclusions Findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with premorbid social and academic functioning and mode of onset. Further research is warranted to elucidate the complex associations between cannabis use and diverse early-course features. PMID:21036542
Hartford, James T.; Endicott, Jean; Kornstein, Susan G.; Allgulander, Christer; Wohlreich, Madelaine M.; Russell, James M.; Perahia, David G. S.; Erickson, Janelle S.
Objective: To conduct a post hoc evaluation of the prevalence of clinically significant pain and the efficacy of duloxetine in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and concurrent pain. Method: Data from two 9- to 10-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of duloxetine (60 to 120 mg) in DSM-IV–defined GAD were analyzed (study 1 was conducted from July 2004 to September 2005; study 2 was conducted from August 2004 to June 2005). Efficacy was assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement of Illness (CGI-I) scale, the Patient Global Impressions-Improvement (PGI-I) scale, and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) global functional impairment scale. Results: Of 840 patients randomly assigned to treatment, 61.3% (302 duloxetine, 213 placebo) had VAS scores ≥ 30 mm on at least 1 of the pain scales, indicating clinically significant pain. Among those patients with concurrent pain at baseline, change from baseline to endpoint in the HAM-A total score (42.9% change in mean scores for duloxetine, 31.4% for placebo), HADS anxiety scale (40.3% vs. 22.8%), HADS depression scale (36.1% vs. 20.5%), HAM-A psychic factor (45.9% vs. 29.9%), and SDS global functional improvement score (45.5% vs. 22.1%) was significantly (all p's < .001) greater for duloxetine compared with placebo. Improvement on the CGI-I (p = .003) and PGI-I (p < .001) was also significantly greater for duloxetine. Response (HAM-A total score decrease ≥ 50%) (49% vs. 29%) and remission (HAM-A total score ≤ 7 at endpoint) (29% vs. 18%) rates were significantly greater for duloxetine compared with placebo (p < .001 and p = .041, respectively). Duloxetine demonstrated statistically significantly greater reduction in pain on all 6 VAS pain scales (all p's < .001 except headaches with p < .002) (for duloxetine, percent change in means from
Mamah, Daniel; Owoso, Akinkunle; Mbwayo, Anne W.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Muriungi, Susan K.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Barch, Deanna M.; Ndetei, David M.
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been observed worldwide in both adults and children outside the context of a clinical disorder. In the current study, we investigate the prevalence and patterns of PLEs among children and adolescents in Kenya. Among 1,971 students from primary and secondary schools around Nairobi (aged 8-19), 22.1 % reported…
Baylé, Franck Jean; Tessier, Arnaud; Bouju, Sophie; Misdrahi, David
Background Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis. Methods In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity), patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12), treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale), and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale). Results A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia). Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001). Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001). Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence, respectively; P=0.0007), while age <40 years was associated with “low” MAQ classification (P=0.0003). Poor adherence was also associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P=0.0083), more severe disease (Clinical Global Impression – Severity ≥4; P<0.0001), and lower insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
Soeiro-DE-Souza, Márcio G; Dias, Vasco Videira; Missio, Giovanni; Balanzá-Martinez, Vicent; Valiengo, Leandro; Carvalho, André F; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto
The aim of the present review was to discuss the following aspects of treatment with quetiapine in psychiatric disorders: i) Neurocognition and functional recovery in bipolar disorder (BD); ii) neuroprotective profile in different models; and iii) potential off-label indications. A PubMed search was conducted of articles published in English between 2000 and 2012 on quetiapine, cross-referenced with the terms 'anxiety', 'attention deficit disorder', 'borderline personality disorder', 'dementia', 'insomnia', 'major depressive disorder' (MDD), 'obsessive-compulsive disorder', 'post-traumatic stress disorder', 'remission', 'cognition', 'neurobiology', 'neuroprotection', 'efficacy' and 'effectiveness'. Articles were selected from meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and open trials, and the results were summarized. Quetiapine, when studied in off-label conditions, has shown efficacy as a monotherapy in MDD and general anxiety disorder. Quetiapine also appears to exhibit a small beneficial effect in dementia. The review of other conditions was affected by methodological limitations that precluded any definitive conclusions on the efficacy or safety of quetiapine. Overall, the present review shows evidence supporting a potential role for quetiapine in improving cognition, functional recovery and negative symptoms in a cost-effective manner in BD. These benefits of quetiapine are potentially associated with its well-described neuroprotective effects; however, further studies are clearly warranted.
McClellan, Jon M.; And Others
This study of 95 youths previously diagnosed with psychotic disorders found that at follow-up, 24 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 9 with psychotic mood disorders, 5 with personality disorders, and 1 with schizo-affective disorder. The study confirmed findings regarding early onset schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders and emphasized the…
Baratta, Stefano; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio
Objectives. The aim of this naturalistic study was to investigate whether treatment with clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for at least 2 years was associated with a reduction in psychotic and depressive symptoms and an improvement in chronic schizophrenia patients' awareness of their illness. Methods. Twenty-three adult outpatients (15 men and 8 women) treated with clozapine and 23 patients (16 men and 7 women) treated with other atypical antipsychotics were included in the study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and insight was assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Results. The sample as a whole had a significant reduction in positive, negative, and general symptoms, whereas the reduction in depression was significant only for patients with CDSS scores of 5 and higher at the baseline. At the follow-up, patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics reported a greater reduction in depression than patients treated with clozapine, but not when limiting the analyses to those with clinically relevant depression. Conclusions. Atypical antipsychotics may be effective in reducing psychotic and depressive symptoms and in improving insight in patients with chronic schizophrenia, with no differences in the profiles of efficacy between compounds. PMID:23401771
Innamorati, Marco; Baratta, Stefano; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario
Objectives. The aim of this naturalistic study was to investigate whether treatment with clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for at least 2 years was associated with a reduction in psychotic and depressive symptoms and an improvement in chronic schizophrenia patients' awareness of their illness. Methods. Twenty-three adult outpatients (15 men and 8 women) treated with clozapine and 23 patients (16 men and 7 women) treated with other atypical antipsychotics were included in the study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and insight was assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Results. The sample as a whole had a significant reduction in positive, negative, and general symptoms, whereas the reduction in depression was significant only for patients with CDSS scores of 5 and higher at the baseline. At the follow-up, patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics reported a greater reduction in depression than patients treated with clozapine, but not when limiting the analyses to those with clinically relevant depression. Conclusions. Atypical antipsychotics may be effective in reducing psychotic and depressive symptoms and in improving insight in patients with chronic schizophrenia, with no differences in the profiles of efficacy between compounds.
Unique disturbances in symbolisation are characteristic of the pathology of schizophrenia. Drawing on the case vignette of a psychotic adolescent, the author discusses theoretical problems in the symbolisation process in general and then in psychosis, in particular the relation between 'concretism' as a thought disorder and other psychotic defences. The ability to symbolise on the one hand and to maintain sufficiently stable ego boundaries on the other hand are examined in their relation. The author's clinical experience supports her hypothesis that there is a close relationship between the impairment of the symbolisation process in the adolescent or adult psychotic patient and his/her inability to engage in symbolic play as a child. Special attention is paid to the role of early trauma and consequent pathology of object relations for disturbances of symbolic play in childhood. Regression to concrete thinking is understood as the chance of the psychotic patient to give some meaning to reality in an unreal, delusional world and as his/her last chance to communicate at all. Conclusions are drawn for psychoanalytic techniques in the treatment of patients who are deeply regressed in this respect. Special attention is given to the particular circumstances and challenges of adolescence and to providing psychoanalytic psychotherapy to adolescent psychotic patients.
Maccabe, James H.; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip
Background Although psychotic experiences in people without diagnosed mental health problems are associated with mental health service use, few studies have assessed this prospectively or measured service use by real-world clinical data. Aims To describe and investigate the association between psychotic experiences and later mental health service use, and to assess the role of symptoms of common mental health disorders in this association. Method We linked a representative survey of south-east London (SELCoH-1, n=1698) with health records from the local mental healthcare provider. Cox regression estimated the association of PEs with rate of mental health service use. Results After adjustments, psychotic experiences were associated with a 1.75-fold increase in the rate of subsequent mental health service use (hazard ratio (HR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.03–2.97) compared with those without PEs. Participants with PEs experienced longer care episodes compared with those without. Conclusions Psychotic experiences in the general population are important predictors of public mental health need, aside from their relevance for psychoses. We found psychotic experiences to be associated with later mental health service use, after accounting for sociodemographic confounders and concurrent psychopathology. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. PMID:28357132
Jones, Heather A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) evidence many problems in the classroom. Teacher in-service training is routinely used to inform school professionals about a number of special topics; however, the efficacy of such in-service training for ADHD has not been established. The present study examined the efficacy of brief…
Jellinger, Kurt A
Abstract Psychosis has been recognized as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases and a core feature of dementia that worsens most clinical courses. It includes hallucinations, delusions including paranoia, aggressive behaviour, apathy and other psychotic phenomena that occur in a wide range of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, synucleinopathies (Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies), Huntington’s disease, frontotemporal degenerations, motoneuron and prion diseases. Many of these psychiatric manifestations may be early expressions of cognitive impairment, but often there is a dissociation between psychotic/behavioural symptoms and the rather linear decline in cognitive function, suggesting independent pathophysiological mechanisms. Strictly neuropathological explanations are likely to be insufficient to explain them, and a large group of heterogeneous factors (environmental, neurochemical changes, genetic factors, etc.) may influence their pathogenesis. Clinico-pathological evaluation of behavioural and psychotic symptoms (PS) in the setting of neurodegenerative and dementing disorders presents a significant challenge for modern neurosciences. Recognition and understanding of these manifestations may lead to the development of more effective preventive and therapeutic options that can serve to delay long-term progression of these devastating disorders and improve the patients’ quality of life. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and distinctive pathological features underlying the development of PS in neurodegenerative diseases may provide important insights into psychotic processes in general. PMID:21418522
Ursano, Robert J; McKibben, Jodi B A; Reissman, Dori B; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Sampson, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S
There is a paucity of research investigating the relationship of community-level characteristics such as collective efficacy and posttraumatic stress following disasters. We examine the association of collective efficacy with probable posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity in Florida public health workers (n = 2249) exposed to the 2004 hurricane season using a multilevel approach. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically to all Florida Department of Health personnel nine months after the 2004 hurricane season. The collected data were used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder and collective efficacy measured at both the individual and zip code levels. The majority of participants were female (80.42%), and ages ranged from 20 to 78 years (median = 49 years); 73.91% were European American, 13.25% were African American, and 8.65% were Hispanic. Using multi-level analysis, our data indicate that higher community-level and individual-level collective efficacy were associated with a lower likelihood of having posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.93, CI = 0.88-0.98; and OR = 0.94, CI = 0.92-0.97, respectively), even after adjusting for individual sociodemographic variables, community socioeconomic characteristic variables, individual injury/damage, and community storm damage. Higher levels of community-level collective efficacy and individual-level collective efficacy were also associated with significantly lower posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity (b = -0.22, p<0.01; and b = -0.17, p<0.01, respectively), after adjusting for the same covariates. Lower rates of posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with communities with higher collective efficacy. Programs enhancing community collective efficacy may be an important part of prevention practices and possibly lead to a reduction in the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster.
Ursano, Robert J.; McKibben, Jodi B. A.; Reissman, Dori B.; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Sampson, Robert J.; Fullerton, Carol S.
There is a paucity of research investigating the relationship of community-level characteristics such as collective efficacy and posttraumatic stress following disasters. We examine the association of collective efficacy with probable posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity in Florida public health workers (n = 2249) exposed to the 2004 hurricane season using a multilevel approach. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically to all Florida Department of Health personnel nine months after the 2004 hurricane season. The collected data were used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder and collective efficacy measured at both the individual and zip code levels. The majority of participants were female (80.42%), and ages ranged from 20 to 78 years (median = 49 years); 73.91% were European American, 13.25% were African American, and 8.65% were Hispanic. Using multi-level analysis, our data indicate that higher community-level and individual-level collective efficacy were associated with a lower likelihood of having posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.93, CI = 0.88–0.98; and OR = 0.94, CI = 0.92–0.97, respectively), even after adjusting for individual sociodemographic variables, community socioeconomic characteristic variables, individual injury/damage, and community storm damage. Higher levels of community-level collective efficacy and individual-level collective efficacy were also associated with significantly lower posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity (b = −0.22, p<0.01; and b = −0.17, p<0.01, respectively), after adjusting for the same covariates. Lower rates of posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with communities with higher collective efficacy. Programs enhancing community collective efficacy may be an important part of prevention practices and possibly lead to a reduction in the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster. PMID:24523900
Metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 binding in the anterior cingulate cortex in psychotic and nonpsychotic depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: implications for novel mGluR-based therapeutics
Matosin, Natalie; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca; Frank, Elisabeth; Deng, Chao; Wong, Jenny; Huang, Xu-Feng; Newell, Kelly A.
Background Metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGluR2/3) and 5 (mGluR5) are novel therapeutic targets for major depression (MD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. We aimed to determine whether mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 binding in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region essential for the regulation of mood, cognition and emotion, were differentially altered in these pathologies. Methods Using postmortem human brains derived from 2 cohorts, [3H]LY341495 binding to mGluR2/3 and [3H]MPEP binding to mGluR5 were measured by receptor autoradiography in the ACC. The first cohort comprised samples from individuals who had MD with psychosis (MDP), MD without psychosis (MDNP) and matched controls (n = 11–12 per group). The second cohort comprised samples from individuals who had MDNP, BD, schizophrenia and matched controls (n = 15 per group). Results No differences in mGluR2/3 or mGluR5 binding were observed in the MDP, MDNP, BD or schizophrenia groups compared with the control group (all p > 0.05). Importantly, there were also no differences in binding densities between the psychiatric disorders (p > 0.05). We did, however, observe age-related effects, with consistent negative associations between mGluR2/3 and age in the control group (r < −0.575, p < 0.025) and the psychotic disorder groups (MDP and schizophrenia: r = −0.765 to −0.515, p < 0.05), but not in the mood disorder groups (MDNP, BD). Limitations Replication in larger independent cohorts and medication-naive individuals would strengthen these findings. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mGluRs are unaltered in the ACC; however, the presence of altered receptor function cannot be discounted and requires further investigation. Taken together with previous studies, which report differential changes in mGluR2, 3 and 5 across these disorders, we suggest mGluRs may be affected in a brain region–specific manner. PMID:24949866
Goethals, Kris; Buitelaar, Jan; van Marle, Hjalmar
Mentally disordered patients that abuse drugs or alcohol have a larger number of criminal convictions. Early starters who had their first conviction before the age of 18, especially, more often have a diagnosis of substance abuse and are more often intoxicated at the time of the offense compared to late starters. The present study involved four…
Przeworski, Amy; Newman, Michelle G.
Despite the efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety disorders, more than 70% of individuals with anxiety disorders go untreated every year. This is partially due to obstacles to treatment including limited access to mental health services for rural residents, the expense of treatment and the inconvenience of attending weekly…
Becker, Carolyn Black; Ciao, Anna C.; Smith, Lisa M.
Although eating disorders prevention research has begun to produce programs with demonstrated efficacy, many such programs simply target individuals as opposed to engaging broader social systems (e.g., schools, sororities, athletic teams) as participant collaborators in eating disorders prevention. Yet, social systems ultimately will be…
Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise
Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image.
Kegel, Magdalena E; Johansson, Viktoria; Wetterberg, Lennart; Bhat, Maria; Schwieler, Lilly; Cannon, Tyrone D; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Engberg, Göran; Landén, Mikael; Hultman, Christina M; Erhardt, Sophie
Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins. Ratings of psychotic symptoms and personality traits were made using the Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive symptoms, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II Disorders, and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief. A total score for psychotic symptoms and personality traits was constructed for analysis. CSF KYNA was associated with the score for psychotic symptom and personality traits. TNF-α and IL-8 were associated, and the intra-pair differences scores of TNF-α and IL-8 were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations indicated genetic influences on CSF KYNA, TRP, IL-8 and TNF-α. The association between KYNA and psychotic symptoms further supports a role of KYNA in psychotic disorders.
Dimitrakopoulos, S; Kollias, C; Stefanis, N C; Kontaxakis, V
. Current research emphasizes on improving validity of inclusion criteria and formulating personalised and clinical stage- based intervention strategies. In order to do that, early psychosis recognition and intervention services are established throughout the world, trying to contribute in research by applying clinical, cognitive or neuropsychological criteria. Nevertheless, in the majority of so far conducted studies, samples sizes are considered small and duration of follow-up short, which are limitations yet to overcome. Other scientific voices argue that the UHR state might represent a non-specific risk factor for psychiatric disorders in general and not necessarily for psychosis and tend to examine the UHR and early intervention idea under the prism of subthreshold or early mental distress state. Either way, recognizing and intervening early in emerging psychiatric states, especially in those with psychotic or psychotic-like symptomatology, share indisputable benefits under the broader concept of prevention, setting a strong scientific-clinical rationale for service provision to help-seeking people and the possibility of changing the course for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses.
Anderson, George; Maes, Michael
This paper reviews melatonin as an overlooked factor in the developmental etiology and maintenance of schizophrenia; the neuroimmune and oxidative pathophysiology of schizophrenia; specific symptoms in schizophrenia, including sleep disturbance; circadian rhythms; and side effects of antipsychotics, including tardive dyskinesia and metabolic syndrome. Electronic databases, i.e. PUBMED, Scopus and Google Scholar were used as sources for this review using keywords: schizophrenia, psychosis, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotics, metabolic syndrome, drug side effects and melatonin. Articles were selected on the basis of relevance to the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia. Melatonin levels and melatonin circadian rhythm are significantly decreased in schizophrenic patients. The adjunctive use of melatonin in schizophrenia may augment the efficacy of antipsychotics through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Further, melatonin would be expected to improve sleep disorders in schizophrenia and side effects of anti-psychotics, such as tardive dyskinesia, metaboilic syndrome and hypertension. It is proposed that melatonin also impacts on the tryptophan catabolic pathway via its effect on stress response and cortisol secretion, thereby impacting on cortex associated cognition, amygdala associated affect and striatal motivational processing. The secretion of melatonin is decreased in schizophrenia, contributing to its etiology, pathophysiology and management. Melatonin is likely to have impacts on the metabolic side effects of anti-psychotics that contribute to subsequent decreases in life-expectancy.
Douki, S; Taktak, M J; Ben Zineb, S; Cheour, M
A first psychotic episode includes a wide range of disorders with different outcomes: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, brief reactive psychosis, organic psychoses and delusional disorder. The course and outcome of a first psychotic episode is greatly dependent on its initial management. Major clinical, etiopathogenic and therapeutic advances have been achieved in this field and have allowed specific management strategies to be adopted. The primary task of therapists involved in the management of patients who have experienced a first episode of psychosis is promotion of recovery and prevention of secondary morbidity, relapse and persistent disability. The main guidelines of an early psychosis management are:--to keep in mind that early psychosis is not early schizophrenia. Thus, clinicians and therapists should avoid an early diagnosis of schizophrenia. Diagnosis in early psychosis can be highly unstable. A diagnosis of schizophrenia, with its implications of pessimism, relapse and disability, does not contribute anything positive in terms of guiding treatment. On the contrary, such a diagnosis may damage the patient and family by stigmatizing them and affecting the way they are viewed and managed by healthcare professionals.--To integrate biological, psychological and social interventions: effective medications is useful in reducing the risk of relapse, but is not a guarantee against it. Psychological and social interventions can greatly help promote recovery.--To tailor the various strategies to met the needs of an individual: as an example, it is important to formulate appropriate strategies for the different stages of the illness (prodromal phase, acute phase, early recovery phase and late recovery phase) because patients have different therapeutic needs at each stage.--In the acute treatment, not to concentrate on short-term goals in indicating antipsychotic treatment: prescribing
Pinto, Angela Marinilli; Heinberg, Leslie J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Fava, Joseph L; Guarda, Angela S
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the Eating Disorder Recovery Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (EDRSQ), an empirically-derived self-report instrument that assesses confidence to eat without engaging in eating disordered behavior or experiencing undue emotional distress (Normative Eating Self-Efficacy) and confidence to maintain a realistic body image that is not dominated by pursuit of thinness (Body Image Self-Efficacy). Participants were 104 female inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN), subthreshold AN, or underweight bulimia nervosa who were treated at a specialized eating disorder clinic and completed the EDRSQ and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) Drive for Thinness (DT) and Body Dissatisfaction (BD) subscales upon admission. A subset of patients completed the EDRSQ (n=81) and EDI-2 subscales (n=70) following inpatient treatment. Self-efficacy increased significantly during treatment. EDRSQ scores at admission were inversely related to length of hospital stay and posttreatment DT and BD subscales and positively related to partial hospital weight gain rate. The EDRSQ significantly predicted length of hospital stay and posttreatment BD above and beyond clinical indicators and eating disorder psychopathology at inpatient admission. Findings support the validity of the EDRSQ and suggest it is a useful predictor of short-term hospital treatment outcome in underweight eating disorder patients.
Khanzode, Leena A.; Saxena, Kirti; Kraemer, Helena; Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans
Little is known about how deeply medication treatment penetrates different levels of the mind/brain system. Psychopathology consists of relatively simple constructs (e.g., anger, irritability), or complex ones (e.g., responsibility). This study examines the efficacy of a specific compound, divalproex sodium (DVPX), on the various levels of…
Deakin, Julia; Lennox, Belinda
There is a worse prognosis for psychosis and schizophrenia when onset is in childhood or adolescence. However, outcomes are improved with early detection and treatment. Psychotic symptoms can be associated with a variety of disorders including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, personality disorder, epilepsy and autistic spectrum disorder. Positive symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. Negative symptoms include apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self-neglect. The DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia include two or more of the following: hallucinations, delusions, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour and negative symptoms. Adults may raise concerns about social withdrawal, bizarre ideas, a change in behaviour or a decline in achievement. Most children and young people with psychotic symptoms will not go on to develop psychosis or schizophrenia. Direct enquiry may be needed to elicit suspected unusual beliefs or hallucinations. To distinguish unusual ideas from delusions the ideas should be tested for fixity. For example by asking: 'Are you sure? Could there be another explanation?' Mood and anxiety symptoms should be explored. The assessment should include a developmental history with particular attention to premorbid functioning. Failure to make expected progress whether personal, social or academic is significant. Better outcomes in terms of symptoms and social function are associated with a shorter duration of untreated psychosis. The detection of psychotic symptoms in primary care therefore warrants an urgent referral to secondary care mental health services for assessment and treatment.
Zammit, Stanley; Hamshere, Marian; Dwyer, Sarah; Georgiva, Lyudmila; Timpson, Nic; Moskvina, Valentina; Richards, Alexander; Evans, David M; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.
Psychotic experiences are not uncommon in general population samples, but no studies have examined to what extent confirmed risk variants for schizophrenia are associated with such experiences. A total of 3483 children in a birth cohort study participated in semistructured interviews for psychotic experiences at ages 12 and 18. We examined whether (1) a composite measure of risk for schizophrenia conferred by common alleles (polygenic score) was associated with psychotic experiences, (2) variants with genome-wide evidence for association with schizophrenia were associated with psychotic experiences, and (3) we could identify genetic variants for psychotic experiences using a genome-wide association (GWA) approach. We found no evidence that a schizophrenia polygenic score, or variants showing genome-wide evidence of association with schizophrenia, were associated with adolescent psychotic experiences within the general population. In fact, individuals who had a higher number of risk alleles for genome-wide hits for schizophrenia showed a decreased risk of psychotic experiences. In the GWA study, no variants showed GWA for psychotic experiences, and there was no evidence that the strongest hits (P < 5 × 10−5) were enriched for variants associated with schizophrenia in large consortia. Although polygenic scores are weak tools for prediction of schizophrenia, they show strong evidence of association with this disorder. Our findings, however, lend little support to the hypothesis that psychotic experiences in population-based samples of adolescents share a comparable genetic architecture to schizophrenia, or that utilizing a broader and more common phenotype of psychotic experiences will be an efficient approach to increase understanding of the genetic etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:24174267
Background Psychotic depression (PD) is a severe disabling disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Electroconvulsive therapy and pharmacotherapy are each efficacious in the treatment of PD. Expert guidelines recommend the combination of antidepressant and antipsychotic medications in the acute pharmacologic treatment of PD. However, little is known about the continuation treatment of PD. Of particular concern, it is not known whether antipsychotic medication needs to be continued once an episode of PD responds to pharmacotherapy. This issue has profound clinical importance. On the one hand, the unnecessary continuation of antipsychotic medication exposes a patient to adverse effects, such as weight gain and metabolic disturbance. On the other hand, premature discontinuation of antipsychotic medication has the potential risk of early relapse of a severe disorder. Methods/design The primary goal of this multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial is to assess the risks and benefits of continuing antipsychotic medication in persons with PD once the episode of depression has responded to treatment with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic. Secondary goals are to examine age and genetic polymorphisms as predictors or moderators of treatment variability, potentially leading to more personalized treatment of PD. Individuals aged 18-85 years with unipolar psychotic depression receive up to 12 weeks of open-label treatment with sertraline and olanzapine. Participants who achieve remission of psychosis and remission/near-remission of depressive symptoms continue with 8 weeks of open-label treatment to ensure stability of remission. Participants with stability of remission are then randomized to 36 weeks of double-blind treatment with either sertraline and olanzapine or sertraline and placebo. Relapse is the primary outcome. Metabolic changes are a secondary outcome. Discussion This trial will provide clinicians with much-needed evidence to guide the
Johannessen Landmark, Cecilie
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used extensively to treat multiple non-epilepsy disorders, both in neurology and psychiatry. This article provides a review of the clinical efficacy of AEDs in non-epilepsy disorders based on recently published preclinical and clinical studies, and attempts to relate this efficacy to the mechanism of action of AEDs and pathophysiological processes associated with the disorders. Some newer indications for AEDs have been established, while others are under investigation. The disorders where AEDs have been demonstrated to be of clinical importance include neurological disorders, such as essential tremor, neuropathic pain and migraine, and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Many of the AEDs have various targets of action in the synapse and have several proposed relevant mechanisms of action in epilepsy and in other disorders. Pathophysiological processes disturb neuronal excitability by modulating ion channels, receptors and intracellular signalling pathways, and these are targets for the pharmacological action of various AEDs. Attention is focused on the glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. In psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, AEDs such as valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine appear to have clear roles based on their effect on intracellular pathways. On the other hand, some AEDs, e.g. topiramate, have efficacy for nonpsychiatric disorders including migraine, possibly by enhancing GABAergic and reducing glutamatergic neurotransmission. AEDs that seem to enhance GABAergic neurotransmission, e.g. tiagabine, valproate, gabapentin and possibly levetiracetam, may have a role in treating neurological disorders such as essential tremor, or anxiety disorders. AEDs with effects on voltage-gated sodium or calcium channels may be advantageous in treating neuropathic pain, e.g. gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine and valproate. Co
Karsinti, Emily; Jarroir, Marine; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Bloch, Vanessa; Dupuy, Gaël; Belforte, Beatriz; Coeuru, Philippe; Plat, Arnaud; Deschenau, Alice; Cottencin, Olivier; Gay, Aurelia; Lack, Philippe; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Bellivier, Frank; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Brousse, George; Vorspan, Florence
A personal history of childhood trauma has been associated with the severity of psychotic symptoms in several disorders. We evaluated retrospectively cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms with the SAPS-CIP and childhood trauma with the CTQ in a clinical sample of 144 cocaine users. The SAPS-CIP score was not statistically associated with the presence or number or intensity of trauma, but was associated with rapid routes of administration (intravenous and smoked) and with frequent cocaine use.
Lu, Da-Li; Lin, Xiao-Ling
Psychotic symptoms can occur in some clinical conditions related to alcohol, such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a case report of a 24-year-old man, without a known psychiatric history, who developed brief psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol repeatedly. To our knowledge, no related previous literature regarding this has been reported. PMID:27703363
Zullig, Keith J; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Valois, Robert F
Although emotional disorders and disordered eating behaviors are known to be related, the relationship between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and disordered eating is unknown. This study examined the relationship between ESE and disordered eating in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n=2566). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression adjusted for key covariates explored the relationship between low ESE and disordered eating among selected race and gender groups. Self-perceived weight as underweight or overweight; and dieting, vomiting or taking laxatives, taking diet pills, and fasting to lose weight were each associated (p<.05) with lower levels of ESE for certain race/gender groups. Findings provide increased justification for tailoring disordered eating interventions and treatments to accommodate the highest risk groups. Measures of ESE should be considered for adolescent mental health assessments in fieldwork, research, and evaluation efforts.
Hilbert, Anja; Bishop, Monica E.; Stein, Richard I.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Swenson, Anne K.; Welch, R. Robinson; Wilfley, Denise E.
Background The long-term efficacy of psychological treatments for binge eating disorder remains largely unknown. Aims To examine the long-term efficacy of out-patient group cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating disorder and to analyse predictors of long-term non-response. Method Ninety people with binge eating disorder were assessed 4 years after treatment cessation within a randomised trial (trial registration: NCT01208272). Results Participants showed substantial long-term recovery, partial remission, clinically significant improvement and significant reductions in associated psychopathology, despite relapse tendencies in single secondary outcomes. Body mass index remained stable. While the IPT group demonstrated an improvement in eating disorder symptoms over the follow-up period, the CBT group reported a worsening of symptoms, but treatments did not differ at any time point. Conclusions The results document the long-term efficacy of out-patient CBT and IPT for binge eating disorder. Further research is warranted to elucidate the time course and mechanisms of change of these treatments for binge eating disorder. PMID:22282429
Ettinger, B; Telerand, A; Kronenberg, Y; Gaoni, B
"Verbal hallucinations" are sentences that psychotic patients may say repeatedly throughout a conversation which are out of context or unconnected to the topic of conversation. These hallucinations are not the outcome of a remembrance of an experience or an event and do not bring about any emotional relief or catharsis, but they supply valuable information. They resemble Jacques Lacan's description of the psychotic mechanism "Forclusion." This mechanism relates to experiences that did not undergo the process of primary symbolization through language, and experiences where words were attached but were not bound to the language structure. The result being that these experiences did not enter into the unconscious discourse of the subject. This information can reappear as verbal hallucinations in the psychotic patient. In such cases, the therapist, with the assistance of the patient's family, must investigate the meaning of the verbal hallucinations through research into the patient's and family's history in the phase prior to language development. When such a connection is discovered, the therapist must then bridge the hallucinations with the events unknown to the patient but contained in his subconscious. The therapist's role in such cases resembles that of a parent with a child: To translate the subject's experience through language from the physical schema to the body image and symbolic plane and in so doing, give meaning to meaninglessness. In our paper three short clinical cases are presented.
Comorbity is very high in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. PTSD is very often complicated with depressive disorder, substance abuse, other anxiety disorders, personality disorders, psychotic features, etc. There have been few pharmacotherapy studies in this complicated field. In the past few years the literature on pharmacotherapy treatment for PTSD and comorbidity has arisen. From empirical evidence (level A) exist three sertraline studies in PTSD comorbid with: 1) anxiety, 2) depression, and 3) anxiety and depression, and one risperidone study in PTSD comorbid with psychotic symptoms. From empirical evidence (level B) exist two disulfiram, naltrexone, and their combination studies in patients with PTSD comorbid with alcohol dependence and one paroxetine or bupropion versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus community mental health referral study in PTSD women outpatients with major depressive disorder. The results from our label trials in the Croatian war veterans with chronic PTSD comorbid with psychotic features treated with novel antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine) are promising. In the future more rigorously designed, comparative studies are needed to determine the usefulness, efficacy, tolerability, and safety of particular psychopharmaceutical drugs in the treatment of this therapeutically and functionally challenging disorder, especially the trials from level A.
Sullivan, Sarah A.; Hollen, Linda; Wren, Yvonne; Thompson, Andrew D.; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stan
Background Some childhood speech and language impairments precede psychosis but it is not clear whether they also precede adolescent psychotic experiences and whether this association is specific to psychotic experiences. Methods Pragmatic language and expressive speech and language (parent-assessed using the Children's Communication Checklist) at age 9 and psychotic experiences and depression at ages 12 and 18 were investigated in 7659 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Associations were investigated using multivariate modelling. Results Poorer pragmatic language at 9 years was associated with psychotic experiences at both ages (12 years OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.34; 18 years OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.41) but only with depression at 18 years (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22). Poorer expressive speech and language ability was not associated with psychotic experiences or depression at either age. There was evidence that pragmatic language was specifically associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 but no evidence that the strength of any of the associations changed over time. Conclusions Deficits in pragmatic language precede early and late adolescent psychotic experiences and early adolescent depression. Interventions aimed at helping children improve pragmatic language skills may reduce the incidence of adolescent psychopathology and associated psychological disorder and dysfunction later in life. PMID:26972475
Ninan, Philip T
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder that commonly presents comorbidly with other psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology of OCD is associated with circuits involving the basal ganglia, thalamus, and the frontal cortex. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials indicate acute and long-term efficacy of potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine. There is suggestive evidence that higher doses of paroxetine than those used in major depression are needed for benefit in OCD. Because of their safety and beneficial adverse-event profile, the SSRIs have become the leading choice in the pharmacological management of OCD.
Weiss, Jonathan A.; Tint, Ami; Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Lunsky, Yona
Many parents of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulty accessing appropriate services for their children, and may report low levels of parent self-efficacy. In an effort to identify the factors that contribute to the difficulties these families face, this study examined the role of demographic, systemic, and…
Findling, Robert L.; Childress, Ann C.; Cutler, Andrew J.; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Squires, Liza
Objective: To examine lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) efficacy and safety versus placebo in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Adolescents (13 through 17) with at least moderately symptomatic ADHD (ADHD Rating Scale IV: Clinician Version [ADHD-RS-IV] score greater than or equal to 28) were randomized to…
Shillingford, Shani; Karlin, Nancy
This research examined preservice teachers' knowledge of emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their sense of efficacy. The participants included a convenience sample of 230 undergraduate general education and special education preservice teachers enrolled in teacher education classes. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 51 with…
White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence; Oswald, Donald; Albano, Anne Marie
Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint,…
Dobson, Eric T.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.
Background Randomized controlled trials consistently support the efficacy of antidepressants in treating youth with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), although integrated examinations of efficacy, safety, and tolerability of psychotropic medications in GAD specifically are rare. With this in mind, we sought to describe the efficacy, safety and tolerability of psychopharmacologic interventions in youth with GAD. Methods Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective trials of psychopharmacologic interventions in youth with GAD were identified through a PubMed/Medline (1966–2015) search. Both authors manually reviewed trials and, to evaluate comparative efficacy and tolerability across medications, numbers needed to treat (NNT) (based on Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) remission criteria (PARS ≤8 ), and number needed to harm (NNH) for selected treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were calculated. Finally, treatment-emergent suicidality and taper-emergent/post-study adverse events are reported descriptively. Results Five trials that involved 1,186 patients and evaluated four medications were reviewed and efficacy data were extracted with regard to dimensional measures of anxiety. SSRI/SNRIs demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of anxiety symptoms with NNTs ranging from 2.8 to 9.3. TEAEs varied considerably between studies but tended to be mild and generally did not lead to discontinuation. Conclusions Data from five trials of SSRI/SNRI in youth with GAD, many of whom had co-occurring separation and social anxiety disorders, suggest superiority to placebo and favorable tolerability profiles. PMID:26660158
Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter
Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort
Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián
Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es la segunda causa mas importante de discapacidad de origen neurologico en los adultos jovenes. Tanto la sintomatologia fisica como la psiquiatrica (trastornos afectivos y psicoticos) impactan de manera negativa en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los pacientes con EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico la prevalencia y la patogenia de los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos presentes en la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado la prevalencia y la patogenia de la sintomatologia afectiva y psicotica en los pacientes con EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos con la EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento. Conclusiones. La depresion es el trastorno psiquiatrico mas frecuente en la EM. Es necesaria mas investigacion para elucidar los mecanismos subyacentes que pueden provocar sintomas afectivos y psicoticos en la EM. El control de dichos sintomas en los pacientes de EM podria mejorar su calidad de vida relacionada con la salud.
Werbeloff, Nomi; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Yoffe, Rinat; van Os, Jim; Davidson, Michael; Weiser, Mark
Background Psychotic experiences are common in the general population, and predict later psychotic illness. Much less is known about negative symptoms in the general population. Method This study utilized a sample of 4,914 Israel-born individuals aged 25–34 years who were screened for psychopathology in the 1980's. Though not designed to specifically assess negative symptoms, data were available on 9 self-report items representing avolition and social withdrawal, and on 5 interviewer-rated items assessing speech deficits, flat affect and poor hygiene. Psychotic experiences were assessed using the False Beliefs and Perceptions subscale of the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. Psychiatric hospitalization was ascertained 24 years later using a nation-wide psychiatric hospitalization registry. Results After removing subjects with diagnosable psychotic disorders at baseline, 20.2% had at least one negative symptom. Negative symptoms were associated with increased risk of later schizophrenia only in the presence of strong (frequent) psychotic experiences (OR = 13.0, 9% CI: 2.1–79.4). Conclusions Negative symptoms are common in the general population, though the majority of people with negative symptoms do not manifest a clinically diagnosed psychiatric disorder. Negative symptoms and psychotic experiences critically depend on each other’s co-occurrence in increasing risk for later schizophrenia. PMID:25748557
del Valle-López, Pilar; Pérez-García, Rosa; Sanguino-Andrés, Rosa; González-Pablos, Emilio
Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare neurological disorder characterized by pyramidal and extrapyramidal manifestations, dysarthria and dementia. Its onset is usually in childhood and most patients have a fatal outcome in few years. A high percentage of cases are hereditary with a recessive autosomal pattern. In the majority of the patients reported, a mutation of the gene that encodes the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) located in the 20p13-p12.3 chromosome that causes iron storage in the basal ganglia of the brain has been found. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms as well as specific MRI imaging findings. The most common psychiatric features are cognitive impairment as well as depressive symptoms. There are few documented cases with psychotic disorders. We present the case of a patient with late onset Hallervorden-Spatz disease and psychotic symptoms that preceded the development of neurological manifestations. The pathophysiology and the treatment of psychotic symptomatology are presented and discussed. Key words: Psicosis, Hallervorden-Spatz, late onset, Basal ganglia.
Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) as an adjunct to standard psychiatric care can make substantial difference in symptom distress, insight, and adherence to treatment. However, studies on the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy on offending behaviours influenced by psychotic experience are in its very early stage. This paper summarizes the conceptualization, treatment programme development, and individual therapy to address psychotic experience involved in offending behaviours in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). It is argued that, 1) intensive intervention is recommended for those MDOs with general risk factors in addition to psychosis-related-risk factors, 2) MDOs may benefit from CBTp and general offending behaviour programmes, 3) it is important to focus on aggression-neutralization cognitions.
SOEIRO-DE-SOUZA, MÁRCIO G.; DIAS, VASCO VIDEIRA; MISSIO, GIOVANNI; BALANZÁ-MARTINEZ, VICENT; VALIENGO, LEANDRO; CARVALHO, ANDRÉ F.; MORENO, RICARDO ALBERTO
The aim of the present review was to discuss the following aspects of treatment with quetiapine in psychiatric disorders: i) Neurocognition and functional recovery in bipolar disorder (BD); ii) neuroprotective profile in different models; and iii) potential off-label indications. A PubMed search was conducted of articles published in English between 2000 and 2012 on quetiapine, cross-referenced with the terms ‘anxiety’, ‘attention deficit disorder’, ‘borderline personality disorder’, ‘dementia’, ‘insomnia’, ‘major depressive disorder’ (MDD), ‘obsessive-compulsive disorder’, ‘post-traumatic stress disorder’, ‘remission’, ‘cognition’, ‘neurobiology’, ‘neuroprotection’, ‘efficacy’ and ‘effectiveness’. Articles were selected from meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and open trials, and the results were summarized. Quetiapine, when studied in off-label conditions, has shown efficacy as a monotherapy in MDD and general anxiety disorder. Quetiapine also appears to exhibit a small beneficial effect in dementia. The review of other conditions was affected by methodological limitations that precluded any definitive conclusions on the efficacy or safety of quetiapine. Overall, the present review shows evidence supporting a potential role for quetiapine in improving cognition, functional recovery and negative symptoms in a cost-effective manner in BD. These benefits of quetiapine are potentially associated with its well-described neuroprotective effects; however, further studies are clearly warranted. PMID:25667608
Kanaeva, L S; Dashkina, G K
The results of this study showed a high frequency of clinical remission (45.26%) during therapy of 98 patients with non-psychotic depression with escitalopram (lenuxin). However, the majority of patients (81.4%) had symptomatic remission presented with persistent isolated monosymptom of insomnia, anxiety, somatic-autonomic disorders or hypochondria spectrum. The complete recovery of social functioning (functional remission) in all areas (work, communication, family) was observed in 51.16% patients. The relationship between the severity of residual symptoms and functional remission justifies the need to include clinical and subjective indicators in a modern integrative concept of remission. The high efficacy of escitalopram (lenuxin) was combined with its favorable tolerability profile.
Teuber, Isabel; Freiwald, Daniel; Volz, Hans-Peter
Affective disorders and impulsivity are quite common when using anabolic substances, in this case-study one of the rather rare cases of a psychotic disorder following the abuse of androgenic steroids is described. A 30-year old formerly healthy white male was admitted as inpatient to psychiatric hospital showing symptoms of anxiety and paranoid ideation. In the last 1.5 years he had consumed androgenic steroids, directly before the onset of the first psychotic symptoms 8 weeks before admission he had received an i.m.-injection of nandrolone. Under therapy with neuroleptics the patient recovered completely within 2 months.
Daniel, Christina; Lovatt, Anna; Mason, Oliver John
Aims: This study aimed to establish and compare the effects of brief sensory deprivation on individuals differing in trait hallucination proneness. Method: Eighteen participants selected for high hallucination proneness were compared against 18 participants rating low on this trait. The presence of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), and participants’ cognitive appraisals of these, was evaluated in three different settings: at baseline, in a “secluded office” environment, and in light-and-sound sensory deprivation. Results: Psychotic-like experiences were experienced significantly more often in sensory deprivation for both groups. In particular, both experienced slight increases in perceptual distortions and anhedonia in seclusion, and these increased further during sensory deprivation. Highly hallucination prone individuals showed a significantly greater increase in perceptual distortions in sensory deprivation than did non-prone individuals suggesting a state-trait interaction. Their appraisals of these anomalous experiences were compared to both clinical and non-clinical individuals experiencing psychotic symptoms in everyday life. Conclusion: Short-term sensory deprivation is a potentially useful paradigm to model psychotic experiences, as it is a non-pharmacological tool for temporarily inducing psychotic-like states and is entirely safe at short duration. Experiences occur more frequently, though not exclusively, in those at putative risk of a psychotic disorder. The appraisals of anomalous experiences arising are largely consistent with previous observations of non-clinical individuals though importantly lacked the general positivity of the latter. PMID:25177302
König, P; Chwatal, K; Havelec, L; Riedl, F; Schubert, H; Schultes, H
Anticholinergic treatment of neuroleptic extrapyramidal movement disorders (EPS) has been associated with induction of tardive dyskinesia. Also an increasing abuse of anticholinergics by schizophrenic patients is noted. Since as early as 1976, positive effects of amantadine (AMA) on neuroleptic EPS have been described, therefore a controlled study of these reports seemed worthwhile. Forty-two schizophrenic patients (of which 7 were dropouts) of three centers entered the study and were treated for EPS in a double-blind design: 18 (11 m, 7 f) with AMA and 17 (8 m, 9 f) with biperiden (BIP). Identical preparations of AMA 100 mg, tid) and BIP (2 mg, tid) were used in treatment of haloperidol-induced EPS (AMA, mean 22.4 mg haloperidol; BIP, mean 19.6 mg haloperidol). Effects of treatment and possible side effects were rated: EPS for the intensity of EPS, BPRS for quantification of psychotic symptoms, FSUCL for rating the side effects and KUSTA to document patients' mood. Ratings were recorded on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and at discontinuation, respectively. All patients were treated with haloperidol and levomepromazine (for tranquilization/sleep induction) and the respective antiparkinsonian agent for 14 days. Patient characteristics did not differ significantly in either groups. In the AMA treatment group, 2 patients dropped out for noncompliance, in the BIP group, 5 (3 no effect, 1 noncompliance, 1 agitation). All results as recorded with the different rating instruments showed a significant (p < 0.01) overall improvement, whereas no significant differences between treatment groups could be determined, notably the treatment effect of both drugs on EPS was similar. Thus, the application of AMA in cases of neuroleptic EPS seems justified and is a useful alternative of anticholinergic drugs. Certain advantageous aspects of AMA treatment of EPS with regard to the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia and tardive dyskinesia are discussed.
Ronald, Angelica; Sieradzka, Dominika; Cardno, Alastair G.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; McGuire, Philip; Freeman, Daniel
We aimed to characterize multiple psychotic experiences, each assessed on a spectrum of severity (ie, quantitatively), in a general population sample of adolescents. Over five thousand 16-year-old twins and their parents completed the newly devised Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ); a subsample repeated it approximately 9 months later. SPEQ was investigated in terms of factor structure, intersubscale correlations, frequency of endorsement and reported distress, reliability and validity, associations with traits of anxiety, depression and personality, and sex differences. Principal component analysis revealed a 6-component solution: paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms. These components formed the basis of 6 subscales. Correlations between different experiences were low to moderate. All SPEQ subscales, except Grandiosity, correlated significantly with traits of anxiety, depression, and neuroticism. Scales showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. Girls endorsed more paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization; boys reported more grandiosity and anhedonia and had more parent-rated negative symptoms. As in adults at high risk for psychosis and with psychotic disorders, psychotic experiences in adolescents are characterized by multiple components. The study of psychotic experiences as distinct dimensional quantitative traits is likely to prove an important strategy for future research, and the SPEQ is a self- and parent-report questionnaire battery that embodies this approach. PMID:24062593
Proskynesis as an expression of submission, reverence and awe is deeply rooted in the religious and sociocultural history of man. It may be traced to the old phylogenetic submissive posture in animals, which is a pattern of behavior belonging to the group of survival instincts. Different forms of proskyneses and servility may emerge as an expression of psychotic behavior in man, reflecting a special stage of "archetypical" (C.G. Jung) consciousness. Archetypical conciousness is understood as a special step in the emergence of the human mind, thought and self-consciousness. The freedom of thinking--as the highest function of the human mind--is lost in every psychotic disorder. Archetypical consciousness with its lower stages of thinking may be typical for one kind of psychotic thinking disorder. Diagnostic problems may arise, if one does not recognize the drive of instinctive behaviour which lies behind the mere forms of human costums and religious rites.
Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Sugawara, Hiroko; Ito, Ryoko; Asano, Mizuho; Shimizu, Satoru; Ishigooka, Jun; Nishimura, Katsuji
Background Mirtazapine, which is classified as a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, is widely prescribed for the treatment of major depressive disorder. The potential predictive factors of the efficacy of mirtazapine and the tolerability based on the incidence of oversedation and jitteriness/anxiety syndrome were evaluated. Patients and methods Patients with major depressive disorder were retrospectively investigated. Study subjects comprised 68 patients with depression who received mirtazapine as an initial antidepressant at the Department of Psychiatry of the Tokyo Women’s Medical University Hospital from September 2009 to March 2013. The efficacy of mirtazapine monotherapy was evaluated based on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement score. Clinical characteristics were compared between remission and nonremission groups to determine the factors predicting the efficacy. Moreover, discontinuation rates due to adverse effects, including oversedation and jitteriness/anxiety syndrome, were examined, and the effects of confounding factors were evaluated. Results The remission rate of mirtazapine monotherapy was 36.8% among the 68 enrolled subjects. The mean final doses in the remission and nonremission groups were 27.6±13.5 mg and 26.0±14.1 mg, respectively, and there was no significant difference between them. Multiple logistic analyses revealed that the absence of guilt (odds ratio [OR] =0.15; 95% CI [1.66–37.24], P=0.006) and the presence of psychomotor retardation (OR =4.30; 95% CI [1.30–16.60], P=0.016) were significantly related to the efficacy of mirtazapine monotherapy. The discontinuation rates due to oversedation and jitteriness/anxiety syndrome were 13.2% and 11.8%, respectively. Age did not differ significantly between patients with or without oversedation or jitteriness/anxiety syndrome (P=0.078 and P=0.579, respectively). Conclusion The absence of guilt and the presence of psychomotor retardation may predict the efficacy
Wu, Yanqiu; Lang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Haitao
Background Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychological anxiety disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective therapy for OCD, but the evaluation results from various studies are inconsistent and incomprehensive. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of CBT in treatment of OCD. Material/Methods A literature search identified 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The efficacy of CBT on OCD was evaluated by comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) scores. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was generated for the statistical evaluation. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 index. Results A decrease in WMD and a statistical significance (p<0.0001) in both CY-BOCS and CGI scores between pre- and post-CBT treatment were observed in both overall database (−11.73) and USA subgroup (−11.371), which indicates a dramatic relief of OCD symptoms after CBT treatment. Heterogeneity was detected in overall database and USA subgroup, which resulted in an application of the random-effects model to both groups. Publication bias was examined by both Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test and no publication bias was detected. Conclusions We concluded that CBT is efficacious in treating children’s OCD. PMID:27182928
Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Brenninkmeijer, Veerle; Blonk, Roland W B; Twisk, Jos; Schaufeli, Wilmar B
To improve interventions that aim to promote return to work (RTW) of workers with common mental disorders (CMD), insight into modifiable predictors of RTW is needed. This study tested the predictive value of self-efficacy change for RTW in addition to preintervention levels of self-efficacy. RTW self-efficacy was measured 5 times within 9 months among 168 clients of a mental healthcare organisation who were on sick leave due to CMD. Self-efficacy parameters were modelled with multilevel analyses and added as predictors into a Cox regression analysis. Results showed that both high baseline self-efficacy and self-efficacy increase until full RTW were predictive of a shorter duration until full RTW. Both self-efficacy parameters remained significant predictors of RTW when controlled for several relevant covariates and within subgroups of employees with either high or low preintervention self-efficacy levels. This is the first study that demonstrated the prognostic value of self-efficacy change, over and above the influence of psychological symptoms, for RTW among employees with CMD. By showing that RTW self-efficacy increase predicted a shorter duration until full RTW, this study points to the relevance of enhancing RTW self-efficacy in occupational or mental health interventions for employees with CMD. Efforts to improve self-efficacy appear valuable both for people with relatively low and high baseline self-efficacy.
Accurate identification of individuals in the earliest symptomatic stages of psychosis offers perhaps the best hope for more effective treatment strategies. Recently, research clinics have been set up to identify and possibly treat individuals who are seen as being at high risk of a psychotic disorder. However, there have been concerns about beginning treatment at this stage. We need to address these concerns so that individuals who are at risk of psychosis come to no harm, yet the development of potential interventions is not delayed. This article briefly reviews some of the newer developments and concerns in this area of psychosis research. PMID:12670126
Famularo, Richard; And Others
This study of 117 severely abused children found that 35% exhibited evidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that PTSD was correlated with attention deficit disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, suicidal ideation, and mood disorders. (CR)
Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been associated with acute psychosis, catatonic schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders by previous inconclusive reports. A particularly disproportionate rate of enzyme deficiency was found in manic schizoaffective patients from 662 lithium patients surveyed in Sardinia. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical characteristics which may be potentially associated with G6PD deficiency. Methods Characteristics of episodes, course of illness, family pattern of illness, laboratory tests, and treatment response of 29 G6PD-deficient subjects with a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of manic schizoaffective disorder were abstracted from available records. Results The most peculiar pattern was that of acute recurrent psychotic manic episodes, mostly characterized by loosening of associations, agitation, catatonic symptoms, and/or transient confusion, concurrent hyperbilirubinemia, positive psychiatric family history, and partial response to long-term lithium treatment. Conclusions A relationship between psychiatric disorder and G6PD deficiency is to be searched in the bipolar spectrum, particularly among patients with a history of acute episodes with psychotic and/or catatonic symptoms or with transient confusion. PMID:12844366
Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…
Wigal, Sharon B
There have been major advances in the treatment and understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last decade. Among these are the availability of newer stimulant formulations, an appreciation of the combined effects of medication and behavioural therapies, and a better understanding of the neurobiology of the disorder in children (aged 6-12 years), adolescents and adults. This article focuses on the evaluation of the efficacy and safety profiles of medications used for the management of ADHD. In assessing the various medical treatments for ADHD, certain issues and analyses have become important to address. The diagnosis, characterization and quantification of ADHD symptoms are crucial to assessing treatment effectiveness. A standardized setting for measuring the severity of ADHD symptoms is the laboratory school protocol, which simulates a school environment with tightly controlled timing of measurements. This method has been adapted successfully to the adult workplace environment to help with the evaluation of adult ADHD symptoms. Statistical analyses, such as effect size and number needed to treat, may aid in the comparison and interpretation of ADHD study results. Although an objective approach to evaluating the efficacy and safety profiles of the available medications provides necessary details about the medical options, typical clinical decisions are often based on trial and error and may be individualized based on a patient's daily routine, comorbidities and risk factors. Stimulants remain the US FDA-approved medical treatment of choice for patients with ADHD and are associated with an exceptional response rate. Findings of the Multimodal Treatment of Children With ADHD study suggest that the combination of behavioural and medical therapy may benefit most patients. Nonstimulant agents, such as atomoxetine (FDA-approved), and several non-approved agents, bupropion, guanfacine and clonidine, may offer necessary alternatives to the
Dinecola, Cassie M; Lemieux, Catherine M
Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been on the rise, and the need for knowledgeable and competent professionals is dire. However, few social workers enter the field of ASDs. Rooted in social cognitive theory, this study examined the extent to which knowledge, interest, contact, and training predicted master's in social work students' self-efficacy in working with individuals with ASDs. Approximately 18% of the variance was explained (R(2) = .18, p < .001), with knowledge and contact predicting a significant proportion of the variance. Implications for social work practice and education are discussed.
Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard
Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435
Lehmann, Jennifer; Gracious, Barbara L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Young, Andrea S.; Fristad, Mary A.
Abstract Objectives: Therapeutic benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (Ω3) for mood disorders, psychosis, and anxiety have been reported in the literature. The purpose of the present article is to provide a literature review of Ω3 supplementation for affective disorders and to illustrate the benefits of Ω3 with a case presentation of a young girl with a history of bipolar disorder-type 1 with psychotic features and generalized anxiety disorder. Methods: Reviewed literature includes treatment studies of the impact of Ω3 on child mood disorders supplemented by review of meta-analyses within the adult mood disorders literature. The subject of this case report participated in 11 in-depth diagnostic and functional assessments over 5 years as part of an unrelated study. Three years were presupplementation and 2 years were with supplementation with no other medication changes, thus making a naturalistic multiple-baseline single-subject experiment. Results: Augmentation over a 2 year period was notable for clinically significant and sustained improvement in depressive, manic, and psychotic symptoms. Conclusion: Ω3 supplementation may be a safe, adjunct intervention for treating bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, even in the presence of psychotic and anxious features. The 2 year follow-up in this case offers hope of an accumulating and enduring benefit. Further research into mechanisms of Ω3 action and of combination treatment with other well-known interventions for mood disorders would be beneficial. PMID:26288263
Nukala, Srikrishna; Palla, Jayasree; Nambaru, Lakshmana Rao; Kasturi, Satyanarayana Murthy
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by episodes of depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feeling of guilt or low self-esteem, loss of energy, altered sleep patterns and difficulty in concentration. Objective This study was carried out to compare the efficacy and safety of Agomelatine with Escitalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Design and Setting This is a prospective study conducted at Outpatient Department of Psychiatry, GSL Medical College & General hospital, Rajahmundry, India. Materials and Methods Patients with newly diagnosed major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR) with minimum score of 20 in Hamilton depression rating scale were randomly assigned Agomelatine (25-50 mg/day) or Escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) for a period of 8 weeks. The main efficacy outcome considered was the mean change of HAM-D17 score from baseline to end of therapy. Secondary outcome measures were Clinical Global Impressions–improvement (CGI) and severity (CGI-S) rating scales. Statistical Analysis Student t-test was used for comparing the groups and chi-square test was used for assessing the qualitative variables. For all statistical analysis p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The drugs under study effectively reduced depressive symptoms at all the time points. The percentage of responders at 8weeks (last post baseline value) was 65.38% with Agomelatine and 57.40% with Escitalopram. The difference between the drugs was statistically not significant in all evaluations (p>0.05). The mean CGI-S and CGI-I scores were decreased in both the groups (p<0.05) and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups at any assessment during the study period. Both the treatment groups showed favourable safety profile. Conclusion The study results supported that Agomelatine is therapeutically similar to Escitalopram in terms of antidepressant effect. PMID:26266196
Congiu, Chiara; Minelli, Alessandra; Bonvicini, Cristian; Bortolomasi, Marco; Sartori, Riccardo; Maj, Carlo; Scassellati, Catia; Maina, Giuseppe; Trabucchi, Luigi; Segala, Matilde; Gennarelli, Massimo
Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the KCNK2 gene were investigated for their association with major depressive disorder (MDD) and treatment efficacy in 590 MDD patients and 441 controls. The A homozygotes of rs10779646 were significantly more frequent in patients than controls whereas G allele of rs7549184 was associated with the presence of psychotic symptoms and the severity of disease. Evaluating the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) dataset, we confirmed our findings.
Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S.
Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12–17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24247740
Objective. To discuss the link between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and the main biological alterations demonstrated in bipolar disorder (BD), with special attention to the redox status and the evidence supporting the efficacy of lithium (a GSK3 inhibitor) in the treatment of BD. Methods. A literature research on the discussed topics, using Pubmed and Google Scholar, has been conducted. Moreover, a manual selection of interesting references from the identified articles has been performed. Results. The main biological alterations of BD, pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, membrane ion channels, and circadian system, seem to be intertwined. The dysfunction of the GSK3 signalling pathway is involved in all the aforementioned “biological causes” of BD. In a complex scenario, it can be seen as the common denominator linking them all. Lithium inhibition of GSK3 could, at least in part, explain its positive effect on these biological dysfunctions and its superiority in terms of clinical efficacy. Conclusions. Deepening the knowledge on the molecular bases of BD is fundamental to identifying the biochemical pathways that must be targeted in order to provide patients with increasingly effective therapeutic tools against an invalidating disorder such as BD. PMID:27630757
Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S
Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (P<0.05) for vilazodone treatment compared with placebo as early as Week 1 and continued throughout double-blind treatment. Vilazodone treatment compared with placebo showed significant improvement on all 10 individual MADRS symptom items at end of treatment (P<0.01). Rates of response and remission were significantly greater in the vilazodone group relative to the placebo group, with numbers needed to treat ranging from eight to nine for response and 12-17 for remission. Between-group treatment differences in MADRS and the other outcome measures were similar among all depression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Narcolepsy is an uncommon chronic, neurological disorder characterized by abnormal manifestations of rapid eye movement sleep and perturbations in the sleep-wake cycle. Accurate diagnosis of psychotic symptoms in a person with narcolepsy could be difficult due to side effects of stimulant treatment (e.g., hallucinations) as well as primary symptoms of narcolepsy (e.g., sleep paralysis and hypnagogic and/or hypnapompic hallucinations). Pertinent articles from peer-reviewed journals were identified to help understand the complex phenomenology of psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. In this ensuing review and discussion, we present an overview of narcolepsy and outline diagnostic and management approaches for psychotic symptoms in patients with narcolepsy. PMID:19724760
Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.
Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms
Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Wehry, Anna M.; Keeshin, Brooks R.; Rynn, Moira A.
Background Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated that antidepressants are efficacious in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. However, there are no recent, systematic analyses of the efficacy, safety or tolerability of these medications in pediatric anxiety disorders. With this in mind, we sought to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled-trials of antidepressants in these conditions. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) in pediatric patients with non-OCD anxiety disorders was undertaken using a search of PubMed/Medline (1966–2014). The meta-analysis utilized random-effects models to evaluate change in the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale or similar anxiety scale, suicidality and adverse events. Additionally, a series of pharmacologic variables (e.g., serotonin binding) were explored with regard to effect size. Results Data were included from 9 trials involving 1,673 patients and 6 medications, including 5 SSRIs and 3 SSNRI trials. All SSRI/SSNRIs evaluated demonstrated significant efficacy, and the meta-analytic summary estimate was of moderate magnitude (Cohen's d=0.64, confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.96, p=0.0017) and there was evidence of modest heterogenity (I2=0.26, p=0.107). Activation trended towards being more likely with antidepressant treatment (OR: 1.86, CI: 0.98–3.53, p=.054), but no increased risk was observed for nausea/abdominal symptoms (p=0.262) or discontinuation as a result of an adverse event (p=0.132). Treatment-emergent suicidality did not differ between antidepressant-treated youth and those who received placebo (OR: 1.3, CI: 0.53–3.2, p=0.514). Conclusions Data for 9 SSRI/SSNRIs suggest superiority to placebo for the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders with a moderate effect size
Itil, T M; Simeon, J; Coffin, C
The EEGs of hospitalized psychotic boys were analyzed quantitatively by means of visual evaluation, analog frequency analysis, and digital computer period analysis and were compared with those of age- and sex-matched normals. Visual evaluation of the records demonstrated that psychotic children have significantly more beta activity as well as fewer alpha bursts than normal controls. EEG analog frequency analysis showed that psychotic children have a greater percentage of total voltage in the 3-5 cps and 13-33 cps bands, while they show less voltage in the 6-12 cps bands as compared with normal controls. Digital computer period analysis demonstrated more slow, less alpha, and more fast activity, as well as a greater average frequency and frequency deviation in both the primary wave and first derivative measurements in psychotic children than normals, while normals showed a trend towards higher amplitude and amplitude variability. The similarity of the EEG differences between psychotic and normal children to those differences observed between adult chronic schizophrenics and normals, as well as to those between children of "high risk" for becoming schizophrenic and controls, suggests that the above described findings are characteristic for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Watanabe, Yoshinori; Hongo, Seiji
Background We investigated whether the long-term efficacy and safety of lamotrigine (LTG) for bipolar disorder (BP) differs between disease types (BP-I, BP-II, or BP not otherwise specified [BP-NOS]), and the efficacy of the concomitant use of antidepressants (ADs). Methods For >1 year, we observed 445 outpatients with BP (diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria) who initiated LTG treatment between July 1 and October 31, 2011, using the Himorogi Self-rating Depression (HSDS) and Anxiety Scales and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale and also recorded adverse events. Results Treatment efficacy was observed at week 4, with the improved HSDS scores sustained until week 52 for all types of BP; 50% of the patients with any type of BP could be treated with LTG for 1 year, whereas ~40% could be treated for >1.5 years. However, 25% of the patients were withdrawn within the first 4 weeks. The overall incidence of adverse events was 22.9% (104/455): 34.1% (14/41) for BP-I, 22.7% (15/66) for BP-II, and 22.2% (75/338) for BP-NOS. The most common adverse event was skin rash: 22.0% for BP-I, 16.7% for BP-II, and 12.1% for BP-NOS. Limitations There was no control group. Data were collected retrospectively. Conclusion With careful and adequate titration, long-term treatment with LTG is possible for any type of BP, with BP-NOS patients, the largest population in clinical practice, responding particularly well. Symptoms can improve with or without ADs. Large-scale prospective studies of the efficacy of ADs in bipolar treatment are warranted. PMID:28360522
Bate, Karina S; Malouff, John M; Thorsteinsson, Einar T; Bhullar, Navjot
A meta-analysis based on 575 participants in 18 studies found Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT) to be an efficacious intervention for a wide variety of maladaptive repetitive behaviors, including stuttering, tics, nail biting, temporomandibular disorder, thumb sucking, and mixed repetitive oral-digital habits. Compared to control conditions, HRT showed a large effect size pre-treatment to final post-treatment assessment, d=0.80. Moderator analyses revealed significant treatment effects for HRT for most moderator levels, indicating that HRT is efficacious in a number of variations for a variety of types of maladaptive behaviors, across a wide range of sample characteristics. The findings provide substantial support for the efficacy of HRT for disorders it is commonly used to treat. The findings are consistent with recent arguments for the classification of HRT as a well-established treatment for tic and habit disorders.
Moylan, Steven; Staples, John; Ward, Stephanie Alison; Rogerson, Jan; Stein, Dan J; Berk, Michael
We performed a meta-analysis of all single- or double-blind, randomized controlled trials comparing alprazolam to another benzodiazepine in the treatment of adult patients meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third or Fourth Edition, criteria for panic disorder or agoraphobia with panic attacks. Eight studies met inclusion criteria, describing a total of at least 631 randomized patients. In the pooled results, there were no significant differences in efficacy between alprazolam and the comparator benzodiazepines on any of the prespecified outcomes: improvement in mean panic attack frequency (between-arm weighted mean difference of 0.6 panic attacks per week; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.3 to 1.6), improvement in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score (weighted mean difference of 0.8 points; 95% CI, -0.5 to 2.1), and proportion of patients free of panic attacks at the final evaluation (pooled relative risk, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.4). Statistical heterogeneity on prespecified outcomes was not eliminated by stratification on baseline anxiety level. The available evidence fails to demonstrate alprazolam as superior to other benzodiazepines for the treatment of panic disorder.
Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Vrbova, Kristyna
Background Approximately 30%–60% of patients with neurotic spectrum disorders remain symptomatic despite treatment. Identifying the predictors of good response to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatment may be useful for increasing treatment efficacy in neurotic patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hope, coping strategies, and dissociation on the treatment response of this group of patients. Methods Pharmacoresistant patients, who underwent a 6-week psychotherapeutic program, were enrolled in the study. All patients completed the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) – both objective and subjective forms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II at baseline and after 6 weeks. The COPE Inventory, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) were completed at the start of the treatment. Results Seventy-six patients completed the study. The mean scores for all scales measuring the severity of the disorders (BAI, BDI-II, subjective and objective CGI) significantly decreased during the treatment. Several subscores of the COPE Inventory, the overall score of ADHS, and the overall score of DES significantly correlated with the treatment outcome. Multiple regression was used to find out which factors were the most significant predictors of the therapeutic outcomes. The most important predictors of the treatment response were the overall levels of hope and dissociation. Conclusion According to our results, a group of patients with a primary neurotic disorder, who prefer the use of maladaptive coping strategies, feel hopelessness, and have tendencies to dissociate, showed poor response to treatment. PMID:26028972
Kim, Byeong-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hoon
[Purpose] The aim of this paper was to report the efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery from wrist pain and limited range of motion (ROM) in a physical therapist with repetitive strain injuries. [Subjects] A 32 year-old male physical therapist developed recurring severe pain in the dominant wrist and limited active ROM with extremely painful supination. [Methods] The kinesiology tape was applied to the lumbricals, musculi interossei dorsales, palmares, the wrist extensor and flexor muscles, and the wrist joint for 3 weeks for an average of 10 h/day. [Results] After application of the kinesiology tape, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation scores decreased, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale score increased in comparison with the initial score. [Conclusion] Repeated kinesiology taping of the wrist muscles and joint could be an effective method for recovery from occupational wrist disorders experienced by physical therapists. PMID:25013301
Secades-Álvarez, Adrián; Fernández-Rodríguez, Concepción
The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of different psychological and pharmacological interventions used in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder and substance abuse, in order to determine their efficacy. A review of the current literature was performed using the databases Medline and PsycINFO (2005-2015). A total of 30 experimental studies were grouped according to the type of therapeutic modality described (pharmacological 19; psychological 11). Quetiapine and valproate have demonstrated superiority on psychiatric symptoms and a reduction in alcohol consumption, respectively. Group psychological therapies with education, relapse prevention and family inclusion have also been shown to reduce the symptomatology and prevent alcohol consumption and dropouts. Although there seems to be some recommended interventions, the multicomponent base, the lack of information related to participants during treatment, experimental control or the number of dropouts of these studies suggest that it would be irresponsible to assume that there are well established treatments.
Durand, V. Mark; Crimmins, Daniel B.
Analysis of the psychotic speech of a nine-year-old autistic boy suggested that psychotic speech (intelligible but out of context phrases) was maintained through escape from task demands and that teaching an appropriate equivalent phrase ("Help me") reduced the frequency of psychotic speech. (Author/DB)
Martínez Zapata, María José; Solà, Ivan; Stojanovic, Zoran; Uriona Tuma, Sonia Maria; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier
Abstract Background: Acupuncture is being used increasingly to treat gynecologic and obstetric disorders. Objective: The aim of this review was to determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating pelvic and low-back pain during pregnancy, pain during labor, primary dysmenorrhea, and menopausal symptoms. Design: This is an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Search strategy: A literature search was conducted, in July 2010, in MEDLINE,® the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Tripdatabase. Selection criteria: Published SRs and RCTs found during the literature search were included as well as RCTs that were published after completion of the literature search. Analysis: Data from SRs and RCTs that provided quantitative information were pooled. Results: Eight SRs and nine RCTs were included. One SR and 4 RCTs showed that acupuncture reduced pelvic and low-back pain, compared to physiotherapy or usual prenatal care. Results were contradictory when interventions were compared with sham acupuncture. With respect to reduction of pain during labor, two SRs showed no differences between acupuncture and sham acupuncture. None of the three SRs included on primary dysmenorrhea produced conclusive results. Two SRs of studies on menopausal symptoms showed no differences between acupuncture and sham acupuncture. A meta-analysis of three additional RCTs identified a favorable effect of acupuncture for reducing frequency and intensity of hot flashes. Adverse effects were mild and infrequent. Conclusions: Evidence for the efficacy of needle acupuncture for treating the disorders evaluated remains inconclusive. The intervention showed promising results for reducing pelvic and back pain during pregnancy and climacteric vasomotor symptoms, although well-designed studies are needed to make the results more precise and reliable. PMID:24761184
Wenn, Jenine; O'Connor, Moira; Breen, Lauren J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S
Introduction Studies of effective psychotherapy for individuals suffering from the effects of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) are scarce. This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation of a metacognitive therapy programme designed specifically for PGD, to reduce the psychological distress and loss of functioning resulting from bereavement. Methods and analysis The proposed trial comprises three phases. Phase 1 consists of a review of the literature and semistructured interviews with key members of the target population to inform the development of a metacognitive therapy programme for Prolonged Grief. Phase 2 involves a randomised controlled trial to implement and evaluate the programme. Male and female adults (N=34) will be randomly assigned to either a wait list or an intervention group. Measures of PGD, anxiety, depression, rumination, metacognitions and quality of life will be taken pretreatment and posttreatment and at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up. The generalised linear mixed model will be used to assess treatment efficacy. Phase 3 will test the social validity of the programme. Discussion This study is the first empirical investigation of the efficacy of a targeted metacognitive treatment programme for PGD. A focus on identifying and changing the metacognitive mechanisms underpinning the development and maintenance of prolonged grief is likely to be beneficial to theory and practice. Ethics Ethics approval was obtained from Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval number HR 41/2013.) Trial registration number ACTRN12613001270707. PMID:26646828
Koppel, Barbara S.; Brust, John C.M.; Fife, Terry; Bronstein, Jeff; Youssof, Sarah; Gronseth, Gary; Gloss, David
Objective: To determine the efficacy of medical marijuana in several neurologic conditions. Methods: We performed a systematic review of medical marijuana (1948–November 2013) to address treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, and movement disorders. We graded the studies according to the American Academy of Neurology classification scheme for therapeutic articles. Results: Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria; 8 were rated as Class I. Conclusions: The following were studied in patients with MS: (1) Spasticity: oral cannabis extract (OCE) is effective, and nabiximols and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are probably effective, for reducing patient-centered measures; it is possible both OCE and THC are effective for reducing both patient-centered and objective measures at 1 year. (2) Central pain or painful spasms (including spasticity-related pain, excluding neuropathic pain): OCE is effective; THC and nabiximols are probably effective. (3) Urinary dysfunction: nabiximols is probably effective for reducing bladder voids/day; THC and OCE are probably ineffective for reducing bladder complaints. (4) Tremor: THC and OCE are probably ineffective; nabiximols is possibly ineffective. (5) Other neurologic conditions: OCE is probably ineffective for treating levodopa-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson disease. Oral cannabinoids are of unknown efficacy in non–chorea-related symptoms of Huntington disease, Tourette syndrome, cervical dystonia, and epilepsy. The risks and benefits of medical marijuana should be weighed carefully. Risk of serious adverse psychopathologic effects was nearly 1%. Comparative effectiveness of medical marijuana vs other therapies is unknown for these indications. PMID:24778283
Metcalf, Olivia; Varker, Tracey; Forbes, David; Phelps, Andrea; Dell, Lisa; DiBattista, Ashley; Ralph, Naomi; O'Donnell, Meaghan
Although there is an abundance of novel interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), often their efficacy remains unknown. This systematic review assessed the evidence for 15 new or novel interventions for the treatment of PTSD. Studies that investigated changes to PTSD symptoms following the delivery of any 1 of the 15 interventions of interest were identified through systematic literature searches. There were 19 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this study. Eligible studies were assessed against methodological quality criteria and data were extracted. The majority of the 19 studies were of poor quality, hampered by methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes and lack of control group. There were 4 interventions, however, stemming from a mind-body philosophy (acupuncture, emotional freedom technique, mantra-based meditation, and yoga) that had moderate quality evidence from mostly small- to moderate-sized randomized controlled trials. The active components, however, of these promising emerging interventions and how they related to or were distinct from established treatments remain unclear. The majority of emerging interventions for the treatment of PTSD currently have an insufficient level of evidence supporting their efficacy, despite their increasing popularity. Further well-designed controlled trials of emerging interventions for PTSD are required.
Coben, Robert; Myers, Thomas E
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication, social interaction, and a limited range of interests with repetitive stereotypical behavior. Various abnormalities have been documented in the brains of individuals with autism, both anatomically and functionally. The connectivity theory of autism is a recently developed theory of the neurobiological cause of autisic symptoms. Different patterns of hyper- and hypo-connectivity have been identified with the use of quantitative electroencephalogray (QEEG), which may be amenable to neurofeedback. In this study, we compared the results of two published controlled studies examining the efficacy of neurofeedback in the treatment of autism. Specifically, we examined whether a symptom based approach or an assessment/connectivity guided based approach was more effective. Although both methods demonstrated significant improvement in symptoms of autism, connectivity guided neurofeedback demonstrated greater reduction on various subscales of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Furthermore, when individuals were matched for severity of symptoms, the amount of change per session was significantly higher in the Coben and Padolsky (J Neurother 11:5-23, 2007) study for all five measures of the ATEC. Our findings suggest that an approach guided by QEEG based connectivity assessment may be more efficacious in the treatment of autism. This permits the targeting and amelioration of abnormal connectivity patterns in the brains of people who are autistic.
Site-specific drug delivery to bone is considered achievable using acidic amino acid (L-Asp or L-Glu) homopeptides known as acidic oligopeptides. We found that fluorescence-labeled acidic oligopeptides containing six or more residues bound strongly to hydroxyapatite, which is a major component of bone, and were selectively delivered to and retained in bone after systemic administration. We explored the applicability of this result for drug delivery by conjugation of estradiol and levofloxacin with an L-Asp hexapeptide. We also similarly tagged enzymes (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase) and decoy receptors (endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end products and etanercept) to assess whether these would improve therapeutic efficacy. The L-Asp hexapeptide-tagged drugs, including enzymes and decoy receptors, were efficiently delivered to bone in comparison with the untagged drugs. An in vivo experiment confirmed the efficacy of L-Asp hexapeptide-tagged drugs on bone and joint disorders, although there was some loss of bioactivity of estradiol and levofloxacin in vitro, suggesting that the acidic hexapeptide was partly removed by hydrolysis in the body after delivery to bone. It was expected that the ester linkage to the hexapeptide would be susceptible to hydrolysis in situ, releasing the drug from the acidic oligopeptide. These results support the usefulness of acidic oligopeptides as bone-targeting carriers for therapeutic agents. We present some pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties of the L-Asp hexapeptide-tagged drugs.
Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Nemoianni, Eugenio
Psychosocial rehabilitation and in particular group dances allow the recovery of lost or compromised ability of patients with mental illness, and they facilitate their reintegration into the social context. The dance group has enabled users of the Day Centre of the Unit of Mental Health Torre del Greco ASL NA 3 south to achieve the objectives of rehabilitation such as: taking care of themselves, of their bodies and their interests, improving self-esteem , the management of pathological emotions, socialization and integration, overcoming the psychotic closing and relational isolation. In particular, patients with schizophrenia, psychotic and mood disorders had a concrete benefit from such rehabilitation activities, facilitating interpersonal relationships, therapy compliance and significantly improved mood, quality of life, providing them with the rhythm and the security in their relationship with each other. The dance group and for some individuals, also psychotherapy and drug therapy, have facilitated social inclusion, improved the quality of life and cured their diseases. The work is carrying out in a group with patients, practitioners, family members, volunteers, social community workers, following the operating departmental protocols. Using the chorus group "Sing that you go" as an operational tool for psychosocial rehabilitation and therapeutic element we promote the psychological well-being and the enhancement of mood.
Drukker, Marjan; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim
Background In cross-sectional, general population studies, psychotic experiences have been associated with an increased risk of physical violence perpetration and arrest. However, longitudinal research on this topic is lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether subjects with psychotic experiences are also at risk of displaying psychological violence. The present study aims to investigate these associations. Method The longitudinal association between baseline psychotic experiences and six-year incidence of violence perpetration and three-year incidence of arrest was studied in a prospective cohort of 6646 general population adults. Logistic regression analyses with varying levels of adjustment were performed in the complete sample and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of baseline mental disorders. Results The presence of psychotic experiences at baseline increased the risk of physical violence, psychological violence and arrest at follow-up. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders reduced all associations considerably. After adjustment, both clinically validated (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 1.09–11.81) and self-reported hallucinations (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.05 7.65) remained significantly associated with physical violence perpetration. Self-reported (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.55–6.03) and clinically validated delusions (OR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.47–7.13) were associated with an increased risk of arrest. There was no significant association between psychotic experiences and incident psychological violence in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Specific psychotic experiences may differentially predict physical violence perpetration and arrest, even after adjustment for demographics, dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders. However, more longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27447190
Piras, Sara; Casu, Gianluca; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Orrù, Alessandro; Ruiu, Stefania; Pilleri, Antonio; Manca, Gabriella; Marchese, Giorgio
In the last few decades, substantial research has focused on the possibility of early detection and prevention of the first psychotic episode in young individuals at risk of developing this mental disturbance; however, unresolved clinical and ethical issues still call for further investigations. New perspectives and opportunities may come from the identification of selective psychopathological and instrumental markers linking the appearance of subtle psychotic symptoms with the clinical outcome of specific mental pathologies. Furthermore, empirically derived algorithms and risk staging models should facilitate the identification of targeted prevention therapies, possibly improving the efficacy of well-tolerated therapeutic approaches, such as psychological interventions and natural compound supplementations. To date, the collected evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological prevention therapies raises more doubts than hopes. A very early detection of risk and appropriate symptomatic pattern classifications may provide a chance to better match prevention strategies with the development of psychosis. PMID:24729711
Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Emili, Emanuele; Rigucci, Silvia; Falcone, Ilaria; Corigliano, Valentina; Curto, Martina; Trovini, Giada; Dehning, Julia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Girardi, Paolo
In the field of the early psychosis two main approaches attempt to develop rating tools, one investigating the basic symptoms domain, and the other the attenuated psychotic symptoms. To explore the relationship between basic symptoms (BSs) and other symptom domains in different phases of the psychotic illness 32 at ultra-high risk (UHR), 49 first episode schizophrenia (FES), 42 multiple episode schizophrenia (MES), and 28 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients were enrolled. Participants were assessed using the SIPS/SOPS and the FCQ scales. Analyses of covariance taking into account socio-demographic and clinical variables significantly different between groups were applied to compare FCQ and SOPS scores. Finally FCQ and SOPS principal component analysis was carried out in the schizophrenia spectrum group. SOPS scores were higher in the UHR, FES and MES groups compared to the GAD control group. Concordantly, FES and MES groups had a higher number of basic symptoms in comparison with the GAD group, whereas UHR did not differ from the control group. The largest number of correlations between BSs and psychotic symptoms was found in the GAD group. According to the principal component analysis (PCA) five factors were extracted, with the BSs loading on a unique factor. Our findings imply that the boundary between psychotic and non-psychotic conditions cannot be outlined on the basis of the presence/absence of basic and psychotic symptoms.
Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Merritt, Sharon L.; Peterson, Sara Davia; Block, Keith I.; Gochenour, Tom
World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more research is needed on its use in sleep disorders. Ephedra, and its constituent ephedrine, are used in both stimulant and weight loss preparations, sometimes with caffeine; safety concerns have arisen with this practice. Yohimbe is another herb used in stimulant and body-building preparations which has safety concerns. Asian and Siberian ginseng have been traditionally used for fatigue, and have some supportive experimental evidence for this use. Herbal sedatives also have some evidence for efficacy; the observations that certain plant flavonoid compounds bind to benzodiazepine receptors adds interest to their use. Valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. German chamomile, lavender, hops, lemon balm and passionflower are reputed to be mild sedatives but need much more experimental examination.
Mitte, Kristin; Noack, Peter; Steil, Regina; Hautzinger, Martin
A meta-analytic review of the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in generalized anxiety disorder was conducted. The main substance classes were compared: benzodiazepines and azapirones. The impact of methodological variables was investigated such as sample size and use of a placebo run-in. After a comprehensive literature search to May 2002 (via databases, hand search, secondary sources, internet, contact of researchers, and pharmaceutical companies), the results of 48 studies were integrated. Weighted Hedges g was computed and a random-effects analysis was done. Effect sizes were computed for anxiety, depression, and clinical significance. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Pharmacotherapy was superior to placebo in all symptom categories. Azapirones and benzodiazepines were equally effective. Compliance (as measured by dropout rate) was higher for benzodiazepines. Only sample size was significantly associated with effect size. Pharmacotherapy, especially benzodiazepines and azapirones, is effective in the short-term treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder. There was no superiority of 1 drug class in reducing symptomatology.
Thase, Michael E; Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam
Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; P<0.001) and -0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.17 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Statistically significant improvements with vilazodone were also found on all other anxiety-related measures, except the HAMA Somatic Anxiety subscale. Vilazodone may be effective in treating patients with major depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety.
Lingenfelter, Jennifer E.
This document presents a review of the most recent literature regarding the efficacy of electroencephalographic biofeedback, more commonly known as neurofeedback, in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The studies reviewed indicated that neurofeedback can be a successful component of treating attentional deficits and…
Greenhill, Laurence L.; Muniz, Rafael; Ball, Roberta R.; Levine, Alan; Pestreich, Linda; Jiang, Hai
Objective: The efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate extended release (d-MPH-ER) was compared to placebo in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, two-phase study included 97 patients (ages 6-17 years) with…
Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.
Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…
Borgschatz, Heidi; Frankenberger, William; Eder, Rhonda
Two groups of college students were given different types information to read regarding stimulant medicines for attention deficit hyperactive disorder. No differences were found between the gender of participants and their perceptions of the medications based on reading materials. Type of information did influence their views of the efficacy and…
Bauer, Stephanie; Okon, Eberhard; Meermann, Rolf; Kordy, Hans
Objective: Given the lack of maintenance interventions for eating disorders, a program delivered via the short message service (SMS) and text messaging was developed to support patients after their discharge from inpatient treatment. Method: The efficacy of the intervention was studied in a randomized controlled trial. Additionally, its impact on…
DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca
This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…
Costello, Carla A.; Stone, Sharon L. M.
In this article, the authors examine strategies for supporting college students with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from the conceptual frameworks of positive psychology and self-efficacy theory. Higher education professionals can use principles taken from the relatively new field of positive…
Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Smith, Tristram H.; Smith, Rachael A.; Mcdonald, Christin A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.
This study examined the feasibility and initial efficacy of a comprehensive school-based intervention (CSBI) for 12 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, aged 6 to 9 years. Treatment included a 3-week summer preparation program followed by a 10-month CSBI, comprising social skills groups, therapeutic activities, face and voice…
This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…
Desmarais, Philippe; Massoud, Fadi; Filion, Josée; Nguyen, Quoc Dinh; Bajsarowicz, Paulina
We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to assess the high-level evidence regarding the role of quetiapine in the treatment of psychosis in patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders. Studies were included in the qualitative review if they (1) enrolled participants with diagnosis of Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, or any other neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders; (2) assessed the efficacy of quetiapine; and (3) evaluated psychotic and motor outcomes using validated tools. Of the 341 manuscripts identified, 7 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The studies' risk of bias was considered low. A total of 241 participants enrolled in these trials. Heterogeneity was high due to inclusion criteria, user definitions, assessment tools, and study design. Although not causing any motor deterioration, quetiapine failed to significantly reduce psychotic symptoms compared to placebo when objectively assessed on the Brief Psychotic Rating Scale, the most frequently reported scale in these studies. High loss to follow-up and dropout rates as well as significant improvement in psychotic symptoms in the placebo groups may have affected measurements of possible positive medication effects.
Gallagher, Matthew W; Payne, Laura A; White, Kamila S; Shear, Katherine M; Woods, Scott W; Gorman, Jack M; Barlow, David H
The present study examined temporal dependencies of change of panic symptoms and two promising mechanisms of change (self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity) during an 11-session course of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Panic Disorder (PD). 361 individuals with a principal diagnosis of PD completed measures of self-efficacy, anxiety sensitivity, and PD symptoms at each session during treatment. Effect size analyses indicated that the greatest changes in anxiety sensitivity occurred early in treatment, whereas the greatest changes in self-efficacy occurred later in treatment. Results of parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity across treatment uniquely predicted changes in PD symptoms. Bivariate and multivariate latent difference score models indicated, as expected, that changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy temporally preceded changes in panic symptoms, and that intraindividual changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy independently predicted subsequent intraindividual changes in panic symptoms. These results provide strong evidence that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity during CBT influence subsequent changes in panic symptoms, and that self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity may therefore be two distinct mechanisms of change of CBT for PD that have their greatest impact at different stages of treatment.
Mehta, Shivangi; Mehta, Sahil
Among the symptoms of hypocalcemia, tetany, papilledema, and seizures may occur in patients who develop hypocalcemia acutely. We describe a rare case of hypocalcemia presenting as schizophreniform disorder. Among other presentations of hypocalcemia, one should also look for the relation between psychotic symptoms and calcium levels in a patient presenting with psychotic symptoms. PMID:27833232
About one third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience hallucinations, mostly of a complex visual type, less often auditory or tactile. Minor hallucinatory phenomena, including sense of presence, passage hallucinations and visual illusions are frequent. Hallucinations primarily occur in a context of clear sensorium in patients with longstanding PD. They are more frequent in the evening or during the night. Insight in the hallucinatory nature of the phenomenon may be retained, partial, fluctuating, or abolished. An altered insight is common when cognitive impairment is present, and may be associated with delusions and (or) delusional misidentifications. Pharmacological factors such as dopaminergic treatment clearly trigger or increase the occurence of hallucinations in PD. However, in the recent years, emphasis has been made on disease-related factors including cognitive impairment, diurnal somnolence, visual disorders (either contrast and color discrimination impairment due to PD, or coincident ocular disorders), long duration of PD, late onset, severe axial impairment and autonomic dysfunction. The pathophysiology of hallucinations of PD is poorly understood but is likely to be multifactorial. The first steps of the treatment consist in giving information and reassurance to the patient and his/her caregiver, re-evaluating the antiparkinsonian treatment and associated medications, and evaluating the patient for mood disorder, visual impairment, and cognitive impairment. Cholinesterase inhibitors, when prescribed for associated cognitive impairment, may be beneficial on hallucinations. In the more severe forms, clozapine has been proved to be safe and effective.
Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Casale, Antonio Del; Bersani, Francesco S.; Solfanelli, Andrea; Scatena, Paola; Raccah, Ruggero N.; Brugnoli, Roberto; Digiacomantonio, Vittorio; Carbonetti, Paolo; Fensore, Claudio; Tatarelli, Roberto; Angeletti, Gloria; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Paolo
Background: Craving for alcohol is associated with abnormal activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has shown promise in the treatment of depression. There are few treatment options for treatment-resistant dysthymic disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder. Objective: To investigate the possible anticraving efficacy of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex high-frequency dTMS in 3 patients with comorbid long-term DSM-IV-TR dysthymic disorder and alcohol use disorder. Method: Three patients with alcohol use disorder with dysthymic disorder in their detoxification phase (abstaining for > 1 month) underwent twenty 20-minute sessions of 20 Hz dTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over 28 days between 2011 and 2012. Alcohol craving was rated with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale and depressive symptoms with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: All 3 patients responded unsatisfactorily to initial intravenous antidepressant and antianxiety combinations but responded after 10 dTMS sessions, improving on both anxiety-depressive symptoms and craving. This improvement enabled us to reduce antidepressant dosages after dTMS cycle completion. Discussion: High-frequency bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dTMS with left prevalence was found to produce significant anticraving effects in alcohol use disorder comorbid with dysthymic disorder. The potential of dTMS for reducing craving in patients with substance use disorder deserves to be further investigated. PMID:23724355
Brown, Adam D; Kouri, Nicole A; Rahman, Nadia; Joscelyne, Amy; Bryant, Richard A; Marmar, Charles R
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with maladaptive changes in self-identity, including impoverished perceived self-efficacy. This study examined if enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy in combat veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD promotes cognitive strategies associated with positive mental health outcomes. Prior to completing a future thinking and social problem-solving task, sixty-two OEF/OIF veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD were randomized to either a high self-efficacy (HSE) induction in which they were asked to recall three autobiographical memories demonstrating self-efficacy or a control condition in which they recalled any three autobiographical events. An interaction between HSE and PTSD revealed that individuals with symptoms of PTSD in the HSE condition generated future events with more self-efficacious statements than those with PTSD in the control condition, whereas those without PTSD did not differ in self-efficacy content across the conditions. In addition, individuals in the HSE condition exhibited better social problem solving than those in the control condition. Increasing perceptions of self-efficacy may promote future thinking and problem solving in ways that are relevant to overcoming trauma and adversity.
Oh, Hans Y; Singh, Fiza; Koyanagi, Ai; Jameson, Nicole; Schiffman, Jason; DeVylder, Jordan
Sleep disturbances have been linked to psychotic experiences in the general adult populations of multiple countries, but this association has yet to be confirmed in the United States using robust diagnostic measures. We analyzed a subsample (n=2304) of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and found that when compared with those who did not report any sleep problems, individuals with sleep disturbances lasting two weeks or longer over the past 12months were significantly more likely to report at least one psychotic experience during that same time frame. Specifically, difficulty falling asleep, waking up during the night, early morning awakenings, and feeling sleepy during the day were each associated with greater odds of reporting psychotic experiences over the past year after controlling for socio-demographic variables. However, only difficulty falling asleep and early morning awakenings were still significant after adjusting for DSM comorbid disorders. Reporting three or four types of sleep disturbances was especially predictive of psychotic experiences. Our findings underscore the importance of detecting and reducing sleep problems among individuals who report PE.
Kratochvil, Christopher; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Camporeale, Angelo; Lipsius, Sarah; D'Souza, Deborah; Tanaka, Yoko
Abstract Objectives: This extrapolation analysis qualitatively compared the efficacy and safety profile of atomoxetine from Lilly clinical trial data in 6–7-year-old patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of published literature in 4–5-year-old patients with ADHD (two open-label [4–5-year-old patients] and one placebo-controlled study [5-year-old patients]). Methods: The main efficacy analyses included placebo-controlled Lilly data and the placebo-controlled external study (5-year-old patients) data. The primary efficacy variables used in these studies were the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parent Version, Investigator Administered (ADHD-RS-IV-Parent:Inv) total score, or the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV) scale score. Safety analyses included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Descriptive statistics (means, percentages) are presented. Results: Acute atomoxetine treatment improved core ADHD symptoms in both 6–7-year-old patients (n=565) and 5-year-old patients (n=37) (treatment effect: −10.16 and −7.42). In an analysis of placebo-controlled groups, the mean duration of exposure to atomoxetine was ∼7 weeks for 6–7-year-old patients and 9 weeks for 5-year-old patients. Decreased appetite was the most common TEAE in atomoxetine-treated patients. The TEAEs observed at a higher rate in 5-year-old versus 6–7-year-old patients were irritability (36.8% vs. 3.6%) and other mood-related events (6.9% each vs. <3.0%). Blood pressure and pulse increased in both 4–5-year-old patients and 6–7-year-old patients, whereas a weight increase was seen only in the 6–7-year-old patients. Conclusions: Although limited by the small sample size of the external studies, these analyses suggest that in 5-year-old patients with ADHD, atomoxetine may improve ADHD symptoms, but possibly to a lesser extent than in older children, with some adverse events occurring at a higher rate in 5-year-old patients. PMID:25265343
Koponen, Hannu; Allgulander, Christer; Erickson, Janelle; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Pritchett, Yili; Detke, Michael J.; Ball, Susan G.; Russell, James M.
Objective: This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine, a dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, for the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Method: Patients were ≥ 18 years old and recruited from 5 European countries, the United States, and South Africa. The study had a 9-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. A total of 513 patients (mean age = 43.8 years; 67.8% female) with a DSM-IV–defined GAD diagnosis received treatment with duloxetine 60 mg/day (N = 168), duloxetine 120 mg/day (N = 170), or placebo (N = 175). The primary efficacy measure was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) total score. Secondary measures included the Sheehan Disability Scale, HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factor scores, and HAM-A response, remission, and sustained improvement rates. The study was conducted from July 2004 to September 2005. Results: Both groups of duloxetine-treated patients demonstrated significantly greater improvements in anxiety symptom severity compared with placebo-treated patients as measured by HAM-A total score and HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factor scores (p values ranged from ≤ .01 to ≤ .001). Duloxetine-treated patients had greater functional improvements in Sheehan Disability Scale global and specific domain scores (p ≤ .001) than placebo-treated patients. Both duloxetine doses also resulted in significantly greater HAM-A response, remission, and sustained improvement rates compared with placebo (p values ranged from ≤ .01 to ≤ .001). The rate of study discontinuation due to adverse events was 11.3% for duloxetine 60 mg and 15.3% for duloxetine 120 mg versus 2.3% for placebo (p ≤ .001). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that duloxetine 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day were efficacious and well tolerated and thus may provide primary care physicians with a useful pharmacologic intervention for
Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Choi, Joong-Hyun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback on depressive symptoms and electrophysiological disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder. We recruited participants suffering from depression to evaluate efficacy of left prefrontal beta with alpha/theta training. An 8-week, prospective, open-label study was undertaken. Twenty participants were recruited. The treatment protocol was twice or three times a week training of beta at F3 with alpha/theta at Pz for 8 weeks. When every visit, patients were received beta training for 30 min, and then alpha/theta training for 30 min. Baseline, 4 and 8 week scores of; the Hamilton rating scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton rating scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S), and pre- and post-treatment resting state EEGs were compared. Interhemispheric alpha power asymmetry (A score) was computed for homologous sites F3-F4. Pre- and post-training clinical assessments revealed significant improvements in HAM-D, HAM-A, BDI, and CGI-S scores. Cumulative response rates by HAM-D were 35.0 and 75.0 % at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, corresponding cumulative remission rates by HAM-D were 15.0 and 55.0 %, respectively. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-treatment A score. Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as, small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder.
Dolezalova, Dasa; Hruska-Plochan, Marian; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Sørensen, Jens Christian H; Cunningham, Miles; Weingarten, David; Ciacci, Joseph D; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Hefferan, Michael P; Hazel, Tom; Johe, Karl; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson; Bui, Jack; Strnadel, Jan; Marsala, Martin
An important component for successful translation of cell replacement-based therapies into clinical practice is the utilization of large animal models to conduct efficacy and/or safety cell dosing studies. Over the past few decades, several large animal models (dog, cat, nonhuman primate) were developed and employed in cell replacement studies; however, none of these models appears to provide a readily available platform to conduct effective and large-scale preclinical studies. In recent years, numerous pig models of neurodegenerative disorders were developed using both a transgenic approach as well as invasive surgical techniques. The pig model (naïve noninjured animals) was recently used successfully to define the safety and optimal dosing of human spinal stem cells after grafting into the central nervous system (CNS) in immunosuppressed animals. The data from these studies were used in the design of a human clinical protocol used in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in a Phase I clinical trial. In addition, a highly inbred (complete major histocompatibility complex [MHC] match) strain of miniature pigs is available which permits the design of comparable MHC combinations between the donor cells and the graft recipient as used in human patients. Jointly, these studies show that the pig model can represent an effective large animal model to be used in preclinical cell replacement modeling. This review summarizes the available pig models of neurodegenerative disorders and the use of some of these models in cell replacement studies. The challenges and potential future directions in more effective use of the pig neurodegenerative models are also discussed.
García-de-la-Puente, Silvestre; Arredondo-García, José Luis; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro; Bojorquez-Ochoa, Aurora; Maya, Edith Reyna; Pérez-Martínez, María Del Pilar
Children with hyperlipidemia secondary to renal disease develop premature atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis. The aims of this pilot study were to find the dosage and short-term efficacy of simvastatin and potential adverse events in children with chronic kidney diseases. This was a random, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial performed on children with hyperlipidemia secondary to kidney disorders. After being placed on a diet for 3 months, patients were randomly placed in one of two balanced group blocks and treated with diet plus placebo or simvastatin at doses of 5 mg for children weighing 30 kg or less and 10 mg for children weighing over 30 kg, for 1 month, and then doubled for two more months. After this treatment, patients were placed on a diet for a 3-month washout period. During the last trial phase, patients previously treated with simvastatin were administered a placebo, and vice versa. A total of 25 patients with ages ranging from 4 years to 17 years were included in the study. A significant decrease in the levels of serum cholesterol (26.4%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (35.4%) and triglycerides (23.1%) was noted during the study, primarily during the simvastatin treatments, in which case cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides decreased by 23.3%, 33.7% and 21%, respectively. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels increased moderately (10.7%) during the study but without differences during simvastatin treatment. No differences were found across groups with respect to adverse events. In the short-term the combination of diet and simvastatin was effective in lowering hyperlipidemia in children with renal disorders.
Durand, V M; Crimmins, D B
The psychotic speech of autistic and other developmentally disabled children can be defined as words or phrases that are intelligible, but appear out of context. In the present investigation we conducted an analysis of the psychotic speech of a 9-year-old autistic boy. Three experiments were constructed to determine the functional significance of this child's psychotic speech and a method of intervention. The first study involved an analysis of the role of adult attention and task demands in the maintenance of psychotic speech. When task demands were increased, the frequency of psychotic speech increased. Varying adult attention had no effect on psychotic speech. We then performed a second analysis in which the consequence for psychotic speech was a 10-second time-out. Psychotic speech increased, suggesting that it may have been maintained through escape from task demands. Finally, the third experiment involved teaching an appropriate escape response ("Help me"). Psychotic speech was greatly reduced by this intervention. Thus, teaching an appropriate equivalent phrase proved to be a viable alternative to interventions using aversive consequences. The present study represents the first observation that psychotic speech may serve to remove children from unpleasant situations and also introduces a nonaversive intervention for this behavior.
Kohn, Michael R.; Tsang, Tracey W.; Clarke, Simon D.
Several non-stimulant medications have been used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Atomoxetine, was introduced in 2002. The safety and efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD for children, adolescents, and adults has been evaluated in over 4000 patients in randomized controlled studies and double blinded studies as well as in recent large longitudinal studies. This paper provides an updated summary of the literature on atomoxetine, particularly in relation to findings on the short- and long-term safety of atomoxetine in children and adolescents arising from recent large longitudinal cohort studies. Information is presented about the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this medication. PMID:23641171
The present contribution describes the experience taken from music therapy of psychotic patients. The emotional and cognitive music perception and its possible influence on self perception and strengthening of ego are discussed. Since exercise instructions were limited the observed improvement of communication seems rather due to intra- and interpersonal effects of active improvisation than to a training process. With regard to schizophrenic patients possible effects of music therapy are discussed in the light of self-object-differentiation.
Ayzenberg, Ilya; Schöllhammer, Joanna; Hoepner, Robert; Hellwig, Kerstin; Ringelstein, Marius; Aktas, Orhan; Kümpfel, Tania; Krumbholz, Markus; Trebst, Corinna; Paul, Friedemann; Pache, Florence; Obermann, Mark; Zeltner, Lena; Schwab, Matthias; Berthele, Achim; Jarius, Sven; Kleiter, Ingo
Glatiramer acetate (GA) is an approved therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, but its efficacy for the prevention of attacks in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) remains unknown. We did a multicenter retrospective analysis of GA-treated patients with NMOSD, identified through a national registry. Annualized relapse rate and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) were the main outcome measures. We identified 23 GA-treated patients (21 female, 16 aquaporin-4 antibody-positive). GA was given for <6 months in seven patients; reasons for stopping were relapses (n = 3), confirmation of NMOSD (n = 2) and side effects (n = 2). Of 16 patients treated ≥ 6 months with GA (15 female, 11 aquaporin-4 antibody-positive), 14 experienced at least one relapse. There was no reduction in the mean annualized relapse rate in the total group (1.9 ± 1.1 before vs. 1.8 ± 1.4 during GA therapy), as well as in those patients who were aquaporin-4 antibody-positive, or had a history of prior immunotherapy or not. The median EDSS increased (2.5 start vs. 3.5 finish of GA, P < 0.05). GA therapy was discontinued in 15/16 patients; reasons were therapeutic inefficacy in 13 and post-injection skin reactions in two patients. We conclude that GA is not beneficial for preventing attacks in most patients with NMOSD, particularly in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive cases.
Shukla, Deepankar; Muthusekhar, M. R.
Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Methods: Medline search was done from 1997 to 2011 using search terms appropriate to establishing a relation between LLLT and TMD. Only randomized controlled trials were included in this study. Outcome variables related to pain, muscle tenderness, mandibular movements, and Electromyographic (EMG) activity were considered. Of the 242 articles examined, 13 were finally included in the critical analysis conducted as a part of the present systematic review. Results: Of the 242 titles reviewed, only 13 articles were considered eligible. 7 articles showed significant improvement in the study group, whereas 5 showed no significant improvement between the study and control groups. The primary outcome of most of the studies was pain. Other variables considered were muscle tenderness, mandibular movements; EMG activity was considered. Conclusion: Our results have shown that LLLT seems to be effective in reducing pain in TMD's. It may be a treatment option for patients with an interest in a noninvasive, complementary therapy. PMID:28163481
McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy (CT), has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered.
Isvoranu, Adela-Maria; van Borkulo, Claudia D; Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Wigman, Johanna T W; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Borsboom, Denny
Childhood trauma (CT) has been identified as a potential risk factor for the onset of psychotic disorders. However, to date, there is limited consensus with respect to which symptoms may ensue after exposure to trauma in early life, and whether specific pathways may account for these associations. The aim of the present study was to use the novel network approach to investigate how different types of traumatic childhood experiences relate to specific symptoms of psychotic disorders and to identify pathways that may be involved in the relationship between CT and psychosis. We used data of patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (n = 552) from the longitudinal observational study Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis Project and included the 5 scales of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and all original symptom dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Our results show that all 5 types of CT and positive and negative symptoms of psychosis are connected through symptoms of general psychopathology. These findings are in line with the theory of an affective pathway to psychosis after exposure to CT, with anxiety as a main connective component, but they also point to several additional connective paths between trauma and psychosis: eg, through poor impulse control (connecting abuse to grandiosity, excitement, and hostility) and motor retardation (connecting neglect to most negative symptoms). The results of the current study suggest that multiple paths may exist between trauma and psychosis and may also be useful in mapping potential transdiagnostic processes.
Bosqui, Tania Josiane; Shannon, Ciarán; Tiernan, Bridget; Beattie, Nicola; Ferguson, John; Mulholland, Ciaran
There are strong links between childhood trauma and the risk of violence (Ford et al., 2007). Despite evidence that people with psychotic disorders are at a higher risk of violence than the general population (Witt et al., 2013) there have been few studies that have examined the trauma-violence link in this population (Spidel et al., 2010). This study explored the association between a history of childhood trauma (abuse, neglect and conflict-related trauma) and the risk of violence in adults with psychotic disorders. The strongest associations with the risk of violence were found for sexual abuse (r = .32, p < .05) and the impact of community conflict (r = .32, p < .05). An accumulative effect of trauma was found using a hierarchical regression (adjusted R(2) = .14, F(2,37) = 4.23, p < .05). There are implications for applying models of violence to psychosis, risk assessment and treatment of people with psychotic disorders as well as informing trauma models and protective factors for children in conflict-affected regions.
Wu, Junfeng; Chang, Fei; Zu, Hengbing
Anxiety disorders are frequently comorbid with insomnia, and sleep disturbance in patients with anxiety disorders is the most common complaint. Antidepressants can affect sleep quality; however, their effect in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders is unclear. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the dose, treatment duration, treatment efficacy and safety of clinical citalopram and doxepin application in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders. It was found that both citalopram (20 mg/day) and low-dose doxepin (12.5 mg/day) significantly improved sleep latency, duration and disturbances, as well as daytime dysfunction and the global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index during the 12-week treatment period. Notably, low-dose doxepin significantly improved sleep latency in patients after treatment for 8 and 12 weeks as compared with citalopram. It was further observed that both citalopram and low-dose doxepin improved anxiety. A significant and positive correlation was found between the improvement in the sleep quality and anxiety in the two treatment groups. Citalopram and low-dose doxepin both showed good efficacy and a low adverse reaction rate in the treated patients. These data support a potential application of citalopram and low-dose doxepin in the treatment of patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders.
WU, JUNFENG; CHANG, FEI; ZU, HENGBING
Anxiety disorders are frequently comorbid with insomnia, and sleep disturbance in patients with anxiety disorders is the most common complaint. Antidepressants can affect sleep quality; however, their effect in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders is unclear. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the dose, treatment duration, treatment efficacy and safety of clinical citalopram and doxepin application in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders. It was found that both citalopram (20 mg/day) and low-dose doxepin (12.5 mg/day) significantly improved sleep latency, duration and disturbances, as well as daytime dysfunction and the global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index during the 12-week treatment period. Notably, low-dose doxepin significantly improved sleep latency in patients after treatment for 8 and 12 weeks as compared with citalopram. It was further observed that both citalopram and low-dose doxepin improved anxiety. A significant and positive correlation was found between the improvement in the sleep quality and anxiety in the two treatment groups. Citalopram and low-dose doxepin both showed good efficacy and a low adverse reaction rate in the treated patients. These data support a potential application of citalopram and low-dose doxepin in the treatment of patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders. PMID:26622482
Cannon, Rex L.; Trudeau, David L.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has been employed in substance use disorder (SUD) over the last three decades. The SUD is a complex series of disorders with frequent comorbidities and EEG abnormalities of several types. EEG biofeedback has been employed in conjunction with other therapies and may be useful in enhancing certain outcomes of therapy. Based on published clinical studies and employing efficacy criteria adapted by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, alpha theta training—either alone for alcoholism or in combination with beta training for stimulant and mixed substance abuse and combined with residential treatment programs, is probably efficacious. Considerations of further research design taking these factors into account are discussed and descriptions of contemporary research are given. PMID:18214670
Chiu, Chui-De; Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo
Objective: An intertwined relationship has been found between dissociative and psychotic symptoms, as the two symptom clusters frequently co-occur, suggesting some shared risk factors. Using a source monitoring paradigm, previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia made more errors in source monitoring, suggesting that a weakened sense of individuality may be associated with psychotic symptoms. However, no studies have verified a relationship between sense of individuality and dissociation, and it is unclear whether an altered sense of individuality is a shared sociocognitive deficit underlying both dissociation and psychosis. Method: Data from 80 acute psychiatric patients with unspecified mental disorders were analyzed to test the hypothesis that an altered sense of individuality underlies dissociation and psychosis. Behavioral tasks, including tests of intelligence and source monitoring, as well as interview schedules and self-report measures of dissociative and psychotic symptoms, general psychopathology, and trauma history, were administered. Results: Significant correlations of medium effect sizes indicated an association between errors attributing the source of self-generated items and positive psychotic symptoms and the absorption and amnesia measures of dissociation. The associations with dissociative measures remained significant after the effects of intelligence, general psychopathology, and trauma history were excluded. Moreover, the relationships between source misattribution and dissociative measures remained marginally significant and significant after controlling for positive and negative psychotic symptoms, respectively. Limitations: Self-reported measures were collected from a small sample, and most of the participants were receiving medications when tested, which may have influenced their cognitive performance. Conclusions: A tendency to misidentify the source of self-generated items characterized both dissociation and psychosis
Widmann, Marina; Warsame, Abdulkadir Hussein; Mikulica, Jan; von Beust, Johannes; Isse, Maimuna Mohamud; Ndetei, David; al’Absi, Mustafa; Odenwald, Michael G.
In East-African and Arab countries, khat leaves are traditionally chewed in social settings. They contain the amphetamine-like alkaloid cathinone. Especially among Somali refugees, khat use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms. We assessed khat-use patterns and psychiatric symptoms among male Somali refugees living in a disadvantaged urban settlement area in Kenya, a large group that has not yet received scientific attention. We wanted to explore consume patterns and study the associations between khat use, traumatic experiences, and psychotic symptoms. Using privileged access sampling, we recruited 33 healthy male khat chewers and 15 comparable non-chewers. Based on extensive preparatory work, we assessed khat use, khat dependence according to DSM-IV, traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychotic symptoms using standardized diagnostic instruments that had been adapted to the Somali language and culture. Hazardous use patterns like chewing for more than 24 h without interruption were frequently reported. All khat users fulfilled the DSM-IV-criteria for dependence and 85% reported functional khat use, i.e., that khat helps them to forget painful experiences. We found that the studied group was heavily burdened by traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. Khat users had experienced more traumatic events and had more often PTSD than non-users. Most khat users experience khat-related psychotic symptoms and in a quarter of them we found true psychotic symptoms. In contrast, among control group members no psychotic symptoms could be detected. We found first evidence for the existence and high prevalence of severely hazardous use patterns, comorbid psychiatric symptoms, and khat use as a self-medication of trauma-consequences among male Somali refugees in urban Kenyan refugee settlements. There is a high burden by psychopathology and adequate community-based interventions urgently need to be developed. PMID:25072043
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093
King, M.; Coker, E.; Leavey, G.; Hoare, A.; Johnson-Sabine, E.
OBJECTIVE--To compare annual incidences of psychosis in people from different ethnic groups as defined in the 1991 census. SETTING--Catchment area of district psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--All people aged 16 to 54 years who made contact with a wide range of community and hospital services between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1992 were screened for psychotic symptoms. Patients with such symptoms were interviewed face to face to collect information on demography, ethnic group, psychiatric history and symptoms, drug use, and how care had been sought. A key informant, usually a close relative, was also interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age standardised incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases in each ethnic group. RESULTS--Ninety three patients took part, of whom 38 were assigned a certain or very likely diagnosis of schizophrenia (15 in white population, 14 in black, seven in Asian, and two in others). The age standardised annual incidence of schizophrenia was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.9) per 10,000 of the population. The incidence ratio for schizophrenia in all ethnic minority groups compared with the white population was 3.6 (1.9 to 7.1); the corresponding figure for non-affective psychosis was 3.7 (2.2 to 6.2). CONCLUSIONS--Raised incidences of schizophrenia were not specific to the African Caribbeans, which suggests that the current focus on schizophrenia in this population is misleading. Members of all ethnic minority groups were more likely to develop a psychosis but not necessarily schizophrenia. The personal and social pressures of belonging to any ethnic minority group in Britain are important determinants in the excess of psychotic disorders found. PMID:7755702
Antosik-Wójcińska, Anna Zofia; Stefanowski, Bogdan; Święcicki, Łukasz
The use of antidepressants in treatment of depression in course of bipolar disorders (BD) is controversial. In case of no improvement during monotherapy with mood stabilizer, the use of antidepressants is often necessary. The safety of this group (in context of phase change, mixed states and rapid cycling) is essential and is the subject of many research. In the paper, the authors review the literature concerning efficacy and safety of use of antidepressants in the treatment of affective disorders and long-term impact on the course of the disease. Selection of articles have been made by searching the Medline and Pubmed databases using keywords: antidepressant drugs, bipolar depression, bipolar disorder, efficacy, safety, mania, hypomania. The risk of mania is greater in bipolar disorder type I, than in type II or during treatment with Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and treatment with venlafaxine. The use of SSRIs and bupropion is associated with a relatively small increase of phase change risk. There are different opinions concerning recommended duration of antidepressant treatment. Generally antidepressant use should end after 2-3 months of remission, the risk of recurrence of depression after discontinuation of antidepressants is, however, higher than in case of continuation. In BD type II or BD spectrum, antidepressant monotherapy is allowed in severe depression. In bipolar disorder type I and in case of phase change after antidepressants use in the past, use of antidepressants should be very cautious. Antidepressants are contraindicated in rapid cycling and in mixed episodes. Further work is needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antidepressants use.
Juarascio, Adrienne; Shaw, Jena; Forman, Evan; Timko, C Alix; Herbert, James; Butryn, Meghan; Bunnell, Douglas; Matteucci, Alyssa; Lowe, Michael
Eating disorders are among the most challenging disorders to treat, with even state-of-the-art cognitive-behavioral treatments achieving only modest success. One possible reason for the high rate of treatment failure for eating disorders is that existing treatments do not attend sufficiently to critical aspects of the disorder such as high experiential avoidance, poor experiential awareness, and lack of motivation. These variables are explicit targets of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The current study examined the efficacy of an ACT-based group treatment for eating disorders by examining whether the addition of ACT groups to treatment-as-usual (TAU) at a residential treatment facility for eating disorders would improve treatment outcomes. TAU patients received an intensive residential treatment, while ACT patients received these services but additionally attended, depending on diagnosis, either ACT for anorexia nervosa groups or ACT for bulimia nervosa groups. Although individuals in both treatment conditions demonstrated large decreases in eating pathology, there were trends toward larger decreases among those receiving ACT. ACT patients also showed lower rates of rehospitalization during the 6 months after discharge. Overall, results suggest that ACT is a viable treatment option for individuals with eating pathology and further outcome research is warranted.
Oh, Hans; Abe, Jennifer; Negi, Nalini; DeVylder, Jordan
In Europe, it is widely established that immigration increases risk for psychotic disorder. However, research has yet to confirm this association in the United States, where immigrants paradoxically report better health status than their native-born counterparts. Further, few studies have examined this topic with respect to sub-threshold psychotic experiences, which are more common than psychotic disorders in the general population. This study analyzes the (1) National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, (2) the National Latino and Asian American Survey, and (3) the National Survey of American Life, in order to determine whether generation status had any impact on risk for lifetime and 12-month PE, and whether these associations vary across racial/ethnic groups, adjusting for demographic variables and socioeconomic status. We found an absence of an immigration effect on PE across various ethnic groups and across various geographic areas, and found that immigration is actually protective among Latinos, supporting the idea that the epidemiological paradox extends to the psychosis phenotype.
Goldblatt, Mark J; Ronningstam, Elsa; Schechter, Mark; Herbstman, Benjamin; Maltsberger, John T
Suicides of patients in states of acute persecutory panic may be provoked by a subjective experience of helpless terror threatening imminent annihilation or dismemberment. These patients are literally scared to death and try to run away. They imagine suicide is survivable and desperately attempt to escape from imaginary enemies. These states of terror occur in a wide range of psychotic illnesses and are often associated with command hallucinations and delusions. In this article, the authors consider the subjective experience of persecutory panic and the suicide response as an attempt to flee from danger.
Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo
Self-enucleation or oedipism is a term used to describe self-inflicted enucleation. It is a rare form of self-mutilation, found mainly in acutely psychotic patients. We propose the term incomplete oedipism to describe patients who deliberately and severely mutilate their eyes without proper enucleation. We report the case of a 32-year-old male patient with a five-year history of psychotic depression accompanied by paranoid delusions centered around his belief that his neighbors criticized him and stared at him. A central feature of his clinical picture was an eye injury that the patient had caused by pouring molten lead into his right eye during a period of deep hopelessness and suicidality when the patient could not resolve his anhedonia and social isolation. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy dramatically improved his disorder. PMID:17118200
Markham, Julie A.
Rationale The birth of neurons, their migration to appropriate positions in the brain, and their establishment of the proper synaptic contacts happen predominately during the prenatal period. Environmental stressors during gestation can exert a major impact on brain development and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as depression and psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Objective The objectives here are to present recent preclinical studies of the impact of prenatal exposure to gestational stressors on the developing fetal brain and discuss their relevance to the neurobiological basis of mental illness. The focus is on maternal immune activation, psychological stresses, and malnutrition, due to the abundant clinical literature supporting their role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Results Prenatal maternal immune activation, viral infection, unpredictable psychological stress, and malnutrition all appear to foster the development of behavioral abnormalities in exposed offspring that may be relevant to the symptom domains of schizophrenia and psychosis, including sensorimotor gating, information processing, cognition, social function, and subcortical hyperdopaminergia. Depression-related phenotypes, such as learned helplessness or anxiety, are also observed in some model systems. These changes appear to be mediated by the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and/or corticosteroids in the fetal compartment that alter the development the neuroanatomical substrates involved in these behaviors. Conclusion Prenatal exposure to environmental stressors alters the trajectory of brain development and can be used to generate animal preparations that may be informative in understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20949351
Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter
Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions.
Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.
Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…
Jureidini, Jon; Tonkin, Anne; Jureidini, Elsa
Polypharmacy, defined as the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs, has become increasingly common in the paediatric and adolescent population over the past two decades. Combining psychotropic drugs leads to possible increases in benefits, but also in risks, particularly given the potential for psychotropic drug interactions. Despite the increasing use of concomitant therapy in children and adolescents, there is very little evidence from controlled clinical trials to provide guidance for prescribers. Even while acknowledging the small evidence base, clinical practice guidelines from eminent medical organizations are either relatively silent on or tend to support the use of concomitant treatments more enthusiastically than the evidence would warrant, so that practice and guidance are running ahead of the science. Our narrative review shows that the published evidence for efficacy and safety of concomitant psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents is scanty. A comprehensive search located 37 studies published over the last decade, of which 18 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These focused mainly on stimulants, central sympatholytics (such as clonidine), antipsychotics and 'mood stabilizers'. While several small, often methodologically weak, RCTs demonstrated statistically significant advantages for dual pharmacotherapy over monotherapy, only adding central sympatholytics to stimulants for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms was supported by substantial studies with an effect size large enough to suggest clinical importance. Non-randomized studies tended to have results that supported concomitant treatment, but all have design-related problems that decrease the reliability of the results. Two studies that specifically examined tolerability of combination pharmacotherapy compared with monotherapy showed significant increases in adverse effects, both subjective and objective, and other studies confirmed a
Verbaan, Dagmar; van Rooden, Stephanie M; Visser, Martine; Marinus, Johan; Emre, Murat; van Hilten, Jacobus J
The objective of this study is to evaluate psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and to assess their relation with other clinical aspects of PD. Psychotic symptoms (PS) and compulsive symptoms (CS) as well as other nonmotor and motor features were evaluated in 353 PD patients. Psychotic and compulsive symptom scores did not correlate significantly. PS occurred in 65% of patients, with item frequencies ranging from 10% (paranoid ideation) to 55% (altered dream phenomena). Regression analysis showed that autonomic impairment accounted for 20% of the 32% explained variance of PS, whereas cognitive problems, depression, daytime sleepiness, and dopamine agonist (DA) dose explained the rest. CS occurred in 19%, with item frequencies of 10% for both sexual preoccupation and compulsive shopping/gambling. Patients with more severe CS (score > or = 2 on one or both items) were significantly more often men, had a younger age at onset, a higher DA dose and experienced more motor fluctuations compared to the other patients. PS and CS are common but unrelated psychiatric symptoms in PD. The relations found between PS and cognitive problems, depression, daytime sleepiness, and autonomic impairment suggests a resemblance with Dementia with Lewy Bodies. The prominent association between PS and autonomic impairment may be explained by a shared underlying mechanism. Our results confirm previous reports on the profile of patients developing CS, and mechanisms underlying motor fluctuations may also play a role in the development of CS in PD.
Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Pozgain, Ivan; Filaković, Pavo
Eating disorders in early childhood are the same frequency in boys and girls. During adolescence eating disorders are ten (10) times more frequent in girls than in boys. Worrying is the fact that eating disorders are the third chronic illness among adolescents after obesity and asthma. Depicting this adolescent we tried to show difficulty of treatment of this disorder, where in the beginning is important to stabilize body weight and prevent somatic damages such as: heart damage, amenorrhoea, changes in EKG (electrocardiogram) and electrolyte dysbalance that could endanger the life of patient. Simultaneously it is important to recognize and treat comorbid psychological disturbances such as in this case: depression, delusions with occasional psychotic reactions combined with unrealistic thinking about the layout of her own body. There is still no cure for the treatment of eating disorders which are in growing number of reports among male adolescents.
Kekic, Maria; Boysen, Elena; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, which can be used to selectively disrupt patterns of neural activity that are associated with symptoms of mental illness. tDCS has been implemented in numerous therapeutic trials across a range of patient populations, with a rapidly increasing number of studies being published each year. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tDCS in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Four electronic databases were searched from inception until December 2015 by two independent reviewers, and 66 eligible studies were identified. Depression was the most extensively researched condition, followed by schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Data on obsessive compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa were also obtained. The quality of included studies was appraised using a standardised assessment framework, which yielded a median score corresponding to "weak" on the three-point scale. This improved to "moderate" when case reports/series were excluded from the analysis. Overall, data suggested that tDCS interventions comprising multiple sessions can ameliorate symptoms of several major psychiatric disorders, both acutely and in the long-term. Nevertheless, the tDCS field is still in its infancy, and several methodological and ethical issues must be addressed before clinical efficacy can truly be determined. Studies probing the mechanisms of action of tDCS and those facilitating the definition of optimised stimulation protocols are warranted. Furthermore, evidence from large-scale, multi-centre randomised controlled trials is required if the transition of this therapy from the laboratory to the clinic is to be considered.
Ford, David C; Dahl, Naomi V; Strauss, William E; Barish, Charles F; Hetzel, David J; Bernard, Kristine; Li, Zhu; Allen, Lee F
Introduction Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and can adversely affect quality of life. Oral iron is poorly tolerated in many patients with GI disorders. Ferumoxytol is approved for the intravenous treatment of IDA in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol in patients with IDA and concomitant GI disorders. Patients and methods This analysis included 231 patients with IDA and GI disorders from a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating ferumoxytol (510 mg ×2) versus placebo in patients who had failed or were intolerant of oral iron therapy. The primary study end point was the proportion of patients achieving a ≥20 g/L increase in hemoglobin (Hgb) from baseline to Week 5. Other end points included mean change in Hgb, proportion of patients achieving Hgb ≥120 g/L, mean change in transferrin saturation, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Results Significantly more patients with IDA receiving ferumoxytol achieved a ≥20 g/L increase in Hgb versus placebo (82.1% vs 1.7%, respectively; P<0.001). Mean increase in Hgb (28.0 g/L vs −1.0 g/L, respectively; P<0.001) significantly favored ferumoxytol treatment. Ferumoxytol-treated patients demonstrated significantly greater improvements than placebo-treated patients relative to their very poor baseline PRO scores posttreatment, including improvements in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue questionnaire and various domains of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Ferumoxytol-treated patients had a low rate of adverse events. Conclusion In this study, ferumoxytol was shown to be an efficacious and generally well-tolerated treatment option for patients with IDA and underlying GI disorders who were unable to use or had a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy. PMID:27468245
Tan, Beron W. Z.; Pooley, Julie A.; Speelman, Craig P.
This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged…
Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Dela Peña, Ike
Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a "safer" approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments.
Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; dela Peña, Ike
Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a “safer” approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments. PMID:26966583
Busquets-Garcia, A; Soria-Gómez, E; Redon, B; Mackenbach, Y; Vallée, M; Chaouloff, F; Varilh, M; Ferreira, G; Piazza, P-V; Marsicano, G
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy. The neurosteroid pregnenolone has been recently shown to act as a potent endogenous allosteric signal-specific inhibitor of CB1 receptors. Thus, we tested in mice the potential therapeutic use of pregnenolone against acute psychotic-like effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis. We found that pregnenolone blocks a wide spectrum of THC-induced endophenotypes typically associated with psychotic-like states, including impairments in cognitive functions, somatosensory gating and social interaction. In order to capture THC-induced positive psychotic-like symptoms (e.g. perceptual delusions), we adapted a behavioral paradigm based on associations between different sensory modalities and selective devaluation, allowing the measurement of mental sensory representations in mice. Acting at hippocampal CB1 receptors, THC impaired the correct processing of mental sensory representations (reality testing) in an antipsychotic- and pregnenolone-sensitive manner. Overall, this work reveals that signal-specific inhibitors mimicking pregnenolone effects can be considered as promising new therapeutic tools to treat CIAPS.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 February 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.4.
Wigman, Johanna T W; van Winkel, Ruud; Jacobs, Nele; Wichers, Marieke; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Os, Jim
Evidence suggests that subclinical psychotic experiences are more likely to cause transition to psychotic disorder if their expression becomes persistent. The study of longitudinal patterns of subclinical psychotic experiences may help to distinguish subgroups with transient and persistent psychotic symptoms, who may differ in risk of later psychosis. The current study investigated patterns of developmental course of subclinical psychotic experiences in a general population sample of 566 female twins, aged 18-45 years. The positive symptoms subscale of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), completed three times in 2 years, was analyzed with growth modeling. Using Latent Class Analysis, two developmental courses were distinguished: a Persistent and a Low (expression of subclinical psychotic experiences) group. The Persistent group reported significantly higher levels of depressive and negative symptoms and worse functioning in daily life. Childhood trauma (OR: 3.26, P < 0.0001) and stressful life events over the study period (OR: 3.15, P = 0.031) predicted membership of the Persistent group. Of the monozygotic (MZ) twins with their co-twin in the Persistent group, 49% also were in the Persistent group themselves (OR: 9.32, P < 0.0001), compared to only 14% in the dizygotic (DZ) co-twins (OR: 1.56, P = 0.42) (χ(2)(2) = 22.97; P < 0.001). The findings suggest that persistence of subclinical psychosis is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, providing the possibility to study the (possibly modifiable) etiology underlying the longitudinal process of persistence of the early expression of psychosis liability.
Forness, Steven R.; Walker, Hill M.; Kavale, Kenneth A.
This article for teachers provides basic information on psychiatric disorders and treatments. It covers oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression or other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and autistic spectrum disorders. Insets provide additional…
Background To examine potential differences in efficacy and safety of treatment with olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia of white and black descent. Methods A post-hoc, pooled analysis of 6 randomized, double-blind trials in the treatment of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder compared white (N = 605) and black (N = 375) patients treated with olanzapine (5 to 20 mg/day) for 24 to 28 weeks. Efficacy measurements included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score; and positive, negative, and general psychopathology scores; and the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) scores at 6 months. Safety measures included differences in the frequencies of adverse events along with measures of extrapyramidal symptoms, weight, glucose, and lipid changes over time. Results 51% of black patients and 45% of white patients experienced early study discontinuation (P = .133). Of those who discontinued, significantly more white patients experienced psychiatric worsening (P = .002) while significantly more black patients discontinued for reasons other than efficacy or tolerability (P = .014). Discontinuation for intolerability was not different between groups (P = .320). For the estimated change in PANSS total score over 6 months, there was no significant difference in efficacy between white and black patients (P = .928), nor on the estimated PANSS positive (P = .435), negative (P = .756) or general psychopathology (P = .165) scores. Overall, there was no significant difference in the change in CGI-S score between groups from baseline to endpoint (P = .979). Weight change was not significantly different in white and black patients over 6 months (P = .127). However, mean weight change was significantly greater in black versus white patients at Weeks 12 and 20 only (P = .028 and P = .026, respectively). Additionally, a significantly greater percentage of black patients experienced clinically significant weight gain (≥7
Clemow, David B; Bushe, Chris; Mancini, Michele; Ossipov, Michael H; Upadhyaya, Himanshu
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults. Moreover, a cumulative review and assessment of these studies has not been conducted. For this reason, we performed a literature review to find, identify, and cumulatively review clinical studies that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders. We found a total of 50 clinical studies (37 in children; 13 in adults) that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in patients with ADHD and a comorbid disorder. The comorbidities that were studied in children or in adults included anxiety, depression, and substance use disorder. Overall, the presence of comorbidity did not adversely impact the efficacy of atomoxetine in treatment of ADHD symptoms in both patient populations. In the studies identified and assessed in this review, atomoxetine did not appear to exacerbate any of the comorbid conditions and could, therefore, be an important therapy choice for the treatment of ADHD in the presence of comorbid disorders. PMID:28223809
Clemow, David B; Bushe, Chris; Mancini, Michele; Ossipov, Michael H; Upadhyaya, Himanshu
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults. Moreover, a cumulative review and assessment of these studies has not been conducted. For this reason, we performed a literature review to find, identify, and cumulatively review clinical studies that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of patients with ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders. We found a total of 50 clinical studies (37 in children; 13 in adults) that examined the efficacy of atomoxetine in patients with ADHD and a comorbid disorder. The comorbidities that were studied in children or in adults included anxiety, depression, and substance use disorder. Overall, the presence of comorbidity did not adversely impact the efficacy of atomoxetine in treatment of ADHD symptoms in both patient populations. In the studies identified and assessed in this review, atomoxetine did not appear to exacerbate any of the comorbid conditions and could, therefore, be an important therapy choice for the treatment of ADHD in the presence of comorbid disorders.
Shah, Lubna Bte Iskhandar; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Torres, Samantha; Kannusamy, Premarani
This paper aimed to critically review and summarize empirical evidence concerning the efficacy of psychoeducation or relaxation-based stress management interventions on stress-related variables in people with mental disorders. Electronic databases were used during the literature search. Thirteen articles that fulfilled the preset eligible criteria were included in the review. Findings indicated that psychoeducation and relaxation-based interventions mitigated stress and depression; and enhanced relaxation intensity and knowledge on stress management. However, mixed results were obtained on anxiety. In addition, interventions using virtual reality technology revealed positive effects on depression, relaxation intensity and anxiety. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.
A multi-site single blind clinical study to compare the effects of prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and waiting list on patients with a current diagnosis of psychosis and co morbid post traumatic stress disorder: study protocol for the randomized controlled trial Treating Trauma in Psychosis
Background Trauma contributes to psychosis and in psychotic disorders post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often a comorbid disorder. A problem is that PTSD is underdiagnosed and undertreated in people with psychotic disorders. This study’s primary goal is to examine the efficacy and safety of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD in patients with both psychotic disorders and PTSD, as compared to a waiting list. Secondly, the effects of both treatments are determined on (a) symptoms of psychosis, in particular verbal hallucinations, (b) depression and social performance, and (c) economic costs. Thirdly, goals concern links between trauma exposure and psychotic symptomatology and the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events, and of PTSD. Fourthly predictors, moderators, and mediators for treatment success will be explored. These include cognitions and experiences concerning treatment harm, credibility and burden in both participants and therapists. Methods/Design A short PTSD-screener assesses the possible presence of PTSD in adult patients (21- to 65- years old) with psychotic disorders, while the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale interview will be used for the diagnosis of current PTSD. The M.I.N.I. Plus interview will be used for diagnosing lifetime psychotic disorders and mood disorders with psychotic features. The purpose is to include consenting participants (N = 240) in a multi-site single blind randomized clinical trial. Patients will be allocated to one of three treatment conditions (N = 80 each): prolonged exposure or EMDR (both consisting of eight weekly sessions of 90 minutes each) or a six-month waiting list. All participants are subjected to blind assessments at pre-treatment, twomonths post treatment, and six monthspost treatment. In addition, participants in the experimental conditions will have assessments at mid treatment and at 12 months follow-up. Discussion The results from the post
Coelho, Carl A.; And Others
This article discusses adults with brain injuries and resulting cognitive communicative disorders. The incidence of brain injuries, the effects of cognitive-communication disorders, the role of the speech-language pathologist, the benefits of treatment, and the effects of different treatments are discussed. Charts are included that summarize…
Wang, Sheng-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Sakong, Jeong Kyu; Suh, Ho-Suk; Oh, Kang Seob; Woo, Jong-Min; Yoo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lim, Se-Won; Cho, Seong Jin; Chee, Ik-Seung; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Kyoung-Uk
Objective This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam with other benzodiazepines in patients with anxiety disorders. Methods Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >20 years, diagnosis of anxiety disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria, taking only one type of antidepressant, and prescribed one of three oral benzodiazepines (alprazolam, clonazepam, or lorazepam). At baseline and week 6, clinical benefit was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S), Clinical Global Impression-Anxiety Scale (CGI-anxiety), and Clinical Global Impression-Sleep Scale (CGI-sleep). Results Among 180 patients, no differences in demographic characteristics among the three benzodiazepine groups were noted. After six weeks of treatment, all benzodiazepine groups showed significant improvements in CGI-S, CGI-anxiety, and CGI-sleep scores (p<0.001). There were no differences in mean changes in CGI-S, CGI-anxiety and CGI-sleep among the three benzodiazepine groups. The incidence of side effects was significantly lower in the clonazepam group than with the other benzodiazepines. The incidences of adverse events for the clonazepam, alprazolam, and lorazepam groups were 26.7% (n=20), 48.4% (n=31), and 43.9% (n=18), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggests that clonazepam is as efficacious as other benzodiazepines for the treatment of various anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the safety profile of clonazepam was superior to the other benzodiazepines in this study. PMID:27121429
Carrasco, José L; Kornstein, Susan G; McIntyre, Roger S; Fayyad, Rana; Prieto, Rita; Salas, Maribel; Mackell, Joan; Boucher, Matthieu
The chronic course of major depressive disorder (MDD) often impedes the ability of patients to achieve full remission. Return of full functioning is a critical goal of antidepressant pharmacotherapy as the presence of residual depressive symptoms is associated with an increased risk of relapse. Treatment guidelines recommend selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or atypical antidepressants as first-line treatment for moderate to severe MDD. Desvenlafaxine, administered as desvenlafaxine succinate, is an serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with MDD at the recommended dose of 50 mg/day. The aim of this integrated analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day compared with placebo in adult outpatients with MDD. The analysis used data from nine fixed-dose, short-term, placebo-controlled studies in adult outpatients diagnosed with MDD who had depressive symptoms for at least 30 days. Data from 4279 and 4317 patients were pooled for the efficacy and safety analyses, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were observed with desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day versus placebo for all efficacy endpoints assessed, including improvements in depressive symptoms, response and remission rates, as well as functional and cognitive outcomes. Treatment with desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day was generally safe and well tolerated. The findings of this integrated analysis of data from a large population of patients with MDD confirmed the antidepressant efficacy of both desvenlafaxine doses and add to previous evidence supporting the efficacy of desvenlafaxine.
Ciani, N; Pezzarossa, B; Curini, A; Rubino, I A
Basic symptoms, as defined and described by the Bonn Scale, were assessed by means of a new self-report inventory, the Rome Basic Disorders Scale. On all the subscales, psychiatric outpatients (n = 105; most frequent diagnoses: Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Mood Disorders) scored significantly higher (p < .001) than nonclinical controls (n = 105). Psychiatric patients with at least one diagnosis on the psychotic sets of Foulds' hierarchical inventory (n = 45), compared with the rest of the psychiatric sample (n = 60), had significantly higher scores on nearly all subscales. Two groups of inpatients with Schizophrenia (n = 20) and Mood Disorders (n = 20) were tested on Day 2 and 9 of hospitalization in an emergency ward. Schizophrenic patients had significantly higher scores on most of the subscales, but only on Day 9; on Day 2 depressed and manic patients scored significantly higher on four subscales. Until now basic symptoms had not been studied during the intrapsychotic phase, mainly because of their transformation into first-rank symptoms; present findings suggest that basic symptoms are active also at the height of the psychotic breakdown and that they are more responsive to treatment in Depression and Mania than in Schizophrenia.
Weibel, Sébastien; Lalanne, Laurence; Riegert, Myriam; Bertschy, Gilles
High-dose baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorder, with a specific action on craving. A more general action on craving in other addictive disorders has been suggested based on the hypothesis of a common neurobiological pathway in addictions. We report the case of a woman with both alcohol use disorder and bulimia nervosa. There was a positive response to high-dose baclofen on alcohol craving, but no response on food craving. The case illustrates that craving could be differentially responsive to anti-craving drugs.
Kasper, M E; Rogers, R; Adams, P A
Forensic consultations with psychotic inpatients frequently include issues of risk management, such as dangerousness and civil commitment. An important dimension of these consultations is the role of command hallucinations in producing an increased risk of aggressive behavior. In the present study, psychotic patients with command hallucinations (N = 27) were compared with patients with other hallucinations (N = 27) and with other psychotic patients (N = 30). The groups did not differ on aggressive behavior or most nonhallucinatory symptoms. However, most patients (84.0%) with command hallucinations had recently obeyed them. Among those with command hallucinations, almost one-half had heard and attempted to obey messages of self-harm during the last month.
Stein, Dan J; Baldwin, David S; Baldinetti, Francesca; Mandel, Francine
Epidemiological evidence supports comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymia, and its association with significant disability. As pregabalin, a new alpha(2)-delta anxiolytic treatment for GAD, unlike most other licensed treatments for GAD has not undergone investigation in patients with MDD, we examined its efficacy in depressive symptoms associated with GAD, through a post-hoc analysis of the existing clinical trial database. The results provide consistent evidence that in patients with GAD pregabalin reduced associated symptoms of depression. This was seen in the 150 mg/day, 300-450 mg/day and 600 mg/day dosing groups. Even in subjects with more prominent depressive symptoms, pregabalin remained effective for both sub-syndromal depression and GAD symptoms, with pregabalin 300-450 mg/day demonstrating the most beneficial response. In conclusion, pregabalin, an alternative treatment option for GAD with a novel mechanism of action, also demonstrated efficacy in treating depressive symptoms typically encountered in GAD patients.
de Kleine, Rianne A; Smits, Jasper A J; Hendriks, Gert-Jan; Becker, Eni S; van Minnen, Agnes
Augmentation of exposure therapy with d-cycloserine (DCS) has proven efficacious across anxiety disorders, although results in PTSD have been mixed. Work in animals and anxiety-disordered patients suggest that the potentiating effects of DCS are dependent on the level of extinction learning during extinction training and exposure treatment, respectively. The aim of the current study was to replicate and extend previous work by examining the association between the degree of extinction learning and DCS efficacy in our randomized clinical trial on DCS (50 mg) versus placebo enhancement of exposure therapy in a chronic mixed-trauma PTSD sample (N=67; de Kleine, Hendriks, Kusters, Broekman, & van Minnen, 2012). The decline in subjective units of distress ratings collected during and across the exposure sessions were evaluated as indices of extinction learning. First, we examined whether extinction learning during an exposure session moderated DCS effects on self-reported PTSD symptoms at the next session. Second, we examined whether averaged extinction learning over the course of treatment interacted with group assignment to predict change over time and post treatment outcome. We did not find evidence that DCS effects were moderated by the degree of extinction learning, although, extinction learning was related to outcome regardless of group assignment. In PTSD, not one extinction-learning index has been consistently linked to DCS enhanced exposure treatment outcome. More (experimental) work needs to been done to unravel the complex interplay between extinction learning and DCS enhancement, especially in PTSD patients.
Turk, Dennis C.; And Others
Forty-eight dysfunctional patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of an intraoral appliance, stress management, and either nondirective supportive counseling or cognitive therapy. Results support tailored treatment of dysfunctional TMD. (KW)
Bauer, Michael; Thase, Michael E; Liu, Sherry; Earley, Willie; Eriksson, Hans
Identification of predictors of treatment response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may facilitate improved disease management. Data were pooled from two 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of extended-release quetiapine (quetiapine XR; 150 or 300 mg/day) as adjunct to ongoing antidepressant therapy. Effects of psychiatric history and baseline demographic and disease characteristics on efficacy outcomes (Week 6 Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] total score reduction) were evaluated in population subgroups (quetiapine XR both doses pooled, n = 616; placebo, n = 303). Baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score and previous depressive episodes on Week 6 MADRS total score change, and baseline MADRS individual item scores on Week 6 change in CGI-Improvement score, were also evaluated. No major differences between responders and non-responders to quetiapine XR were observed for patient characteristics or demographic and disease characteristics. No suggestion of a predictive association was found between baseline CGI-S score, number of depressive episodes, and baseline MADRS item scores and efficacy outcomes. These analyses showed no major differences between responders and non-responders, and no predictive association between the parameters assessed and efficacy outcomes for adjunct quetiapine XR in patients with MDD and an inadequate response to prior antidepressant therapy.
Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3–5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results: Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Conclusion: Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows. SUMMARY Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion
Al-Jewair, Thikriat S.; Gaffar, Balgis O.; Flores-Mir, Carlos
Study Objectives: To assess the methodological quality of published systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) about the efficacy of oral appliances (OA) in the management of adult and pediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods: SRs/MAs that evaluated the efficacy of OA therapy on the treatment of SDB in human subjects of all age groups were sought. Multiple electronic databases were searched for articles published in any language from the database's inception until January 2016. Two reviewers independently selected and then assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) measurement tool. Results: Thirteen reviews on adult SDB were included (2 SRs and 11 SRs with MAs). Of those, seven were medium quality and six were high quality. Only four reviews were included on pediatric SDB (3 SRs and 1 SR with MA). Three of these were of high quality and one was medium quality. The identified limitations in the included reviews were failing to reference the excluded studies or describe reasons for exclusion, lack of applying valid criteria to assess the quality of included studies, lack of publication bias assessment, and absence of conflicts of interest reporting. Conclusions: Overall, SRs/MAs on OA therapy for adult and pediatric SDB were conducted with acceptable methodological quality. High AMSTAR scores should not be extrapolated as a proxy of the methodological quality of the included evidence. There is a need for more primary studies and then that information can be used to be synthesized through SRs on pediatric SDB. Citation: Al-Jewair TS, Gaffar BO, Flores-Mir C. Quality assessment of systematic reviews on the efficacy of oral appliance therapy for adult and pediatric sleep-disordered breathing. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(8):1175–1183. PMID:27397656
Ledley, Deborah Roth; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Hayes, Sarah A; Zaider, Talia I; Dyke, Melanie Van; Turk, Cynthia L; Kraus, Cynthia; Fresco, David M
Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and impairing disorder for which viable cognitive-behavioral therapies exist. However, these treatments have not been easily packaged for dissemination and may be underutilized as a result. The current study reports on the findings of a randomized controlled trial of a manualized and workbook-driven individual cognitive-behavioral treatment for social anxiety disorder (Hope, Heimberg, Juster, & Turk, 2000; Hope, Heimberg, & Turk, 2006). This treatment package was derived from an empirically supported group treatment for social anxiety disorder and intended for broad dissemination, but it has not previously been subjected to empirical examination on its own. As a first step in that examination, 38 clients seeking treatment for social anxiety disorder at either the Adult Anxiety Clinic of Temple University or the Anxiety Disorders Clinic of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln were randomly assigned to receive either immediate treatment with this cognitive-behavioral treatment package or treatment delayed for 20 weeks. Evaluation at the posttreatment/postdelay period revealed substantially greater improvements among immediate treatment clients on interviewer-rated and self-report measures of social anxiety and impairment. Three-month follow-up assessment revealed maintenance of gains. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Background: teachers are as responsible for personal progress of children as parents are for their nurturing. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of EI and self-efficacy of teachers in reduced SAD of primary school students in Tehran. In other words, this study evaluates the effective role of teachers in reducing SAD in students.…
Foote, Brad; Park, Jane
Schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (DID) are typically thought of as unrelated syndromes--a genetically based psychotic disorder versus a trauma-based dissociative disorder--and are categorized as such by the DSM-IV. However, substantial data exist to document the elevated occurrence of psychotic symptoms in DID; awareness of these features is necessary to prevent diagnostic confusion. Recent research has also pointed out that schizophrenia and DID overlap not only in psychotic symptoms but also in terms of traumatic antecedents, leading to a number of suggestions for revision of our clinical, theoretical, and nosologic understanding of the relationship between these two disorders.
Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Koss-Chioino, Joan D
This article expands psychosocial and cultural perspectives on the experience and expression of psychotic symptoms and the treatment of schizophrenia by exploring how Spiritism, a popular religion in Latin America, provides healing to persons with severe mental illness. Beliefs and treatment by Spiritist healers of persons with psychotic symptoms, some diagnosed with schizophrenia, are described. Reactions by mental health professionals (psychologists, mental health technicians and psychiatrists) to this alternative treatment are described. Qualitative data have been collected through in-depth interviews with 49 Spiritist mediums in Puerto Rico, and case histories of 22 patients and their family members, all of whom gave informed consent. In Brazil, interviews were conducted with a sample of 115 Spiritist mediums, with their informed consent. These mediums responded to semi-structured interviews and standard measures of social adjustment and mental health. As expected, beliefs and practices of Spiritist healers regarding psychotic symptoms, whether manifested by themselves or by clients diagnosed with schizophrenia or other disorders, differ substantively from conventional psychiatric constructs and treatment approaches. According to patients' self reports and researchers' observations, spirit healers often achieve positive results with persons manifesting psychotic symptoms or diagnosed with schizophrenia in that symptoms become less frequent and/or social adjustment improves. We suggest psychosocial mechanisms to explain these findings and raise questions for future research.
Fu, Jie; Peng, Lilei; Li, Xiaogang
Objective Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2013. This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of different doses of vortioxetine for generalized anxiety disorder of adults. Methods PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Clinical Trials databases were searched from 2000 through 2015. The abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association and previous reviews were searched to identify additional studies. The search was limited to individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and there was no language restriction. Four RCTs met the selection criteria. These studies included 1,843 adult patients. Results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The data were pooled with a random-effects or fixed-effects model. Results The results showed that multiple doses (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/d) of vortioxetine did not significantly improve the generalized anxiety disorder symptoms compared to placebo (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.84–1.60, Z=0.89, P=0.38; OR=1.41, 95% CI=0.82–2.41, Z=1.25, P=0.21; OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.76–1.46, Z=0.32, P=0.75, respectively). We measured the efficacy of 2.5 mg/d vortioxetine compared to 10 mg/d, and no significant differences were observed. The common adverse effects included nausea and headache. With increased dose, nausea was found to be more frequent in the vortioxetine (5 and 10 mg/d) group (OR=2.99, 95% CI=1.31–6.84, Z=2.60, P=0.009; OR=2.80, 95% CI=1.85–4.25, Z=4.85, P<0.00001, respectively), but no significant differences were observed for headache. Conclusion The results showed no significant improvement in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder for vortioxetine compared to placebo, and nausea was more frequent with higher doses. So the current evidences do not support using vortioxetine for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Few RCTs were included in our
Niederecker, M; Naber, D; Riedel, R; Perro, C; Goebel, F D
There are numerous case reports on psychoses in AIDS patients and, although more seldom, also in HIV-positive patients in early stages of infection; however, systematic investigations on the frequency, e.g., relevant for the indication of an HIV test in psychiatric patients, are missing. For this study, 1046 HIV-positive patients were examined regarding psychoses. A total of 301 patients (28.8%) were HIV-positive but asymptomatic, and 380 patients (36.2%) had the lymphadenopathy syndrome. One hundred thirty-two patients (12.6%) suffered from an AIDS-related complex and 233 patients (22.3%) from AIDS. Of these 1046 patients, only 9 (0.9%) suffered from psychoses. One patient with a paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome was asymptomatic; one in the lymphadenopathy syndrome was manic. The other 7 patients were all in late stages of the infection. A causal relationship between HIV infection and psychosis and probable in only 3 patients. These data do not indicate a markedly elevated prevalence of psychosis in HIV-positive or AIDS patients.
Rosagro-Escámez, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Noelia; Gómez-Merino, Patricia; de la Vega, Irene; Carrasco, José L
The individuals with depersonalizattion disorder suffer from a painful feeling that their body and mental experiences or the experiences of the environment seem become unreal, distant or mechanical. This phenomenon is often associated with other mental disorders, as in the case presented. Among the many psychoactive drugs studied, none of them has been shown to be the treatment of choice. Among those with which the best results are obtained are opioid receptor antagonists, the combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with lamotrigine and clorimipramine. We are presenting a resistant case that responded to lamotrigine.
Mega, M.; Lee, L.; Dinov, I.; Mishkin, F.; Toga, A.; Cummings, J.
BACKGROUND—Psychotic symptoms are produced by distributed neuronal dysfunction. Abnormalities of reality testing and false inference implicate frontal lobe abnormalities. OBJECTIVES—To identify the functional imaging profile of patients with Alzheimer's disease manifesting psychotic symptoms as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS—Twenty patients with Alzheimer's disease who had SPECT and clinical evaluations were divided into two equal groups with similar mini mental status examination (MMSE), age, sex, and the range of behaviours documented by the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), except delusions and hallucinations. SPECT studies, registered to a probabilistic anatomical atlas, were normalised across the combined group mean intensity level, and subjected to a voxel by voxel subtraction of the non-psychotic minus psychotic groups. Subvolume thresholding (SVT) corrected random lobar noise to produce a three dimensional functional significance map. RESULTS—The significance map showed lower regional perfusion in the right and left dorsolateral frontal, left anterior cingulate, and left ventral striatal regions along with the left pulvinar and dorsolateral parietal cortex, in the psychotic versus non-psychotic group. CONCLUSION—Patients with Alzheimer's disease who manifest psychosis may have disproportionate dysfunction of frontal lobes and related subcortical and parietal structures. PMID:10896687
Cobham, Vanessa E.
Objective: This study compared 3 experimental conditions: wait-list, therapist-supported bibliotherapy, and individual therapy, in the treatment of child anxiety. Method: Participants were 55 children (25 girls and 30 boys), aged 7 to 14 years diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, and their parents. Families were assigned using a modified random…
Hedley, Darren; Nevill, Rose E.; Monroy-Moreno, Yessica; Fields, Natalie; Wilkins, Jonathan; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.
The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) is a brief, play-based screening tool for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children aged 12-36 months. We examined the psychometric properties of the ADEC in a clinical sample of toddlers (n = 114) referred to a US pediatric hospital for assessment due to concerns of developmental…
Palumbo, Donna R.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Pelham, William E., Jr; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Daviss, W. Burleson; McDermott, Michael P.
A study to examine the effectiveness and tolerance of clonidine alone or in combination with methylphenidate as a mode of treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders is conducted. Results indicate methylphenidate as the most effective in treatment as compared to clonidine, which was well tolerated.
Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Chu, Ching-Lin; Lee, Tsung-Chin
Joint attention intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders was focused on improving joint engagement and joint attention skills. The purpose of this study was to develop a caregiver-mediated joint engagement intervention program combined with body movement play to investigate the effects of joint engagement/joint attention skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders. A quasi-experimental research design was conducted. A total of 34 young children with autism spectrum disorders aged 2-4 years were separated into an intervention and a control group. The program consisted of 20 sessions, 60 min per session, twice a week, for the target child and his or her parent. The results indicated that child-initiated supportive and coordinated joint engagement was greater for the intervention group compared with the control group at 3-month follow-up. This demonstrated that our joint engagement intervention could enhance joint engagement, especially coordinated joint engagement for young children with autism spectrum disorders. The limitations of the study and future directions were discussed.
Brunner, Debra Lynn; Seung, HyeKyeung
This literature review examines the present level of evidence in support of communication-based treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. Reviews to date have reported on research published through 2002. The current article included 36 studies published between 2002 and 2007. Best available evidence is presented for seven treatment…
Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Burton, Emily; Wade, Emily
In this trial, adolescent girls with body dissatisfaction (N = 481, M age = 17 years) were randomized to an eating disorder prevention program involving dissonance-inducing activities that reduce thin-ideal internalization, a prevention program promoting healthy weight management, an expressive writing control condition, or an assessment-only…
Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.
Pharmacotherapy is a frequently employed treatment option in the area of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A considerable literature base has developed indicating when these medications should or could be administered. However, research on the potential side effects and cost benefit analysis of these treatments is not well understood at this time.…
Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Chu, Ching-Lin; Lee, Tsung-Chin
Joint attention intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders was focused on improving joint engagement and joint attention skills. The purpose of this study was to develop a caregiver-mediated joint engagement intervention program combined with body movement play to investigate the effects of joint engagement/joint attention skills in…
Giallo, Rebecca; Wood, Catherine E.; Jellett, Rachel; Porter, Rachelle
Raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) presents significant challenges for parents that potentially have a impact on their health and wellbeing. The current study examined the extent to which parents experience fatigue and its relationship to other aspects of wellbeing and parenting. Fifty mothers of children with an ASD aged 2-5…
Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Dremmel, Daniela; Schlup, Barbara; Munsch, Simone
The present study evaluates the long-term efficacy (four years after treatment) of a short-term Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT) of Binge Eating Disorder (BED). We examined patient characteristics, mostly measured at the end of treatment, for their predictive value of long-term success. Forty-one BED-patients between 18 and 70 years took part in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for a short-term treatment and were evaluated until 4 years after treatment. Assessments comprised structured interviews on comorbid mental disorder/eating disorder pathology and questionnaires on eating disorder pathology/general psychopathology. BED core symptoms and associated psychopathology improved substantially during treatment phase and further improved or at least remained stable during the follow-up period. End of treatment predictors for long term success were elevated weight and eating concern and higher frequency of objective binges. Tailoring additional interventions to patients' individual needs could further improve treatment efficacy.
Catthoor, Kirsten; Schrijvers, Didier; Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dineke; Persoons, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Peuskens, Jozef; Sabbe, Bernard
AIM: To assess presence and severity of associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients and factors for higher associative stigma. METHODS: Standardized semi-structured interview of 150 family members of psychotic patients receiving full time treatment. This study on associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients was part of a larger research program on the burden of the family, using “Interview for the Burden of the Family” and the chapters stigma, treatment and attribution from the “Family interview Schedule”. The respondents were relatives, one per patient, either partner or parent. The patients had been diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. All contacts with patients and relatives were in Dutch. Relatives were deemed suitable to participate in this research if they saw the patient at least once a week. Recruitment took place in a standardized way: after obtaining the patient’s consent, the relatives were approached to participate. The results were analyzed using SPSS Version 18.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of associative stigma in this sample is 86%. Feelings of depression in the majority of family members are prominent. Twenty-one point three percent experienced guilt more or less frequent, while shame was less pronounced. Also, 18.6% of all respondents indicated that they tried to hide the illness of their family member for others regularly or more. Three six point seven percent really kept secret about it in certain circumstances and 29.3% made efforts to explain what the situation or psychiatric condition of their family member really is like. Factors with marked significance towards higher associative stigma are a worsened relationship between the patient and the family member, conduct problems to family members, the patients’ residence in a residential care setting, and hereditary attributional factors like genetic hereditability and character. The level of associative stigma has significantly been
De Filippis, Sergio; Cuomo, Ilaria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; Pucci, Daniela; Zingaretti, Pietro; Porrari, Raffaella; Fini, Camilla; Motta, Paola; Caloro, Matteo; Girardi, Paolo
Background: Asenapine is a second-generation antipsychotic approved in Europe for treating moderate-to-severe manic episodes in adults affected by type I bipolar disorder (BD-I). We aimed to compare its efficacy in psychiatric inpatients with BD-I, with or without substance use disorder (SUD). Methods: We administered flexible asenapine doses ranging from 5–20 mg/day to 119 voluntarily hospitalized patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) BD-I diagnosis, with or without SUD. Patients were assessed with clinician-rated questionnaires [i.e. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)]. Assessments were carried out at baseline (T0, prior to treatment), and 3 (T1), 7 (T2), 15 (T3), and 30 days (T4) after starting treatment for all clinical scales and at T0 and T4 for the GAF. Results: Patients improved on all scales (p < 0.001) across all timepoints, as shown both by paired-sample comparisons and by applying a repeated-measures, generalized linear model (GLM). Patients without comorbid SUD showed greater reductions in BPRS scores at T2 and T3, greater reduction in YMRS scores at T3, and lower HARS scores at all timepoints. HDRS scores did not differ between the two groups at any timepoint. However, the reduction in HARS scores in the comorbid group was stronger than in the BD-I only group, albeit not significantly. Side effects were few and mild-to-moderate. Conclusions: The open-label design and the relatively short observation period may expose to both type I and type II statistical errors (false positive and false negatives). Asenapine showed effectiveness and safety in hospitalized BD-I patients. Its effect was stronger in patients without comorbid SUD. PMID:28255436
Rossi, Rodolfo; Zammit, Stanley; Button, Katherine S.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S.
Psychotic Experiences (PEs) during adolescence index increased risk for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia in adult life. Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of these disorders. Our objective was to examine the relationship between PEs and WM in a general population sample of young people in a case control study. 4744 individuals of age 17–18 from Bristol and surrounding areas (UK) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study nested within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort study. The dependent variable was PEs, assessed using the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview (PLIKSi). The independent variable was performance on a computerized numerical n-back working memory task. Signal-Detection Theory indices, including standardized hits rate, false alarms rate, discriminability index (d’) and response bias (c) from 2-Back and 3-Back tasks were calculated. 3576 and 3527 individuals had complete data for 2-Back and 3-Back respectively. Suspected/definite PEs prevalence was 7.9% (N = 374). Strongest evidence of association was seen between PEs and false alarms on the 2-Back, (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01, 1.35]) and 3-back (OR = 1.35 [1.18, 1.54]) and with c (OR = 1.59 [1.09, 2.34]), and lower d’ (OR = 0.76 [0.65, 0.89]), on the 3-Back. Adjustment for several potential confounders, including general IQ, drug exposure and different psycho-social factors, and subsequent multiple imputation of missing data did not materially alter the results. WM is impaired in young people with PEs in the general population. False alarms, rather than poor accuracy, are more closely related to PEs. Such impairment is consistent with different neuropsychological models of psychosis focusing on signal-to-noise discrimination, probabilistic reasoning and impaired reality monitoring as a basis of psychotic symptoms. PMID:27120349
Li, Ying; Gao, Jie; He, Shu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qiwei
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders. We carried out this comparison of multiple treatments based on sufficient data in attempt to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ADHD medication for children and adolescents. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database were used to search for relevant articles. Changes in the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) scores and the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS) scores were used as outcomes for efficacy. Withdrawals due to all-cause, adverse effects and lack of efficacy were defined as primary outcomes evaluating the safety of such medications. Both pair-wise and network meta-analyses were performed. Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX), bupropion (BUP), clonidine hydrochloride (CLON), guanfacine extended release (GXR), lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), and methylphenidate (MPH) were evaluated. LDX has the highest efficacy and a relatively lower rate of adverse effects compared to BUP, CLON and GXR. MPH has the lowest incidence rate of adverse effects and takes second place concerning ADHD-RS scores and third place concerning CPRS scores. ATX has the lowest incidence rate of all-cause withdrawals. The efficacy of ATX seems, however, to be lower than CLON, GXR, LDX and MPH. Adversely, BUP has the highest incidence rate of withdrawals and the second highest probability of causing adverse effects as well as lack of efficacy; therefore it should not be recommended as a treatment for ADHD.
Kanner, Andres M; Rivas-Grajales, Ana Maria
Psychosis of epilepsy (POE) is a term applied to a group of psychotic disorders with a distinct phenomenology in which potential etiopathogenic mechanisms are believed to be closely related to a seizure disorder. POE can present as interictal psychotic episodes, which may often differ semiologically from primary schizophrenic disorder. They may present as ictal or postictal psychotic episodes and may be the expression of an iatrogenic process to pharmacologic and/or surgical interventions.Epilepsy and POE have a complex and bidirectional relation, as not only are patients with epilepsy at greater risk of developing a psychotic disorder, but patients with a primary psychotic disorder are also at greater risk of developing epilepsy. The prevalence of POE is more than 7 times higher than the frequency of primary schizophreniform disorders in the general population. While POE has been associated with focal epilepsy of temporal and frontal lobe origin, its etiology and pathophysiology of POE have yet to be established.The treatment of all forms of POE, with the exception of ictal psychotic episodes, requires the use of antipsychotic drugs, preferably the atypical antipsychotic agents with a very low or negligible potential to lower the seizure threshold (eg, risperidone, apiprazole), starting at a low dose with stepwise increments.
Fava, Maurizio; Hoog, Sharon L; Judge, Rajinder A; Kopp, Joan B; Nilsson, Mary E; Gonzales, Jill S
This study assessed whether fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine differ in efficacy and tolerability in depressed patients and the impact of baseline insomnia on outcomes. Patients (N = 284) with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline for 10 to 16 weeks of treatment. Using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) sleep disturbance factor score, patients were categorized into low (<4) or high (>or=4) baseline insomnia subgroups. Changes in depression and insomnia were assessed. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), reasons for discontinuation, and AEs leading to discontinuation. In addition, AEs were evaluated within insomnia subgroups to determine emergence of activation or sedation. Depression improvement, assessed with the HAM-D-17 total score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.365) and the high (p = 0.853) and low insomnia (p = 0.415) subgroups. Insomnia improvement, assessed with the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.868) and in the high (p = 0.852) and low insomnia (p = 0.982) subgroups. Analyses revealed no significant differences between treatments in the percentages of patients with substantial worsening, any worsening, worsening at endpoint, or improvement at endpoint in the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor in either insomnia subgroup. Treatments were well tolerated in most patients. No significant differences between treatments in the incidence of AEs suggestive of activation or sedation were seen in the insomnia subgroups. These data show no significant differences in acute treatment efficacy and tolerability across fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine in major depressive disorder patients. Improvement in overall depression and in associated insomnia was achieved by most patients regardless of baseline insomnia.
Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K
Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition associated with broad impairments in functioning. This paper outlines current etiological theories of OCD, providing a review of neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroimmunological, and cognitive–behavioral explanations. Subsequently, first-line treatment modalities are discussed (serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SRIs] and cognitive–behavioral therapy [CBT] with exposure and response prevention [E/RP]) in the context of recent pharmacological, CBT, and combined trials. PMID:19412443
Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278
Kobayashi, Brian; Cook, Ian A; Hunter, Aimee M; Minzenberg, Michael J; Krantz, David E; Leuchter, Andrew F
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). There are clinical data that support the efficacy of many different approaches to rTMS treatment, and it remains unclear what combination of stimulation parameters is optimal to relieve depressive symptoms. Because of the costs and complexity of studies that would be necessary to explore and compare the large number of combinations of rTMS treatment parameters, it would be useful to establish reliable surrogate biomarkers of treatment efficacy that could be used to compare different approaches to treatment. This study reviews the evidence that neurophysiologic measures of cortical excitability could be used as biomarkers for screening different rTMS treatment paradigms. It examines evidence that: (1) changes in excitability are related to the mechanism of action of rTMS; (2) rTMS has consistent effects on measures of excitability that could constitute reliable biomarkers; and (3) changes in excitability are related to the outcomes of rTMS treatment of MDD. An increasing body of evidence indicates that these neurophysiologic measures have the potential to serve as reliable biomarkers for screening different approaches to rTMS treatment of MDD.
Shi, Ligen; Wang, Jingyi; Xu, Shenbin; Lu, Yunrong
Vilazodone is a new molecule approved for major depressive disorder (MDD). This report focuses on the efficacy and tolerability of vilazodone for MDD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched. A total of 1,930 patients from four trials were included. A significant improvement in the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score was seen as early as week 2 (P<0.01) in vilazodone-treated patients. The results showed a higher rate of MADRS response with vilazodone compared with placebo (P<0.001). There were also greater improvements in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety as well as the Clinical Global Impressions (severity of illness and improvement of illness) scores from baseline in vilazodone-treated patients compared to placebo patients (P<0.001). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were higher with vilazodone than placebo (P=0.0002). The most common adverse events of vilazodone were vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, somnolence, dizziness, and dry mouth (P<0.05). Treatment-related effects on sexual function were mild compared to placebo in men (P=0.03). In conclusion, 40 mg/day of vilazodone had a rapid onset of response and showed good improvement in anxiety symptoms as well as good tolerability during short-term treatment (8–10 weeks) for MDD. Further studies should focus on the efficacy and tolerability of vilazodone over a longer duration and should utilize active comparators. PMID:27932864
Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny
Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.
Livelli, Alessandro; Orofino, Gian Carlo; Calcagno, Andrea; Farenga, Mariana; Penoncelli, Donatella; Guastavigna, Marta; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Caramello, Pietro; Pia, Lorenzo
The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and stability over time of a cognitive rehabilitation protocol (restorative and compensatory approach) in HIV/AIDS patients with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). At baseline, 32 HIV/AIDS patients (16 with and 16 without HAND) were assessed with a neuropsychological battery (i.e., pre-assessment) consisting of 22 tests covering eight cognitive domains. Then, the experimental group was administered over 4 months a cognitive rehabilitation protocol aimed at improving four cognitive domains by means of eight paper and pencil/computer-based exercises. The control group received guideline-adherent clinical care (i.e., standard of care). At the end of the cognitive treatment, both groups were re-administered the neuropsychological battery (i.e., post-assessment). Additionally, 6 months after post-assessment, the experimental group was given the same neuropsychological battery (i.e., follow up-assessment). In order to test the efficacy of the cognitive rehabilitation protocol, we compared between groups the results of the neuropsychological battery at the pre- and post-assessments. In order to evaluate the stability over time, the effects of the cognitive rehabilitation protocol was examined comparing within the experimental group the results of the neuropsychological battery at post- and follow up-assessments. Our results show that the two groups did not differ at the pre-assessment, but differed at post-assessment. Specifically, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in five domains (Learning and memory, Abstraction/executive functioning, Verbal fluency, Attention/working memory, and Functional), whereas the control group significantly worsened in the same domains. The improvement of the experimental group did not change in the follow up-assessment in two domains (Abstraction/executive functioning, Attention/working memory, and Functional). Overall, these findings support the
Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Cappucciati, Marco; De Micheli, Andrea; Rutigliano, Grazia; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Tognin, Stefania; Ramella-Cravaro, Valentina; Castagnini, Augusto; McGuire, Philip
Background: Brief Limited Intermittent Psychotic Symptoms (BLIPS) are key inclusion criteria to define individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR). Their diagnostic and prognostic significance is unclear. Objectives: To address the baseline diagnostic relationship between BLIPS and the ICD-10 categories and examine the longitudinal prognostic impact of clinical and sociodemographic factors. Methods: Prospective long-term study in UHR individuals meeting BLIPS criteria. Sociodemographic and clinical data, including ICD-10 diagnoses, were automatically drawn from electronic health records and analyzed using Kaplan–Meier failure function (1-survival), Cox regression models, bootstrapping methods, and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. Results: Eighty BLIPS were included. At baseline, two-thirds (68%) of BLIPS met the diagnostic criteria for ICD-10 Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder (ATPD), most featuring schizophrenic symptoms. The remaining individuals met ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for unspecified nonorganic psychosis (15%), mental and behavioral disorders due to use of cannabinoids (11%), and mania with psychotic symptoms (6%). The overall 5-year risk of psychosis was 0.54. Recurrent episodes of BLIPS were relatively rare (11%) but associated with a higher risk of psychosis (hazard ratio [HR] 3.98) than mono-episodic BLIPS at the univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that seriously disorganizing or dangerous features increased greatly (HR = 4.39) the risk of psychosis (0.89 at 5-year). Bootstrapping confirmed the robustness of this predictor (area under the ROC = 0.74). Conclusions: BLIPS are most likely to fulfill the ATPD criteria, mainly acute schizophrenic subtypes. About half of BLIPS cases develops a psychotic disorder during follow-up. Recurrent BLIPS are relatively rare but tend to develop into psychosis. BLIPS with seriously disorganizing or dangerous features have an extreme high risk of psychosis. PMID:28053130
Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. Methods: In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5–17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to <45 kg, and 1.75 mg/day for those weighing ≥45 kg. The study primarily assessed risperidone's safety; efficacy was assessed as a secondary end-point. Results: Fifty-six (71%) out of 79 enrolled patients completed the OLE; the most common discontinuations were for insufficient response (7 [9%]) or adverse events (AE) (5 [6%]). The most common (≥5% frequency in the total group) AEs were increased appetite (11% [n=9]); increased weight and vomiting (9% [n=7] each); sedation, pyrexia, and upper respiratory tract infection (8% [n=6] each); nasopharyngitis (6% [n=5]); and somnolence and fatigue (5% [n=4] each). Extrapyramidal AEs were reported in 6 (8%) patients. Increase in mean weight (11–15%) and body mass index (5–10%) occurred; one patient discontinued because of weight increase. One potentially prolactin-related AE (irregular menstruation) was reported. The risperidone high-dose group had the greatest mean improvement in sleep visual analog scale (24.6). All groups showed additional improvement in efficacy scale scores during the OLE. Conclusions: During this OLE, safety findings with risperidone treatment (maximum weight-based dose of 1.25 mg/day or 1.75 mg/day) were consistent with those observed in the DB phase, and with the current safety information for risperidone in autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. Clinical Trials Registry: This phase-4
Gray, Christina; Climie, Emma A.
Reading is a multifaceted skillset that has the potential to profoundly impact a child’s academic performance and achievement. Mastery of reading skills is often an area of difficulty for children during their academic journey, particularly for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading (SLD-R), or children with a comorbid diagnosis of both ADHD and SLD-R. ADHD is characterized by executive functioning and impulse control deficits, as well as inattention and impulsivity. Among the academic struggles experienced by children with ADHD are challenges with word reading, decoding, or reading comprehension. Similarly, children with SLD-R frequently encounter difficulties in the development of appropriate reading skills. SLD-R incorporates dysfunctions in basic visual and auditory processes that result in difficulties with decoding and spelling words. There have been limited empirical studies investigating the efficacy of interventions to improve the reading ability of children with both ADHD and SLD-R. Research studies that have focused on reading interventions for children from this population have predominantly included the use of medication treatments with stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate) and non-stimulants (e.g., atomoxetine). This review paper will present and integrate findings from empirical studies on successful medication treatments for children with comorbid ADHD and SLD-R. Furthermore, this paper will extend findings from empirically successful medication treatments to provide directions for future research. PMID:27458398
Verrico, Christopher D.; Newton, Thomas F.; Mahoney, James J.; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G. Y.
Background: Cholinergic transmission is altered by drugs of abuse and contributes to psychostimulant reinforcement. In particular, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, like huperzine A, may be effective as treatments for cocaine use disorder. Methods: The current report describes results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which participants (n=14–17/group) were randomized to huperzine A (0.4 or 0.8mg) or placebo. Participants received randomized infusions of cocaine (0 and 40mg, IV) on days 1 and 9. On day 10, participants received noncontingent, randomized infusions of cocaine (0 and 20mg, IV) before making 5 choices to receive additional infusions. Results: Huperzine A was safe and well-tolerated and compared with placebo, treatment with huperzine A did not cause significant changes in any cocaine pharmacokinetic parameters (all P>.05). Time-course and peak effects analyses show that treatment with 0.4mg of huperzine A significantly attenuated cocaine-induced increases of “Any Drug Effect,” “High,” “Stimulated,” “Willing to Pay,” and “Bad Effects” (all P>.05). Conclusions: The current study represents a significant contribution to the addiction field since it serves as the first published report on the safety and potential efficacy of huperzine A as a treatment for cocaine use disorder. PMID:26364275
Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, usually necessitating lifelong treatment. Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved outcomes in schizophrenia, their clinical potential remains limited by patients' nonadherence to medication. Long-acting antipsychotics were developed in the 1960s to enhance treatment adherence and simplify the medication process. However, although conventional long-acting agents assure medication delivery, they are associated with similar side effects to their oral equivalents. The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years.
Lindblad, Mark R; Manturuk, Kim R; Quercia, Roberto G
We examine the link between homeownership, collective efficacy, and subjective neighborhood crime and disorder. Although prior research suggests that homeownership provides social benefits, the housing downturn and foreclosure crisis, coupled with mounting evidence that people self-select into housing, raise questions about the role of homeownership. We adjust for respondents' decision to own or rent using a nationwide sample of lower-income households. We account for demographic and neighborhood characteristics as well as ratings of individual efficacy. We present a structural equation model that identifies how sense of community and informal social control jointly contribute to collective efficacy. The latent collective efficacy construct mediates the impact of homeownership on resident's perceptions of neighborhood disorder. Such perceptions matter because they have been linked to resident's physical and mental health. Our findings demonstrate that when coupled with sustainable mortgages, homeownership exerts a robust yet indirect effect in reducing subjective neighborhood crime and disorder. Our model also links collective efficacy to neighborhood racial homogeneity, a finding which presents challenges for the study of diversity and community. We discuss sense of community research as well as sustainable mortgages and implications of the foreclosure crisis for the future of homeownership opportunities among lower income households and neighborhoods.
Peterson, Carol B.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.
Objective The purpose of this investigation was to compare three types of treatment for binge eating disorder to determine the relative efficacy of self-help group treatment compared to therapist-led and therapist-assisted group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Method A total of 259 adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder were randomized to wait-list or 20 week group treatment that was therapist-led, therapist-assisted, or self-help. Binge eating as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination was assessed at baseline, post-treatment, 6- and 12 month follow-up and outcome was determined using logistic regression and analysis of covariance (intention-to-treat). Results At end of treatment, the therapist-led (51.7%) and the therapist-assisted (33.3%) conditions had higher binge eating abstinence rates than the self-help (17.9%) and wait-list (10.1%) conditions. No differences in abstinence rates were observed at either follow-up assessment. The therapist-led condition also showed more reductions in binge eating at post-treatment and follow-up compared to the self-help condition, and treatment completion rates were higher in the therapist-led (88.3%) and wait-list (81.2%) conditions than the therapist-assisted (68.3%) and the self-help (59.7%) conditions. Conclusions Therapist-led group cognitive-behavioral treatment for binge eating disorder led to higher binge eating abstinence rates, greater reductions in binge eating frequency, and lower attrition at the end of treatment compared to group self-help treatment. Although these findings indicate that therapist delivery of group treatment is associated with better short-term outcome and less attrition than self-help treatment, the lack of group differences at follow-up suggests that self-help group treatment may be a viable alternative to therapist-led interventions. (Clinical Trials Registration: Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder, #NCT00041743; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00041743?term=00041743&rank=1
Feldhaus, Carmen; Koglin, Ute; Devermann, Jens; Logemann, Hanna; Lorenz, Alfred
The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationships among the effects of loneliness, stress and self-efficacy on the life satisfaction of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their neuro-typically developed peers. The participants (N = 104), all male, were between 15 and 27 years of age. Half of them were diagnosed having…
Wilens, Timothy E.; Gault, Laura M.; Childress, Ann; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Bensman, Lindsey; Hall, Coleen M.; Olson, Evelyn; Robieson, Weining Z.; Garimella, Tushar S.; Abi-Saab, Walid M.; Apostol, George; Saltarelli, Mario D.
Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of ABT-089, a novel alpha[subscript 4]beta[subscript 2] neuronal nicotinic receptor partial agonist, vs. placebo in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of children 6 through 12 years…
Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine
The Common Core State Standards Initiative includes an emphasis on teaching writing and related skills in all subject areas. This study sought to improve the persuasive writing skills and self-efficacy skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders by implementing self-regulated strategy development with pairs of students in a high…
Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia
Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…
Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Arici, Chiara; Dobrea, Cristina; Benatti, Beatrice; Altamura, A Carlo
The present study aimed to assess switch from immediate-release (IR) to extended-release (XR) quetiapine in terms of efficacy, tolerability, compliance, and quality of life in a sample of patients with mood disorders. Thirty patients, 10 with major depressive disorder and 20 with bipolar disorder, with residual depressive symptoms, who had switched from quetiapine IR (mean 365 mg/day) to XR (mean 373 mg/day), were recruited and evaluated using different psychometric scales, administered at T0 (switch), T1, and T2 (1 and 6 weeks after the switch, respectively). A significant reduction from T0 to T2 of the total scores on the Hamilton depression rating scale (t=2.15; P=0.04), Hamilton anxiety scale (t=3.04; P=0.006), and clinical global impression-severity item (t=2.8; P=0.01) was found. No differences were found in terms of compliance and quality of life. The switch was well tolerated by 2/3 of patients. Most reported side effects were early/central insomnia with day drowsiness (16.7%), increased appetite and weight (8.4%), mild asthenia (4.2%), and constipation (4.2%), which, in two cases, led to switch interruption. Strategies to relieve side effects, including gradual cross-switch, improved switch feasibility. Switch from quetiapine IR to XR seems to be associated with clinical improvement in major depressives with residual symptoms, although some patients may report side effects because of the different pharmacokinetics.
Orr, Rhonda; Fiatarone Singh, Maria
There has been increasing interest in the development of effective agents that can be safely used to promote anabolism in the clinical setting for patients with chronic wasting conditions as well as in the prevention and treatment of frailty associated with loss of muscle tissue in aging (sarcopenia). One such agent is the anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) oxandrolone, which has been used in such clinical situations as HIV-related muscle wasting, severe burn injury, trauma following major surgery, neuromuscular disorders and alcoholic hepatitis for over 30 years. In the US, oxandrolone is the only AAS that is US FDA-approved for restitution of weight loss after severe trauma, major surgery or infections, malnutrition due to alcoholic cirrhosis, and Duchenne's or Becker's muscular dystrophy. Our review of the use of oxandrolone in the treatment of catabolic disorders, HIV and AIDS-related wasting, neuromuscular and other disorders provides strong evidence of its clinical efficacy. Improvements in body composition, muscle strength and function, status of underlying disease or recovery from acute catabolic injury and nutritional status are significant in the vast majority of well designed trials. However, oxandrolone has not yet been studied in sarcopenia.Unlike other orally administered C17alpha-alkylated AASs, the novel chemical configuration of oxandrolone confers a resistance to liver metabolism as well as marked anabolic activity. In addition, oxandrolone appears not to exhibit the serious hepatotoxic effects (jaundice, cholestatic hepatitis, peliosis hepatis, hyperplasias and neoplasms) attributed to the C17alpha-alkylated AASs. Oxandrolone is reported to be generally well tolerated and the most commonly documented adverse effects are transient elevations in transaminase levels and reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol level.However, optimal risk:benefit ratios for oxandrolone and other agents in its class will need to be refined before widespread
Dhir, Ashish; Sarvaiya, Jayrajsinh
Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004; Brintellix(®)) has received approval from various international regulatory agencies for the treatment of major depression. The drug molecule has a multimodal mechanism of action that projects it as a unique molecule for the treatment of major depression. These mechanisms include property to inhibit serotonin reuptake via inhibiting serotonin transporters and acting on multiple serotonin receptor subtypes. Vortioxetine is an agonist of 5-HT1A, a partial agonist of 5-HT1B and an antagonist of 5-HT1D, 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 serotoninergic receptors. The molecule has been found to be effective and well-tolerable to be administered in humans for the treatment of major depression. Precautions should be exercised when vortioxetine is prescribed with cytochrome P450 inducers and inhibitors. This review attempts to compile the efficacy profile of vortioxetine in different clinical trials and the results are compared with other standard antidepressants.
Østergaard, Søren D.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Flint, Alastair J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Leadholm, Anne Katrine; Bech, Per; Meyers, Barnett S.
Objective Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. Method Selective review of publications reporting results on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. Results A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped into the following categories: I. Rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, II. Rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, III. Rating scales covering delusions, and IV. Rating scales covering psychotic depression. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had not been tested empirically. The only exception from this general tendency was the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), which was developed specifically to assess the severity of PD. Conclusion In PD, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) represents the only empirically derived rating scale for the measurement of overall severity of illness. The PDAS should be considered in future studies of PD and in clinical practice. PMID:26016647
Corbière, Marc; Negrini, Alessia; Durand, Marie-José; St-Arnaud, Louise; Briand, Catherine; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Loisel, Patrick; Lachance, Jean-Philippe
Introduction Common mental disorders (CMDs) and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) lead the list of causes for work absence in several countries. Current research is starting to look at workers on sick leave as a single population, regardless of the nature of the disease or accident. The purpose of this study is to report the validation of the Return to Work Obstacles and Self-Efficacy Scale (ROSES) for people with MSDs and CMDs, based on the disability paradigm. Methods From a prospective design, the ROSES' reliability and validity were investigated in a Canadian sample of workers on sick leave due to MSDs (n = 206) and CMDs (n = 157). Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that 46 items spread out on 10 conceptual dimensions (e.g., Fears of a relapse, Job demands, Difficult relation with the immediate supervisor), with satisfactory alpha coefficients and test-retest reliability for all subscales. Finally, several dimensions of ROSES also predict the participant's RTW within 6 months for MSDs (e.g., job demands), and CMDs (e.g., difficult relation with the immediate supervisor), even when adjusted by several variables (e.g., age, severity of symptoms). Apart from the job demands dimension, when the ROSES dimension is more external to the individual, only the perception of obstacles remains significant to predict RTW whereas it is the opposite result when the dimension is more internal (e.g., fears of a relapse). Conclusion The ROSES demonstrated satisfactory results regarding its validity and reliability with people having MSDs or CMDs, at the time of the return-to-work process.
Hedley, Darren; Nevill, Rose E; Monroy-Moreno, Yessica; Fields, Natalie; Wilkins, Jonathan; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A
The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) is a brief, play-based screening tool for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children aged 12-36 months. We examined the psychometric properties of the ADEC in a clinical sample of toddlers (n = 114) referred to a US pediatric hospital for assessment due to concerns of developmental delay or ASD. The ADEC (cutoff = 11) returned good sensitivity (.93-.94) but poorer specificity (.62-.64) for best estimate clinical diagnosis of ASD, and compared favorably with the ADOS-2. Internal consistency was acceptable, α = .80, and inter-rater reliability was high, ICC = .95. Results support the use of the ADEC as a clinical screen for ASD.
Lascelles, B D; Henderson, A J; Hackett, I J
The ability of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to modify the clinical manifestations of pain associated with locomotor disease was assessed. Sixty-nine cats with acute or chronic locomotor disorders were recruited from 14 first opinion UK veterinary practices and randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups. Group A received meloxicam drops (0.3 mg/kg orally on day 1 followed by 0.1 mg/kg daily for four more consecutive days) and group B received ketoprofen tablets (1.0 mg/kg orally once daily for five days). Each cat underwent a full clinical examination before treatment, 24 hours after initiation of treatment and 24 hours after completion of treatment. General clinical parameters (demeanour and feed intake) and specific locomotor parameters (weightbearing, lameness, local inflammation and pain on palpation) were scored using a discontinuous scale scoring system. The two groups did not differ in terms of age, weight, gender distribution or duration of clinical signs; nor did they differ in terms of general clinical or specific locomotor scores pretreatment. Both treatment regimens resulted in a significant improvement in demeanour, feed intake and weightbearing, and a significant reduction in lameness, pain on palpation and inflammation. No significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups with respect to any of the parameters measured and both treatments were associated with minimal observed side effects. Meloxicam and ketoprofen were found to be effective analgesics and well tolerated in cats with acute or chronic locomotor disorders when administered for short-term treatment (five days) in such cases. However, meloxicam was assessed to be significantly more palatable than ketoprofen.
Salameh, Johnny S; Deeb, Wissam; Burawski, Lauren; Wright, Suzanne; Souayah, Nizar
Many neuromuscular diseases may be treated with immunoglobulins. In the United States, the major form of immunoglobulin used is intravenous (IV). Recently, there has been an increased interest in research regarding the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg), mainly for improved patient quality of life, convenience, potential for fewer systemic adverse events, and avoiding wear-off. The widespread use of the subcutaneous formulation in neurology has been affected by some limitations, mainly the smaller volume and higher frequency of infusions compared to IV administration. Also, there are different pharmacokinetic properties that should be considered to evaluate whether they change the immunomodulatory effect. There are several formulations available that address some limitations. Several studies have assessed efficacy, safety, and quality of life of SCIg in neurology. This review article summarizes the current evidence for the use of SCIg in neuromuscular diseases. It also addresses the pharmacokinetic differences and the different formulations available. The current available preliminary evidence indicates that SCIg is at least as effective as the IV formulations.
Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh
Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone.
Albacete, Auria; Contreras, Fernando; Bosque, Clara; Gilabert, Ester; Albiach, Ángela; Menchón, José M.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa
Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia (Hooker et al., 2000; Contreras et al., 2016). At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N = 43), in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 44). A series of tests that assessed the “causal order effect” in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgments of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Due to the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies. PMID:27242583
Klavora, Vlasta Meden
The article deals with the question of artistic creativity in psychotic patients, focussing particularly on why it occurs and how interest in it developed. One of the main motivations for carrying out this study was to explore the idea of the connection between genius and insanity, which was accepted by one of the most important pre-Freud psychiatrists of the 19th century, Cesare Lombroso. The article describes the history of the first exhibitions and collections of artistic creations of psychotic patients, of which the most important is the collection of Hans Prinzhorn. It also conveys the influence of Adolf Wölfli, psychotic patient, who was one of the most notable creators and influenced the concept of art brut at the beginning of the 20th century.
Cortese, Samuele; D'Acunto, Giulia; Konofal, Eric; Masi, Gabriele; Vitiello, Benedetto
Psychostimulants are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate is one of the most commonly used psychostimulants worldwide. Given that immediate-release and/or tablet/capsule formulations may decrease adherence to methylphenidate treatment, several drug companies have been developing novel long-acting and/or liquid/chewable formulations that may improve adherence as well as (for long-acting formulations) reduce abuse potential, decrease stigma associated with multiple administrations per day, and decrease the potential for adverse effects related to dosage peak. Here, we review the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and tolerability of novel formulations of methylphenidate that are in development or have been approved by the US FDA or European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the last 5 years. We searched the websites of the FDA, EMA, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the pertinent drug companies. We also searched PubMed, Ovid databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase + Embase classic), and ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science [Science Citation Index Expanded], Biological Abstracts, Biosis, Food Science and Technology Abstracts) to retrieve any additional pertinent information. We found data from trials for the following compounds: (1) methylphenidate extended-release oral suspension (MEROS; NWP06, Quillivant™); (2) methylphenidate extended-release chewable capsules (NWP09, QuilliChew ER™); (3) methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (Aptensio XR™); (4) methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (XR-ODT; NT-0102, Cotempla™); (5) ORADUR technology (once-daily tamper-resistant formulation) methylphenidate sustained release (SR); and (6) methylphenidate modified-release (HLD-200; Bejorna™). Overall, available evidence based on trials suggests these compounds have good efficacy and tolerability. Future research should further explore the effectiveness and tolerability of
Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A
Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.
Paesano, R; Berlutti, F; Pietropaoli, M; Goolsbee, W; Pacifici, E; Valenti, P
Iron homeostasis in pregnancy compensates for increased iron requirements and in women of child-bearing age for iron loss in menses. Oral administration of ferrous sulfate, prescribed to cure iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA), often fails to increase hematological parameters and causes adverse effects. Recently, we demonstrated safety and efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) in pregnant women suffering from ID/IDA. Two clinical trials were conducted on pregnant and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age suffering from ID/IDA. In both trials, women received oral administration of bLf 100 mg/twice/day (Arm A), or ferrous sulfate 520 mg/day (Arm B). Hematological parameters, serum IL-6 and prohepcidin were assayed before and after therapy. Unlike ferrous sulfate, bLf increased hematological parameters (P less than 0.0001). In pregnant women, bLf decreased serum IL-6 (P less than 0.0001), and increased prohepcidin (P=0.0007). In non-pregnant women bLf did not change the low IL-6 levels while it increased prohepcidin (P less than 0.0001). Ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 (P less than 0.0001) and decreased prohepcidin (P=0.093). bLf established iron homeostasis by modulating serum IL-6 and prohepcidin synthesis, whereas ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 and failed to increase hematological parameters and prohepcidin. bLf is a more effective and safer alternative than ferrous sulfate for treating ID and IDA.
Ramos, Juan M; Sendra, Juan M; Sánchez, Aintzane; Mena, Ana
The usual emotional experience of the person (affective style) is an influential factor in therapeutic assimilation. Based on a dynamic model of affect shaped dimensionally by the valence and arousal axes (core affect) that fluctuate over time according to the specific context of the individual, its relationship with different variables was investigated and the changes after a 6-month intervention in a specialized hospital unit (N = 103) were observed. The orthogonal structure of core-affect was confirmed. Emotional valence appeared to be positively related to social skills (r = .375; p < .01) and self-esteem (r = .491; p < .01) and negatively to depressive symptoms (r = -.631; p < .01), general disturbance (r = -.395; p < .01) and suicidality (r = -.490; p < .01). Emotional arousal is associated with impulsivity (r = .345; p < .01). The group of patients with an affective style characterized by negative valence and low arousal core-affect gained less therapeutic benefit compared to those with positive valence core-affect (p < .05). Throughout the treatment, valence became more positive (d = .26; IC 95%: 1.9 - 7.2; p = .001), arousal increased (d = .23; IC 95%: 0.2 - 1.7; p = .015) and variability decreased (d = -.44; IC 95%: (-2.9) - (-1.1); p = .001). Changes in the core-affect are related to therapeutic improvement. Adjusting expectations of change can reduce therapeutic frustration, which is as common as it is harmful in the treatment of severe personality disorders.
Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Mohsen, Ghasemi; Reza, Maracy M; Amrollah, Ebrahimi; Majid, Barekatain; Fariba, Noori
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), it is also used as a rapid and efficacious treatment for other psychiatric disorders, especially treatment resistant ones. The cognitive impairment is one of the most important side effects of ECT. This study examined the Memoral herbal efficacy in prevention of ECT-induced memory impairment. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 70 patients with mood disorders who were candidates for ECT enrolled in either Memoral or Control group, and received either Memoral or placebo. The memory was assessed by Addenbrook Cognitive Examination (ACE), and the findings were analyzed by ANOVA under SPSS18. Results: The Memoral group patients showed significantly higher total ACE scores than placebo group (P < 0.001). The scores of attention and orientation, verbal fluency and memory subscales not only never decreased during the study in Memoral group, but also increased. There was no significant difference between these scores of Memoral and placebo groups for the subscales of language and visuospacial ability. Conclusion: The Memoral herbal is an efficacious and safe choice in prevention of ECT- induced cognitive impairment. PMID:22891152
Joseph, Alain; Ayyagari, Rajeev; Xie, Meng; Cai, Sean; Xie, Jipan; Huss, Michael; Sikirica, Vanja
This study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy in children and adolescents 6-17 years of age. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacologic monotherapies among children and adolescents with ADHD. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted to compare change in symptoms using the ADHD Rating Scale Version IV (ADHD-RS-IV), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) response, all-cause discontinuation, and adverse event-related discontinuation. Thirty-six RCTs were included in the analysis. The mean (95% credible interval [CrI]) ADHD-RS-IV total score change from baseline (active minus placebo) was -14.98 (-17.14, -12.80) for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), -9.33 (-11.63, -7.04) for methylphenidate (MPH) extended release, -8.68 (-10.63, -6.72) for guanfacine extended release (GXR), and -6.88 (-8.22, -5.49) for atomoxetine (ATX); data were unavailable for MPH immediate release. The relative risk (95% CrI) for CGI-I response (active versus placebo) was 2.56 (2.21, 2.91) for LDX, 2.13 (1.70, 2.54) for MPH extended release, 1.94 (1.59, 2.29) for GXR, 1.77 (1.31, 2.26) for ATX, and 1.62 (1.05, 2.17) for MPH immediate release. Among non-stimulant pharmacotherapies, GXR was more effective than ATX when comparing ADHD-RS-IV total score change (with a posterior probability of 93.91%) and CGI-I response (posterior probability 76.13%). This study found that LDX had greater efficacy than GXR, ATX, and MPH in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. GXR had a high posterior probability of being more efficacious than ATX, although their CrIs overlapped.
Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant
Background Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Results Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Conclusions Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct
Busch, Fredric N.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Sandberg, Larry S.
Systematic research on psychoanalytic treatments has been limited by several factors, including a belief that clinical experience can demonstrate the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, rendering systematic research unnecessary, the view that psychoanalytic research would be difficult or impossible to accomplish, and a concern that research would distort the treatment being delivered. In recent years, however, many psychoanalysts have recognized the necessity of research in order to obtain a more balanced assessment of the role of psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in a contemporary treatment armamentarium, as well as to allow appropriate evaluation and potentially greater acceptance by the broader mental health and medical communities. In this context, studies were conducted of a psychodynamic treatment, Panic-Focused Psycho-dynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP), initially in an open trial and then in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in comparison with a less active treatment, Applied Relaxation Training (ART; Cerny et al. 1984), for adults with primary DSM-IV panic disorder. The results of the RCT demonstrated the efficacy of PFPP in treating panic disorder, and also demonstrated that a psychoanalytic treatment can be systematically evaluated in a mode consistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Two specific features of the methodology, the development of the treatment manual and the operationalization of the adherence instrument, both core building blocks of contemporary psychotherapy outcome research, and their implications for psychoanalytic research are discussed in greater depth. The theoretical, clinical, and educational implications of the PFPP studies are elaborated, and suggestions are made for pursuing further outcome research of psychoanalytic treatments. PMID:19270248
Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with co-morbid anxiety disorder may be a variant of ASPD with different etiology and treatment requirements. We investigated diagnostic co-morbidity, ASPD criteria, and anxiety/affective symptoms of ASPD/anxiety disorder. Weighted analyses were carried out using survey data from a representative British household sample. ASPD/anxiety disorder demonstrated differing patterns of antisocial criteria, co-morbidity with clinical syndromes, psychotic symptoms, and other personality disorders compared to ASPD alone. ASPD criteria demonstrated specific associations with CIS-R scores of anxiety and affective symptoms. Findings suggest ASPD/anxiety disorder is a variant of ASPD, determined by symptoms of anxiety. Although co-morbid anxiety and affective symptoms are the same as in anxiety disorder alone, associations with psychotic symptoms require further investigation.
Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Koji; Toeda, Haruka; Tanaka, Goro
This study's objective was to investigate the efficacy of sensory integration therapy (SIT) for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). The subjects were 20 HFASD children with IQs above 70 selected from previously collected data. Eight participated in individual SIT sessions, and 12 participated in group therapy (GT) including social skill training, communication training, kinetic activities, and child-parent play for 8-10 months. Changes in Total score and five Index scores on the Japanese version of the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers before and after therapy between children in the SIT and GT groups were compared. The results showed that Total score and all Index scores except for Verbal Index increased significantly in the SIT group, while only Total score increased in the GT group. Furthermore, the SIT group showed more improvement compared with the GT group in Total score and on Coordination, Non-verbal, and Complex Index scores. SIT might have a more positive effect on motor coordination abilities, non-verbal cognitive abilities, and combined abilities of sensory motor and cognition in children with HFASD when compared with GT. This study has limitations such as being an analysis of previously collected data. Further study should be conducted with a randomized control trial.
Gates, Jacquelyn A; Kang, Erin; Lerner, Matthew D
Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioral tasks). The current meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness of GSSIs and differences by reporting sources. Nineteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. Results show that overall positive aggregate effects were medium (g=0.51, p<0.001). Effects were large for self-report (g=0.92, p<0.001), medium for task-based measures (g=0.58, p<0.001), small for parent- and observer-report (g=0.47 and 0.40, respectively, p<0.001), and nonsignificant for teacher-report (p=0.11). Moderation analyses of self-report revealed the effect was wholly attributable to youth reporting that they learned about skilled social behaviors (social knowledge; g=1.15, p<0.01), but not that they enacted them (social performance; g=0.28, p=0.31). Social skills interventions presently appear modestly effective for youth with ASD, but may not generalize to school settings or self-reported social behavior.
Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Lenzi, Francesca; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Muratori, Filippo
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are among the most common reasons for youth referrals to mental health clinics. Aim of this study is to compare short and medium term efficacy of a multimodal treatment program (MTP), compared to community care (treatment-as-usual, TAU). The sample included 135 youths with DBDs (113 males, age range 9-15 years, mean age 12±2.5 years) were assigned either to a MTP (n=64), or addressed to community care for a TAU (n=71). Outcome measures were the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). All subjects were assessed at the baseline (T0), after 1-year treatment (T1) and after a 2-year follow-up (T2). Compared with patients receiving TAU, youths in the MTP showed, both at T1 and T2, significantly lower scores on CBCL Externalizing Scale, Internalizing Scale, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Aggressive Behavior, and higher scores at the C-GAS. Improvement in Internalizing Scales was particularly evident, with a shift from the clinical to the non-clinical range. Rate of use of mental health services and scholastic failure were reduced in the MTP. It is suggested that the improvement of the Internalizing symptoms is a crucial component of the therapeutic process in this MTP.
Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L; Handley, Elizabeth D
Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) efficacy for economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder was examined. Specifically, we investigated whether genotypic variation in corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and the linked polymorphic region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderated effects of IPT on depressive symptoms over time. We also tested genotype moderation of IPT mechanisms on social adjustment and perceived stress. Non-treatment-seeking urban women at or below the poverty level with infants were recruited from the community (N = 126; M age = 25.33 years, SD = 4.99; 54.0% African American, 22.2% Caucasian, and 23.8% Hispanic/biracial) and randomized to individual IPT or Enhanced Community Standard groups. The results revealed that changes in depressive symptoms over time depended on both intervention group and genotypes (5-HTTLPR and CRHR1). Moreover, multiple-group path analysis indicated that IPT improved depressive symptoms, increased social adjustment, and decreased perceived stress at posttreatment among women with the 0 copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype only. Finally, improved social adjustment at postintervention significantly mediated the effect of IPT on reduced depressive symptoms at 8 months postintervention for women with 0 copies of the TAT haplotype only. Post hoc analyses of 5-HTTLPR were indicative of differential susceptibility, albeit among African American women only.
Faraone, Stephen V
Medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been well researched, but comparisons among agents are hindered by the absence of head-to-head clinical trials. By using meta-analysis, we sought to compare the efficacy of these medications for the symptoms of ADHD. We analyzed published literature on the pharmacotherapy of ADHD to describe the variability of drug-placebo effect sizes and conducted a literature search to identify double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of youths with ADHD that were published after 1979. Meta-analysis regression was used to assess the influence of the medication type on drug effects. We also assessed for publication bias.Thirty-two trials met our criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. These trials involved 16 drugs using 20 different outcome measures of ADHD behaviors. The effect sizes for immediate-release stimulants and long-acting stimulants were similar and were greater than the effect sizes for non-stimulants. There was no evidence of publication bias.Although nearly all of the ADHD medications had significant effects, we found substantial variability. When translated into the costs of treating large numbers of patients, these effect sizes have implications for formulary medication choices.
Spampanato, Carmine; De Leonibus, Elvira; Dama, Paola; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Fraldi, Alessandro; Sorrentino, Nicolina Cristina; Russo, Fabio; Nusco, Edoardo; Auricchio, Alberto; Surace, Enrico M; Ballabio, Andrea
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a severe autosomal recessive disease is caused by mutations in the sulfatase modifying factor 1 gene (Sumf1). We have previously shown that in the Sumf1 knockout mouse model (Sumf1(-/-)) sulfatase activities are completely absent and, similarly to MSD patients, this mouse model displays growth retardation and early mortality. The severity of the phenotype makes MSD unsuitable to be treated by enzyme replacement or bone marrow transplantation, hence the importance of testing the efficacy of novel treatment strategies. Here we show that recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) vector injected into the cerebral ventricles of neonatal mice resulted in efficient and widespread transduction of the brain parenchyma. In addition, we compared a combined, intracerebral ventricles and systemic, administration of an rAAV9 vector encoding SUMF1 gene to the single administrations-either directly in brain, or systemic alone -in MSD mice. The combined treatment resulted in the global activation of sulfatases, near-complete clearance of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and decrease of inflammation in both the central nervous system (CNS) and visceral organs. Furthermore, behavioral abilities were improved by the combined treatment. These results underscore that the "combined" mode of rAAV9 vector administration is an efficient option for the treatment of severe whole-body disorders.
Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio
The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics.