Souza Dutra, A. de; Santos, V. G. C. S. dos; Amaro de Faria, A. C. Jr.
2007-06-15
Some kinks for non-Hermitian quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions are constructed. A class of models where the soliton energies are stable and real are found. Although these kinks are not Hermitian, they are symmetric under PT transformations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulides, Demetrios
2015-03-01
Interest in complex Hamiltonians has been rekindled after the realization that a wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can have entirely real spectra as long as they simultaneously respect parity and time reversal operators. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, governed by the Schrödinger equation, a necessary but not sufficient condition for PT symmetry to hold is that the complex potential should involve real and imaginary parts which are even and odd functions of position respectively. As recently indicated, optics provides a fertile ground to observe and utilize notions of PT symmetry. In optics, the refractive index and gain/loss profiles play the role of the real and imaginary parts of the aforementioned complex potentials. As it has been demonstrated in several studies, PT-symmetric optical structures can exhibit peculiar properties that are otherwise unattainable in traditional Hermitian (conservative) optical settings. Among them, is the possibility for breaking this symmetry through an abrupt phase transition, band merging effects and unidirectional invisibility. Here we review recent developments in the field of -symmetric optics.
Q kink of the nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry
Loginov, A. Yu.
2011-05-15
The (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry is considered. Sphalerons are known to exist in this model. These sphalerons are of a topological origin and are embedded kinks of the sine-Gordon model. In the case of a compact spatial manifold S{sup 1}, sine-Gordon multikinks exist in the model. It is shown that the model admits a nonstatic generalization of the sine-Gordon kink/multikink, Q kink/multikink. Explicit expressions are obtained for the dependence of the Q kink energy and charge on the phase frequency of rotation. The Q kink is studied for stability, and expressions are obtained for the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of the operator of quadratic fluctuations. It is shown that the Q kink is unstable over the entire admissible frequency range {omega} Element-Of [-1, 1]. The one-loop quantum correction to the static-kink mass is calculated, and the Q-kink zero mode is quantized. It is shown that, in a general static case, the field equations of the model are integrable in quadratures.
Axisymmetric photonic structures with PT-symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Waqas W.; Herrero, Ramon; Botey, Muriel; Staliunas, Kestutis
2016-09-01
PT-symmetric structures in photonic crystals, combining refractive index and gain-loss modulations is becoming a research field with increasing interest due to the light directionality induced by these particular potentials. Here, we consider PT-symmetric potentials with axial symmetry to direct light to the crystal central point obtaining a localization effect. The axial and PT-symmetric potential intrinsically generates an exceptional central point in the photonic crystal by the merge of both symmetries. This particular point in the crystal lattice causes field amplitude gradients with exponential slopes around the crystal center. The field localization strongly depends on the phase of the central point and on the complex amplitude of the PT-potential. The presented work analyzes in a first stage 1D linear PT-axisymmetric crystals and the role of the central point phase that determines the defect character, i.e. refractive index defect, gain-loss defect or a combination of both. The interplay of the directional light effect induced by the PT-symmetry and the light localization around the central point through the axial symmetry enhances localization and allows higher field concentration for certain phases. The linearity of the studied crystals introduces an exponential growth of the field that mainly depends on the complex amplitude of the potential. The work is completed by the analysis of 2D PT-axisymmetric potentials showing different spatial slopes and growth rates caused by symmetry reasons.
PT Symmetry and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in a Microwave Billiard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bittner, S.; Dietz, B.; Günther, U.; Harney, H. L.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.; Schäfer, F.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate the presence of parity-time (PT) symmetry for the non-Hermitian two-state Hamiltonian of a dissipative microwave billiard in the vicinity of an exceptional point (EP). The shape of the billiard depends on two parameters. The Hamiltonian is determined from the measured resonance spectrum on a fine grid in the parameter plane. After applying a purely imaginary diagonal shift to the Hamiltonian, its eigenvalues are either real or complex conjugate on a curve, which passes through the EP. An appropriate basis choice reveals its PT symmetry. Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs at the EP.
PT Symmetry, Conformal Symmetry, and the Metrication of Electromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannheim, Philip D.
2017-09-01
We present some interesting connections between PT symmetry and conformal symmetry. We use them to develop a metricated theory of electromagnetism in which the electromagnetic field is present in the geometric connection. However, unlike Weyl who first advanced this possibility, we do not take the connection to be real but to instead be PT symmetric, with it being iA_{μ } rather than A_{μ } itself that then appears in the connection. With this modification the standard minimal coupling of electromagnetism to fermions is obtained. Through the use of torsion we obtain a metricated theory of electromagnetism that treats its electric and magnetic sectors symmetrically, with a conformal invariant theory of gravity being found to emerge. An extension to the non-Abelian case is provided.
Detecting broken \\mathbf{\\mathsf{PT}} -symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigert, Stefan
2006-08-01
A fundamental problem in the theory of \\mathbf{\\mathsf{PT}} -invariant quantum systems is to determine whether a given system 'respects' this symmetry or not. If not, the system usually develops non-real eigenvalues. It is shown in this contribution how to algorithmically detect the existence of complex eigenvalues for a given PT-symmetric matrix. The procedure uses classical results from stability theory which qualitatively locate the zeros of real polynomials in the complex plane. The interest and value of the present approach lies in the fact that it avoids diagonalization of the Hamiltonian at hand.
Giant Goos-Hänchen shift using PT symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang
2015-07-01
Influence of PT symmetry on the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in the reflected light is presented for an ensemble of atomic medium in a cavity, in the configuration of four-level N -type (87Rb atoms) systems driving by two copropagating strong laser fields and a weak probe field. The atom-field interaction follows the realization of PT symmetry by adjusting the coupling field detunings [J. Shenget al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 041803(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.041803]. A giant enhancement for the GH shift in the reflected light is revealed when the PT -symmetry condition is satisfied.
Exponentially Fragile PT Symmetry in Lattices with Localized Eigenmodes
Bendix, Oliver; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Kottos, Tsampikos; Shapiro, Boris
2009-07-17
We study the effect of localized modes in lattices of size N with parity-time (PT) symmetry. Such modes are arranged in pairs of quasidegenerate levels with splitting deltaapproxexp{sup -N/x}i where xi is their localization length. The level 'evolution' with respect to the PT breaking parameter gamma shows a cascade of bifurcations during which a pair of real levels becomes complex. The spontaneous PT symmetry breaking occurs at gamma{sub PT}approxmin(delta), thus resulting in an exponentially narrow exact PT phase. As N/xi decreases, it becomes more robust with gamma{sub PT}approx1/N{sup 2} and the distribution P(gamma{sub PT}) changes from log-normal to semi-Gaussian. Our theory can be tested in the frame of optical lattices.
Observation of PT-Symmetry Breaking in Complex Optical Potentials
Guo, A.; Salamo, G. J.; Duchesne, D.; Morandotti, R.; Volatier-Ravat, M.; Aimez, V.; Siviloglou, G. A.; Christodoulides, D. N.
2009-08-28
In 1998, Bender and Boettcher found that a wide class of Hamiltonians, even though non-Hermitian, can still exhibit entirely real spectra provided that they obey parity-time requirements or PT symmetry. Here we demonstrate experimentally passive PT-symmetry breaking within the realm of optics. This phase transition leads to a loss induced optical transparency in specially designed pseudo-Hermitian guiding potentials.
Quantum graphs: PT -symmetry and reflection symmetry of the spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurasov, P.; Majidzadeh Garjani, B.
2017-02-01
Not necessarily self-adjoint quantum graphs—differential operators on metric graphs—are considered. Assume in addition that the underlying metric graph possesses an automorphism (symmetry) P . If the differential operator is P T -symmetric, then its spectrum has reflection symmetry with respect to the real line. Our goal is to understand whether the opposite statement holds, namely, whether the reflection symmetry of the spectrum of a quantum graph implies that the underlying metric graph possesses a non-trivial automorphism and the differential operator is P T -symmetric. We give partial answer to this question by considering equilateral star-graphs. The corresponding Laplace operator with Robin vertex conditions possesses reflection-symmetric spectrum if and only if the operator is P T -symmetric with P being an automorphism of the metric graph.
Behavior of eigenvalues in a region of broken PT symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Carl M.; Hassanpour, Nima; Hook, Daniel W.; Klevansky, S. P.; Sünderhauf, Christoph; Wen, Zichao
2017-05-01
PT -symmetric quantum mechanics began with a study of the Hamiltonian H =p2+x2(ix ) ɛ . When ɛ ≥0 , the eigenvalues of this non-Hermitian Hamiltonian are discrete, real, and positive. This portion of parameter space is known as the region of unbroken PT symmetry. In the region of broken PT symmetry, ɛ <0 , only a finite number of eigenvalues are real and the remaining eigenvalues appear as complex-conjugate pairs. The region of unbroken PT symmetry has been studied but the region of broken PT symmetry has thus far been unexplored. This paper presents a detailed numerical and analytical examination of the behavior of the eigenvalues for -4 <ɛ <0 . In particular, it reports the discovery of an infinite-order exceptional point at ɛ =-1 , a transition from a discrete spectrum to a partially continuous spectrum at ɛ =-2 , a transition at the Coulomb value ɛ =-3 , and the behavior of the eigenvalues as ɛ approaches the conformal limit ɛ =-4 .
Non-Hermitian quantum Hamiltonians with PT symmetry
Jones-Smith, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh
2010-10-15
We formulate quantum mechanics for non-Hermitian Hamiltonians that are invariant under PT, where P is the parity and T denotes time reversal, for the case that time-reversal symmetry is odd (T{sup 2}=-1), generalizing prior work for the even case (T{sup 2}=1). We discover an analog of Kramer's theorem for PT quantum mechanics, present a prototypical example of a PT quantum system with odd time reversal, and discuss potential applications of the formalism.
Bloch Oscillations in Complex Crystals with PT Symmetry
Longhi, S.
2009-09-18
Bloch oscillations in complex lattices with PT symmetry are theoretically investigated with specific reference to optical Bloch oscillations in photonic lattices with gain or loss regions. Novel dynamical phenomena with no counterpart in ordinary lattices, such as nonreciprocal Bloch oscillations related to violation of the Friedel's law of Bragg scattering in complex potentials, are highlighted.
PT symmetry in classical and quantum statistical mechanics.
Meisinger, Peter N; Ogilvie, Michael C
2013-04-28
PT-symmetric Hamiltonians and transfer matrices arise naturally in statistical mechanics. These classical and quantum models often require the use of complex or negative weights and thus fall outside the conventional equilibrium statistical mechanics of Hermitian systems. PT-symmetric models form a natural class where the partition function is necessarily real, but not necessarily positive. The correlation functions of these models display a much richer set of behaviours than Hermitian systems, displaying sinusoidally modulated exponential decay, as in a dense fluid, or even sinusoidal modulation without decay. Classical spin models with PT-symmetry include Z(N) models with a complex magnetic field, the chiral Potts model and the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour Ising model. Quantum many-body problems with a non-zero chemical potential have a natural PT-symmetric representation related to the sign problem. Two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics with heavy quarks at non-zero chemical potential can be solved by diagonalizing an appropriate PT-symmetric Hamiltonian.
Explicit definition of PT symmetry for nonunitary quantum walks with gain and loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mochizuki, Ken; Kim, Dakyeong; Obuse, Hideaki
2016-06-01
PT symmetry, that is, a combined parity and time-reversal symmetry, is a key milestone for non-Hermitian systems exhibiting entirely real eigenenergy. In the present work, motivated by a recent experiment, we study PT symmetry of the time-evolution operator of nonunitary quantum walks. We present the explicit definition of PT symmetry by employing a concept of symmetry time frames. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition so that the time-evolution operator of the nonunitary quantum walk retains PT symmetry even when parameters of the model depend on position. It is also shown that there exist extra symmetries embedded in the time-evolution operator. Applying these results, we clarify that the nonunitary quantum walk in the experiment does have PT symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karthiga, S.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-01-01
We investigate the remarkable role of position-dependent damping in determining the parametric regions of symmetry breaking in nonlinear PT -symmetric systems. We illustrate the nature of PT -symmetry preservation and breaking with reference to a remarkable integrable scalar nonlinear system. In the two-dimensional cases of such position-dependent damped systems, we unveil the existence of a class of twofold-PT -symmetric systems which have twofold PT symmetries. We analyze the dynamics of these systems and show how symmetry breaking occurs, that is, whether the symmetry breaking of the two PT symmetries occurs in pair or occurs one by one. The addition of linear damping in these nonlinearly damped systems induces competition between the two types of damping. This competition results in a PT phase transition in which the PT symmetry is broken for lower loss or gain strength and is restored by increasing the loss or gain strength. We also show that by properly designing the form of the position-dependent damping, we can tailor the PT -symmetric regions of the system.
Multiband superconductivity in CePt3Si without inversion symmetry: 195Pt-NMR study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukuda, H.; Nishide, S.; Harada, A.; Yashima, M.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsujino, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Bauer, E.; Settai, R.; Onuki, Y.
2009-03-01
We report on novel superconducting characteristics of the heavy fermion (HF) superconductor CePt3Si without inversion symmetry through 195Pt-NMR study on a high quality single crystal with Tc = 0.46 K that is lower than Tc ~ 0.75 K for polycrystals. The observation of short and long components in a nuclear relaxation time T1 has revealed the presence of inhomogeneities of superconducting characteristics even in a single crystal. By discriminating the clean domain from the disordered domains, we show that the intrinsic superconducting characteristics inherent to CePt3Si can be understood in terms of the unconventional strong-coupling state with a line-node gap below Tc = 0.46 K. Furthermore, it was found that in some disordered domains that are inevitably contained in regardless of polycrystals or single crystals a conventional BCS s-wave superconducting state is realized below Tc ~ 0.75 K. We propose that these unusual superconducting and magnetic characteristics of CePt3Si can be described by a multiband model on the basis of the experimental facts.
Pseudo-Hermitian Systems with PT-Symmetry: Degeneracy and Krein Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choutri, B.; Cherbal, O.; Ighezou, F. Z.; Drir, M.
2017-05-01
We show in the present paper that pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems with even PT-symmetry (P2=1,T2=1) admit a degeneracy structure. This kind of degeneracy is expected traditionally in the odd PT-symmetric systems (P2=1,T2=-1) which is appropriate to the fermions (Scolarici and Solombrino, Phys. Lett. A 303, 239 2002; Jones-Smith and Mathur, Phys. Rev. A 82, 042101 2010). We establish that the pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians with even PT-symmetry admit a degeneracy structure if the operator PT anticommutes with the metric operator η σ which is necessarily indefinite. We also show that the Krein space formulation of the Hilbert space is the convenient framework for the implementation of unbroken PT-symmetry. These general results are illustrated with great details for four-level pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian with even PT-symmetry.
Pseudo-Hermitian Systems with PT-Symmetry: Degeneracy and Krein Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choutri, B.; Cherbal, O.; Ighezou, F. Z.; Drir, M.
2017-02-01
We show in the present paper that pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems with even PT-symmetry (P2=1,T2=1) admit a degeneracy structure. This kind of degeneracy is expected traditionally in the odd PT-symmetric systems (P2=1,T2=-1) which is appropriate to the fermions (Scolarici and Solombrino, Phys. Lett. A 303, 239 2002; Jones-Smith and Mathur, Phys. Rev. A 82, 042101 2010). We establish that the pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians with even PT-symmetry admit a degeneracy structure if the operator PT anticommutes with the metric operator η σ which is necessarily indefinite. We also show that the Krein space formulation of the Hilbert space is the convenient framework for the implementation of unbroken PT-symmetry. These general results are illustrated with great details for four-level pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian with even PT -symmetry.
Observation and elimination of broken symmetry in L1{sub 0} FePt nanostructures
Quarterman, P.; Wang, Hao; Qiu, Jiao-Ming; Ma, Bin; Liu, Xiaoqi; Wang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Honghua
2015-12-07
An unexplained surface anisotropy effect was observed and confirmed in the magnetization reversal process of both L1{sub 0} phase FePt nanoparticles with octahedral shape and (001) textured L1{sub 0} FePt thin films with island nanostructures. We suggest that the nature of the observed surface effect is caused by broken symmetry on the FePt surface, which results in weakened exchange coupling for surface atoms. Furthermore, we propose, and experimentally demonstrate, a method to repair the broken symmetry by capping the FePt islands with a Pt layer, which could prove invaluable in understanding fundamental limitations of magnetic nanostructures.
PT symmetry in quantum physics: From a mathematical curiosity to optical experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Carl M.
2016-04-01
Space-time reflection symmetry, or PT symmetry, first proposed in quantum mechanics by Bender and Boettcher in 1998 [1], has become an active research area in fundamental physics. More than two thousand papers have been published on the subject and papers have appeared in two dozen categories of the arXiv. Over two dozen international conferences and symposia specifically devoted to PT symmetry have been held and many PhD theses have been written.
Pseudo PT-symmetry in time periodic non-Hermitian Hamiltonians systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maamache, Mustapha; Lamri, Sarra; Cherbal, Omar
2017-03-01
We investigate the concept of the pseudo-parity-time (pseudo- PT) symmetry in periodic quantum systems. This pseudo parity-time symmetry manifests itself dynamically in the framework of the non-unitary evolution (Floquet) operator U(τ) =e-iLτ, over a period τ, which shows that the stability of the dynamics occurs when the PT-symmetry (or pseudo- PT) of the time-independent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian L is unbroken i.e. its quasienergies En are real. Nevertheless, when the PT-symmetry of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian L is broken, which corresponds to the complex conjugate quasienergies En, an instable dynamics arises. We investigate in greater detail a harmonic oscillator with imaginary time-dependent periodic driving term linear in x. The Floquet operator for the modulated system is pseudo- PT symmetric if the relative phase ϕ of the applied mode is not 0 or π.
PT-symmetry breaking with divergent potentials: Lattice and continuum cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Scott, Derek D.; Saxena, Avadh
2014-09-01
We investigate the parity- and time-reversal (PT-) symmetry breaking in lattice models in the presence of long-ranged, non-Hermitian, PT-symmetric potentials that remain finite or become divergent in the continuum limit. By scaling analysis of the fragile PT threshold for an open finite lattice, we show that continuum loss-gain potentials Vα(x)∝i|x|αsgn(x) have a positive PT-breaking threshold for α >-2, and a zero threshold for α ≤-2. When α <0 localized states with complex (conjugate) energies in the continuum energy band occur at higher loss-gain strengths. We investigate the signatures of PT-symmetry breaking in coupled waveguides, and show that the emergence of localized states dramatically shortens the relevant time scale in the PT-symmetry broken region.
Darboux-Crum transformations, Jordan states and PT-symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, Francisco
2017-03-01
We describe how Darboux-Crum transformations with Jordan states provide an useful method for the design of complex optical systems. We focus in the construction of PT-symmetric models with features like invisible periodic defects and vanishing reflection coefficient. Some illustrative examples are discussed.
Tunneling decay of false kinks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan
2015-07-01
We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.
PT symmetry breaking and nonlinear optical isolation in coupled microcavities.
Zhou, Xin; Chong, Y D
2016-04-04
We perform a theoretical study of the nonlinear dynamics of nonlinear optical isolator devices based on coupled microcavities with gain and loss. This reveals a correspondence between the boundary of asymptotic stability in the nonlinear regime, where gain saturation is present, and the PT -breaking transition in the underlying linear system. For zero detuning and weak input intensity, the onset of optical isolation can be rigorously derived, and corresponds precisely to the transition into the PT -broken phase of the linear system. When the couplings to the external ports are unequal, the isolation ratio exhibits an abrupt jump at the transition point, whose magnitude is given by the ratio of the couplings. This phenomenon could be exploited to realize an actively controlled nonlinear optical isolator, in which strong optical isolation can be turned on and off by tiny variations in the inter-resonator separation.
PT-symmetry and kagome lattices (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saxena, Avadh; Chern, Gia-Wei
2016-09-01
We consider a complex photonic lattice by placing PT-symmetric dimers at the Kagome lattice points. This lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles. Each dimer represents a pair of strongly coupled waveguides. The frustrated coupling between waveguide modes results in a dispersionless flat band comprising spatially localized modes. For a balanced arrangement of gain and loss on each dimer, up to a critical value of the gain/loss parameter the system exhibits a PT-symmetric phase. The beam evolution in the waveguide array leads to an oscillatory rotation of the optical power. We observe local chiral structures with a narrow beam excitation. We also study nonlinearity and disorder in this set up.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Weinstein, M. I.
2000-08-01
We consider a class of Hamiltonian nonlinear wave equations governing a field defined on a spatially discrete one-dimensional lattice, with discreteness parameter, d= h-1, where h>0 is the lattice spacing. The specific cases we consider in detail are the discrete sine-Gordon (SG) and discrete φ4 models. For finite d and in the continuum limit ( d→∞) these equations have static kink-like (heteroclinic) states which are stable. In contrast to the continuum case, due to the breaking of Lorentz invariance, discrete kinks cannot be “Lorentz boosted” to obtain traveling discrete kinks. Peyrard and Kruskal pioneered the study of how a kink, initially propagating in the lattice, dynamically adjusts in the absence of an available family of traveling kinks. We study in detail the final stages of the discrete kink’s evolution during which it is pinned to a specified lattice site (equilibrium position in the Peierls-Nabarro barrier). We find the following: For d sufficiently large (sufficiently small lattice spacing), the state of the system approaches an asymptotically stable ground state static kink (centered between lattice sites). For d sufficiently small, d< d*, the static kink bifurcates to one or more time-periodic states. For the discrete φ4 we have wobbling kinks which have the same spatial symmetry as the static kink as well as “ g-wobblers” and “ e-wobblers”, which have different spatial symmetry. In the discrete SG case, the “ e-wobbler” has the spatial symmetry of the kink, whereas the “ g-wobbler” has the opposite one. These time-periodic states may be regarded as a class of discrete breather/topological defect states; they are spatially localized and time-periodic oscillations mounted on a static kink background. The large time limit of solutions with initial data near a kink is marked by damped oscillation about one of these two types of asymptotic states. In case (1) we compute the characteristics of the damped oscillation
Interplay between Fano resonance and PT symmetry in non-Hermitian discrete systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Baogang; Lü, Rong; Chen, Shu
2015-04-01
We study the effect of PT -symmetric complex potentials on the transport properties of non-Hermitian systems, which consist of an infinite linear chain and two side-coupled defect points with PT -symmetric complex on-site potentials. By analytically solving the scattering problem of two typical models, which display standard Fano resonances in the absence of non-Hermitian terms, we find that the PT -symmetric imaginary potentials can lead to some pronounced effects on transport properties of our systems, including changes from the perfect reflection to perfect transmission, and rich behaviors for the absence or existence of the perfect reflection at one and two resonant frequencies. Our study can help us to understand the interplay between the Fano resonance and PT symmetry in non-Hermitian discrete systems, which may be realizable in optical waveguide experiments.
Supersymmetric analysis of the Dirac-Weyl operator within PT symmetry
Yeşiltaş, Özlem
2014-08-15
Two-dimensional effective Hamiltonian for a massless Dirac electron interacting with a hyperbolic magnetic field is discussed within PT symmetry. Factorization method and polynomial procedures are used to solve Dirac equation for the constant Fermi velocity and the effective potential which is complex Scarf II potential. The more general effective Scarf II potential models are also obtained within pseudo-supersymmetry. Finally, an extension of Panella and Roy's work [Phys. Lett. A 376, 2580–2583 (2012)] to the both PT symmetric and real Scarf II partner potentials is given using the position dependent Fermi velocity.
Design of zero index metamaterials with PT symmetry using epsilon-near-zero media with defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Huanyang
2017-03-01
Inspired by the design of matched zero-index metamaterials (ZIMs) using defects in epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media, we demonstrate in this letter that ZIMs with parity-time (PT) symmetry in a waveguide system can be achieved by introducing defects with loss/gain inside ENZ media. Such results are well verified from the phenomenon of unidirectional transparency, corresponding to the exceptional points in PT symmetric systems. Moreover, by changing the geometry configuration of ENZ, the effective loss/gain in the structure composed of ENZ and defects can be amplified immensely by virtue of the resonances of defects. Therefore, our work also provides a blueprint for obtaining amplified loss/gain in PT symmetric systems.
Parametric symmetries in exactly solvable real and PT symmetric complex potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Khare, Avinash; Bagchi, Bijan; Kumari, Nisha; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2016-06-01
In this paper, we discuss the parametric symmetries in different exactly solvable systems characterized by real or complex PT symmetric potentials. We focus our attention on the conventional potentials such as the generalized Pöschl Teller (GPT), Scarf-I, and PT symmetric Scarf-II which are invariant under certain parametric transformations. The resulting set of potentials is shown to yield a completely different behavior of the bound state solutions. Further, the supersymmetric partner potentials acquire different forms under such parametric transformations leading to new sets of exactly solvable real and PT symmetric complex potentials. These potentials are also observed to be shape invariant (SI) in nature. We subsequently take up a study of the newly discovered rationally extended SI potentials, corresponding to the above mentioned conventional potentials, whose bound state solutions are associated with the exceptional orthogonal polynomials (EOPs). We discuss the transformations of the corresponding Casimir operator employing the properties of the so(2, 1) algebra.
Parametric symmetries in exactly solvable real and PT symmetric complex potentials
Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Khare, Avinash; Bagchi, Bijan; Kumari, Nisha Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2016-06-15
In this paper, we discuss the parametric symmetries in different exactly solvable systems characterized by real or complex PT symmetric potentials. We focus our attention on the conventional potentials such as the generalized Pöschl Teller (GPT), Scarf-I, and PT symmetric Scarf-II which are invariant under certain parametric transformations. The resulting set of potentials is shown to yield a completely different behavior of the bound state solutions. Further, the supersymmetric partner potentials acquire different forms under such parametric transformations leading to new sets of exactly solvable real and PT symmetric complex potentials. These potentials are also observed to be shape invariant (SI) in nature. We subsequently take up a study of the newly discovered rationally extended SI potentials, corresponding to the above mentioned conventional potentials, whose bound state solutions are associated with the exceptional orthogonal polynomials (EOPs). We discuss the transformations of the corresponding Casimir operator employing the properties of the so(2, 1) algebra.
Spontaneous PT symmetry breaking and quantum phase transitions in dimerized spin chains
Giorgi, Gian Luca
2010-08-01
The occurrence of parity-time reversal (PT) symmetry breaking is discussed in a non-Hermitian spin chain. The Hermiticity of the model is broken by the presence of an alternating, imaginary, transverse magnetic field. A full real spectrum, which occurs if and only if all the eigenvectors are PT symmetric, can appear only in presence of dimerization, i.e., only if the hopping amplitudes between nearest-neighbor spins assume alternate values along the chain. In order to make a connection between such system and the Hermitian world, we study the critical magnetic properties of the model and look for the conditions that would allow to observe the same phase diagram in the absence of the imaginary field. Such procedure amounts to renormalizing the spin-spin coupling amplitudes.
Caps, H; Vandewalle, N
2001-10-01
We propose a relevant modification of the Nishimori-Ouchi model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 197 (1993)] for granular landscape erosion. We explicitly introduce an additional parameter: the angle of repose straight theta(r), and an additional process: avalanches. We show that the straight theta(r) parameter leads to an asymmetry of the ripples, as observed in natural patterns. The temporal evolution of the maximum ripple height h(max) is limited and not linear according to recent observations. The ripple symmetry and the kink dynamics are studied and discussed.
Coalescence of resonances in dissipationless resonant tunneling structures and PT-symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbatsevich, A. A.; Shubin, N. M.
2017-01-01
We study the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking in dissipationless resonant tunneling structures (RTS). To describe the quantum transport in this system we apply both the nonequilibrium Green function formalism based on a tight-binding model and a numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation within the envelope wavefunction formalism. An auxiliary non-Hermitian Hamiltonian is introduced. Its eigenvalues determine exactly the transparency peak positions. In spatially symmetric RTS the corresponding auxiliary non-Hermitian Hamiltonian becomes PT-symmetric and possesses real eigenvalues, which can coalesce at exceptional points of this Hamiltonian. A coalescence of the auxiliary non-Hermitian Hamiltonian eigenvalues means a coalescence of perfect resonances in RTS, which can be accompanied be symmetry breaking of the electron wavefunction probability distribution (at a given direction of the particle flow). Also we construct a classification of different types of the coalescence of resonances in terms of the catastrophe theory and investigate the impact of small imperfections (scattering and asymmetry) on these phenomena.
Random-matrix theory of amplifying and absorbing resonators with {PT} or {PTT}^{\\prime } symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birchall, Christopher; Schomerus, Henning
2012-11-01
We formulate Gaussian and circular random-matrix models representing a coupled system consisting of an absorbing and an amplifying resonator, which are mutually related by a generalized time-reversal symmetry. Motivated by optical realizations of such systems we consider a {PT} or a {PTT}^{\\prime } time-reversal symmetry, which impose different constraints on magneto-optical effects, and then focus on five common settings. For each of these, we determine the eigenvalue distribution in the complex plane in the short-wavelength limit, which reveals that the fraction of real eigenvalues among all eigenvalues in the spectrum vanishes if all classical scales are kept fixed. Numerically, we find that the transition from real to complex eigenvalues in the various ensembles display a different dependence on the coupling strength between the two resonators. These differences can be linked to the level spacing statistics in the Hermitian limit of the considered models. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harter, Andrew K.; Lee, Tony E.; Joglekar, Yogesh N.
2016-06-01
Aubry-André-Harper lattice models, characterized by a reflection-asymmetric sinusoidally varying nearest-neighbor tunneling profile, are well known for their topological properties. We consider the fate of such models in the presence of balanced gain and loss potentials ±i γ located at reflection-symmetric sites. We predict that these models have a finite PT -breaking threshold only for specific locations of the gain-loss potential and uncover a hidden symmetry that is instrumental to the finite threshold strength. We also show that the topological edge states remain robust in the PT -symmetry-broken phase. Our predictions substantially broaden the possible experimental realizations of a PT -symmetric system.
Strauss, H.; Park, W.; Monticello, D.; Izzo, R.; White, R.; McGuire, K.; Manickam, J.; Goldston, R.
1983-07-01
The internal-kink mode, combined with neutral-beam heating and beam losses, appears to be responsible for the fishbone soft x-ray oscillations in PDX. Nonlinear simulations of both ideal and resistive kinks are presented and shown to be consistent with experimental observations. The internal kink may also be important in low-beta internal disruptions.
Hexagonal pnictide SrPtAs; the role of spin-orbit interaction and locally broken inversion symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhim, S. H.; Youn, S. J.; Fischer, M. H.; Agterberg, D. F.; Sigrist, M.; Weinert, M.; Freeman, A. J.
2012-02-01
The first hexagonal pnictide superconductor SrPtAs which consists of stacked PtAs layers has been studied using the FLAPW methodootnotetextWimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, and Freeman, Phys.Rev.B. 24, 864 (1981) and tight-binding methods. The single PtAs layer forms a honeycomb structure that exhibits: (1) locally broken inversion symmetry despite the presence of the global inversion center, and (2) strong spin-orbit interaction, for which physical consequences are nontrivial. Based on these findings, we predict significant enhancement of both the spin susceptibility and the paramagnetic limiting field with respect to the usual s wave superconductors. Further, we suggest an increase of TC by electron doping of a van Hove singularity.
Gravitational Smoothing of Kinks on Cosmic String Loops.
Wachter, Jeremy M; Olum, Ken D
2017-02-03
We analyze the effect of gravitational backreaction on cosmic string loops with kinks, which is an important determinant of the shape, and thus the potential observability, of string loops which may exist in the Universe today. Kinks are not rounded off, but may be straightened out. This means that backreaction will only cause loops with kinks to develop cusps after some potentially large fraction of their lifetimes. In some loops, symmetries prevent even this process, so that the loop evaporates in a self-similar fashion and the kinks are unchanged. As an example, we discuss backreaction on the rectangular Garfinkle-Vachaspati loop.
Gravitational Smoothing of Kinks on Cosmic String Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wachter, Jeremy M.; Olum, Ken D.
2017-02-01
We analyze the effect of gravitational backreaction on cosmic string loops with kinks, which is an important determinant of the shape, and thus the potential observability, of string loops which may exist in the Universe today. Kinks are not rounded off, but may be straightened out. This means that backreaction will only cause loops with kinks to develop cusps after some potentially large fraction of their lifetimes. In some loops, symmetries prevent even this process, so that the loop evaporates in a self-similar fashion and the kinks are unchanged. As an example, we discuss backreaction on the rectangular Garfinkle-Vachaspati loop.
PT symmetry and necessary and sufficient conditions for the reality of energy eigenvalues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Carl M.; Mannheim, Philip D.
2010-04-01
The mathematical requirement that a Hamiltonian H be Hermitian is sufficient to guarantee the reality of its eigenvalues, but it is not necessary. By establishing three theorems, this Letter gives conditions that are both necessary and sufficient. First, it is shown that if the secular equation is real, the Hamiltonian is necessarily PT symmetric. Second, the set of all operators C that nontrivially obey the two equations [C,H]=0 and C=1 is introduced. For a diagonalizable PT-symmetric Hamiltonian it is shown that the set is nonempty and that the energy eigenvalues of H are all real only if every such C commutes with PT. There is at least one complex-conjugate pair of eigenvalues whenever at least one such C does not commute with PT. Third, the eigenvalues of any nondiagonalizable Jordan-block matrix that possesses just one eigenvector are all real if the block is PT symmetric, and are all complex if it is not. These theorems hold for matrix Hamiltonians of any finite dimensionality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cozma, M. D.
2017-01-01
The charged pion multiplicity ratio in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, a probe of the density dependence of symmetry energy above the saturation point, has been proven in a previous study to be extremely sensitive to the strength of the isovector Δ (1232 ) potential in nuclear matter. As there is no knowledge, either from theory or experiment, about the magnitude of this quantity, the extraction of constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation by using exclusively the mentioned observable is hindered at present. It is shown that, by including the ratio of average pT of charged pions
Ingles, David
2004-05-01
The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.
Permanent Rabi oscillations in coupled exciton-photon systems with PT-symmetry.
Chestnov, Igor Yu; Demirchyan, Sevak S; Alodjants, Alexander P; Rubo, Yuri G; Kavokin, Alexey V
2016-01-21
We propose a physical mechanism which enables permanent Rabi oscillations in driven-dissipative condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities subjected to external magnetic fields. The method is based on stimulated scattering of excitons from the incoherent reservoir. We demonstrate that permanent non-decaying oscillations may appear due to the parity-time symmetry of the coupled exciton-photon system realized in a specific regime of pumping to the exciton state and depletion of the reservoir. At non-zero exciton-photon detuning, robust permanent Rabi oscillations occur with unequal amplitudes of exciton and photon components. Our predictions pave way to realization of integrated circuits based on exciton-polariton Rabi oscillators.
Permanent Rabi oscillations in coupled exciton-photon systems with PT -symmetry
Chestnov, Igor Yu.; Demirchyan, Sevak S.; Alodjants, Alexander P.; Rubo, Yuri G.; Kavokin, Alexey V.
2016-01-01
We propose a physical mechanism which enables permanent Rabi oscillations in driven-dissipative condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities subjected to external magnetic fields. The method is based on stimulated scattering of excitons from the incoherent reservoir. We demonstrate that permanent non-decaying oscillations may appear due to the parity-time symmetry of the coupled exciton-photon system realized in a specific regime of pumping to the exciton state and depletion of the reservoir. At non-zero exciton-photon detuning, robust permanent Rabi oscillations occur with unequal amplitudes of exciton and photon components. Our predictions pave way to realization of integrated circuits based on exciton-polariton Rabi oscillators. PMID:26790534
Semirelativity and Kink Solitons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nowak, Mariusz Karol
2014-01-01
It is hard to observe relativistic effects in everyday life. However, table experiments using a mechanical transmission line for solitons may be an efficient and simple way to show effects such as Lorentz contraction in a classroom. A kink soliton is a deformation of a lattice of several dozen or more pendulums placed on a wire and connected by a…
Semirelativity and Kink Solitons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nowak, Mariusz Karol
2014-01-01
It is hard to observe relativistic effects in everyday life. However, table experiments using a mechanical transmission line for solitons may be an efficient and simple way to show effects such as Lorentz contraction in a classroom. A kink soliton is a deformation of a lattice of several dozen or more pendulums placed on a wire and connected by a…
The role of symmetry-breaking-induced interface anisotropy in [Fe/Pt]{sub n} multilayer films
Li Zhenghua; Xie Hailong; Liu Xi; Bai Jianmin; Wei Fulin; Wei Dan; Yoshimura, S.; Saito, H.; Liu Xiaoxi
2011-04-01
The FePt films were deposited with [Fe/Pt]{sub n} multilayer structure on preheated Corning 1737F glass substrate using pure Fe and Pt target in a CMS-18 sputtering system. The dependence of FePt's texture and magnetic properties on the multilayer structure was investigated. The XRD patterns indicate that (111) texture is dominant for all [Fe/Pt]{sub n} (n = 8, 16, 20, 32) multilayer films. However, the measured M-H loops show that the perpendicular anisotropy is greatly enhanced in samples with n = 16, 20, and 32. The origin of the increased perpendicular anisotropy of [Fe/Pt]{sub n} multilayer films is related to the contributions of the interfaces, which will be analyzed using the micromagnetic models, with careful discussions of the crystalline and interface anisotropies. Finally, it is confirmed that the Fe/Pt interfaces favor the perpendicular orientation in the multilayer structure.
Xe adsorption site distributions on Pt(111), Pt(221) and Pt(531)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gellman, Andrew J.; Baker, L.; Holsclaw, B. S.
2016-04-01
The ideal structures of the Pt(111), Pt(221) and Pt(531) surfaces expose adsorption sites that can be qualitatively described as terrace sites on Pt(111), both step and terrace sites on Pt(221), and kink sites on Pt(531). The real surface structures of these surfaces can be complicated by imperfections such as misorientation, reconstruction and thermal roughening, all of which will influence their distributions of adsorption sites. Xe adsorption sites on the Pt(111), Pt(221) and Pt(531) surfaces have been probed using both photoemission of adsorbed Xe (PAX) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of Xe. Both PAX and Xe TPD are sensitive to the adsorption sites of the Xe and serve as complementary means of assessing the distributions of adsorption sites on these three Pt surfaces. The adsorption of Xe is sufficiently sensitive to detect the presence of residual steps on the Pt(111) surface at a density of 1.5% step atoms per Pt atom. On the Pt(221) surface, PAX and Xe TPD reveal adsorption at both terrace and step sites simultaneously. Although the ideal structure of the Pt(531) surface has no well-defined steps or terraces, Xe adsorption indicates that its adsorption sites are best described as a distribution of both step and kink sites with roughly twice as many steps sites as kinks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Weinstein, M. I.
2000-03-01
In this paper we consider two models of soliton dynamics (the sine Gordon and the \\phi^4 equations) on a 1-dimensional lattice. We are interested in particular in the behavior of their kink-like solutions inside the Peierls- Nabarro barrier and its variation as a function of the discreteness parameter. We find explicitly the asymptotic states of the system for any value of the discreteness parameter and the rates of decay of the initial data to these asymptotic states. We show that genuinely periodic solutions are possible and we identify the regimes of the discreteness parameter for which they are expected to persist. We also prove that quasiperiodic solutions cannot exist. Our results are verified by numerical simulations.
Kink-antikink asymmetry and impurity interactions in topological mechanical chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yujie; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Upadhyaya, Nitin; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2017-02-01
We study the dynamical response of a diatomic periodic chain of rotors coupled by springs, whose unit cell breaks spatial inversion symmetry. In the continuum description, we derive a nonlinear field theory which admits topological kinks and antikinks as nonlinear excitations but where a topological boundary term breaks the symmetry between the two and energetically favors the kink configuration. Using a cobweb plot, we develop a fixed-point analysis for the kink motion and demonstrate that kinks propagate without the Peierls-Nabarro potential energy barrier typically associated with lattice models. Using continuum elasticity theory, we trace the absence of the Peierls-Nabarro barrier for the kink motion to the topological boundary term which ensures that only the kink configuration, and not the antikink, costs zero potential energy. Further, we study the eigenmodes around the kink and antikink configurations using a tangent stiffness matrix approach appropriate for prestressed structures to explicitly show how the usual energy degeneracy between the two no longer holds. We show how the kink-antikink asymmetry also manifests in the way these nonlinear excitations interact with impurities introduced in the chain as disorder in the spring stiffness. Finally, we discuss the effect of impurities in the (bond) spring length and build prototypes based on simple linkages that verify our predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukuda, Hidekazu; Nishide, Sachihiro; Harada, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Kaori; Yogi, Mamoru; Yashima, Mitsuharu; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Tsujino, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Settai, Rikio; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Bauer, Ernst; Itoh, Kohei M.; Haller, Eugene E.
2009-01-01
We report on novel superconducting characteristics of the heavy fermion (HF) superconductor CePt3Si without inversion symmetry through 195Pt-NMR study on a single crystal with Tc= 0.46 K that is lower than Tc˜ 0.75 K for polycrystals. We show that the intrinsic superconducting characteristics inherent to CePt3Si can be understood in terms of the unconventional strong-coupling state with a line-node gap below Tc= 0.46 K. The mystery about the sample dependence of Tc is explained by the fact that more or less polycrystals and single crystals inevitably contain some disordered domains, which exhibit a conventional BCS s-wave superconductivity (SC) below 0.8 K. In contrast, the Néel temperature TN˜ 2.2 K is present regardless of the quality of samples, revealing that the Fermi surface responsible for SC differ from that for the antiferromagnetic order. These unusual characteristics of CePt3Si can be also described by a multiband model; in the homogeneous domains, the coherent HF bands are responsible for the unconventional SC, whereas in the disordered domains the conduction bands existing commonly in LaPt3Si may be responsible for the conventional s-wave SC. We remark that some impurity scatterings in the disordered domains break up the 4 f-electrons-derived coherent bands but not others. In this context, the small peak in 1/T1 just below Tc reported before [Yogi et al. (2004)] is not due to a two-component order parameter composed of spin-singlet and spin-triplet Cooper pairing states, but due to the contamination of the disorder domains which are in the s-wave SC state.
One-loop results for kink and domain wall profiles at zero and finite temperature
Rebhan, Anton; Schmitt, Andreas; Nieuwenhuizen, Peter van
2009-08-15
Using dimensional regularization, we compute the one-loop quantum and thermal corrections to the profile of the bosonic (1+1)-dimensional {phi}{sup 4} kink, the sine-Gordon kink, and the CP{sup 1} kink, and higher-dimensional {phi}{sup 4} kink domain walls. Starting from the Heisenberg field equation in the presence of the nontrivial kink background we derive analytically results for the temperature-dependent mean field which display the onset of the melting of kinks as the system is heated towards a symmetry-restoring phase transition. The result is shown to simplify significantly when expressed in terms of a self-consistently defined thermal screening mass. In the case of domain walls, we find infrared singularities in the kink profile, which corresponds to interface roughening depending on the system size. Finally we calculate the energy density profile of {phi}{sup 4} kink domain walls and find that in contrast to the total surface tension the local distribution requires composite operator renormalization in 3+1 dimensions.
Defects on semiflexible filaments: Kinks and twist kinks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Nam-Kyung; Johner, Albert
2016-04-01
Due to local interactions with ligands or to global constraints, semiflexible filaments can exhibit localized defects. We focus on filaments laying flat on a surface. The two lowest order singularities are addressed: discontinuities of the orientation, which are called kink, and discontinuities of the curvature. The latter are called twist kinks in flattened helical filaments where they can form spontaneously. We calculate the partition functions for a given defect fugacity and discuss some often measured quantities like the correlation of the orientation along the filament.
Gap solitons in PT -symmetric lattices with a lower refractive-index core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Liangwei; Gu, Linlin; Guo, Dengchu
2015-05-01
We address the existence and stability properties of families of gap solitons in a lower refractive-index core, sandwiched between two optical lattices with a parity-time (PT ) symmetry imprinted in a defocusing medium. The scale of flat-topped complex solitons can be controlled arbitrarily by varying the embedded index core. Multipeaked solitons are found to exhibit equal peak values in the region of the index core, and they have no analog in other lattice-modulated or bulk media. We demonstrate that, in sharp contrast to solitons in regular PT lattices, flat-topped and multipeaked solitons are either stable or suffer a negligibly weak instability, even when the gain-loss coefficient approaches the PT -symmetry-breaking point. Our results, thus, build a bridge between the PT defect solitons in a narrow index core and the PT kink pairs in a broad index core. We also suggest an effective way for the observation of "surface solitons" in PT -symmetric lattices.
Dynamics of Kinks: Nucleation, Diffusion, and Annihilation
Habib, Salman; Lythe, Grant
2000-02-07
We investigate the nucleation, annihilation, and dynamics of kinks in a classical (1+1)-dimensional {phi}{sup 4} field theory at finite temperature. From large scale Langevin simulations, we establish that the nucleation rate is proportional to the square of the equilibrium density of kinks. We identify two annihilation time scales: one due to kink-antikink pair recombination after nucleation, the other from nonrecombinant annihilation. We introduce a mesoscopic model of diffusing kinks based on ''paired'' and ''survivor'' kinks and antikinks. Analytical predictions for the dynamical time scales, as well as the corresponding length scales, are in good agreement with the simulations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Control of External Kink Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navratil, Gerald
2004-11-01
A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.
The external kink mode in diverted tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turnbull, A. D.; Hanson, J. M.; Turco, F.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lao, L. L.; Strait, E. J.; Piovesan, P.; Martin, P.
2016-06-01
> . The resistive kink behaves much like the ideal kink with predominantly kink or interchange parity and no real sign of a tearing component. However, the growth rates scale with a fractional power of the resistivity near the surface. The results have a direct bearing on the conventional edge cutoff procedures used in most ideal MHD codes, as well as implications for ITER and for future reactor options.
Kinks, extra dimensions, and gravitational waves
O'Callaghan, Eimear; Gregory, Ruth
2011-03-01
We investigate in detail the gravitational wave signal from kinks on cosmic (super)strings, including the kinematical effects from the internal extra dimensions. We find that the signal is suppressed, however, the effect is less significant that that for cusps. Combined with the greater incidence of kinks on (super)strings, it is likely that the kink signal offers the better chance for detection of cosmic (super)strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wernicke, Rainer; Schmidtke, Hans-Herbert
1980-02-01
The vibronic structure of ReCl62- and ReBr62- doped in A2MX6 (A=Na, K; M=Pt, Sn, Te; X=Cl, Br) as obtained from phosphorescence spectra of microcrystals at 10 K has been investigated. Phase transitions of the host crystals to lower symmetry cause splittings of the Γ8(4A2g) electronic ground state into Kramers doublets, which are detected by splittings of the zero phonon transition and the vibronic side band. The crystal distortions also split the internal vibrational modes of the complex molecule, giving rise to a splitting pattern which is higher in symmetry than the corresponding site symmetry of the host lattice would predict. The assignment of phosphorescence bands to internal and lattice vibrations as well as to combinations and progressions is discussed.
Supersymmetric pairing of kinks for polynomial nonlinearities
Rosu, H.C.; Cornejo-Perez, O.
2005-04-01
We show how one can obtain kink solutions of ordinary differential equations with polynomial nonlinearities by an efficient factorization procedure directly related to the factorization of their nonlinear polynomial part. We focus on reaction-diffusion equations in the traveling frame and damped-anharmonic-oscillator equations. We also report an interesting pairing of the kink solutions, a result obtained by reversing the factorization brackets in the supersymmetric quantum-mechanical style. In this way, one gets ordinary differential equations with a different polynomial nonlinearity possessing kink solutions of different width but propagating at the same velocity as the kinks of the original equation. This pairing of kinks could have many applications. We illustrate the mathematical procedure with several important cases, among which are the generalized Fisher equation, the FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, and the polymerization fronts of microtubules.
Kink's dynamics for a deformable substrate potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchofo Dinda, P.; Willis, C. R.
1994-01-01
We study the static and dynamic properties of a kink in a chain of harmonically coupled atoms subjected to a deformable double-well substrate potential. We treat intrinsically the lattice discreteness without approximation and show that in some deformation-parameter ranges each period of the PN (Peierls-Nabarro) potential consists of two wells whose minima are located respectively on a lattice site and midway between two adjacent sites of the chain. In some other parameter ranges each period of the PN potential posseses a single well whose minimum is located either on a lattice site or midway between two adjacent lattice sites. We examine the kink's dynamics by using a multiple-collective-variable treatment, that is, we derive the exact equations of motion for the collective variables X and Y - which describe respectively the center-of-mass mode and the internal mode of the kink. We numerically solve the collective variable equations of motion for the trapped and untrapped regimes of the discrete-kink motion, and show that the presence of a nonlinear internal mode makes a contribution of particular importance in the discrete-kink's dynamics. Indeed, we show that during its untrapped regime, the discrete kink can undergo one or more temporary trappings and even a reflection back over several PN wells, and relate such behaviours to the effects of the excitations of the internal mode of the kink.
Improved magnetic feedback system on the fast rotating kink mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Qian
This thesis presents an improved feedback system on HBT-EP and suppression of the fast rotating kink mode using this system. HBT-EP is an experimental tokamak at Columbia University designed to study the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in confined fusion. The most damaging instabilities are global long wavelength kink modes, which break the toroidal symmetry of the magnetic structure and lead to plasma disruption and termination. When a tokamak is surrounded by a close fitting conducting wall, then the single helicity linear dispersion relation of the kink instability has two dominating branches: one is the "slow mode", rotating at the time scale of wall time, known as resistive wall mode (RWM), the other is the fast mode, that becomes unstable near the ideal wall stability limit. Both instabilities are required to be controlled by the feedback system in HBT-EP. In this thesis, improvements have been made upon the previous GPU-based system to enhance the feedback performance and obtain clear evidence of the feedback suppression effect. Specifically, a new algorithm is implemented that maintains an accurate phase shift between the applied perturbation and the unstable mode. This prevents the excitation of the slow kink mode observed in previous studies and results in high gain suppression for fast mode control at all frequency for the first time. When the system is turned off, suppression is lost and the fast mode is observed to grow back. The feedback performance is tested with several wall configurations including the presence of ferritic material. This provides the first comparison of feedback control between the ferritic and stainless wall. The effect of plasma rotation on feedback control is tested by applying a static voltage on a bias probe. As the mode rotation being slowed by the radial current flow, a higher gain on the kink mode is required to achieve feedback suppression. The change in plasma rotation also modifies the plasma response to the
Analysis of kink band formation under compression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahn, H. Thomas
1987-01-01
The kink band formation in unidirectional composites under compression is analyzed in the present paper. The kinematics of kink band formation is described in terms of a deformation tensor. Equilibrium conditions are then applied to relate the compression load to the deformation of fibers. Since the in situ shear behavior of the matrix resin is not known, an analysis-experiment correlation is used to find the shear failure strain in the kink band. The present analysis thus elucidates the mechanisms and identifies the controlling parameters, of compression failure.
On the theory of internal kink oscillations
Breizman, B.N.; Candy, J.; Berk, H.L.; Porcelli, F. |
1997-12-01
In this paper the authors derive a time evolution equation for internal kink oscillations which is valid for both stable and unstable plasma regimes, and incorporates the nonlinear response of an energetic particle population. A linear analysis reveals a parallel between (i) the time evolution of the spatial derivative of the internal kink radial displacement and (ii) the time evolution of the perturbed particle distribution function in the field of an electrostatic wave (Landau problem). They show that diamagnetic drift effects make the asymptotic decay of internal kink perturbations in a stable plasma algebraic rather than exponential. However, under certain conditions the stable root of the dispersion relation can dominate the response of the on-axis displacement for a significant period of time. The form of the evolution equation naturally allows one to include a nonlinear, fully toroidal treatment of energetic particles into the theory of internal kink oscillations.
Evolution of tachyon kink with electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Inyong; Kwon, O.-Kab; Lee, Chong Oh
2007-04-01
We investigate the decay of an inhomogeneous D1-brane wrapped on a S1 with an electric field. The model that we consider consists of an array of tachyon kink and anti-kink with a constant electric flux. Beginning with an initially static configuration, we numerically evolve the tachyon field with some perturbations under a fixed boundary condition at diametrically opposite points on the circle S1. When the electric flux is smaller than the critical value, the tachyon kink becomes unstable; the tachyon field rolls down the potential, and the lower dimensional D0- and bar D0-brane become thin, which resembles the caustic formation known for this type of the system in the literature. For the supercritical values of the electric flux, the tachyon kink remains stable.
Compactlike kinks and vortices in generalized models
Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da; Menezes, R.; Oliveira, H. P. de; Santos, C. dos
2010-06-15
This work deals with the presence of topological defects in k-field models, where the dynamics is generalized to include higher order power in the kinetic term. We investigate kinks in (1, 1) dimensions and vortices in (2, 1) dimensions, focusing on some specific features of the solutions. In particular, we show how the kinks and vortices change to compactlike solutions, controlled by the parameter used to introduce the generalized models.
Emergent kink statistics at finite temperature
Lopez-Ruiz, Miguel Angel; Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Szczepaniak, Adam; ...
2017-07-25
In this paper we use 1D quantum mechanical systems with Higgs-like interaction potential to study the emergence of topological objects at finite temperature. Two different model systems are studied, the standard double-well potential model and a newly introduced discrete kink model. Using Monte-Carlo simulations as well as analytic methods, we demonstrate how kinks become abundant at low temperatures. These results may shed useful insights on how topological phenomena may occur in QCD.
Negative radiation pressure exerted on kinks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz
2008-06-01
The interaction of a kink and a monochromatic plane wave in one dimensional scalar field theories is studied. It is shown that in a large class of models the radiation pressure exerted on the kink is negative, i.e. the kink is pulled towards the source of the radiation. This effect has been observed by numerical simulations in the ϕ4 model, and it is explained by a perturbative calculation assuming that the amplitude of the incoming wave is small. Quite importantly the effect is shown to be robust against small perturbations of the ϕ4 model. In the sine-Gordon (SG) model the time-averaged radiation pressure acting on the kink turns out to be zero. The results of the perturbative computations in the SG model are shown to be in full agreement with an analytical solution corresponding to the superposition of a SG kink with a cnoidal wave. It is also demonstrated that the acceleration of the kink satisfies Newton’s law.
The external kink mode in diverted tokamaks
Turnbull, Alan D.; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Turco, Francesca; ...
2016-06-16
Here, an explanation is provided for the disruptive instability in diverted tokamaks when the safety factor at the 95% poloidal flux surface, q95, is driven below 2.0. The instability is a resistive kink counterpart to the current-driven ideal mode that traditionally explained the corresponding disruption in limited cross-sections when qedge, the safety factor at the outermost closed flux surface, lies just below a rational value. Experimentally, external kink modes are observed in limiter configurations as the current in a tokamak is ramped up and qedge decreases through successive rational surfaces. For qedge < 2, the instability is always encountered andmore » is highly disruptive. However, diverted plasmas, in which qedge is formally infinite in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, have presented a longstanding difficulty since the theory would predict stability, yet, the disruptive limit occurs in practice when q95, reaches 2. It is shown from numerical calculations that a resistive kink mode is linearly destabilized by the rapidly increasing resistivity at the plasma edge when q95 < 2, but qedge >> 2. The resistive kink behaves much like the ideal kink with predominantly kink or interchange parity and no real sign of a tearing component. However, the growth rates scale with a fractional power of the resistivity near the q = 2 surface. The results have a direct bearing on the conventional edge cutoff procedures used in most ideal MHD codes, as well as implications for ITER and for future reactor options.« less
Negative radiation pressure exerted on kinks
Forgacs, Peter; Lukacs, Arpad; Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz
2008-06-15
The interaction of a kink and a monochromatic plane wave in one dimensional scalar field theories is studied. It is shown that in a large class of models the radiation pressure exerted on the kink is negative, i.e. the kink is pulled towards the source of the radiation. This effect has been observed by numerical simulations in the {phi}{sup 4} model, and it is explained by a perturbative calculation assuming that the amplitude of the incoming wave is small. Quite importantly the effect is shown to be robust against small perturbations of the {phi}{sup 4} model. In the sine-Gordon (SG) model the time-averaged radiation pressure acting on the kink turns out to be zero. The results of the perturbative computations in the SG model are shown to be in full agreement with an analytical solution corresponding to the superposition of a SG kink with a cnoidal wave. It is also demonstrated that the acceleration of the kink satisfies Newton's law.
Self-similarity and optical kinks in resonant nonlinear media
Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Haghgoo, Soodeh
2010-11-15
We show that self-similar optical waves with a kink structure exist in a wide class of resonant nonlinear media, adequately treated in the two-level approximation. The self-similar structure of the present kinks is reflected in the time evolution of the field profile, atomic dipole moment, and one-atom inversion. We develop an analytical theory of such kinks. We show that the discovered kinks are accelerating nonlinear waves, asymptotically attaining their shape and the speed of light. We also numerically explore the formation and eventual disintegration of our kinks due to energy relaxation processes. Thus, the present kinks can be viewed as intermediate asymptotics of the system.
Fermions on one or fewer kinks
Chu Yizen; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2008-01-15
We find the full spectrum of fermion bound states on a Z{sub 2} kink. In addition to the zero mode, there are int[2m{sub f}/m{sub s}] bound states, where m{sub f} is the fermion and m{sub s} the scalar mass. We also study fermion modes on the background of a well-separated kink-antikink pair. Using a variational argument, we prove that there is at least one bound state in this background, and that the energy of this bound state goes to zero with increasing kink-antikink separation, 2L, and faster than e{sup -a2L} where a=min(m{sub s},2m{sub f}). By numerical evaluation, we find some of the low lying bound states explicitly.
Dynamics of polymer translocation through kinked nanopores.
Wang, Junfang; Wang, Yilin; Luo, Kaifu
2015-02-28
Polymer translocation through nanopore has potential technological applications for DNA sequencing, where one challenge problem is to slow down translocation speed. Inspired by experimental findings that kinked nanopores exhibit a large reduction in translocation velocity compared with their straight counterparts, we investigate the dynamics of polymer translocation through kinked nanopores in two dimensions under an applied external field. With increasing the tortuosity of an array of nanopores, our analytical results show that the translocation probability decreases. Langevin dynamics simulation results support this prediction and further indicate that with increasing the tortuosity, translocation time shows a slow increase followed by a rapid increase after a critical tortuosity. This behavior demonstrates that kinked nanopores can effectively reduce translocation speed. These results are interpreted by the roles of the tortuosity for decreasing the effective nanopore diameter, increasing effective nanopore length, and greatly increasing the DNA-pore friction.
The external kink mode in diverted tokamaks
Turnbull, Alan D.; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Turco, Francesca; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; Lanctot, Matthew J.; Lao, Lang L.; Strait, Edward J.; Piovesan, Paolo; Martin, Piero
2016-06-16
Here, an explanation is provided for the disruptive instability in diverted tokamaks when the safety factor at the 95% poloidal flux surface, q_{95}, is driven below 2.0. The instability is a resistive kink counterpart to the current-driven ideal mode that traditionally explained the corresponding disruption in limited cross-sections when q_{edge}, the safety factor at the outermost closed flux surface, lies just below a rational value. Experimentally, external kink modes are observed in limiter configurations as the current in a tokamak is ramped up and q_{edge} decreases through successive rational surfaces. For q_{edge} < 2, the instability is always encountered and is highly disruptive. However, diverted plasmas, in which q_{edge} is formally infinite in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, have presented a longstanding difficulty since the theory would predict stability, yet, the disruptive limit occurs in practice when q_{95}, reaches 2. It is shown from numerical calculations that a resistive kink mode is linearly destabilized by the rapidly increasing resistivity at the plasma edge when q_{95} < 2, but q_{edge} >> 2. The resistive kink behaves much like the ideal kink with predominantly kink or interchange parity and no real sign of a tearing component. However, the growth rates scale with a fractional power of the resistivity near the q = 2 surface. The results have a direct bearing on the conventional edge cutoff procedures used in most ideal MHD codes, as well as implications for ITER and for future reactor options.
Multiply Kink and Anti-Kink Solutions for a Coupled Camassa-Holm Type Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-Li; Zha, Qi-Lao
2016-12-01
This article amis at revealing dynamical behavior of a coupled Camassa-Holm type equation, which was proposed by Geng and Wang based on a 4 × 4 matrix spectral problem with two potentials. Its kink and anti-kink solutions are presented explicitly. In particular, some exact multi-kink and anti-kink wave solutions are discussed and under some conditions, the kink and anti-kinks look like hat-shape solitons. The dynamic characters of the obtained solutions are investigated by figures. The method used in this paper can be widely applied to looking for the multi-kinks for Camassa-Holm type equations possessing cubic nonlinearity. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11261037, the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region under Grant No. 2014MS0111, the Caoyuan Yingcai Program of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region under Grant No. CYYC2011050, the Program for Young Talents of Science and Technology in Universities of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region under Grant No. NJYT14A04
Twinlike models for kinks, vortices, and monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.
2017-07-01
This work deals with twinlike models that support topological structures such as kinks, vortices, and monopoles. We investigate the equations of motion and develop the first order framework to show how to build distinct models with the same solution and energy density, as required to make them twinlike models. We also investigate how the stability under small fluctuations behaves and introduce the conditions to get the same stability on general grounds. In particular, we study models that support kinks, vortices, and monopoles in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, respectively.
Dynamics of kink-kink collisions in the double-sine-Gordon system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravelo, R.; El-Batanouny, M.; Willis, C. R.; Sodano, P.
1988-09-01
We study the double-sine-Gordon kink-kink collisions in a formalism which employs collective variables to describe the internal oscillations of the kinks and their translational motion in their center-of-mass frame. The equations of motion are solved in the absence of the radiation field and dynamical dressing and the results are compared with numerical molecular-dynamics simulations. We investigate the energy exchange between the translational and internal modes, and a mechanism is proposed to explain the values of the translational velocity at which maximum energy is exchanged between the two modes.
Seol, J; Lee, S G; Park, B H; Lee, H H; Terzolo, L; Shaing, K C; You, K I; Yun, G S; Kim, C C; Lee, K D; Ko, W H; Kwak, J G; Kim, W C; Oh, Y K; Kim, J Y; Kim, S S; Ida, K
2012-11-09
It is observed that the magnitude of the toroidal rotation speed is reduced by the central electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) regardless of the direction of the toroidal rotation. The magnetohydrodynamics activities generally appear with the rotation change due to ECRH. It is shown that the internal kink mode is induced by the central ECRH and breaks the toroidal symmetry. When the magnetohydrodynamics activities are present, the toroidal plasma viscosity is not negligible. The observed effects of ECRH on the toroidal plasma rotation are explained by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity in this Letter. It is found that the neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque caused by the internal kink mode damps the toroidal rotation.
Exotic supersymmetry of the kink-antikink crystal, and the infinite period limit
Plyushchay, Mikhail S.; Arancibia, Adrian; Nieto, Luis-Miguel
2011-03-15
Some time ago, Thies et al. showed that the Gross-Neveu model with a bare mass term possesses a kink-antikink crystalline phase. Corresponding self-consistent solutions, known earlier in polymer physics, are described by a self-isospectral pair of one-gap periodic Lame potentials with a Darboux displacement depending on the bare mass. We study an unusual supersymmetry of such a second-order Lame system, and show that the associated first-order Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian possesses its own nonlinear supersymmetry. The Witten index is ascertained to be zero for both of the related exotic supersymmetric structures, each of which admits several alternatives for the choice of a grading operator. A restoration of the discrete chiral symmetry at zero value of the bare mass, when the kink-antikink crystalline condensate transforms into the kink crystal, is shown to be accompanied by structural changes in both of the supersymmetries. We find that the infinite period limit may or may not change the index. We also explain the origin of the Darboux-dressing phenomenon recently observed in a nonperiodic self-isospectral one-gap Poeschl-Teller system, which describes the Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu kink-antikink baryons.
Nonlinear External Kink Computing with NIMROD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunkers, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.
2016-10-01
Vertical displacement events (VDEs) during disruptions often include non-axisymmetric activity, including external kink modes, which are driven unstable as contact with the wall eats into the q-profile. The NIMROD code is being applied to study external-kink-unstable tokamak profiles in toroidal and cylindrical geometries. Simulations with external kinks show the plasma swallowing a vacuum bubble, similar to. NIMROD reproduces external kinks in both geometries, using an outer vacuum region (modeled as a plasma with a large resistivity), but as the boundary between the vacuum and plasma regions becomes more 3D, the resistivity becomes a 3D function, and it becomes more difficult for algebraic solves to converge. To help allow non-axisymmetric, nonlinear VDE calculations to proceed without restrictively small time-steps, several computational algorithms have been tested. Flexible GMRES, using a Fourier and real space representation for the toroidal angle has shown improvements. Off-diagonal preconditioning and a multigrid approach were tested and showed little improvement. A least squares finite element method (LSQFEM) has also helped improve the algebraic solve. This effort is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Award Numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.
Constraining Higgsino kink tracks from existing LHC searches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Sunghoon; Lee, Hye-Sung
2017-05-01
Considering the supersymmetric model with the long-lived charged Higgsino, we discuss how Higgsino kink signals can show up in the latest LHC Disappearing Track (DT) and stable chargino searches. We derive constraints on the Higgsino kink signal, and characterize it in comparison to the Wino DT and the slepton kink track. We also discuss how to infer Higgsino model kinematics.
Constraining Higgsino kink tracks from existing LHC searches
Jung, Sunghoon; Lee, Hye -Sung
2017-04-26
Considering the supersymmetric model with the long-lived charged Higgsino, we discuss how Higgsino kink signals can show up in the latest LHC Disappearing Track (DT) and stable chargino searches. We derive constraints on the Higgsino kink signal, and characterize it in comparison to the Wino DT and the slepton kink track. Here, we also discuss how to infer Higgsino model kinematics.
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German
2014-04-15
We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑{sub n=1}{sup ∞}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.
Examining the Conservation of Kinks in Alpha Helices
Wilman, Henry R.; Kelm, Sebastian; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M.
2016-01-01
Kinks are a structural feature of alpha-helices and many are known to have functional roles. Kinks have previously tended to be defined in a binary fashion. In this paper we have deliberately moved towards defining them on a continuum, which given the unimodal distribution of kink angles is a better description. From this perspective, we examine the conservation of kinks in proteins. We find that kink angles are not generally a conserved property of homologs, pointing either to their not being functionally critical or to their function being related to conformational flexibility. In the latter case, the different structures of homologs are providing snapshots of different conformations. Sequence identity between homologous helices is informative in terms of kink conservation, but almost equally so is the sequence identity of residues in spatial proximity to the kink. In the specific case of proline, which is known to be prevalent in kinked helices, loss of a proline from a kinked helix often also results in the loss of a kink or reduction in its kink angle. We carried out a study of the seven transmembrane helices in the GPCR family and found that changes in kinks could be related both to subfamilies of GPCRs and also, in a particular subfamily, to the binding of agonists or antagonists. These results suggest conformational change upon receptor activation within the GPCR family. We also found correlation between kink angles in different helices, and the possibility of concerted motion could be investigated further by applying our method to molecular dynamics simulations. These observations reinforce the belief that helix kinks are key, functional, flexible points in structures. PMID:27314675
Single crystalline kinked semiconductor nanowire superstructures
Tian, Bozhi; Xie, Ping; Kempa, Thomas J.; Bell, David C.; Lieber, Charles M.
2009-01-01
The ability to control and modulate the composition1–4, doping1,3–5, crystal structure6–8 and morphology9,10 of semiconductor nanowires during the synthesis process has allowed researchers to explore various applications of nanowires11–15. However, despite advances in nanowire synthesis, progress towards the ab initio design and growth of hierarchical nanostructures has been limited. Here we demonstrate a ‘nanotectonic’ approach that provides iterative control over the nucleation and growth of nanowires and use it to grow kinked or zigzag nanowires in which the straight sections are separated by triangular joints. Moreover, the lengths of the straight sections can be controlled and the growth direction remains coherent along the nanowire. We also grow dopant-modulated structures in which specific device functions, including p-n diodes and field-effect transistors, can be precisely localized at the kinked junctions in the nanowires. PMID:19893521
Decoherence in electron backscattering by kinked dislocations.
Dudarev; Ahmed; Hirsch; Wilkinson
1999-03-01
A model is proposed that explains the origin of the bright contrast of dislocation walls consisting of edge dislocation dipoles in electron channelling contrast images (ECCI) of fatigued crystals, when the incident beam is parallel to the edge dislocations. The model is based on the assumption that the contrast arises from the dislocation segments terminating the dipoles. These are modelled as screw-type kinks which scatter electrons. Scattering by randomly distributed kinks leads to the randomization of phase of transmitted and diffracted beams and suppresses the anomalous transmission of electrons. The predicted behaviour of electron-channeling contrast images agrees well with experimental observations.With apologies for using two beams instead of three!
Exact kink solitons in Skyrme crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shouxin; Li, Yijun; Yang, Yisong
2014-01-01
We present an explicit integration of the kink soliton equation obtained in a recent interesting study of the classical Skyrme model where the field configurations are of a generalized hedgehog form which is of a domain-wall type. We also show that in such a reduced one-dimensional setting the first-order and second-order equations are equivalent. Consequently, in such a context, all finite-energy solitons are Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield type and precisely known.
Multi-kink collisions in the ϕ 6 model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marjaneh, Aliakbar Moradi; Gani, Vakhid A.; Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Javidan, Kurosh
2017-07-01
We study simultaneous collisions of two, three, and four kinks and antikinks of the ϕ 6 model at the same spatial point. Unlike the ϕ 4 kinks, the ϕ 6 kinks are asymmetric and this enriches the variety of the collision scenarios. In our numerical simulations we observe both reflection and bound state formation depending on the number of kinks and on their spatial ordering in the initial configuration. We also analyze the extreme values of the energy densities and the field gradient observed during the collisions. Our results suggest that very high energy densities can be produced in multi-kink collisions in a controllable manner. Appearance of high energy density spots in multi-kink collisions can be important in various physical applications of the Klein-Gordon model.
Flaming 2 π kinks in parametrically driven systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrios-Caro, E.; Clerc, M. G.; Leon, A. O.
2016-11-01
Macroscopic extended systems with dissipation and injection of energy can exhibit particlelike solutions. Dissipative kinks with an oscillatory cloak and a family of localized states that connect uniform symmetric states in a magnetic wire forced with a transversal oscillatory magnetic field and in a parametrically driven damped pendula chain are studied. The oscillatory cloak is composed of evanescent waves emitted at the kink position and generated by a resonant mechanism. These waves mediate the kink interaction and generate a family of localized states.
Nudged Elastic Band Simulations of Kink Pairs in Tungsten
Cereceda, D.; Marian, J.
2015-01-16
Atomistic techniques have been used to calculate energy barriers for dislocation motion that control the strength (yield stress and flow stress) of the material. In particular, the calculations focus on the change in enthalpy as a straight dislocation moves through the crystal lattice (the Peierls barrier) and kink pair formation enthalpy that controls the thermally activated double-kink mechanism important at low to moderate stresses. A novel means of assessing kink widths within atomistic simulations is introduced.
Flaming 2π kinks in parametrically driven systems.
Berrios-Caro, E; Clerc, M G; Leon, A O
2016-11-01
Macroscopic extended systems with dissipation and injection of energy can exhibit particlelike solutions. Dissipative kinks with an oscillatory cloak and a family of localized states that connect uniform symmetric states in a magnetic wire forced with a transversal oscillatory magnetic field and in a parametrically driven damped pendula chain are studied. The oscillatory cloak is composed of evanescent waves emitted at the kink position and generated by a resonant mechanism. These waves mediate the kink interaction and generate a family of localized states.
Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with unitary and antiunitary symmetries
Fernández, Francisco M. Garcia, Javier
2014-03-15
We analyse several non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with antiunitary symmetry from the point of view of their point-group symmetry. It enables us to predict the degeneracy of the energy levels and to reduce the dimension of the matrices necessary for the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in a given basis set. We can also classify the solutions according to the irreducible representations of the point group and thus analyse their properties separately. One of the main results of this paper is that some PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with point-group symmetry C{sub 2v} exhibit complex eigenvalues for all values of a potential parameter. In such cases the PT phase transition takes place at the trivial Hermitian limit which suggests that the phenomenon is not robust. Point-group symmetry enables us to explain such anomalous behaviour and to choose a suitable antiunitary operator for the PT symmetry. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •PT-symmetric multidimensional oscillators appear to show PT phase transitions. •This transition was conjectured to be a high-energy phenomenon. •We show that point group symmetry is useful for predicting broken PT symmetry in multidimensional oscillators. •PT-symmetric oscillators with C{sub 2v} symmetry exhibit phase transitions at the trivial Hermitian limit.
Anti-parity-time-symmetry optics in an atomic vapor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Peng; Cao, Wanxia; Wen, Jianming; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Yanhong
2015-05-01
Recently, there has been growing interest to create optical systems with parity-time (PT) symmetry for manipulation of light. A new addition to this line of research is the study of anti-PT-symmetry optics. Unlike a PT symmetry system which requires balanced gain and loss and equal refractive index, the anti-PT symmetry system requires balanced positive and negative refractive index but with the same gain or loss. As in PT-symmetry systems, anti-PT symmetry systems can also display spontaneous phase transition. We have experimentally demonstrated an anti-PT symmetry optical system using a warm atomic vapor cell containing 87Rb. Coupling of two optical modes under Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) is realized by coherent diffusion of atomic coherence. Our theory predicts that, in a PT-symmetry system, coupling of the two optical channels would increase the gap between their initially separated EIT peaks, but in an anti-PT symmetry system, it would do the opposite. Especially, when the coupling is large enough, the gap vanishes, which indicates that the system is under phase transition. We will report experiment observation of these predictions.
Stochastic Dynamics of DC and AC Driven Dislocation Kinks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vardanyan, A.; Kteyan, A.
2013-02-01
Dynamics of a pinned dislocation kink controlled by the acting DC and AC forces is studied analytically. The motion of the kink, described by sine-Gordon (sG) equation, is explored within the framework of McLaughlin-Scott perturbation theory. Assuming weakness of the acting AC force, the equation of motion of the dislocation kink in the pinning potential is linearized. Based on the equations derived, we study stochastic behavior of the kink, and determine the probability of its depinning. The dependencies of the depinning probability on DC and AC forces are analyzed in detail.
Predicting cusps or kinks in Nambu-Goto dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervantes, Aldrin; García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.
2015-11-01
It is known that Nambu-Goto extended objects present some pathological structures, such as cusps and kinks, during their evolution. In this paper, we propose a model through the generalized Raychaudhuri (Rh) equation for membranes to determine if there are cusps and kinks in the worldsheet. We extend the generalized Rh equation for membranes to allow the study of the effect of higher order curvature terms in the action on the issue of cusps and kinks, using it as a tool for determining when a Nambu-Goto string generates cusps or kinks in its evolution. Furthermore, we present three examples where we test graphically this approach.
Grooves and Kinks in the Rings
2017-06-19
Many of the features seen in Saturn's rings are shaped by the planet's moons. This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows two different effects of moons that cause waves in the A ring and kinks in a faint ringlet. The view captures the outer edge of the 200-mile-wide (320-kilometer-wide) Encke Gap, in the outer portion of Saturn's A ring. This is the same region features the large propeller called Earhart. Also visible here is one of several kinked and clumpy ringlets found within the gap. Kinks and clumps in the Encke ringlet move about, and even appear and disappear, in part due to the gravitational effects of Pan -- which orbits in the gap and whose gravitational influence holds it open. The A ring, which takes up most of the image on the left side, displays wave features caused by Pan, as well as the moons Pandora and Prometheus, which orbit a bit farther from Saturn on both sides of the planet's F ring. This view was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on March 22, 2017, and looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 22 degrees above the ring plane. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 63,000 miles (101,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a phase angle (the angle between the sun, the rings and the spacecraft) of 59 degrees. Image scale is 1,979 feet (603 meters) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21333
Kinked Loop Stretching Between Two Active Regions
2017-07-25
Numerous arches of magnetic field lines danced and swayed above a large active region over about a 30-hour period (July 17-18, 2017). We can also see the magnetic field lines from the large active region reached out and connected with a smaller active region. Those linked lines then strengthened (become brighter), but soon began to develop a kink in them and rather swiftly faded from view. All of this activity is driven by strong magnetic forces associated with the active regions. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21838
Symmetry impedes symmetry discrimination.
Tjan, Bosco S; Liu, Zili
2005-12-16
Objects in the world, natural and artificial alike, are often bilaterally symmetric. The visual system is likely to take advantage of this regularity to encode shapes for efficient object recognition. The nature of encoding a symmetric shape, and of encoding any departure from it, is therefore an important matter in visual perception. We addressed this issue of shape encoding empirically, noting that a particular encoding scheme necessarily leads to a specific profile of sensitivity in perceptual discriminations. We studied symmetry discrimination using human faces and random dots. Each face stimulus was a frontal view of a three-dimensional (3-D) face model. The 3-D face model was a linearly weighted average (a morph) between the model of an original face and that of the corresponding mirror face. Using this morphing technique to vary the degree of asymmetry, we found that, for faces and analogously generated random-dot patterns alike, symmetry discrimination was worst when the stimuli were nearly symmetric, in apparent opposition to almost all studies in the literature. We analyzed the previous work and reconciled the old and new results using a generic model with a simple nonlinearity. By defining asymmetry as the minimal difference between the left and right halves of an object, we found that the visual system was disproportionately more sensitive to larger departures from symmetry than to smaller ones. We further demonstrated that our empirical and modeling results were consistent with Weber-Fechner's and Stevens's laws.
Kink and kink-like waves in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y. Z.; Dai, H.-H.; Chen, W. Q.
2015-08-01
The present paper theoretically investigates kink and kink-like waves propagating in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods. In the constitutive modeling, the Cauchy stress tensor is assumed to consist of an elastic part and a dissipative part. The asymptotic method is adopted to simplify the nonlinear dynamic equations in the limit of finite-small amplitude and long wavelength. Using the reductive perturbation method, we further derive the well-known far-field equation (i.e. the KdV-Burgers equation), to which two kinds of explicit traveling wave solutions are presented. Examples are given to show the influences of pre-stretch and viscosity on the wave shape and wave velocity. It is shown that pre-stretch could be an effective method for modulating the two types of waves. In addition, such waves may be utilized to measure the viscosity coefficient of the material. The competition between the effects of pre-stretch and viscosity on the kink and kink-like waves is also revealed.
Longhi, S
2016-10-01
Parity-time (PT) symmetry is one of the most important accomplishments in optics over the past decade. Here the concept of PT mode-locking (ML) of a laser is introduced, in which active phase-locking of cavity axial modes is realized by asymmetric mode coupling in a complex time crystal. PT ML shows a transition from single- to double-pulse emission as the PT symmetry breaking point is crossed. The transition can show a turbulent behavior, depending on a dimensionless modulation parameter that plays the same role as the Reynolds number in hydrodynamic flows.
Reassessing molecular sieving by kinked carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Wang, Lei; Ding, Jianning; Wang, Jinbao; Zheng, Yonggang; Ye, Hongfei; Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Guanggui; Ling, Zhiyong
2011-12-01
Based on molecular dynamics simulations for the transport of pure nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and their mixture in kinked single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), molecular sieving by the kinked model of SWCNTs is presented. The influences of gas pressure, temperature and the component ratio of N2 in the mixture on gas separation are investigated. Considering the tradeoff between the permeability and the purity of O2, the results show that a large gas pressure, 300-500 K of gas temperature and a low component ratio of N2 in the N2-O2 mixture can be advantageous to the efficiency of gas separation. The purity of O2 can be kept higher than 80% when the component ratio of N2 is lower than 3/4, which will be advantageous to the design of multi-level gas separation mechanisms. The findings may provide theoretical references for the design and manufacture of molecular sieving devices in engineering applications.
Nonlinear waves in PT -symmetric systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konotop, Vladimir V.; Yang, Jianke; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.
2016-07-01
Recent progress on nonlinear properties of parity-time (PT )-symmetric systems is comprehensively reviewed in this article. PT symmetry started out in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, where complex potentials obeying PT symmetry could exhibit all-real spectra. This concept later spread out to optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, electronic circuits, and many other physical fields, where a judicious balancing of gain and loss constitutes a PT -symmetric system. The natural inclusion of nonlinearity into these PT systems then gave rise to a wide array of new phenomena which have no counterparts in traditional dissipative systems. Examples include the existence of continuous families of nonlinear modes and integrals of motion, stabilization of nonlinear modes above PT -symmetry phase transition, symmetry breaking of nonlinear modes, distinctive soliton dynamics, and many others. In this article, nonlinear PT -symmetric systems arising from various physical disciplines are presented, nonlinear properties of these systems are thoroughly elucidated, and relevant experimental results are described. In addition, emerging applications of PT symmetry are pointed out.
Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.
Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H
2014-09-01
An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Chiral selectivity of amino acid adsorption on chiral surfaces--the case of alanine on Pt.
Franke, J-H; Kosov, D S
2015-02-07
We study the binding pattern of the amino acid alanine on the naturally chiral Pt surfaces Pt(531), Pt(321), and Pt(643). These surfaces are all vicinal to the {111} direction but have different local environments of their kink sites and are thus a model for realistic roughened Pt surfaces. Alanine has only a single methyl group attached to its chiral center, which makes the number of possible binding conformations computationally tractable. Additionally, only the amine and carboxyl group are expected to interact strongly with the Pt substrate. On Pt(531), we study the molecule in its pristine as well as its deprotonated form and find that the deprotonated one is more stable by 0.47 eV. Therefore, we study the molecule in its deprotonated form on Pt(321) and Pt(643). As expected, the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the deprotonated molecule provide a local binding "tripod" and the most stable adsorption configurations optimize the interaction of this "tripod" with undercoordinated surface atoms. However, the interaction of the methyl group plays an important role: it induces significant chiral selectivity of about 60 meV on all surfaces. Hereby, the L-enantiomer adsorbs preferentially to the Pt(321)(S) and Pt(643)(S) surfaces, while the D-enantiomer is more stable on Pt(531)(S). The binding energies increase with increasing surface density of kink sites, i.e., they are largest for Pt(531)(S) and smallest for Pt(643)(S).
Intersecting kink bands quantified by laser scanning and differential geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunham, R. E.; Crider, J. G.
2010-12-01
Microtopography derived from laser scanning is expressed by DEMs that can be analyzed using differential geometry. We apply this technique to rock hand samples containing intersecting kink bands in order to quantitatively describe the shape of a folded surface and understand the localization of strain in deformed rocks. This study is the first to apply laser scanning and geometric curvature analysis to intersecting kink bands in order to better describe the variation of kink band geometries and intersections in plan view and to evaluate relationships between different kink band parameters. A complex set of monoclinal contractional kink bands is well exposed in outcrops of the Darrington Phyllite on Samish Island, northwestern Washington, which provide a three-dimensional view of kink band geometries. Kink bands in cross section have straight, parallel boundaries that deform a well-defined foliation; in plan view, however, kink band hinges curve and anastomose across the foliation surface, and adjacent bands commonly intersect. Three types of intersections are common: crossing (X), bifurcating (Y), and obliquely truncating (λ); many kink bands also taper out along strike. Geometric curvature analyses were performed on millimeter-resolution DEMs of hand samples containing intersecting kink bands. Maps of different curvature parameters (e.g. mean curvature, geologic curvature) clearly outline kink bands in the samples and illuminate the behavior of kink band hinges in each type of intersection. In X-type intersections, curvature increases where two hinges of similar kink sense cross (i.e. anticlinal/anticlinal hinges), increasing strain; where two hinges of opposing sense cross (anticlinal/synclinal), curvature decreases and the surface is effectively unfolded. In Y-type intersections, a single parent band widens and splits into two equally narrow daughter bands, and new inner hinges are nucleated below the bifurcation point. The two daughter bands accommodate
Kink pair production and dislocation motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzgerald, S. P.
2016-12-01
The motion of extended defects called dislocations controls the mechanical properties of crystalline materials such as strength and ductility. Under moderate applied loads, this motion proceeds via the thermal nucleation of kink pairs. The nucleation rate is known to be a highly nonlinear function of the applied load, and its calculation has long been a theoretical challenge. In this article, a stochastic path integral approach is used to derive a simple, general, and exact formula for the rate. The predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental and computational investigations, and unambiguously explain the origin of the observed extreme nonlinearity. The results can also be applied to other systems modelled by an elastic string interacting with a periodic potential, such as Josephson junctions in superconductors.
Kink pair production and dislocation motion
Fitzgerald, S. P.
2016-01-01
The motion of extended defects called dislocations controls the mechanical properties of crystalline materials such as strength and ductility. Under moderate applied loads, this motion proceeds via the thermal nucleation of kink pairs. The nucleation rate is known to be a highly nonlinear function of the applied load, and its calculation has long been a theoretical challenge. In this article, a stochastic path integral approach is used to derive a simple, general, and exact formula for the rate. The predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental and computational investigations, and unambiguously explain the origin of the observed extreme nonlinearity. The results can also be applied to other systems modelled by an elastic string interacting with a periodic potential, such as Josephson junctions in superconductors. PMID:28004834
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nucci, M. C.
2016-09-01
We review some of our recent work devoted to the problem of quantization with preservation of Noether symmetries, finding hidden linearity in superintegrable systems, and showing that nonlocal symmetries are in fact local. In particular, we derive the Schrödinger equation for the isochronous Calogero goldfish model using its relation to Darwin equation. We prove the linearity of a classical superintegrable system on a plane of nonconstant curvature. We find the Lie point symmetries that correspond to the nonlocal symmetries (also reinterpreted as λ-symmetries) of the Riccati chain.
PT restoration via increased loss and gain in the PT-symmetric Aubry-André model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Charles H.; Scott, Derek D.; Joglekar, Yogesh N.
2014-03-01
In systems with "balanced loss and gain," the PT symmetry is broken by increasing the non-Hermiticity or the loss-gain strength. We show that finite lattices with oscillatory, PT-symmetric potentials exhibit unexpected PT-symmetry breaking and restoration. We obtain the PT phase diagram as a function of potential periodicity, which also controls the location complex eigenvalues in the lattice spectrum. We show that the sum of PT potentials with nearby periodicities leads to PT-symmetry restoration, where the system goes from a PT-broken state to a PT-symmetric state as the average loss-gain strength is increased. We discuss the implications of this transition for the propagation of a light in an array of coupled waveguides.
Kink bands in the Chamba region, Western Himalaya, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, B. K.; Bhola, A. M.
2005-06-01
The Chamba region of the western Himalaya is affected by three phases of deformation (DF 1, DF 2, and DF 3). The DF 1 phase was the most intense and regionally extensive as expressed by the development of the Chamba-Bhramaur syncline. The kink bands developed on the limbs of the syncline during the third (DF 3) phase of deformation on S 1 fabric. The kink bands are of contractional type and well developed in the slate-phyllite sequence of the Salooni and Pukhri Formations. The palaeostress analysis from conjugate kink bands indicates that the maximum compressive stress ( σ1) was oriented N50°E-S50°W in present coordinates, which nearly coincides with the maximum compressive direction inferred from DF 1 (First phase) and DF 2 (second phase) deformation. The geometry, angular relationship between the kink band boundary and the external cleavage ( α) and the internal angle of the kink band ( β) and strain in kink bands reveal that rotation and dilation was the dominant mechanism. The morphology, kinematics and dynamics of the kink bands suggest that they formed towards the end of the last phase of deformation during emplacement of the Chamba nappe without metamorphism.
Dependence of kink oscillation damping on the amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2016-05-01
Context. Kink oscillations of coronal loops are one of the most intensively studied oscillatory phenomena in the solar corona. In the large-amplitude rapidly damped regime, these oscillations are observed to have a low quality factor with only a few cycles of oscillation detected before they are damped. The specific mechanism responsible for rapid damping is commonly accepted to be associated with the linear coupling between collective kink oscillations and localised torsional oscillations, the phenomenon of resonant absorption of the kink mode. The role of finite amplitude effects, however, is still not clear. Aims: We investigated the empirical dependence of the kink oscillation damping time and its quality factor, which is defined as the ratio of damping time to oscillation period, on the oscillation amplitude. Methods: We analysed decaying kink oscillation events detected previously with TRACE, SDO/AIA and and STEREO/EUVI in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) 171 Å band. Results: We found that the ratio of the kink oscillation damping time to the oscillation period systematically decreases with the oscillation amplitude. We approximated the quality factor dependence on the oscillation displacement amplitude via the power-law dependence with the exponent of -1/2, however we stress that this is a by-eye estimate, and a more rigorous estimation of the scaling law requires more accurate measurements and increased statistics. We conclude that damping of kink oscillations of coronal loops depends on the oscillation amplitude, indicating the possible role of non-linear mechanisms for damping.
Size-sensitive Young's modulus of kinked silicon nanowires.
Jiang, Jin-Wu; Zhao, Jun-Hua; Rabczuk, Timon
2013-05-10
We perform both classical molecular dynamics simulations and beam model calculations to investigate the Young's modulus of kinked silicon nanowires (KSiNWs). The Young's modulus is found to be highly sensitive to the arm length of the kink and is essentially inversely proportional to the arm length. The mechanism underlying the size dependence is found to be the interplay between the kink angle potential and the arm length potential, where we obtain an analytic relationship between the Young's modulus and the arm length of the KSiNW. Our results provide insight into the application of this novel building block in nanomechanical devices.
Geometry of kinked protein helices from NMR data.
Murray, Dylan T; Lu, Yuanting; Cross, T A; Quine, J R
2011-05-01
Mathematical questions related to determining the structure of a protein from NMR orientational restraints are discussed. The protein segment is a kinked alpha helix modeled as a regular alpha helix in which two adjacent torsion angles have been varied from their ideal values. Varying these torsion angles breaks the helix into two regular helical segments joined at a kink. The problem is to find the torsion angles at the kink from the relationship of the helical segments to the direction of the magnetic field.
Carotid Stenting in a Case of Combined Kinking and Stenosis
Ahmadi, Ramazan-Ali; Schillinger, Martin; Haumer, Markus; Willfort, Andrea; Minar, Erich
2001-05-15
Endarterectomy is currently the preferred treatment for severe carotid stenosis. The technique of eversion endarterectomy allows correction of severe vessel elongation and kinking. The latter is generally believed to be a relative contraindication for endovascular stent placement. We report successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of a left internal carotid artery with high-grade stenosis and severe kinking which was not amenable to endarterectomy because of the distal location of the stenosis. Advanced stent technology with flexible materials makes endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis feasible even in cases of kinking.
Post-microbuckling of fibre bridging kink bands under compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yueguang, Wei; Wei, Yang
1993-02-01
Surface originated kink bands consist of an important failure mode for fibre-reinforced composites under compression. The mechanical behavior of the fibre bridging kink bands is explored herein in the context of the post-microbuckling theory. Expressions of bridging force are obtained for the entire postbuckling process of the fibres exhibiting weak or strong hardening. The postbuckling formulation of the fibres is applied to yield the toughness increment due to the advancing kink bands, and consequently leads to a quantitative prediction on the overall compressive stress strain curves of the fibre-reinforced composites.
Anti-parity-time symmetry with flying atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Peng; Cao, Wanxia; Shen, Ce; Qu, Weizhi; Wen, Jianming; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Yanhong
2016-12-01
The recently developed notion of parity-time (PT) symmetry in optical systems has spawned intriguing prospects. So far, most experimental implementations have been reported in solid-state systems. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of optical anti-PT symmetry--the counterpart of conventional PT symmetry--in a warm atomic-vapour cell. Rapid coherence transport via flying atoms leads to a dissipative coupling between two long-lived atomic spin waves, allowing for the observation of the essential features of anti-PT symmetry with unprecedented precision on the phase-transition threshold, as well as refractionless light propagation. Moreover, we show that a linear or nonlinear interaction between the two spatially separated beams can be achieved. Our results advance non-Hermitian physics by bridging to the field of atomic, molecular and optical physics, where new phenomena and applications in quantum and nonlinear optics aided by (anti-)PT symmetry could be anticipated.
Jarzynski equality in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics
Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh
2015-04-13
We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT -symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT -symmetry. In the regime of broken PT -symmetry the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT -norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system – two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT -symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.
Jarzynski Equality in PT-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics.
Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh
2015-04-17
We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT-symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT symmetry. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system-two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.
Coupled oscillators with parity-time symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoy, Eduard N.
2017-02-01
Different models of coupled oscillators with parity-time (PT) symmetry are studied. Hamiltonian functions for two and three linear oscillators coupled via coordinates and accelerations are derived. Regions of stable dynamics for two coupled oscillators are obtained. It is found that in some cases, an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. A family of Hamiltonians for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained. An extension to high-dimensional PT-symmetric systems is discussed.
Buckling and kinking force measurements on individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, K.; Mickelson, W.; Kis, A.; Zettl, A.
2007-11-01
Using an atomic force microscope operated inside a transmission electron microscope, we have studied the forces involved in buckling and kinking an individual multiwalled carbon nanotube while observing its structure. In particular, we have measured an individual nanotube’s asymptotic critical buckling load and critical kinking load. The buckling results are well described by classical elastic theory, while the observed kinking behavior requires a more involved analysis. Repeated buckling measurements on the same nanotube indicate an extremely high degree of elasticity and set a lower bound on the nanotube’s yield strength of 1.7GPa , higher than the yield strength of steel. Plastic deformation of the nanotube was eventually observed following kinking.
Step and Kink Dynamics in Inorganic and Protein Crystallization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernov, A. A.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Vekilov, P. G.; DeYoreo, J. J.
2004-01-01
Behavior of low-kink-density steps in solution growth and consequences for general understanding of spiral crystal growth processes will be overviewed. Also, influence of turbulence on step bunching and possibility to diminish this bunching will be presented.
Step and Kink Dynamics in Inorganic and Protein Crystallization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernov, A. A.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Vekilov, P. G.; DeYoreo, J. J.
2004-01-01
Behavior of low-kink-density steps in solution growth and consequences for general understanding of spiral crystal growth processes will be overviewed. Also, influence of turbulence on step bunching and possibility to diminish this bunching will be presented.
Management and visualization of a kinked epidural catheter
Aslanidis, T; Fileli, A; Pyrgos, P
2010-01-01
A lumbar epidural catheter inserted in a 29-year-old woman for labor analgesia. The catheter failed to provide adequate analgesia. Moreover, after labor, it proved difficult to be removed. After computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance impedance (MRI) examination the course of the catheter was visible, the entrapped catheter was dislodged intact, revealing a kinking near its distal tip. Kinking of an epidural catheter leading to entrapment is an unusual complication of epidural catheterization. PMID:21311644
ABC of kink kinetics and density in a complex solution
Chernov, A. A.; DeYoreo, J. J.; Rashkovich, L. N.
2007-06-14
This tutorial lecture explains the ways supersaturation in complex solutions may be introduced to be most relevant to describe experimental data on kink and step kinetics. To do so, we express the kink rate via the frequencies of attachment and detachment of the building units and then link these frequencies to the measurable activities of these units in solution. Furthermore, possible reasons for violation of the Gibbs–Thomson law are also briefly discussed with reference to our earlier work.
The Propagation of Kinks in Line-driven Winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldmeier, A.; Rätzel, D.; Owocki, S. P.
2008-05-01
We show that discontinuities in spatial derivatives of the velocity and density law, so-called kinks, can propagate upstream at Mach numbers > 1 with respect to radiative-acoustic waves in stellar winds driven by radiation scattering in spectral lines. This fast upstream propagation of kinks can, for example, explain the slow evolution of discrete absorption components found in P Cygni line profiles from O stars.
Alpha particle effects on the internal kink modes
Wu, Yanlin; Cheng, C.Z.
1994-08-01
The {alpha}-particle effects on the internal kink mode stability are studied. Finite Grad-Shafranov Shift, plasma {beta}, and plasma shape can significantly enhance the trapped particle drift reversal domain in pitch angle space and reduce average magnetic drift frequency. The drift reversal effect on the ideal kink mode is small, but the {beta}{sub {alpha}} threshold for the fishbone mode can be much lower than previously predicted. In addition, the ion diamagnetic drift has a stronger destabilizing effect.
Alpha particle effects on the internal kink and fishbone modes
Wu, Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; White, R.B. )
1994-10-01
The effects of alpha particles on the internal kink and fishbone modes are studied analytically. The nonadiabatic contribution from untrapped alpha particles is negligible. Finite inverse aspect ratio, plasma [beta], and plasma shaping effects can significantly enhance the trapped particle drift reversal domain in the pitch angle space and reduce the bounce-averaged magnetic drift frequency. The decrease of the drift magnitude and drift reversal effects on the ideal kink mode is small, but the [beta][sub [alpha
Gyrokinetic simulation of internal kink modes
Naitou, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Kenji; Lee, W.W.; Sydora, R.D.
1995-05-01
Internal disruption in a tokamak has been simulated using a three-dimensional magneto-inductive gyrokinetic particle code. The code operates in both the standard gyrokinetic mode (total-f code) and the fully nonlinear characteristic mode ({delta}f code). The latter, a recent addition, is a quiet low noise algorithm. The computational model represents a straight tokamak with periodic boundary conditions in the toroidal direction. The plasma is initially uniformly distributed in a square cross section with perfectly conducting walls. The linear mode structure of an unstable m = 1 (poloidal) and n = 1 (toroidal) kinetic internal kink mode is clearly observed, especially in the {delta}f code. The width of the current layer around the x-point, where magnetic reconnection occurs, is found to be close to the collisionless electron skin depth. This is consistent with the theory in which electron inertia has a dominant role. The nonlinear behavior of the mode is found to be quite similar for both codes. Full reconnection in the Alfven time scale is observed along with the electrostatic potential structures created during the full reconnection phase. The E x B drift due to this electrostatic potential dominates the nonlinear phase of the development after the full reconnection.
Development of kinks in car-following models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtze, Douglas A.
2017-03-01
Many car-following models of traffic flow admit the possibility of absolute stability, a situation in which uniform traffic flow at any spacing is linearly stable. Near the threshold of absolute stability, these models can often be reduced to a modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equation plus small corrections. The hyperbolic-tangent "kink" solutions of the mKdV equation are usually of particular interest, as they represent transition zones between regions of different traffic spacings. Solvability analysis is believed to show that only a single member of the one-parameter family of kink solutions is preserved by the correction terms, and this is interpreted as a kind of selection. We show, however, that the usual solvability calculation rests on an unstated, unjustified assumption, and that without this assumption it merely gives a first-order correction to the relation between the traffic spacings far behind and far ahead of the kink, rather than any kind of "selection" criterion for the family of kink solutions. On the other hand, we display a two-parameter family of traveling wave solutions of the mKdV equation, which describe regions of one traffic spacing embedded in traffic of a different spacing; this family includes the kink solutions as a limiting case. We carry out a multiple-time-scales calculation and find conditions under which the inclusions decay, conditions that lead to a selected inclusion, and conditions for which the inclusion evolves into a pair of kinks.
Simulations of Edge Current Driven Kink Modes with BOUT + + code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.
2013-10-01
Edge kink modes (or peeling modes) play a key role in the ELMs. The edge kink modes are driven by peak edge current, which comes from the bootstrap current. We calculated sequences of equilibria with different edge current using CORSICA by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we calculated the MHD instabilities driven by edge current. For linear low-n ideal MHD modes, BOUT + + results agree with GATO results. With the edge current increasing, the dominant modes are changed from high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes. The edge current provides also stabilizing effects on high-n ballooning modes. Furthermore, for edge current scan without keeping total current fixed, the increasing edge current can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes and cannot drive kink modes. The diamagnetic effect can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes, but has no effect on the low-n kink modes. Also, the nonlinear behavior of kink modes is analyzed. Work supported by China MOST grant 2013GB111000 and by China NSF grant 10975161. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.
SPATIAL DAMPING OF PROPAGATING KINK WAVES IN PROMINENCE THREADS
Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.
2011-01-10
Transverse oscillations and propagating waves are frequently observed in threads of solar prominences/filaments and have been interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. We investigate the spatial damping of propagating kink MHD waves in transversely nonuniform and partially ionized prominence threads. Resonant absorption and ion-neutral collisions (Cowling's diffusion) are the damping mechanisms taken into account. The dispersion relation of resonant kink waves in a partially ionized magnetic flux tube is numerically solved by considering prominence conditions. Analytical expressions of the wavelength and damping length as functions of the kink mode frequency are obtained in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. For typically reported periods of thread oscillations, resonant absorption is an efficient mechanism for the kink mode spatial damping, while ion-neutral collisions have a minor role. Cowling's diffusion dominates both the propagation and damping for periods much shorter than those observed. Resonant absorption may explain the observed spatial damping of kink waves in prominence threads. The transverse inhomogeneity length scale of the threads can be estimated by comparing the observed wavelengths and damping lengths with the theoretically predicted values. However, the ignorance of the form of the density profile in the transversely nonuniform layer introduces inaccuracies in the determination of the inhomogeneity length scale.
Defect Facilitated Phonon Transport through Kinks in Boron Carbide Nanowires
Zhang, Qian; Cui, Zhiguang; Wei, Zhiyong; ...
2017-05-08
Nanowires of complex morphologies, such as kinked wires, have been recently synthesized and demonstrated for novel devices and applications. However, the effects of these morphologies on thermal transport have not been well studied. Through systematic experimental measurements, we show in this paper that single-crystalline, defect-free kinks in boron carbide nanowires can pose a thermal resistance up to ~30 times larger than that of a straight wire segment of equivalent length. Analysis suggests that this pronounced resistance can be attributed to the combined effects of backscattering of highly focused phonons and required mode conversion at the kink. Interestingly, it is alsomore » found that instead of posing resistance, structural defects in the kink can actually assist phonon transport through the kink and reduce its resistance. Finally, given the common kink-like wire morphology in nanoelectronic devices and required low thermal conductivity for thermoelectric devices, these findings have important implications in precise thermal management of electronic devices and thermoelectrics.« less
Moubayidin, Laila; Østergaard, Lars
2015-09-01
985 I. 985 II. 986 III. 987 IV. 988 V. 989 989 References 989 SUMMARY: The development of multicellular organisms depends on correct establishment of symmetry both at the whole-body scale and within individual tissues and organs. Setting up planes of symmetry must rely on communication between cells that are located at a distance from each other within the organism, presumably via mobile morphogenic signals. Although symmetry in nature has fascinated scientists for centuries, it is only now that molecular data to unravel mechanisms of symmetry establishment are beginning to emerge. As an example we describe the genetic and hormonal interactions leading to an unusual bilateral-to-radial symmetry transition of an organ in order to promote reproduction.
New models for asymmetric kinks and branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menezes, R.; Moreira, D. C.
2017-08-01
We investigate new models for scalar fields in flat and curved spacetime. We note that the global reflection symmetry of the potential that identify the scalar field model does not exclude the presence of internal asymmetries that give rise to asymmetric structures. Despite the asymmetry, the new structures are linearly stable and in the braneworld scenario with an extra dimension of infinite extend, they may generate new families of asymmetric thick branes that are robust against small fluctuations in the warped geometry.
Doppler displacements in kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, Marcel; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Terradas, Jaume; Verth, Gary; Soler, Roberto
Doppler displacements in kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes Presenting author: M. Goossens Co-authors: R. Soler, J. Terradas, T. Van Doorsselaere, G. Verth The standard interpretation of the transverse MHD waves observed in the solar atmosphere is that they are non-axisymmetric kink m=1) waves on magnetic flux tubes. This interpretation is based on the fact that axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric fluting waves do not displace the axis of the loop and the loop as a whole while kink waves indeed do so. A uniform transverse motion produces a Doppler displacement that is constant across the magnetic flux tube. A recent development is the observation of Doppler displacements that vary across the loop. The aim of the present contribution is to show that spatial variations of the Doppler displacements across the loop can be caused by kink waves. The motion associated with a kink wave is purely transverse only when the flux tube is uniform and sufficiently thin. Only in that case do the radial and azimuthal components of displacement have the same amplitude and is the azimuthal component a quarter of a period ahead of the radial component. This results in a unidirectional or transverse displacement. When the flux tube is non-uniform and has a non-zero radius the conditions for the generation of a purely transverse motion are not any longer met. In that case the motion in a kink wave is the sum of a transverse motion and a non-axisymmetric rotational motion that depends on the azimuthal angle. It can produce complicated variations of the Doppler displacement across the loop. I shall discuss the various cases of possible Doppler displacenents that can occur depending on the relative sizes of the amplitudes of the radial and azimuthal components of the displacement in the kink wave and on the orientation of the line of sight.
Scattering in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics
Cannata, Francesco . E-mail: Francesco.Cannata@bo.infn.it; Dedonder, Jean-Pierre . E-mail: dedonder@paris7.jussieu.fr; Ventura, Alberto . E-mail: Alberto.Ventura@bologna.enea.it
2007-02-15
A general formalism is worked out for the description of one-dimensional scattering in non-hermitian quantum mechanics and constraints on transmission and reflection coefficients are derived in the cases of P, T or PT invariance of the Hamiltonian. Applications to some solvable PT-symmetric potentials are shown in detail. Our main original results concern the association of reflectionless potentials with asymptotic exact PT symmetry and the peculiarities of separable kernels of non-local potentials in connection with Hermiticity, T invariance and PT invariance.
Sustained spheromaks with ideal n = 1 kink stability and pressure confinement
Victor, B. S. Jarboe, T. R.; Hansen, C. J.; Akcay, C.; Morgan, K. D.; Hossack, A. C.; Nelson, B. A.
2014-08-15
Increasing the helicity injector drive frequency up to 68.5 kHz on the Helicity Injected Torus-Steady Inductive (HIT-SI) experiment has produced spheromaks with current amplifications of 3.8, ideal n = 1 kink stability, improved toroidal symmetry and pressure confinement. Current centroid calculations from surface magnetic probes show an outward shift in the magnetic field at frequencies above 50 kHz. Grad-Shafranov equilibria indicate pressure confinement at higher injector operating frequencies. The minimum characteristic frequency needed to achieve this confining effect on HIT-SI plasmas is found to be approximately 30 kHz by analysis of the density fluctuations.
COUPLED ALFVEN AND KINK OSCILLATIONS IN CORONAL LOOPS
Pascoe, D. J.; Wright, A. N.; De Moortel, I.
2010-03-10
Observations have revealed ubiquitous transverse velocity perturbation waves propagating in the solar corona. However, there is ongoing discussion regarding their interpretation as kink or Alfven waves. To investigate the nature of transverse waves propagating in the solar corona and their potential for use as a coronal diagnostic in MHD seismology, we perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of footpoint-driven transverse waves propagating in a low beta plasma. We consider the cases of both a uniform medium and one with loop-like density structure and perform a parametric study for our structuring parameters. When density structuring is present, resonant absorption in inhomogeneous layers leads to the coupling of the kink mode to the Alfven mode. The decay of the propagating kink wave as energy is transferred to the local Alfven mode is in good agreement with a modified interpretation of the analysis of Ruderman and Roberts for standing kink modes. Numerical simulations support the most general interpretation of the observed loop oscillations as a coupling of the kink and Alfven modes. This coupling may account for the observed predominance of outward wave power in longer coronal loops since the observed damping length is comparable to our estimate based on an assumption of resonant absorption as the damping mechanism.
RESONANTLY DAMPED PROPAGATING KINK WAVES IN LONGITUDINALLY STRATIFIED SOLAR WAVEGUIDES
Soler, R.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.; Terradas, J.
2011-07-20
It has been shown that resonant absorption is a robust physical mechanism for explaining the observed damping of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in the solar atmosphere due to naturally occurring plasma inhomogeneity in the direction transverse to the direction of the magnetic field. Theoretical studies of this damping mechanism were greatly inspired by the first observations of post-flare standing kink modes in coronal loops using the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. More recently, these studies have been extended to explain the attenuation of propagating coronal kink waves observed by the Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter. In the present study, for the first time we investigate the properties of propagating kink waves in solar waveguides including the effects of both longitudinal and transverse plasma inhomogeneity. Importantly, it is found that the wavelength is only dependent on the longitudinal stratification and the amplitude is simply a product of the two effects. In light of these results the advancement of solar atmospheric magnetoseismology by exploiting high spatial/temporal resolution observations of propagating kink waves in magnetic waveguides to determine the length scales of the plasma inhomogeneity along and transverse to the direction of the magnetic field is discussed.
Integrated nanophotonics of parity-time symmetry (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Liang
2016-09-01
Parity-time (PT) symmetry is a fundamental notion in quantum field theories and opens a new paradigm of non-Hermitian photonics. Instead of counteracting optical losses in integrated photonics, we start from an opposite viewpoint to strategically manipulate optical losses by the concept of PT symmetry. In this talk, I will discuss harnessing PT symmetry using the state-of-the-art integrated nanophotonics technology for novel optoelectronic functionalities. I will present unidirectional reflectionless light transport and coherent light control on a passive silicon platform and effective control of cavity resonant modes for stable lasing actions on an active III-V semiconductor platform.
Erickson, Jeremiah D; Mednikov, Evgueni G; Ivanov, Sergei A; Dahl, Lawrence F
2016-02-10
We present the first successful isolation and crystallographic characterization of a Mackay 55-metal-atom two-shell icosahedron, Pd55L12(μ3-CO)20 (L = PPr(i)3) (1). Its two-shell icosahedron of pseudo-Ih symmetry (without isopropyl substituents) enables a structural/bonding comparison with interior 55-metal-atom two-shell icosahedral geometries observed within the multi-shell capped 145-metal-atom three-shell Pd145(CO)72(PEt3)30 and 165-metal-atom four-shell Pt-centered (μ12-Pt)Pd164-xPtx(CO)72(PPh3)20 (x ≈ 7) nanoclusters, and within the recently reported four-shell Au133(SC6H4-p-Bu(t))52 nanocluster. DFT calculations carried out on a Pd55(CO)20(PH3)12 model analogue, with triisopropyl phosphine substituents replaced by H atoms, revealed a positive +0.84 e charge for the entire Pd55 core, with a highly positive second-shell Pd42 surface of +1.93 e.
Characterization of individual straight and kinked boron carbide nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Zhiguang
Boron carbides represent a class of ceramic materials with p-type semiconductor natures, complex structures and a wide homogeneous range of carbon compositions. Bulk boron carbides have long been projected as promising high temperature thermoelectric materials, but with limited performance. Bringing the bulk boron carbides to low dimensions (e.g., nanowires) is believed to be an option to enhance their thermoelectric performance because of the quantum size effects. However, the fundamental studies on the microstructure-thermal property relation of boron carbide nanowires are elusive. In this dissertation work, systematic structural characterization and thermal conductivity measurement of individual straight and kinked boron carbide nanowires were carried out to establish the true structure-thermal transport relation. In addition, a preliminary Raman spectroscopy study on identifying the defects in individual boron carbide nanowires was conducted. After the synthesis of single crystalline boron carbide nanowires, straight nanowires accompanied by the kinked ones were observed. Detailed structures of straight boron carbide nanowires have been reported, but not the kinked ones. After carefully examining tens of kinked nanowires utilizing Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), it was found that they could be categorized into five cases depending on the stacking faults orientations in the two arms of the kink: TF-TF, AF-TF, AF-AF, TF-IF and AF-IF kinks, in which TF, AF and IF denotes transverse faults (preferred growth direction perpendicular to the stacking fault planes), axial faults (preferred growth direction in parallel with the stacking fault planes) and inclined faults (preferred growth direction neither perpendicular to nor in parallel with the stacking fault planes). Simple structure models describing the characteristics of TF-TF, AF-TF, AF-AF kinked nanowires are constructed in SolidWorks, which help to differentiate the kinked nanowires viewed from the zone
Simulations of kink-like modes on NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podesta, Mario; Dong, Ge
2015-11-01
Kink-like instabilities which are commonly observed in NSTX plasmas can lead to deterioration of plasma confinement. Understanding their stability properties and dynamics is therefore important to improve the machine performance. In this study, we performed simulations of kink-like instabilities in NSTX equilibrium for a variety of scenarios using the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). In fluid limit with experimental plasma density and temperature profiles, a scan of the q profile shows that the non- resonant kink mode (NRK) can be stabilized if qmin is above 1.5. In simulations with kinetic thermal ions, the growth rate of NRK are slightly reduced, and the mode structure can be affected. In simulations with kinetic fast ions, the fishbone mode with finite real frequency and rotating mode structure can be destabilized. Work supported by U.S. DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Experimental Study of Kink-like Modes in NSTX Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ge; Podesta, Mario
2014-10-01
Internal kink modes destabilized by energetic trapped particles can cause particle losses and deteriorate plasma performance in toroidal fusion devices. In this study, we characterized the main properties of kink-link instabilities in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas, including the wave number spectrum, effective mode growth rate and real frequency, as a function of the thermal plasma, fast ion and magnetic field parameters, which is re-constructed using LRDfit and TRANSP, utilizing experimental data from motional Stark effect(MSE) diagnostic for direct measurements of the q profiles. Results indicate that the bursting fishbone modes are unstable at preferentially higher fast ion beta regime, while the long-lived non-resonant kink (NRK) modes are unstable at lower and higher fast ion beta values. Both the fishbones and the NRK tend to be stable with q-min above around 1.5. Partly supported by US-DoE Contract DE-AC02- 09CH11466.
Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks
L.E. Zakharov
2010-11-22
This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the δ-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.
Validity of the kink approximation to the tunneling action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Koushik; Hector, Cecelie; Konstandin, Thomas; Vaudrevange, Pascal M.; Westphal, Alexander
2012-12-01
Coleman tunneling in a general scalar potential with two nondegenerate minima is known to have an approximation in terms of a piecewise linear triangular-shaped potential with sharp “kinks” at the place of the local minima. This approximate potential has a regime where the existence of the bounce solution needs the scalar field to “wait” for some amount of Euclidean time at one of the kinks. We discuss under which conditions a kink approximation of locally smooth “cap” regions provides a good estimate for the bounce action.
Destabilization of the internal kink by energetic-circulating ions
Betti, R. ); Freidberg, J.P. )
1993-05-31
A stability analysis is carried out for the [ital m]=1 internal kink mode, in the presence of energetic circulating particles. It is found that, including the effect of finite radial particle-orbit excursion, the [ital m]=1 internal kink mode is strongly destabilized by the resonance interaction with the energetic passing particles. Such an instability could explain the experimental observations of the fishbone'' oscillations during tangential neutral beam injection [W. W. Heidbrink [ital et] [ital al]., Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 835 (1986)].
Current Kink and Capacitance Frequency Dispersion in Silicon PIN Photodiodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xia; Feng, Yajie; Liu, Qiaoli; Wang, Huaqiang; Li, Chong; Hu, Zonghai; He, Xiaoying
2017-09-01
Silicon PIN photodiodes in the visible wavelength range have been widely applied in aerospace, defense, security, medical, and scientific instruments because of their high sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the phenomena of the current kink and the capacitance frequency dispersion are observed. Contamination at the p-type Ohmic contact interface is proposed to explain the current kink effect and capacitance frequency dispersion, according to the temperature-dependent I-V measurement results in which trap-assisted tunneling process demonstrated.
Tunneling magnetoresistance of FePt/NaCl/FePt(001)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, L. L.; Liu, D. P.; Liang, S. H.; Han, X. F.; Guo, Hong
2014-03-01
We propose and theoretically investigate an interesting and potentially very attractive magnetic tunnel junction FePt/NaCl/FePt(001) for spintronics. It is attractive because the strain at the FePt/NaCl interface is relatively small and, as a result, spin injection from the FePt metal to the NaCl barrier is significant and thus a potentially large TMR ratio can be obtained. The electronic bands with the \\Delta_{1} symmetry of L10 FePt cross the Fermi level for both the majority-spin and minority-spin channels, and the evanescent state with the \\Delta_{1} symmetry dominates the electron transmission through the fcc NaCl barrier. Very respectable values of the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio are predicted. The microscopic physics of quantum transport in this system is systematically analyzed and understood.
Stability of the kink state in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shi-Zeng; Hu, Xiao
2010-12-01
A new dynamic state characterized by (2ml+1)π static phase kink with integers {ml} is proposed recently in a stack of inductively coupled Josephson junctions. In the present paper, the stability of the phase kink state is investigated against various perturbations and it is shown that the kink state is stable. It is also discussed that the suppression of the amplitude of superconducting order parameter caused by the kink is weak.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attanucci, Frank J.; Losse, John
2008-01-01
In a first calculus course, it is not unusual for students to encounter the theorems which state: If f is an even (odd) differentiable function, then its derivative is odd (even). In our paper, we prove some theorems which show how the symmetry of a continuous function f with respect to (i) the vertical line: x = a or (ii) with respect to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attanucci, Frank J.; Losse, John
2008-01-01
In a first calculus course, it is not unusual for students to encounter the theorems which state: If f is an even (odd) differentiable function, then its derivative is odd (even). In our paper, we prove some theorems which show how the symmetry of a continuous function f with respect to (i) the vertical line: x = a or (ii) with respect to the…
Standing Kink modes in three-dimensional coronal loops
Pascoe, D. J.; De Moortel, I.
2014-04-01
So far, the straight flux tube model proposed by Edwin and Roberts is the most commonly used tool in practical coronal seismology, in particular, to infer values of the (coronal) magnetic field from observed, standing kink mode oscillations. In this paper, we compare the period predicted by this basic model with three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of standing kink mode oscillations, as the period is a crucial parameter in the seismological inversion to determine the magnetic field. We perform numerical simulations of standing kink modes in both straight and curved 3D coronal loops and consider excitation by internal and external drivers. The period of oscillation for the displacement of dense coronal loops is determined by the loop length and the kink speed, in agreement with the estimate based on analytical theory for straight flux tubes. For curved coronal loops embedded in a magnetic arcade and excited by an external driver, a secondary mode with a period determined by the loop length and external Alfvén speed is also present. When a low number of oscillations is considered, these two periods can result in a single, non-resolved (broad) peak in the power spectrum, particularly for low values of the density contrast for which the two periods will be relatively similar. In that case (and for this particular geometry), the presence of this additional mode would lead to ambiguous seismological estimates of the magnetic field strength.
Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA.
Fields, Alexander P; Meyer, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Adam E
2013-11-01
The bending stiffness of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at high curvatures is fundamental to its biological activity, yet this regime has been difficult to probe experimentally, and literature results have not been consistent. We created a 'molecular vise' in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on sub-persistence length segments of dsDNA. Short dsDNA strands (<41 base pairs) resisted this force and remained straight; longer strands became bent, a phenomenon called 'Euler buckling'. We monitored the buckling transition via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between appended fluorophores. For low-to-moderate concentrations of monovalent salt (up to ∼150 mM), our results are in quantitative agreement with the worm-like chain (WLC) model of DNA elasticity, without the need to invoke any 'kinked' states. Greater concentrations of monovalent salts or 1 mM Mg(2+) induced an apparent softening of the dsDNA, which was best accounted for by a kink in the region of highest curvature. We tested the effects of all single-nucleotide mismatches on the DNA bending. Remarkably, the propensity to kink correlated with the thermodynamic destabilization of the mismatched DNA relative the perfectly complementary strand, suggesting that the kinked state is locally melted. The molecular vise is exquisitely sensitive to the sequence-dependent linear and nonlinear elastic properties of dsDNA.
Global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of internal kink instabilities
Mishchenko, Alexey; Zocco, Alessandro
2012-12-15
Internal kink instabilities have been studied in straight tokamak geometry employing an electromagnetic gyrokinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The ideal-MHD internal kink mode and the collisionless m=1 tearing mode have been successfully simulated with the PIC code. Diamagnetic effects on the internal kink modes have also been investigated.
Anti-parity-time symmetry via flying atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Jianming; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Yanhong; Peng, Peng; Cao, Wanxia; Shen, Ce; Qu, Weizhi
We report the first experimental demonstration of optical anti-parity-time (anti-PT) symmetry, a counterpart of conventional PT symmetry, in a warm atomic-vapor cell. By exploiting rapid coherence transport via flying atoms, our scheme illustrates essential features of anti-PT symmetry with an unprecedented precision on phase-transition threshold, and substantially reduces experimental complexity and cost, in contrast to most previous experimental studies relying highly on the advances of nanotechnologies and sophisticated fabrication techniques to synthesize solid-state materials. Of importance, our results represent a significant advance in non-Hermitian physics by bridging a firm connection with the field of atomic, molecular and optical physics, where novel phenomena and applications in quantum and nonlinear optics aided by (anti-)PT symmetry can be anticipated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruzón, Maria S.; Recio, Elena; Garrido, Tamara M.; Márquez, Almudena P.
2017-06-01
For a generalized KdV-Burgers-Kuramoto equation we have studied conservation laws by using the multiplier method, and investigated its first-level and second-level potential systems. Furthermore, the Lie point symmetries of the equation and the Lie point symmetries associated with the conserved vectors are determined. We obtain travelling wave reductions depending on the form of an arbitrary function. We present some explicit solutions: soliton solutions, kinks and antikinks.
Interacting tilt and kink instabilities in repelling current channels
Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Xia, C.
2014-11-01
We present a numerical study in resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) where the initial equilibrium configuration contains adjacent, oppositely directed, parallel current channels. Since oppositely directed current channels repel, the equilibrium is liable to an ideal magnetohydrodynamic tilt instability. This tilt evolution, previously studied in planar settings, involves two magnetic islands or flux ropes, which on Alfvénic timescales undergo a combined rotation and separation. This in turn leads to the creation of (near) singular current layers, posing severe challenges to numerical approaches. Using our open-source grid-adaptive MPI-AMRVAC software, we revisit the planar evolution case in compressible MHD, as well as its extension to two-and-a-half-dimensional (2.5D) and full three-dimensional (3D) scenarios. As long as the third dimension can be ignored, pure tilt evolutions result that are hardly affected by out of plane magnetic field components. In all 2.5D runs, our simulations do show secondary tearing type disruptions throughout the near singular current sheets in the far nonlinear saturation regime. In full 3D runs, both current channels can be liable to additional ideal kink deformations. We discuss the effects of having both tilt and kink instabilities acting simultaneously in the violent, reconnection-dominated evolution. In 3D, both the tilt and the kink instabilities can be stabilized by tension forces. As a concrete space plasma application, we argue that interacting tilt-kink instabilities in repelling current channels provide a novel route to initiate solar coronal mass ejections, distinctly different from the currently favored pure kink or torus instability routes.
Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with unitary and antiunitary symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier
2014-03-01
We analyse several non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with antiunitary symmetry from the point of view of their point-group symmetry. It enables us to predict the degeneracy of the energy levels and to reduce the dimension of the matrices necessary for the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in a given basis set. We can also classify the solutions according to the irreducible representations of the point group and thus analyse their properties separately. One of the main results of this paper is that some PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with point-group symmetry C2v exhibit complex eigenvalues for all values of a potential parameter. In such cases the PT phase transition takes place at the trivial Hermitian limit which suggests that the phenomenon is not robust. Point-group symmetry enables us to explain such anomalous behaviour and to choose a suitable antiunitary operator for the PT symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, N.; Sakai, M.; Nishina, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Kurita, S.
1987-05-01
A midgap absorption band is observed in the quasi one-dimensional semiconductor, [Pt(en)2][Pt(en)2Cl2](ClO4)4, under hydrostatic pressures at room temperature, where en is ethylenediamine. The transition is allowed only for the polarization parallel to the -Cl-PtII-Cl-PtrIV- chain. The peak position remains near the middle of the Peierls gap at any pressure up to 2.2 GPa. The intensity increases exponentially with the peak shift. The gap states responsible for this band are attributed to soliton excitations corresponding to kinks of the charge-density wave.
Chiral selectivity of amino acid adsorption on chiral surfaces—The case of alanine on Pt
Franke, J.-H.; Kosov, D. S.
2015-02-07
We study the binding pattern of the amino acid alanine on the naturally chiral Pt surfaces Pt(531), Pt(321), and Pt(643). These surfaces are all vicinal to the (111) direction but have different local environments of their kink sites and are thus a model for realistic roughened Pt surfaces. Alanine has only a single methyl group attached to its chiral center, which makes the number of possible binding conformations computationally tractable. Additionally, only the amine and carboxyl group are expected to interact strongly with the Pt substrate. On Pt(531), we study the molecule in its pristine as well as its deprotonated form and find that the deprotonated one is more stable by 0.47 eV. Therefore, we study the molecule in its deprotonated form on Pt(321) and Pt(643). As expected, the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the deprotonated molecule provide a local binding “tripod” and the most stable adsorption configurations optimize the interaction of this “tripod” with undercoordinated surface atoms. However, the interaction of the methyl group plays an important role: it induces significant chiral selectivity of about 60 meV on all surfaces. Hereby, the L-enantiomer adsorbs preferentially to the Pt(321){sup S} and Pt(643){sup S} surfaces, while the D-enantiomer is more stable on Pt(531){sup S}. The binding energies increase with increasing surface density of kink sites, i.e., they are largest for Pt(531){sup S} and smallest for Pt(643){sup S}.
PT -symmetric spectral singularity and negative-frequency resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pendharker, Sarang; Guo, Yu; Khosravi, Farhad; Jacob, Zubin
2017-03-01
Vacuum consists of a bath of balanced and symmetric positive- and negative-frequency fluctuations. Media in relative motion or accelerated observers can break this symmetry and preferentially amplify negative-frequency modes as in quantum Cherenkov radiation and Unruh radiation. Here, we show the existence of a universal negative-frequency-momentum mirror symmetry in the relativistic Lorentzian transformation for electromagnetic waves. We show the connection of our discovered symmetry to parity-time (PT ) symmetry in moving media and the resulting spectral singularity in vacuum fluctuation-related effects. We prove that this spectral singularity can occur in the case of two metallic plates in relative motion interacting through positive- and negative-frequency plasmonic fluctuations (negative-frequency resonance). Our work paves the way for understanding the role of PT -symmetric spectral singularities in amplifying fluctuations and motivates the search for PT symmetry in novel photonic systems.
Electronic confinement in graphene quantum rings due to substrate-induced mass radial kink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xavier, L. J. P.; da Costa, D. R.; Chaves, A.; Pereira, J. M., Jr.; Farias, G. A.
2016-12-01
We investigate localized states of a quantum ring confinement in monolayer graphene defined by a circular mass-related potential, which can be induced e.g. by interaction with a substrate that breaks the sublattice symmetry, where a circular line defect provides a change in the sign of the induced mass term along the radial direction. Electronic properties are calculated analytically within the Dirac-Weyl approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical results are also compared with those obtained by the tight-binding approach. Regardless of its sign, a mass term Δ is expected to open a gap for low-energy electrons in Dirac cones in graphene. Both approaches confirm the existence of confined states with energies inside the gap, even when the width of the kink modelling the mass sign transition is infinitely thin. We observe that such energy levels are inversely proportional to the defect line ring radius and independent on the mass kink height. An external magnetic field is demonstrated to lift the valley degeneracy in this system and easily tune the valley index of the ground state in this system, which can be polarized on either K or {{K}\\prime} valleys of the Brillouin zone, depending on the magnetic field intensity. Geometrical changes in the defect line shape are considered by assuming an elliptic line with different eccentricities. Our results suggest that any defect line that is closed in a loop, with any geometry, would produce the same qualitative results as the circular ones, as a manifestation of the topologically protected nature of the ring-like states investigated here.
Electronic confinement in graphene quantum rings due to substrate-induced mass radial kink.
Xavier, L J P; da Costa, D R; Chaves, A; Pereira, J M; Farias, G A
2016-12-21
We investigate localized states of a quantum ring confinement in monolayer graphene defined by a circular mass-related potential, which can be induced e.g. by interaction with a substrate that breaks the sublattice symmetry, where a circular line defect provides a change in the sign of the induced mass term along the radial direction. Electronic properties are calculated analytically within the Dirac-Weyl approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field. Analytical results are also compared with those obtained by the tight-binding approach. Regardless of its sign, a mass term [Formula: see text] is expected to open a gap for low-energy electrons in Dirac cones in graphene. Both approaches confirm the existence of confined states with energies inside the gap, even when the width of the kink modelling the mass sign transition is infinitely thin. We observe that such energy levels are inversely proportional to the defect line ring radius and independent on the mass kink height. An external magnetic field is demonstrated to lift the valley degeneracy in this system and easily tune the valley index of the ground state in this system, which can be polarized on either K or [Formula: see text] valleys of the Brillouin zone, depending on the magnetic field intensity. Geometrical changes in the defect line shape are considered by assuming an elliptic line with different eccentricities. Our results suggest that any defect line that is closed in a loop, with any geometry, would produce the same qualitative results as the circular ones, as a manifestation of the topologically protected nature of the ring-like states investigated here.
Strain fields induced by kink band propagation in Cu-Nb nanolaminate composites
Nizolek, T. J.; Begley, M. R.; McCabe, R. J.; ...
2017-07-01
Kink band formation is a common deformation mode for anisotropic materials and has been observed in polymer matrix fiber composites, single crystals, geological formations, and recently in metallic nanolaminates. While numerous studies have been devoted to kink band formation, the majority do not consider the often rapid and unstable process of kink band propagation. In this paper, we take advantage of stable kink band formation in Cu-Nb nanolaminates to quantitatively map the local strain fields surrounding a propagating kink band during uniaxial compression. Kink bands are observed to initiate at specimen edges, propagate across the sample during a rising globalmore » stress, and induce extended strain fields in the non-kinked material surrounding the propagating kink band. Finally, it is proposed that these stress/strain fields significantly contribute to the total energy dissipated during kinking and, analogous to crack tip stress/strain fields, influence the direction of kink propagation and therefore the kink band inclination angle.« less
BPS and non-BPS kinks in a massive nonlinear S{sup 2}-sigma model
Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Leon, M. A. Gonzalez; Guilarte, J. Mateos
2009-06-15
The stability of the topological kinks of the nonlinear S{sup 2}-sigma model discovered by Alonso Izquierdo et al. is discussed by means of a direct estimation of the spectra of the second-order fluctuation operators around topological kinks. The one-loop mass shifts caused by quantum fluctuations around these kinks are computed using the Cahill-Comtet-Glauber formula. The (lack of) stability of the nontopological kinks is unveiled by application of the Morse index theorem. These kinks are identified as non-BPS states. There are two types of topological kinks coming from the twofold embedding of the sine-Gordon model in the massive nonlinear sigma model. It is shown that sine-Gordon kinks of only one type satisfy first-order equations and are accordingly BPS classical solutions. Finally, the interplay between instability and supersymmetry is explored.
Nonlinear Generation of Fluting Perturbations by Kink Mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruderman, M. S.
2017-08-01
We study the excitation of fluting perturbations in a magnetic tube by an initially imposed kink mode. We use the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the cold-plasma approximation. We also use the thin-tube approximation and scale the dependent and independent variables accordingly. Then we assume that the dimensionless amplitude of the kink mode is small and use it as an expansion parameter in the regular perturbation method. We obtain the expression for the tube boundary perturbation in the second-order approximation. This perturbation is a superposition of sausage and fluting perturbations. The amplitude of the fluting perturbation takes its maximum at the middle of the tube, and it monotonically decreases with the distance from the middle of the tube.
An Exploratory Study of a New Kink Activity: "Pup Play".
Wignall, Liam; McCormack, Mark
2017-04-01
This study presents the narratives and experiences of 30 gay and bisexual men who participate in a behavior known as "pup play." Never empirically studied before, we use in-depth interviews and a modified form of grounded theory to describe the dynamics of pup play and develop a conceptual framework with which to understand it. We discuss the dynamics of pup play, demonstrating that it primarily consists of mimicking the behaviors and adopting the role of a dog. We show that the majority of participants use pup play for sexual satisfaction. It is also a form of relaxation, demonstrated primarily through the existence of a "headspace." We classify pup play as a kink, and find no evidence for the framing of it as a form of zoophilia. We call for further research on pup play as a sexual kink and leisure activity from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives.
Alpha particle effects on the internal kink and fishbone modes
Wu, Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; White, R.B.
1994-06-01
The effects of alpha particles on the internal kink and fishbone modes are studied analytically. The nonadiabatic contribution from untrapped alpha particles is negligible. Finite inverse aspect ratio, plasma {beta} and plasma shaping effects can significantly enhance the trapped particle drift reversal domain in the pitch angle space and reduce the bounce-averaged magnetic drift frequency. The drift reversal effect on the ideal kink mode is small, but the {beta}{sub {alpha}} threshold for the fishbone mode can be much lower than previously predicted. Moreover, the fishbone mode could be excited by alpha particles even when the plasma is stable in the ideal MHD limit. In addition, the ion diamagnetic drift frequency (finite ion Larmor radius effect) has a strong destabilizing effect on the fishbone mode when it is comparable with the trapped alpha averaged precessional drift frequency, even though it stabilizes the plasma in the ideal MHD limit.
None
2016-07-12
- Physics, as we know it, attempts to interpret the diverse natural phenomena as particular manifestations of general laws. This vision of a world ruled by general testable laws is relatively recent in the history of mankind. Basically it was initiated by the Galilean inertial principle. The subsequent rapid development of large-scale physics is certainly tributary to the fact that gravitational and electromagnetic forces are long-range and hence can be perceived directly without the mediation of highly sophisticated technical devices. - The discovery of subatomic structures and of the concomitant weak and strong short-range forces raised the question of how to cope with short-range forces in relativistic quantum field theory. The Fermi theory of weak interactions, formulated in terms of point-like current-current interaction, was well-defined in lowest order perturbation theory and accounted for existing experimental data.However, it was inconsistent in higher orders because of uncontrollable divergent quantum fluctuations. In technical terms, in contradistinction to quantum electrodynamics, the Fermi theorywas not ârenormalizableâ. This difficulty could not be solved by smoothing the point-like interaction by a massive, and therefore short-range, charged âvectorâ particle exchange: theories with massive charged vector bosons were not renormalizable either. In the early nineteen sixties, there seemed to be insuperable obstacles to formulating a consistent theory with short-range forces mediated by massive vectors. - The breakthrough came from the notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking which arose in the study of phase transitions and was introduced in field theory by Nambu in 1960. - Ferromagnets illustrate the notion in phase transitions. Although no direction is dynamically preferred, the magnetization selects a global orientation. This is a spontaneous broken symmetry(SBS)of rotational invariance. Such continuous SBS imply the existence of
2011-02-24
- Physics, as we know it, attempts to interpret the diverse natural phenomena as particular manifestations of general laws. This vision of a world ruled by general testable laws is relatively recent in the history of mankind. Basically it was initiated by the Galilean inertial principle. The subsequent rapid development of large-scale physics is certainly tributary to the fact that gravitational and electromagnetic forces are long-range and hence can be perceived directly without the mediation of highly sophisticated technical devices. - The discovery of subatomic structures and of the concomitant weak and strong short-range forces raised the question of how to cope with short-range forces in relativistic quantum field theory. The Fermi theory of weak interactions, formulated in terms of point-like current-current interaction, was well-defined in lowest order perturbation theory and accounted for existing experimental data.However, it was inconsistent in higher orders because of uncontrollable divergent quantum fluctuations. In technical terms, in contradistinction to quantum electrodynamics, the Fermi theorywas not “renormalizable”. This difficulty could not be solved by smoothing the point-like interaction by a massive, and therefore short-range, charged “vector” particle exchange: theories with massive charged vector bosons were not renormalizable either. In the early nineteen sixties, there seemed to be insuperable obstacles to formulating a consistent theory with short-range forces mediated by massive vectors. - The breakthrough came from the notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking which arose in the study of phase transitions and was introduced in field theory by Nambu in 1960. - Ferromagnets illustrate the notion in phase transitions. Although no direction is dynamically preferred, the magnetization selects a global orientation. This is a spontaneous broken symmetry(SBS)of rotational invariance. Such continuous SBS imply the existence of
Hexagons, kinks, and disorder in oscillated granular layers
Melo, F.; Umbanhowar, P.B.; Swinney, H.L.
1995-11-20
Experiments on vertically oscillated granular layers in an evacuated container reveal a sequence of well-defined pattern bifurcations as the container acceleration is increased. Period doublings of the layer center of mass motion and a standing wave instability interact to produce hexagons and more complicated patterns composed of distinct spatial domains of different relative phase separated by kinks (phase discontinuities). A simple model displays quantitative agreement with the observed transition sequence. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.
Algebraic nonlinear growth of the resistive kink instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biskamp, Dieter
1991-12-01
It is derived from a simple model that the resistive kink mode grows algebraically W∝t2 for island size W exceeding the resistive layer width. The model only uses the properties of the linear eigenfunction and of current-sheet reconnection. Because of the geometry of the inflow velocity, the usual quasisingular behavior in the current sheet edge region vanishes. The theory is in quantitative agreement with high-S number numerical simulations.
Excitation of internal kink modes by trapped energetic beam ions
Chen, L.; White, R.B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
1983-10-01
Energetic trapped particles are shown to have a destabilizing effect on the internal kink mode in tokamaks. The plasma pressure threshold for the mode is lowered by the particles. The growth rate is near the ideal magnetohydrodynamic value, but the frequency is comparable to the trapped particle precission frequency. A model for the instability cycle gives stability properties, associated particle losses, and neutron emissivity consistent with the fishbone events observed in PDX.
Euler buckling and nonlinear kinking of double-stranded DNA
Fields, Alexander P.; Meyer, Elisabeth A.; Cohen, Adam E.
2013-01-01
The bending stiffness of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at high curvatures is fundamental to its biological activity, yet this regime has been difficult to probe experimentally, and literature results have not been consistent. We created a ‘molecular vise’ in which base-pairing interactions generated a compressive force on sub-persistence length segments of dsDNA. Short dsDNA strands (<41 base pairs) resisted this force and remained straight; longer strands became bent, a phenomenon called ‘Euler buckling’. We monitored the buckling transition via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between appended fluorophores. For low-to-moderate concentrations of monovalent salt (up to ∼150 mM), our results are in quantitative agreement with the worm-like chain (WLC) model of DNA elasticity, without the need to invoke any ‘kinked’ states. Greater concentrations of monovalent salts or 1 mM Mg2+ induced an apparent softening of the dsDNA, which was best accounted for by a kink in the region of highest curvature. We tested the effects of all single-nucleotide mismatches on the DNA bending. Remarkably, the propensity to kink correlated with the thermodynamic destabilization of the mismatched DNA relative the perfectly complementary strand, suggesting that the kinked state is locally melted. The molecular vise is exquisitely sensitive to the sequence-dependent linear and nonlinear elastic properties of dsDNA. PMID:23956222
Spectral Element Simulations of Rupture Dynamics along kinked faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilotte, J.; Festa, G.; Madariaga, R.
2005-12-01
Numerical simulation of earthquake source dynamics provides key elements for ground-motion prediction and insights into the physics of dynamic rupture propagation. Faulting is controlled by non-linear frictional interactions and damage within the fault zone. Important features of the earthquakes dynamics, such as rupture velocity, arrest phase and high-frequency radiation are believed to be strongly influenced by the geometry of the faults (kinks, jogs and forks). Data analysis as well as kinematic inversions have pointed out potential links between super-shear and geometry, as in the case of the Denali and Izmit earthquakes. Finally, recent laboratory experiments of sub- and super-shear rupture propagation along kink interfaces have shed new lights on these phenomena. We present here spectral element simulations of the dynamic rupture propagation along kinked and curved fault interfaces, a problem that has been experimentally investigated by Rousseau and Rosakis (2003). Depending on the state of the initial stress, we numerically analyze the mechanics of the dynamical fault branching for sub- and super-shear rupture propagation. Special interest is devoted to source directivity effects and high frequency generation related to the branching process. Implications for strong motion analysis will be discussed. This work was supported by the SPICE - Research and Training project
Decay-less kink oscillations in coronal loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anfinogentov, S.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2013-12-01
Context. Kink oscillations of coronal loops in an off-limb active region are detected with the Imaging Assembly Array (AIA) instruments of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) at 171 Å. Aims: We aim to measure periods and amplitudes of kink oscillations of different loops and to determinate the evolution of the oscillation phase along the oscillating loop. Methods: Oscillating coronal loops were visually identified in the field of view of SDO/AIA and STEREO/EUVI-A: the loop length was derived by three-dimensional analysis. Several slits were taken along the loops to assemble time-distance maps. We identified oscillatory patterns and retrieved periods and amplitudes of the oscillations. We applied the cross-correlation technique to estimate the phase shift between oscillations at different segments of oscillating loops. Results: We found that all analysed loops show low-amplitude undamped transverse oscillations. Oscillation periods of loops in the same active region range from 2.5 to 11 min, and are different for different loops. The displacement amplitude is lower than 1 Mm. The oscillation phase is constant along each analysed loop. The spatial structure of the phase of the oscillations corresponds to the fundamental standing kink mode. We conclude that the observed behaviour is consistent with the empirical model in terms of a damped harmonic resonator affected by a non-resonant continuously operating external force. A movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Sideways force due to coupled kink modes in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, D. V.; Pustovitov, V. D.
2017-09-01
The paper is devoted to calculation of the sideways force on the vacuum vessel wall in tokamaks at the early stage of disruptions before possible appearance of the halo currents. The theory developed so far predicts quite a large force due to a single-helicity kink mode. This concept is revisited here. It is demonstrated that the existing single-mode models are incompatible with the natural requirement that the sideways force on the plasma must be practically zero. The latter can be satisfied by incorporating a secondary coupled mode, which is the main new element here compared to the earlier analytical approaches. With this difference, the derivations are performed in the standard cylindrical model that is widely used in the resistive wall mode studies. The resistive wall effects are accounted for as determining the wall reaction on the plasma-driven perturbations. The derived expressions explicitly reveal the sideways force dependence on γτw with a maximum at γτw=O (1 ) , where γ is the kink growth rate and τw is the resistive wall time. It is proved that the amplitude of the sideways force produced by the kink modes must be much smaller than expected from the existing scalings.
Low-temperature dynamics of kinks on Ising interfaces.
Karma, Alain; Lobkovsky, Alexander E
2005-03-01
The anisotropic motion of an interface driven by its intrinsic curvature or by an external field is investigated in the context of the kinetic Ising model in both two and three dimensions. We derive in two dimensions (2D) a continuum evolution equation for the density of kinks by a time-dependent and nonlocal mapping to the asymmetric exclusion process. Whereas kinks execute random walks biased by the external field and pile up vertically on the physical 2D lattice, they execute hard-core biased random walks on a transformed 1D lattice. Their density obeys a nonlinear diffusion equation which can be transformed into the standard expression for the interface velocity, v=M [ (gamma+gamma'') kappa+H] , where M , gamma+gamma", and kappa are the interface mobility, stiffness, and curvature, respectively. In 3D, we obtain the velocity of a curved interface near the 100 orientation from an analysis of the self-similar evolution of 2D shrinking terraces. We show that this velocity is consistent with the one predicted from the 3D tensorial generalization of the law for anisotropic curvature-driven motion. In this generalization, both the interface stiffness tensor and the curvature tensor are singular at the 100 orientation. However, their product, which determines the interface velocity, is smooth. In addition, we illustrate how this kink-based kinetic description provides a useful framework for studying more complex situations by modeling the effect of immobile dilute impurities.
Kink modes and surface currents associated with vertical displacement events
Manickam, Janardhan; Boozer, Allen; Gerhardt, Stefan
2012-08-15
The fast termination phase of a vertical displacement event (VDE) in a tokamak is modeled as a sequence of shrinking equilibria, where the core current profile remains constant so that the safety-factor at the axis, q{sub axis}, remains fixed and the q{sub edge} systematically decreases. At some point, the n = 1 kink mode is destabilized. Kink modes distort the magnetic field lines outside the plasma, and surface currents are required to nullify the normal component of the B-field at the plasma boundary and maintain equilibrium at finite pressure. If the plasma touches a conductor, the current can be transferred to the conductor, and may be measurable by the halo current monitors. This report describes a practical method to model the plasma as it evolves during a VDE, and determine the surface currents, needed to maintain equilibrium. The main results are that the onset conditions for the disruption are that the growth-rate of the n = 1 kink exceeds half the Alfven time and the associated surface current needed to maintain equilibrium exceeds one half of the core plasma current. This occurs when q{sub edge} drops below a low integer, usually 2. Application to NSTX provides favorable comparison with non-axisymmetric halo-current measurements. The model is also applied to ITER and shows that the 2/1 mode is projected to be the most likely cause of the final disruption.
Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Daming; Hu, Shen; Liu, Jiachun; Zhou, Zhilun; Lu, Jun; Qi, Peng; Song, Shiying
2016-01-01
Background. Whether carotid tortuosity/kinking of the internal carotid artery leads to cerebral ischemia remains unclear. There is very little research about the hemodynamic variation induced by carotid tortuosity/kinking in the literature. The objective of this study was to research the blood pressure changes induced by carotid tortuosity/kinking. Methods. We first created a geometric model of carotid tortuosity/kinking. Based on hemodynamic boundary conditions, the hemodynamics of carotid tortuosity and kinking were studied via a finite element simulation. Then, an in vitro system was built to validate the numerical simulation results. The mean arterial pressure changes before and after carotid kinking were measured using pressure sensors in 12 patients with carotid kinking. Results. Numerical simulation revealed that the pressure drops increased with increases in the kinking angles. Clinical tests and in vitro experiments confirmed the numerical simulation results. Conclusions. Carotid kinking leads to blood pressure reduction. In certain conditions, kinking may affect the cerebral blood supply and be associated with cerebral ischemia. PMID:27195283
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars; Soler, Roberto
2017-08-01
There is observational evidence for the existence of a twisted magnetic field in the solar corona. This inspires us to investigate the effect of a twisted magnetic field on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in coronal loops. With this aim, we solve the incompressible linearized MHD equations in a magnetically twisted nonuniform coronal flux tube in the limit of long wavelengths. Our results show that a twisted magnetic field can enhance or diminish the rate of phase mixing of the Alfvén continuum modes and the decay rate of the global kink oscillation depending on the twist model and the sign of the longitudinal (k z ) and azimuthal (m) wavenumbers. Also, our results confirm that in the presence of a twisted magnetic field, when the sign of one of the two wavenumbers m and k z is changed, the symmetry with respect to the propagation direction is broken. Even a small amount of twist can have an important impact on the process of energy cascading to small scales.
Continuous symmetry measures for complex symmetry group.
Dryzun, Chaim
2014-04-05
Symmetry is a fundamental property of nature, used extensively in physics, chemistry, and biology. The Continuous symmetry measures (CSM) is a method for estimating the deviation of a given system from having a certain perfect symmetry, which enables us to formulate quantitative relation between symmetry and other physical properties. Analytical procedures for calculating the CSM of all simple cyclic point groups are available for several years. Here, we present a methodology for calculating the CSM of any complex point group, including the dihedral, tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral symmetry groups. We present the method and analyze its performances and errors. We also introduce an analytical method for calculating the CSM of the linear symmetry groups. As an example, we apply these methods for examining the symmetry of water, the symmetry maps of AB4 complexes, and the symmetry of several Lennard-Jones clusters.
Sublattice Interference as the Origin of σ Band Kinks in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Sung Won; Shin, Woo Jong; Kim, Jimin; Moreschini, Luca; Yeom, Han Woong; Rotenberg, Eli; Bostwick, Aaron; Kim, Keun Su
2016-05-01
Kinks near the Fermi level observed in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) have been widely accepted to represent electronic coupling to collective excitations, but kinks at higher energies have eluded a unified description. We identify the mechanism leading to such kink features by means of ARPES and tight-binding band calculations on σ bands of graphene, where anomalous kinks at energies as high as ˜4 eV were reported recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 216806 (2013)]. We found that two σ bands show a strong intensity modulation with abruptly vanishing intensity near the kink features, which is due to sublattice interference. The interference induced local singularity in the matrix element is a critical factor that gives rise to apparent kink features, as confirmed by our spectral simulations without involving any coupling to collective excitations.
Kim, Sunghoon
2015-12-01
A tunneled central line catheter placement using a subclavian vein approach can be complicated by an occurrence of peel-away sheath kink which prevents the advancement of the catheter through the sheath. The kink is created due to the angular junction of subclavian and brachiocephalic veins which meet at 90 degree angle. A technique is described which corrects the peel-away sheath kink by extending the subclavian/brachiocephalic vein angle to greater than 90 degrees by abducting the patient's arm.
A quasi-cyclic RNA nano-scale molecular object constructed using kink turns.
Huang, Lin; Lilley, David M J
2016-08-18
k-Turns are widespread RNA architectural elements that mediate tertiary interactions. We describe a double-kink-turn motif comprising two inverted k-turns that forms a tight horse-shoe structure that can assemble into a variety of shapes by coaxial association of helical ends. Using X-ray crystallography we show that these assemble with two (dumbell), three (triangle) and four units (square), with or without bound protein, within the crystal lattice. In addition, exchange of a single basepair can almost double the pore radius or shape of a molecular assembly. On the basis of this analysis we synthesized a 114 nt self-complementary RNA containing six k-turns. The crystal structure of this species shows that it forms a quasi-cyclic triangular object. These are randomly disposed about the three-fold axis in the crystal lattice, generating a circular RNA of quasi D3 symmetry with a shape reminiscent of that of a cyclohexane molecule in its chair conformation. This work demonstrates that the k-turn is a powerful building block in the construction of nano-scale molecular objects, and illustrates why k-turns are widely used in natural RNA molecules to organize long-range architecture and mediate tertiary contacts.
Evaluation of Kink Generation Rate and Step Flow Velocity on Si(111) during Wet Etching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasunuma, Ryu; Yamabe, Kikuo
2013-11-01
The rate of kink generation in ultralow dissolved-oxygen water (LOW) at a <11bar 2> oriented atomic step on a Si(111) surface was experimentally determined. By controlling the step length by adding SiO2 line patterns that prevent kink propagation across the patterns, it was found that step flow velocity was proportional to step length when the step was short. From the proportionality coefficient, the rate of kink generation was evaluated to be 800 cm-1 s-1. Furthermore, the velocity of kink propagation along a step was also evaluated as 40 nm/s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Mi; Guan, Zhidong; Wang, Xiaodong; Du, Shanyi
2016-12-01
Kink band is a typical phenomenon for composites under longitudinal compression. In this paper, theoretical analysis and finite element simulation were conducted to analyze kink angle as well as compressive strength of composites. Kink angle was considered to be an important character throughout longitudinal compression process. Three factors including plastic matrix, initial fiber misalignment and rotation due to loading were considered for theoretical analysis. Besides, the relationship between kink angle and fiber volume fraction was improved and optimized by theoretical derivation. In addition, finite element models considering fiber stochastic strength and Drucker-Prager constitutive model for matrix were conducted in ABAQUS to analyze kink band formation process, which corresponded with the experimental results. Through simulation, the loading and failure procedure can be evidently divided into three stages: elastic stage, softening stage, and fiber break stage. It also shows that kink band is a result of fiber misalignment and plastic matrix. Different values of initial fiber misalignment angle, wavelength and fiber volume fraction were considered to explore the effects on compressive strength and kink angle. Results show that compressive strength increases with the decreasing of initial fiber misalignment angle, the decreasing of initial fiber misalignment wavelength and the increasing of fiber volume fraction, while kink angle decreases in these situations. Orthogonal array in statistics was also built to distinguish the effect degree of these factors. It indicates that initial fiber misalignment angle has the largest impact on compressive strength and kink angle.
Hall, Spencer E; Roberts, Kyle; Vaidehi, Nagarajan
2009-01-01
The structural features of helical transmembrane (TM) proteins, such as helical kinks, tilts, and rotational orientations are important in modulation of their function and these structural features give rise to functional diversity in membrane proteins with similar topology. In particular, the helical kinks caused by breaking of the backbone hydrogen bonds lead to hinge bending flexibility in these helices. Therefore it is important to understand the nature of the helical kinks and to be able to reproduce these kinks in structural models of membrane proteins. We have analyzed the position and extent of helical kinks in the transmembrane helices of all the crystal structures of membrane proteins taken from the MPtopo database, which are about 405 individual helices of length between 19 and 35 residues. 44% of the crystal structures of TM helices showed a significant helical kink, and 35% of these kinks are caused by prolines. Many of the non-proline helical kinks are caused by other residues like Ser and Gly that are located at the center of helical kinks. The side chain of Ser makes a hydrogen bond with the main chain carbonyl of the i - 4th or i + 4th residue thus making a kink. We have also studied how well molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on isolated helices can reproduce the position of the helical kinks in TM helices. Such a method is useful for structure prediction of membrane proteins. We performed MD simulations, starting from a canonical helix for the 405 TM helices. 1 ns of MD simulation results show that we can reproduce about 79% of the proline kinks, only 59% of the vestigial proline kinks and 18% of the non-proline helical kinks. We found that similar results can be obtained from choosing the lowest potential energy structure from the MD simulation. 4-14% more of the vestigial prolines were reproduced by replacing them with prolines before performing MD simulations, and changing the amino acid back to proline after the MD simulations. From these
PT symmetric interpretation of effective potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Sarben
2017-07-01
Conventional systems in equilibrium should have convex effective potentials. PT symmetry applies to systems which are in between open and closed systems. A PT symmetric interpretation can allow some non-convex effective potentials to be entirely physical. The oneloop effective potentials of the Higgs field in the Standard Model and the gravitino condensate in dynamically broken supergravity are conventionally unstable at large field values. In the specially simple case of space-independent and time-independent fields, the effective potentials are governed by PT-symmetric quantum mechanics. The PT-symmetric reinterpretation of these models at a quantum-mechanical level eliminates these instabilities and involves unusual semi-classical analysis involving many Riemann sheets. This interpretation is based on a combination of numerical analysis and semi-classical asymptotics.
Rotating Magnetohydrodynamic and Trapped Hot-Ion Induced Internal Kinks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varadarajan, V.
1993-01-01
As a new and significant contribution to the tokamak literature, the linear internal MHD kink modes in finite aspect-ratio axisymmetric toroidally rotating tokamak equilibria and their kinetic modifications owing to the presence of hot ions are computationally studied herein using a bilinear form derived using a Lagrangian perturbation procedure. As a practical application, the rotating MHD and kinetic internal kinks are calculated in finite aspect-ratio TFTR- and ITER -like geometries. The MHD and kinetic modes of the rotating tokamak plasmas are found to be significantly destabilized by the centrifugal effects at rotation speeds in the range of 10^4-10^5 rad/s at normal discharge densities. The kinetic instability model provides a unified description of several features of the 'fishbone'-like oscillations such as the slow mode rotating at the plasma rotation frequency, the fast mode with high rotation frequency, and variation of the slow as well as fast mode frequencies with plasma rotation. The slow kinetic modes rotate close to mean plasma rotation speeds, and the fast kinetic modes rotate at about 10 ^5 rad/s. The fast mode rotation frequencies are in the range of the magnetic-precession frequencies of the deeply trapped ions. Also, the kinetic kink modes are found to be excitable in ITER-like ignited tokamak configurations owing to hot fusion products such as alphas. Also, a feasibility study of adaptive distributed parameter control of thermokinetics is demonstrated. Fast transport simulation and control are explored using a nonlinear Galerkin procedure, and a MIMO self-tuning control algorithm. It is found that only the density control can achieve reasonable power set-point follow-up, and that more popular control schemes such as auxiliary power control are not adequate to provide real-world power swings greater than 50-100 MW around the set point. The several computational modules developed for this thesis are as follows. The equilibrium calculations are
Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-beta NSTX Plasmas
J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team
2004-12-22
Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal {beta} discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-{beta} may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.
Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-{beta} NSTX Plasmas
J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team
2004-12-22
Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.
Pd surface and Pt subsurface segregation in Pt1-c Pd c nanoalloys.
De Clercq, A; Giorgio, S; Mottet, C
2016-02-17
The structure and chemical arrangement of Pt1-c Pd c nanoalloys with the icosahedral and face centered cubic symmetry are studied using Monte Carlo simulations with a tight binding interatomic potential fitted to density-functional theory calculations. Pd surface segregation from the lowest to the highest coordinated sites is predicted by the theory together with a Pt enrichment at the subsurface, whatever the structure and the size of the nanoparticles, and which subsists when increasing the temperature. The onion-shell chemical configuration is found for both symmetries and is initiated from the Pd surface segregation. It is amplified in the icosahedral symmetry and small sizes but when considering larger sizes, the oscillating segregation profile occurs near the surface on about three to four shells whatever the structure. Pd segregation results from the significant lower cohesive energy of Pd as compared to Pt and the weak ordering tendency leads to the Pt subsurface segregation. The very weak size mismatch does not prevent the bigger atoms (Pt) from occupying subsurface sites which are in compression whereas the smaller ones (Pd) occupy the central site of the icosahedra where the compression is an order of magnitude higher.
Pd surface and Pt subsurface segregation in Pt1-c Pd c nanoalloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Clercq, A.; Giorgio, S.; Mottet, C.
2016-02-01
The structure and chemical arrangement of Pt1-c Pd c nanoalloys with the icosahedral and face centered cubic symmetry are studied using Monte Carlo simulations with a tight binding interatomic potential fitted to density-functional theory calculations. Pd surface segregation from the lowest to the highest coordinated sites is predicted by the theory together with a Pt enrichment at the subsurface, whatever the structure and the size of the nanoparticles, and which subsists when increasing the temperature. The onion-shell chemical configuration is found for both symmetries and is initiated from the Pd surface segregation. It is amplified in the icosahedral symmetry and small sizes but when considering larger sizes, the oscillating segregation profile occurs near the surface on about three to four shells whatever the structure. Pd segregation results from the significant lower cohesive energy of Pd as compared to Pt and the weak ordering tendency leads to the Pt subsurface segregation. The very weak size mismatch does not prevent the bigger atoms (Pt) from occupying subsurface sites which are in compression whereas the smaller ones (Pd) occupy the central site of the icosahedra where the compression is an order of magnitude higher.
Fifty Shades of Stigma: Exploring the Health Care Experiences of Kink-Oriented Patients.
Waldura, Jessica F; Arora, Ishika; Randall, Anna M; Farala, John Paul; Sprott, Richard A
2016-12-01
The term kink describes sexual behaviors and identities encompassing bondage, discipline, domination and submission, and sadism and masochism (collectively known as BDSM) and sexual fetishism. Individuals who engage in kink could be at risk for health complications because of their sexual behaviors, and they could be vulnerable to stigma in the health care setting. However, although previous research has addressed experiences in mental health care, very little research has detailed the medical care experiences of kink-oriented patients. To broadly explore the health care experiences of kink-oriented patients using a community-engaged research approach. As part of the Kink Health Project, we gathered qualitative data from 115 kink-oriented San Francisco area residents using focus groups and interviews. Interview questions were generated in collaboration with a community advisory board. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Themes relating to kink-oriented patients' experience with health and healthcare. Major themes included (i) kink and physical health, (ii) sociocultural aspects of kink orientation, (iii) the role of stigma in shaping health care interactions, (iv) coming out to health care providers, and (v) working toward a vision of kink-aware medical care. The study found that kink-oriented patients have genuine health care needs relating to their kink behaviors and social context. Most patients would prefer to be out to their health care providers so they can receive individualized care. However, fewer than half were out to their current provider, with anticipated stigma being the most common reason for avoiding disclosure. Patients are often concerned that clinicians will confuse their behaviors with intimate partner violence and they emphasized the consensual nature of their kink interactions. Like other sexual minorities, kink-oriented patients have a desire to engage with their health care providers in meaningful discussions about
Interaction of sine-Gordon kinks and breathers with a parity-time-symmetric defect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Borisov, Denis I.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.
2014-11-01
The scattering of kinks and low-frequency breathers of the nonlinear sine-Gordon (SG) equation on a spatially localized parity-time-symmetric perturbation (defect) with a balanced gain and loss is investigated numerically. It is demonstrated that if a kink passes the defect, it always restores its initial momentum and energy, and the only effect of the interaction with the defect is a phase shift of the kink. A kink approaching the defect from the gain side always passes, while in the opposite case it must have sufficiently large initial momentum to pass through the defect instead of being trapped in the loss region. The kink phase shift and critical velocity are calculated by means of the collective variable method. Kink-kink (kink-antikink) collisions at the defect are also briefly considered, showing how their pairwise repulsive (respectively, attractive) interaction can modify the collisional outcome of a single kink within the pair with the defect. For the breather, the result of its interaction with the defect depends strongly on the breather parameters (velocity, frequency, and initial phase) and on the defect parameters. The breather can gain some energy from the defect and as a result potentially even split into a kink-antikink pair, or it can lose a part of its energy. Interestingly, the breather translational mode is very weakly affected by the dissipative perturbation, so that a breather penetrates more easily through the defect when it comes from the lossy side, than a kink. In all studied soliton-defect interactions, the energy loss to radiation of small-amplitude extended waves is negligible.
Plasticity of the RNA Kink Turn Structural Motif
Antonioli, A.; Cochrane, J; Lipchock, S; Strobel, S
2010-01-01
The kink turn (K-turn) is an RNA structural motif found in many biologically significant RNAs. While most examples of the K-turn have a similar fold, the crystal structure of the Azoarcus group I intron revealed a novel RNA conformation, a reverse kink turn bent in the direction opposite that of a consensus K-turn. The reverse K-turn is bent toward the major grooves rather than the minor grooves of the flanking helices, yet the sequence differs from the K-turn consensus by only a single nucleotide. Here we demonstrate that the reverse bend direction is not solely defined by internal sequence elements, but is instead affected by structural elements external to the K-turn. It bends toward the major groove under the direction of a tetraloop-tetraloop receptor. The ability of one sequence to form two distinct structures demonstrates the inherent plasticity of the K-turn sequence. Such plasticity suggests that the K-turn is not a primary element in RNA folding, but instead is shaped by other structural elements within the RNA or ribonucleoprotein assembly.
Coupled fermion-kink system in Jackiw-Rebbi model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amado, A.; Mohammadi, A.
2017-07-01
In this paper, we study Jackiw-Rebbi model, in which a massless fermion is coupled to the kink of λ φ ^4 theory through a Yukawa interaction. In the original Jackiw-Rebbi model, the soliton is prescribed. However, we are interested in the back-reaction of the fermion on the soliton besides the effect of the soliton on the fermion. Also, as a particular example, we consider a minimal supersymmetric kink model in (1+1) dimensions. In this case, the bosonic self-coupling, λ , and the Yukawa coupling between fermion and soliton, g, have a specific relation, g=√{λ /2}. As the set of coupled equations of motion of the system is not analytically solvable, we use a numerical method to solve it self-consistently. We obtain the bound energy spectrum, bound states of the system and the corresponding shape of the soliton using a relaxation method, except for the zero mode fermionic state and threshold energies which are analytically solvable. With the aid of these results, we are able to show how the soliton is affected in general and supersymmetric cases. The results we obtain are consistent with the ones in the literature, considering the soliton as background.
OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF THE CORONAL KINK INSTABILITY WITH THERMAL CONDUCTION
Botha, G. J. J.; Arber, T. D.; Srivastava, Abhishek K. E-mail: T.D.Arber@warwick.ac.uk
2012-01-20
It is known from numerical simulations that thermal conduction along magnetic field lines plays an important role in the evolution of the kink instability in coronal loops. This study presents the observational signatures of the kink instability in long coronal loops when parallel thermal conduction is included. The three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved numerically to simulate the evolution of a coronal loop that is initially in an unstable equilibrium. The loop has length 80 Mm, width 8 Mm, and an initial maximum twist of {Phi} = 11.5{pi}, where {Phi} is a function of the radius. The initial loop parameters are obtained from a highly twisted loop observed in the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) 171 A wave band. Synthetic observables are generated from the data. These observables include spatial and temporal averaging to account for the resolution and exposure times of TRACE images. Parallel thermal conduction reduces the maximum local temperature by up to an order of magnitude. This means that different spectral lines are formed and different internal loop structures are visible with or without the inclusion of thermal conduction. However, the response functions sample a broad range of temperatures. The result is that the inclusion of parallel thermal conductivity does not have as large an impact on observational signatures as the order of magnitude reduction in the maximum temperature would suggest; the net effect is a blurring of internal features of the loop structure.
Intercalation, DNA Kinking, and the Control of Transcription
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, Milton H.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Marius Clore, G.
1996-02-01
Biological processes involved in the control and regulation of transcription are dependent on protein-induced distortions in DNA structure that enhance the recruitment of proteins to their specific DNA targets. This function is often accomplished by accessory factors that bind sequence specifically and locally bend or kink the DNA. The recent determination of the three-dimensional structures of several protein-DNA complexes, involving proteins that perform such architectural tasks, brings to light a common theme of side chain intercalation as a mechanism capable of driving the deformation of the DNA helix. The protein scaffolds orienting the intercalating side chain (or side chains) are structurally diverse, presently comprising four distinct topologies that can accomplish the same task. The intercalating side chain (or side chains), however, is exclusively hydrophobic. Intercalation can either kink or bend the DNA, unstacking one or more adjacent base pairs and locally unwinding the DNA over as much as a full turn of helix. Despite these distortions, the return to B-DNA helical parameters generally occurs within the adjacent half-turns of DNA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deo, C. S.; Srolovitz, D. J.
2002-09-01
We describe a first passage time Markov chain analysis of rare events in kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations and demonstrate how this analysis may be used to enhance kMC simulations of dislocation glide. Dislocation glide is described by the kink mechanism, which involves double kink nucleation, kink migration and kink-kink annihilation. Double kinks that nucleate on straight dislocations are unstable at small kink separations and tend to recombine immediately following nucleation. A very small fraction (<0.001) of nucleating double kinks survive to grow to a stable kink separation. The present approach replaces all of the events that lead up to the formation of a stable kink with a simple numerical calculation of the time required for stable kink formation. In this paper, we treat the double kink nucleation process as a temporally homogeneous birth-death Markov process and present a first passage time analysis of the Markov process in order to calculate the nucleation rate of a double kink with a stable kink separation. We discuss two methods to calculate the first passage time; one computes the distribution and the average of the first passage time, while the other uses a recursive relation to calculate the average first passage time. The average first passage times calculated by both approaches are shown to be in excellent agreement with direct Monte Carlo simulations for four idealized cases of double kink nucleation. Finally, we apply this approach to double kink nucleation on a screw dislocation in molybdenum and obtain the rates for formation of stable double kinks as a function of applied stress and temperature. Equivalent kMC simulations are too inefficient to be performed using commonly available computational resources.
Kinked structures of isolated nicotinic receptor M2 helices: a molecular dynamics study.
Sankararamakrishnan, R; Samsom, M S
1994-12-01
The pore-lining M2 helix of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor exhibits a pronounced kink when the corresponding ion channel is in a closed conformation [N. Unwin (1993) Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 229, pp. 1101-1124]. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of isolated 22-residue M2 helices in order to identify a possible molecular origin of this kink. In order to sample a wide range of conformational space, a simulated annealing protocol was used to generate five initial M2 helix structures, each of which was subsequently used as the basis of 300 ps MD simulations. Two helix sequences (M2 alpha and M2 delta) were studied in this manner, resulting in a total of ten 300 ps trajectories. Kinked helices present in the trajectories were identified and energy minimized to yield a total of five different stable kinked structures. For comparison, a similar molecular dynamics simulation of a Leu23 helix yielded no stable kinked structures. In four of the five kinked helices, the kink was stabilized by H bonds between the helix backbone and polar side-chain atoms. Comparison with data from the literature on site-directed mutagenesis of M2 residues suggests that such polar side-chain to main-chain H bonds may also contribute to kinking of M2 helices in the intact channel protein.
Richter, Lee A; Boileau, Jenine; Janni, Megan; Tefera, Eshetu; Iglesia, Cheryl B
2016-01-01
To determine the rate of ureteral kinking during uterosacral ligament suspension (USLS) procedures at a tertiary referral center and to describe the effect of surgical training level on this occurrence. The secondary aim is to determine the mean additional anesthesia time associated with management of this complication. This retrospective cohort study included all USLS procedures at our tertiary referral center from June 2011 to December 2013. Cases of USLS with ureteral kinking were compared to uncomplicated cases to determine the impact of surgeon training level on this occurrence. A total of 161 USLS procedures were performed during the study period; 10 had ureteral kinking (6.2%). Level of surgeon training significantly impacted ureteral kinking, with higher rates of kinking occurring among surgeons in earlier training. The occurrence of ureteral kinking during USLS significantly increased the procedure. time by a mean of 86 minutes when the surgery included vaginal hysterectomy and anterior/ posterior colporrhaphy (266.5±34.6 min vs. 180.1 ±43.0 min, respectively; p=0.0078). Ureteral kinking occurred in 6.2% of USLS procedures at a tertiary referral center and is associated with a learning curve with statistically significant higher kinking rates among less experienced surgeons. Novel teaching methods should be considered to reduce the learning curve for this procedure.
Origin of kinks in the energy dispersion of strongly correlated matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuyama, Kazue; Perepelitsky, Edward; Shastry, B. Sriram
2017-04-01
We investigate the origin of ubiquitous low-energy kinks found in angle-resolved photoemission experiments in a variety of correlated matter. Such kinks are unexpected from weakly interacting electrons and hence identifying their origin should lead to fundamental insights in strongly correlated matter. We devise a protocol for extracting the kink momentum and energy from the experimental data which relies solely on the two asymptotic tangents of each dispersion curve, away from the feature itself. It is thereby insensitive to the different shapes of the kinks as seen in experiments. The body of available data are then analyzed using this method. We proceed to discuss two alternate theoretical explanations of the origin of the kinks. Some theoretical proposals invoke local bosonic excitations (Einstein phonons or other modes with spin or charge character), located exactly at the energy of observed kinks, leading to a momentum-independent self-energy of the electrons. A recent alternate is the theory of extremely correlated Fermi liquids (ECFL). This theory predicts kinks in the dispersion arising from a momentum-dependent self-energy of correlated electrons. We present the essential results from both classes of theories, and identify experimental features that can help distinguish between the two mechanisms. The ECFL theory is found to be consistent with currently available data on kinks in the nodal direction of cuprate superconductors, but conclusive tests require higher-resolution energy distribution curve data.
Proliferation of sharp kinks on cosmic (super)string loops with junctions
Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.
2010-10-15
Motivated by their effect on the gravitational wave signal emitted by cosmic strings, we study the dynamics of kinks on strings of different tensions meeting at junctions. The propagation of a kink through a Y junction leads to the formation of three 'daughter' kinks. Assuming a uniform distribution of the incoming wave vectors at the junction, we find there is a significant region of configuration space in which the sharpness of at least one of the daughter kinks is enhanced relative to the sharpness of the initial kink. For closed loops with junctions we show this leads to an exponential growth in time of very sharp kinks. Using numerical simulations of realistic, evolving cosmic string loops with junctions to calculate the distribution of kink amplitudes as a function of time, we show that loops of this kind typically develop several orders of magnitude of very sharp kinks before the two junctions collide. This collision, or other effects such as gravitational backreaction, may end the proliferation.
Nonlinear hybrid simulation of internal kink with beam ion effects in DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Wei; Fu, G. Y.; Tobias, Benjamin; Van Zeeland, Michael; Wang, Feng; Sheng, Zheng-Mao
2015-04-01
In DIII-D sawteething plasmas, long-lived (1,1) kink modes are often observed between sawtooth crashes. The saturated kink modes have two distinct frequencies. The mode with higher frequency transits to a fishbone-like mode with sufficient on-axis neutral beam power. In this work, hybrid simulations with the global kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K have been carried out to investigate the linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of the n = 1 mode with effects of energetic beam ions for a typical DIII-D discharge where both saturated kink mode and fishbone were observed. Linear simulation results show that the n = 1 internal kink mode is unstable in MHD limit. However, with kinetic effects of beam ions, a fishbone-like mode is excited with mode frequency about a few kHz depending on beam pressure profile. The mode frequency is higher at higher beam power and/or narrower radial profile consistent with the experimental observation. Nonlinear simulations have been performed to investigate mode saturation as well as energetic particle transport. The nonlinear MHD simulations show that the unstable kink mode becomes a saturated kink mode after a sawtooth crash. With beam ion effects, the fishbone-like mode can also transit to a saturated kink mode with a small but finite mode frequency. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of saturated kink mode between sawtooth crashes.
Nonlinear hybrid simulation of internal kink with beam ion effects in DIII-D
Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Fu, G. Y.; Tobias, Benjamin; Zeeland, Michael Van; Wang, Feng
2015-04-15
In DIII-D sawteething plasmas, long-lived (1,1) kink modes are often observed between sawtooth crashes. The saturated kink modes have two distinct frequencies. The mode with higher frequency transits to a fishbone-like mode with sufficient on-axis neutral beam power. In this work, hybrid simulations with the global kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K have been carried out to investigate the linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of the n = 1 mode with effects of energetic beam ions for a typical DIII-D discharge where both saturated kink mode and fishbone were observed. Linear simulation results show that the n = 1 internal kink mode is unstable in MHD limit. However, with kinetic effects of beam ions, a fishbone-like mode is excited with mode frequency about a few kHz depending on beam pressure profile. The mode frequency is higher at higher beam power and/or narrower radial profile consistent with the experimental observation. Nonlinear simulations have been performed to investigate mode saturation as well as energetic particle transport. The nonlinear MHD simulations show that the unstable kink mode becomes a saturated kink mode after a sawtooth crash. With beam ion effects, the fishbone-like mode can also transit to a saturated kink mode with a small but finite mode frequency. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of saturated kink mode between sawtooth crashes.
Exact control of parity-time symmetry in periodically modulated nonlinear optical couplers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Baiyuan; Luo, Xiaobing; Hu, QiangLin; Yu, XiaoGuang
2016-10-01
We propose a mechanism for the realization of exact control of parity-time (PT ) symmetry by using a periodically modulated nonlinear optical coupler with balanced gain and loss. It is shown that for certain appropriately chosen values of the modulation parameters, we can construct a family of exact analytical solutions for the two-mode equations describing the dynamics of such nonlinear couplers. These exact solutions give explicit examples that allow us to precisely manipulate the system from nonlinearity-induced symmetry breaking to PT symmetry, thus providing an analytical approach to all-optical signal control in nonlinear PT -symmetric structures.
Kinks and antikinks of buckled graphene: A testing ground for the φ4 field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaletdinov, R. D.; Slipko, V. A.; Pershin, Y. V.
2017-09-01
Kinks and antikinks of the classical φ4 field model are topological solutions connecting its two distinct ground states. Here we establish an analogy between the excitations of a long graphene nanoribbon buckled in the transverse direction and φ4 model results. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the dynamics of a buckled graphene nanoribbon with a single kink and with a kink-antikink pair. Several features of the φ4 model have been observed including the kink-antikink capture at low energies, kink-antikink reflection at high energies, and a bounce resonance. Our results pave the way towards the experimental observation of a rich variety of φ4 model predictions based on graphene.
Relativistic Pseudospin Symmetry
Ginocchio, Joseph N.
2011-05-06
We show that the pseudospin symmetry that Akito Arima discovered many years ago (with collaborators) is a symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of the scalar and vector potentials are a constant. In this paper we discuss some of the implications of this relativistic symmetry and the experimental data that support these predictions. In his original paper Akito also discussed pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We show that pseudo-U(3) symmetry is a symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of harmonic oscillator vector and scalar potentials are equal to a constant, and we give the generators of pseudo-U(3) symmetry. Going beyond the mean field we summarize new results on non relativistic shell model Hamiltonians that have pseudospin symmetry and pseudo-orbital angular momentum symmetry as a dynamical symmetries.
Nonlinear twist-kink instability of a coronal loop
Zaidman, E.G.; Tajima, T.
1989-03-01
Three-dimensional magnetoinductive particle simulations are used to demonstrate that the mechanical twisting motion applied to a magnetized plasma column induces a current aligned to the external magnetic field direction, pinches the plasma and magnetic fields, and stores the energy in poloidal magnetic fields. As the twist motion continues, the field lines locally begin to wrap around the plasma more than one revolution. A strong MHD instability sets in that is a mixture of kink and ballooning modes, releasing the magnetic energy and causing destruction of coherent column structure and flows of turbulent plasma. A similar episode ensues, exhibiting relaxation oscillations. The buildup of poloidal fields and structure and its sudden release driven by the twist motion may be a model for the solar coronal loop dynamics which exhibits a slow energy buildup with some photospheric motion and a sudden energy release by flares. 16 references.
Oscillon Resonances and Creation of Kinks in Particle Collisions
Romanczukiewicz, T.; Shnir, Ya.
2010-08-20
We present a numerical study of the process of production of kink-antikink pairs in the collision of particlelike states in the one-dimensional {phi}{sup 4} model. It is shown that there are 3 steps in the process: The first step is to excite the oscillon intermediate state in the particle collision, the second step is a resonance excitation of the oscillon by the incoming perturbations, and, finally, the soliton-antisoliton pair can be created from the resonantly excited oscillon. It is shown that the process depends fractally on the amplitude of the perturbations and the number of perturbations. We also present the effective collective coordinate model for this process.
Soliton and kink jams in traffic flow with open boundaries.
Muramatsu, M; Nagatani, T
1999-07-01
Soliton density wave is investigated numerically and analytically in the optimal velocity model (a car-following model) of a one-dimensional traffic flow with open boundaries. Soliton density wave is distinguished from the kink density wave. It is shown that the soliton density wave appears only at the threshold of occurrence of traffic jams. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived from the optimal velocity model by the use of the nonlinear analysis. It is found that the traffic soliton appears only near the neutral stability line. The soliton solution is analytically obtained from the perturbed KdV equation. It is shown that the soliton solution obtained from the nonlinear analysis is consistent with that of the numerical simulation.
Double-kink Fishbone Instability Caused by Circulating Energetic Ions
Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.V. Lutsenko; V.S. Marchenko; R.B. White
2004-01-12
The destabilization of double kink modes by the circulating energetic ions in tokamaks with the plasma current having an off-axis maximum is studied. It is shown that the high-frequency fishbone instability [Energetic Particle Mode (EPM)] and the low-frequency (diamagnetic) fishbones are possible for such an equilibrium, their poloidal and toroidal mode numbers being not necessarily equal to unity. A new kind of the EPM instability, ''doublet fishbones,'' is predicted. This instability is characterized by two frequencies; it can occur in a plasma with a non-monotonic radial profile of the energetic ions when the particle orbit width is less than the width of the region where the mode is localized. It is found that the diamagnetic fishbone branch exists even when the orbit width exceeds the mode width; in this case, however, the instability growth rate is relatively small.
Destabilization of internal kink by LHCD suprathermal electron pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sugiyama, L.; Parker, R.; Granetz, R.; Baek, S.; Mumgaard, R.; Faust, I.; Scott, S.; Gorelenkov, N.; Bertelli, N.; Gao, C.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Irby, J.; Marmar, E.; Phillips, P.; Rice, J.; Wallace, G.; Wilson, R.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.
2013-10-01
New observations of the formation of short-lived modes have recently been carried out on Alcator C-Mod. A (1,1) internal kink appears to be destabilized by the fast-electron pressure carried by the suprathermal electrons driven by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). Surprisingly, the (1,1) fishbone-like activity can coexist with sawteeth, suggesting that the two modes have independent driving mechanisms. The frequency of the mode is comparable to the core toroidal rotation and that of the precursors. The electron energies responsible for driving the mode have been measured for the first time using the downshift of electron gyrofrequency due to relativistic effects. This is a new explanation for the so-called electron-fishbones. This work was performed under US DoE contracts DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG03-96ER-54373.
DNA translocation through an array of kinked nanopores
Chen, Zhu; Jiang, Yingbing; Dunphy, Darren R.; Adams, David P.; Hodges, Carter; Liu, Nanguo; Zhang, Nan; Xomeritakis, George; Jin, Xiaozhong; Aluru, N.R.; Gaik, Steven J.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey
2010-08-06
Synthetic solid-state nanopores are being intensively investigated as single-molecule sensors for detection and characterization of DNA, RNA and proteins. This field has been inspired by the exquisite selectivity and flux demonstrated by natural biological channels and the dream of emulating these behaviours in more robust synthetic materials that are more readily integrated into practical devices. So far, the guided etching of polymer films, focused ion-beam sculpting, and electron-beam lithography and tuning of silicon nitride membranes have emerged as three promising approaches to define synthetic solid-state pores with sub-nanometre resolution. These procedures have in common the formation of nominally cylindrical or conical pores aligned normal to the membrane surface. Here we report the formation of 'kinked' silica nanopores, using evaporation-induced self-assembly, and their further tuning and chemical derivatization using atomic-layer deposition. Compared with 'straight through' proteinaceous nanopores of comparable dimensions, kinked nanopores exhibit up to fivefold reduction in translocation velocity, which has been identified as one of the critical issues in DNA sequencing. Additionally, we demonstrate an efficient two-step approach to create a nanopore array exhibiting nearly perfect selectivity for ssDNA over dsDNA. We show that a coarse-grained drift-diffusion theory with a sawtooth-like potential can reasonably describe the velocity and translocation time of DNA through the pore. By control of pore size, length and shape, we capture the main functional behaviours of protein pores in our solid-state nanopore system.
Polycyclic Benzenoids: Why Kinked is More Stable than Straight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poater, Jordi; Visser, Ruud; Solà, Miquel; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias
2007-02-01
The enhanced stability of bent or kinked polycyclic benzenoids over linear ones is well established, phenanthrene and anthracene being archetypal representatives. The question why kinked is more stable than linear is, however, still a matter of discussion. Recently, it has been proposed that H-H bonding interactions between the two hydrogen atoms in the bay region of phenanthrene are responsible for the larger stability of this molecule as compared to anthracene. This conclusion conflicts with the vast body of evidence for nonbonded steric repulsion between these hydrogen atoms. In this work, we provide new, complementary evidence for the repulsive character of the H-H interactions in phenanthrene's bay region. We have traced the origin of phenanthrene's enhanced stability to the more efficient bonding in the π-electron system using, among others, a quantitative energy decomposition analysis of the bonding between the two constituting 2-methtriyl-phenyl fragments in both phenanthrene and anthracene (i.e., C14H10 = C6H4*-CH** + C6H4*-CH**). The scope of our study is extended to polycyclic benzenoids by analyzing also hexacene and various bent isomers of the latter. Our results once more falsify one of the core concepts of the theory of atoms-in-molecules (AIM), namely, that the presence of bond paths and the presence of bond critical points (they exist indeed between the two bay H atoms in phenanthrene) are sufficient indicators for a stabilizing interaction. Instead, our results confirm that these AIM parameters merely diagnose the proximity or contact between charge distributions, be this contact stabilizing or destabilizing.
Searching for Radial Symmetry.
Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A
2017-01-01
Symmetry is ubiquitous in the natural world. Numerous investigations, dating back over one hundred years, have explored the visual processing of symmetry. However, these studies have been concerned with mirror symmetry, overlooking radial (or rotational) symmetry, which is also prevalent in nature. Using a visual search paradigm, which approximates the everyday task of searching for an object embedded in background clutter, we have measured how quickly and how accurately human observers detect radially symmetric dot patterns. Performance was compared with mirror symmetry. We found that with orders of radial symmetry greater than 5, radial symmetry can be detected more easily than mirror symmetry, revealing for the first time that radial symmetry is a salient property of objects for human vision.
Kingdom, Frederick A. A.
2017-01-01
Symmetry is ubiquitous in the natural world. Numerous investigations, dating back over one hundred years, have explored the visual processing of symmetry. However, these studies have been concerned with mirror symmetry, overlooking radial (or rotational) symmetry, which is also prevalent in nature. Using a visual search paradigm, which approximates the everyday task of searching for an object embedded in background clutter, we have measured how quickly and how accurately human observers detect radially symmetric dot patterns. Performance was compared with mirror symmetry. We found that with orders of radial symmetry greater than 5, radial symmetry can be detected more easily than mirror symmetry, revealing for the first time that radial symmetry is a salient property of objects for human vision. PMID:28855979
Light propagation through a PT-symmetric photonic-crystal.
Konotop, Vladimir V; Mantsyzov, Boris I
2016-11-14
Light propagation through a finite-width periodically modulated layer obeying parity-time (PT) symmetry is considered. We consider the configuration when the resonant conditions of mode coupling by the grating are satisfied. It is shown that the dependence of the transmission and reflection coefficients on the slab width has resonant character featuring strong amplification of reflected and transmitted waves with negative angles. The dependence of the scattering data on the gain-and-loss intensity also feature strong resonances near the PT-symmetry breaking point, when the slab strongly amplifies waves reflected and transmitted with negative angles, provided the incident wave has a positive angle of incidence.
Super Bloch oscillation in a PT symmetric system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turker, Z.; Yuce, C.
2016-07-01
Wannier-Stark ladder in a PT symmetric system is generally complex that leads to amplified/damped Bloch oscillation. We show that a non-amplified wave packet oscillation with very large amplitude can be realized in a non-Hermitian tight binding lattice if certain conditions are satisfied. We show that pseudo PT symmetry guarantees the reality of the quasi energy spectrum in our system.
Unidirectional Invisibility Induced by PT-Symmetric Periodic Structures
Lin Zin; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Kottos, Tsampikos; Eichelkraut, Toni; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Cao Hui
2011-05-27
Parity-time (PT) symmetric periodic structures, near the spontaneous PT-symmetry breaking point, can act as unidirectional invisible media. In this regime, the reflection from one end is diminished while it is enhanced from the other. Furthermore, the transmission coefficient and phase are indistinguishable from those expected in the absence of a grating. The phenomenon is robust even in the presence of Kerr nonlinearities, and it can also effectively suppress optical bistabilities.
Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures.
Lin, Zin; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Eichelkraut, Toni; Kottos, Tsampikos; Cao, Hui; Christodoulides, Demetrios N
2011-05-27
Parity-time (PT) symmetric periodic structures, near the spontaneous PT-symmetry breaking point, can act as unidirectional invisible media. In this regime, the reflection from one end is diminished while it is enhanced from the other. Furthermore, the transmission coefficient and phase are indistinguishable from those expected in the absence of a grating. The phenomenon is robust even in the presence of Kerr nonlinearities, and it can also effectively suppress optical bistabilities. © 2011 American Physical Society
A New Landscape of Multiple Dispersion Kinks in a High-T c Cuprate Superconductor.
Anzai, H; Arita, M; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Ishikado, M; Fujita, K; Ishida, S; Uchida, S; Ino, A
2017-07-06
Conventional superconductivity is caused by electron-phonon coupling. The discovery of high-temperature superconductors raised the question of whether such strong electron-phonon coupling is realized in cuprates. Strong coupling with some collective excitation mode has been indicated by a dispersion "kink". However, there is intensive debate regarding whether the relevant coupling mode is a magnetic resonance mode or an oxygen buckling phonon mode. This ambiguity is a consequence of the energy of the main prominent kink. Here, we show a new landscape of dispersion kinks. We report that heavily overdoping a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconductor results in a decline of the conventional main kink and a rise of another sharp kink, along with substantial energy shifts of both. Notably, the latter kink can be ascribed only to an oxygen-breathing phonon. Hence, the multiple phonon branches provide a consistent account of our data set on the multiple kinks. Our results suggest that strong electron-phonon coupling and its dramatic change should be incorporated into or reconciled with scenarios for the evolution of high-T c superconductivity.
PT-symmetric quantum electrodynamics and unitarity.
Milton, Kimball A; Abalo, E K; Parashar, Prachi; Pourtolami, Nima; Wagner, J
2013-04-28
More than 15 years ago, a new approach to quantum mechanics was suggested, in which Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian was to be replaced by invariance under a discrete symmetry, the product of parity and time-reversal symmetry, PT. It was shown that, if PT is unbroken, energies were, in fact, positive, and unitarity was satisfied. Since quantum mechanics is quantum field theory in one dimension--time--it was natural to extend this idea to higher-dimensional field theory, and in fact an apparently viable version of PT-invariant quantum electrodynamics (QED) was proposed. However, it has proved difficult to establish that the unitarity of the scattering matrix, for example, the Källén spectral representation for the photon propagator, can be maintained in this theory. This has led to questions of whether, in fact, even quantum mechanical systems are consistent with probability conservation when Green's functions are examined, since the latter have to possess physical requirements of analyticity. The status of PT QED will be reviewed in this paper, as well as the general issue of unitarity.
Kinking in polymer composites and wood, and, Crack growth in mismatched welds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moran, Peter Malcolm
This thesis is written in two parts; the first deals with compressive kinking in uniaxial carbon fiber PEEK composites and wood, and the second concerns ductile/brittle fracture in mismatched welds. The parts are dealt with separately below. Kinking. This is the first time that kink band formation and propagation has been video taped. The pictures reveal that kinking in ductile matrix fiber composites occurs in three distinct stages; incipient kinking, transient kinking and steady-state band broadening. Based on these observations a new kinematic model for kinking is proposed. Unlike previous models the present model is able to explain how angled kink bands are formed without violating compatibility or volume preserving constraints. Theoretical predictions for kink band orientation and compression strength under steady-state band broadening are made. Further experiments were conducted that verified the predictions. The steady-state band broadening stress is a very useful design parameter. It is a material parameter and forms a lower bound to the peak stress. Therefore it may be used in the same way as plastic limit loads are used for metals. It is also useful in determining the damage tolerance of a specimen. Mismatched welds. In the ductile/brittle transition regime, the fracture resistance of steel weldments is controlled by the competition between ductile tearing and cleavage fracture. Under typical conditions, a crack in a weld initiates and grows by ductile tearing but, ultimately, failure occurs by catastrophic cleavage fracture. In this study ductile tearing is modeled using Gurson cell elements embedded in an elastic-plastic body. Cleavage fracture is based on a weakest link mechanism in conjunction with brittle microcrack statistics. This model is applied to compute the behavior of undermatched and overmatched welds. The fracture resistance and onset of cleavage fracture are calculated for different crack lengths, specimen geometries and weld widths.
The Current Driven Kink Instability and its Relationship to Delta-Spot Active Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linton, Mark George
The current driven kink instability may be the cause of both the unusual morphology of solar δ-spot active regions and the tendency of these regions to be significantly more flare active than most active regions. We investigate the current driven kink instability of flux tubes in the solar interior both with a linear stability analysis and with nonlinear MHD simulations. The linear analysis shows that there is a critical twist, which depends on the axial magnetic field profile, that a flux tube needs to become kink unstable. This critical twist decreases as the tube expands, so twisted flux tubes will become increasingly unstable as they rise through the convection zone. The nonlinear simulations show that a twisted tube excited by a single unstable kink mode will evolve to a helical equilibrium state. The emergence through the photosphere of such a kinked tube would create an active region which was tilted with respect to Hale's law and which would rotate as it evolved, as δ-spots are observed to do. We then find that, when excited by multiple unstable kink modes, highly twisted flux tubes develop concentrated kinks. These concentrated kinks would produce more of the observed characteristics of δ-spot active regions. They would create active regions which, in addition to emerging tilted and then rotating, would remain compact as they evolved, and develop strong shear along their magnetic neutral line. Finally, we find that a strong concentrated kink develops a current sheet at which the magnetic field reconnects, which may be the cause of the high flare activity of δ-spots.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena
2010-01-01
Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena
2003-12-01
Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.
CP as a Symmetry of Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trautner, Andreas
2017-07-01
It is explained that the Standard Model combined charge conjugation and parity transformation (CP) is a simultaneous complex conjugation outer automorphism transformation of gauge and space-time symmetries. Simple examples are given for the general concept of outer automorphisms (“symmetries of symmetries”), as well as for their possible actions on physical theories. It is highlighted that complex conjugation outer automorphisms do not, in general, exist for all symmetries. Examples are given for cases in which the physical CP transformation is violated as a consequence of requiring another symmetry. A toy model is illustrated in which CP is spontaneously violated in the broken phase of a continuous gauge symmetry, while an unbroken outer automorphism protects the topological vacuum angle at θ = 0.
Kink topology control by high-frequency external forces in nonlinear Klein-Gordon models.
Alvarez-Nodarse, R; Quintero, N R; Mertens, F G
2014-10-01
A method of averaging is applied to study the dynamics of a kink in the damped double sine-Gordon equation driven by both external (nonparametric) and parametric periodic forces at high frequencies. This theoretical approach leads to the study of a double sine-Gordon equation with an effective potential and an effective additive force. Direct numerical simulations show how the appearance of two connected π kinks and of an individual π kink can be controlled via the frequency. An anomalous negative mobility phenomenon is also predicted by theory and confirmed by simulations of the original equation.
The Theory of the Kink Mode during the Vertical Disruption Events in Tokamaks
Leonid E. Zakharov
2008-01-14
This paper explains the locked m/n = 1/1 kink mode during the vertical disruption event when the plasma has an electrical contact with the plasma facing conducting surfaces. It is shown that the kink perturbation can be in equilibrium state even with a stable safety factor q > 1, if the halo currents, excited by the kink mode, can flow through the conducting structure. This suggests a new explanation of the so-called sideway forces on the tokamak in-vessel components during the disruption event. __________________________________________________
Head butting sheep: kink collisions in the presence of false vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashcroft, Jennifer; Eto, Minoru; Haberichter, Mareike; Nitta, Muneto; Paranjape, M. B.
2016-09-01
We investigate numerically kink collisions in a 1 + 1 dimensional scalar field theory with multiple vacua. The domain wall model we are interested in involves two scalar fields and a potential term built from an asymmetric double well and (double) sine-Gordon potential together with an interaction term. Depending on the initial kink setup and impact velocities, the model allows for a wide range of scattering behaviours. Kinks can repel each other, annihilate, form true or false domain walls and reflect off each other.
Stationary spherically symmetric one-kink model in Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiran, M.; Reddy, D. R. K.; Rao, V. U. M.; Bhaskara Rao, M. P. V. V.
2015-03-01
In this paper we consider stationary Spherically symmetric kink space-time in the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986) in the presence of perfect fluid distribution. It is shown that spherically symmetric kink space-time does not accommodate perfect fluid distribution in this theory. Hence a vacuum model is obtained which is asymptotically flat. This model corresponds to a one kink metric in this theory. This can be considered as an analogue of usual spherically symmetric Schwarzschild case in this theory.
Evidence for Triclinic Symmetry in Smectic Liquid Crystals of Bent-Shape Molecules
Jakli, A.; Kruerke, D.; Sawade, H.; Heppke, G.
2001-06-18
The first experimental evidence for triclinic symmetry of bulk smectic liquid-crystal samples of achiral banana-shaped molecules is presented. This phase corresponds to the so-called Sm-C{sub G} phase consisting of biaxial molecules and characterized by two tilt directions with respect to the layer normal: tilt of the molecular plane (clinic) and tilt of the molecular kink direction (leaning). Each smectic layer has a polarization component normal to the smectic layers (C{sub 1} symmetry). The observations suggest that the phase tentatively labeled as B{sub 7} is identical with the Sm-C{sub G} phase.
Rasin, A.
1994-04-01
We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.
Neutrinos and flavor symmetries
Tanimoto, Morimitsu
2015-07-15
We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.
Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo
2013-01-01
Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…
Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo
2013-01-01
Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)
Bound states of PT-symmetric separable potentials
Bender, Carl M.; Jones, Hugh F.
2011-09-15
All of the PT-symmetric potentials that have been studied so far have been local. In this paper, nonlocal PT-symmetric separable potentials of the form V(x,y)=i{epsilon}[U(x)U(y)-U(-x)U(-y)], where U(x) is real, are examined. Two specific models are examined. In each case, it is shown that there is a parametric region of the coupling strength {epsilon} for which the PT symmetry of the Hamiltonian is unbroken and the bound-state energies are real. The critical values of {epsilon} that bound this region are calculated.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharitonov, Maxim
2012-02-01
Recent experiments [1-4] provided compelling evidence for the correlated electron behavior in undoped bilayer graphene at both zero and finite magnetic field. The key question concerns the nature of the broken-symmetry phases realized experimentally. I will present the phase diagram for the zero-density state in the quantum Hall regime (ν=0 state) obtained within the framerwork of quantum Hall ferromagnetism. Comparing these results with the experimental data of Refs. [1,4], I will argue that the ν=0 insulating state realized in bilayer graphene is the canted antiferromagnetic phase. I will also show that the (canted) antiferromagnetic phase can persist at all magnetic fields down to zero and argue that this is the most likely scenario for the insulating state observed in Ref. [4]. [4pt] [1] R. T. Weitz et al., Science 330, 812 (2010). [0pt] [2] F. Freitag et al., arXiv:1104.3816 (2011). [0pt] [3] A. S. Mayorov, et al., Science 333, 860 (2011). [0pt] [4] J. Velasco Jr. et al., arXiv:1108.1609 (2011). [0pt] [5] M. Kharitonov, arXiv:1103.6285, arXiv:1105.5386, arxiv:1109.1553 (2011).
A phenomenological model on the kink mode threshold varying with the inclination of sheath boundary
Sun, X.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Liu, M.
2013-11-15
In nature and many laboratory plasmas, a magnetic flux tube threaded by current or a flux rope has a footpoint at a boundary. The current driven kink mode is one of the fundamental ideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in plasmas. It has an instability threshold that has been found to strongly depend on boundary conditions (BCs). We provide a theoretical model to explain the transition of this threshold dependence between nonline tied and line tied boundary conditions. We evaluate model parameters using experimentally measured plasma data, explicitly verify several kink eigenfunctions, and validate the model predictions for boundary conditions BCs that span the range between NLT and LT BCs. Based on this model, one could estimate the kink threshold given knowledge of the displacement of a flux rope end, or conversely estimate flux rope end motion based on knowledge of it kink stability threshold.
Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon
2013-04-10
We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.
Twinning-induced kinking of Sb-doped ZnO nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Su; Zhang, Xiaozhong; Zhang, Lihuan; Gao, Min
2010-10-01
Sb-doped ZnO nanowires with kinking structures have been synthesized by a catalyst-free thermal evaporation method with the addition of Sb2O3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the kinks of the nanowires are induced by twinning structures. \\{01\\bar {1}1\\} , \\{01\\bar {1}3\\} twins and heavy stacking faults in the (0001) plane were observed in these kinked nanowires. High-resolution TEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed that there exists an Sb-rich segregation layer in the twin boundaries of some nanowires. A formation mechanism of the kinked nanowires was proposed. The optical property of the synthesized nanowires was investigated by room-temperature photoluminescence.
Twinning-induced kinking of Sb-doped ZnO nanowires.
Li, Su; Zhang, Xiaozhong; Zhang, Lihuan; Gao, Min
2010-10-29
Sb-doped ZnO nanowires with kinking structures have been synthesized by a catalyst-free thermal evaporation method with the addition of Sb(2)O(3). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the kinks of the nanowires are induced by twinning structures. [0111], [0113] twins and heavy stacking faults in the (0001) plane were observed in these kinked nanowires. High-resolution TEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed that there exists an Sb-rich segregation layer in the twin boundaries of some nanowires. A formation mechanism of the kinked nanowires was proposed. The optical property of the synthesized nanowires was investigated by room-temperature photoluminescence.
Feedback suppression of rotating external kink instabilities in the presence of noise
Hanson, Jeremy M.; De Bono, Bryan; James, Royce W.; Levesque, Jeffrey P.; Mauel, Michael E.; Maurer, David A.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Shiraki, Daisuke
2008-08-15
The authors report on the first experimental demonstration of active feedback suppression of rotating external kink modes near the ideal wall limit in a tokamak using Kalman filtering to discriminate the n=1 kink mode from background noise. The Kalman filter contains an internal model that captures the dynamics of a rotating, growing n=1 mode. Suppression of the external kink mode is demonstrated over a broad range of phase angles between the sensed mode and applied control field, and performance is robust at noise levels that render proportional gain feedback ineffective. Suppression of the kink mode is accomplished without excitation of higher frequencies as was observed in previous experiments using lead-lag loop compensation [A. J. Klein et al., Phys Plasmas 12, 040703 (2005)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chheda, T. D.; Nevitt, J. M.; Pollard, D. D.
2014-12-01
The formation of monoclinal right-lateral kink bands in Lake Edison granodiorite (central Sierra Nevada, CA) is investigated through field observations and mechanics based numerical modeling. Vertical faults act as weak surfaces within the granodiorite, and vertical granodiorite slabs bounded by closely-spaced faults curve into a kink. Leucocratic dikes are observed in association with kinking. Measurements were made on maps of Hilgard, Waterfall, Trail Fork, Kip Camp (Pollard and Segall, 1983b) and Bear Creek kink bands (Martel, 1998). Outcrop scale geometric parameters such as fault length andspacing, kink angle, and dike width are used to construct a representative geometry to be used in a finite element model. Three orders of fault were classified, length = 1.8, 7.2 and 28.8 m, and spacing = 0.3, 1.2 and 3.6 m, respectively. The model faults are oriented at 25° to the direction of shortening (horizontal most compressive stress), consistent with measurements of wing crack orientations in the field area. The model also includes a vertical leucocratic dike, oriented perpendicular to the faults and with material properties consistent with aplite. Curvature of the deformed faults across the kink band was used to compare the effects of material properties, strain, and fault and dike geometry. Model results indicate that the presence of the dike, which provides a mechanical heterogeneity, is critical to kinking in these rocks. Keeping properties of the model granodiorite constant, curvature increased with decrease in yield strength and Young's modulus of the dike. Curvature increased significantly as yield strength decreased from 95 to 90 MPa, and below this threshold value, limb rotation for the kink band was restricted to the dike. Changing Poisson's ratio had no significant effect. The addition of small faults between bounding faults, decreasing fault spacing or increasing dike width increases the curvature. Increasing friction along the faults decreases slip, so
External kink modes as a model for MHD activity associated with ELMs
Manickam, J.
1992-01-01
Tokamak plasmas in the high confinement mode of operation are known to exhibit edge localized activity referred to as ELMs. A model is proposed for the underlying cause in terms of the external kink mode. The build up of the current density near the plasma edge is shown to decrease the shear in the safety-factor, q, profile and lead to destabilization of the kink mode. The role of the plasma geometry and equilibrium profiles is discussed.
Current Driven Rotating Kink Mode in a Plasma Column with Non-Line-Tied Free End
Furno, I; Intrator, T P; Ryutov, D D; Abbate, S; Madziwa-Nussinov, T; Light, A; Dorf, L; Lapenta, G
2006-03-28
First experimental measurements are presented for the kink instability in a linear plasma column which is insulated from an axial boundary by finite sheath resistivity. Instability threshold below the classical Kruskal-Shafranov threshold, axially asymmetric mode structure and rotation are observed. These are accurately reproduced by a recent kink theory, which includes axial plasma flow and one end of the plasma column that is free to move due to a non-line-tied boundary condition.
2D Langmuir Maps of Kinked UW-RWM Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hannum, David; Brookhart, Matt; Forest, Cary; Kendrick, Roch; Mengin, Gabriel; Paz-Soldan, Carlos
2009-11-01
The rotating wall machine is a linear screw-pinch built to study the role of different wall boundary conditions on the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM). Its plasma is created by a hexagonal array of seven electrostatic guns. The guns can be biased to discharge up to 1 kA of current each, firing independently or in tandem. The 20 cm diameter, 1.2 m long plasma column is held in place by a 500 G (max) axial guide field. A singletip Langmuir probe inserted from the opposite end of the chamber yields measurements of Te, ne and Vp in r and z. Though it is tied to the guns at the cathode end, the plasma column is free to slip over the anode end. At higher plasma currents, the kinking column oscillates past the probe tip. Ensemble averaging of the I-V curves is required to derive reliable Langmuir measurements for these plasmas. I will present 2D Langmuir profiles in configurations scanning the plasma current Ip, guide field Bz, and number of plasma sources (one gun / seven guns).
Simulations of AGN jets: magnetic kink instability versus conical shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Giannios, Dimitrios
2017-08-01
Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) convert as much as half of their energy into radiation. To explore the poorly understood processes that are responsible for this conversion, we carry out fully 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic magnetized jets. Unlike the standard approach of injecting the jets at large radii, our simulated jets self-consistently form at the source and propagate and accelerate outwards for several orders of magnitude in distance before they interact with the ambient medium. We find that this interaction can trigger strong energy dissipation of two kinds inside the jets, depending on the properties of the ambient medium. Those jets that form in a new outburst and drill a fresh hole through the ambient medium fall victim to a 3D magnetic kink instability and dissipate their energy primarily through magnetic reconnection in the current sheets formed by the instability. On the other hand, those jets that form during repeated cycles of AGN activity and escape through a pre-existing hole in the ambient medium maintain their stability and dissipate their energy primarily at MHD recollimation shocks. In both cases, the dissipation region can be associated with a change in the density profile of the ambient gas. The Bondi radius in AGN jets serves as such a location.
Modelling the kinked jet of the Crab nebula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignone, A.; Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Ferrari, A.
2013-12-01
We investigate the dynamical propagation of the South-East jet from the Crab pulsar interacting with supernova ejecta by means of three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with the PLUTO code. The initial jet structure is set up from the inner regions of the Crab nebula. We study the evolution of hot, relativistic hollow outflows initially carrying a purely azimuthal magnetic field. Our jet models are characterized by different choices of the outflow magnetization (σ parameter) and the bulk Lorentz factor (γj). We show that the jet is heavily affected by the growth of current-driven kink instabilities causing considerable deflection throughout its propagation length. This behaviour is partially stabilized by the combined action of larger flow velocities and/or reduced magnetic field strengths. We find that our best jet models are characterized by relatively large values of σ (≳1) and small values of γj ≃ 2. Our results are in good agreement with the recent X-ray (Chandra) data of the Crab nebula South-East jet indicating that the jet changes direction of propagation on a time-scale of the order of few years. The 3D models presented here may have important implications in the investigation of particle acceleration in relativistic outflows.
Helical Kink Instability in a Confined Solar Eruption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanin, Alshaimaa; Kliem, Bernhard
2016-12-01
A model for strongly writhing confined solar eruptions suggests an origin in the helical kink instability of a coronal flux rope that remains stable against the torus instability. This model is tested against the well observed filament eruption on 2002 May 27 in a parametric MHD simulation study that comprises all phases of the event. Good agreement with the essential observed properties is obtained. These include the confinement, terminal height, writhing, distortion, and dissolution of the filament, and the flare loops. The agreement is robust against variations in a representative range of parameter space. Careful comparisons with the observation data constrain the ratio of the external toroidal and poloidal field components to {B}{et}/{B}{ep}≈ 1 and the initial flux rope twist to {{Φ }}≈ 4π . Different from ejective eruptions, two distinct phases of strong magnetic reconnection can occur. First, the erupting flux is cut by reconnection with overlying flux in the helical current sheet formed by the instability. If the resulting flux bundles are linked as a consequence of the erupting rope’s strong writhing, they subsequently reconnect in the vertical current sheet between them. This reforms the overlying flux and a far less twisted flux rope, offering a pathway to homologous eruptions.
Numerically Modeling Pulsed-Current, Kinked Wire Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filbey, Gordon; Kingman, Pat
1999-06-01
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has embarked on a program to provide far-term land fighting vehicles with electromagnetic armor protection. Part of this work seeks to establish robust simulations of magneto-solid-mechanics phenomena. Whether describing violent rupture of a fuse link resulting from a large current pulse or the complete disruption of a copper shaped-charge jet subjected to high current densities, the simulations must include effects of intense Lorentz body forces and rapid Ohmic heating. Material models are required that describe plasticity, flow and fracture, conductivity, and equation of state (EOS) parameters for media in solid, liquid, and vapor phases. An extended version of the Eulerian wave code CTH has been used to predict the apex motion of a V-shaped (``kinked'') copper wire 3mm in diameter during a 400 kilo-amp pulse. These predictions, utilizing available material, EOS, and conductivity data for copper and the known characteristics of an existing capacitor-bank pulsed power supply, were then used to configure an experiment. The experiments were in excellent agreement with the prior simulations. Both computational and experimental results (including electrical data and flash X-rays) will be presented.
Kink stability of isothermal spherical self-similar flow revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Yumei
2006-11-01
The problem of kink stability of isothermal spherical self-similar flow in newtonian gravity is revisited. Using distribution theory we first develop a general formula of perturbations, linear or non-linear, which consists of three sets of differential equations, one in each side of the sonic line and the other along it. By solving the equations along the sonic line we find explicitly the spectrum, k, of the perturbations, whereby we obtain the stability criterion for the self-similar solutions. When the solutions are smoothly across the sonic line, our results reduce to those of Ori and Piran. To show such obtained perturbations can be matched to the ones in the regions outside the sonic line, we study the linear perturbations in the external region of the sonic line (the ones in the internal region are identically zero), by taking the solutions obtained along the line as the boundary conditions. After properly imposing other boundary conditions at spatial infinity, we are able to show that linear perturbations, satisfying all the boundary conditions, exist and do not impose any additional conditions on k. As a result, the complete treatment of perturbations in the whole spacetime does not alter the spectrum obtained by considering the perturbations only along the sonic line.
Excitation of external kink mode by trapped energetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, S. C.; Xu, X. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, Z. R.
2016-05-01
An unstable fishbone-like non-resonant external kink mode (FLEM) is numerically found to be driven by the precessional drift motion of trapped energetic particles (EPs) in both reversed-field pinch (RFP) and tokamak plasmas, even under the ideal wall boundary condition. In the presence of a sufficiently large fraction of trapped energetic ions in high beta plasmas, the FLEM instability may occur. The excitation condition is discussed in detail. The frequency of the FLEM is linked to the precessional drift frequency of EPs, and varies with the plasma flow speed. Therefore, it is usually much higher than that of the typical resistive wall mode (RWM). In general, the growth rate of FLEM does not depend on the wall resistivity. However, the wall position can significantly affect the mode’s property. The drift kinetic effects from thermal particles (mainly due to the transit resonance of passing particles) play a stabilizing role on FLEMs. In the presence of EPs, the FLEM and the RWM can co-exist or even couple to each other, depending on the plasma parameters. The FLEM instabilities in RFP and tokamaks have rather similar physics nature, although certain sub-dominant characters appear differently in the two configurations.
Kinetic stability of the internal kink mode in ITER
Hu Bo; Betti, R.; Manickam, J.
2006-11-15
The kinetic stability of the n=1, m=1 internal kink mode is analyzed for realistic equilibria typical of the standard operation scenario of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) [ITER Physics Basis Editors, Nucl. Fusion 39, 2137 (1999)]. The kinetic effects modify the inertia and the perturbed potential energy {delta}W of the mode, the two key elements determining the mode stability. Numerical results are obtained for ITER-like equilibria with different q profiles. For moderate magnetic shear within the q=1 surface, the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) branch is fully suppressed by the kinetic effects for the expected profiles and parameters up to twice the expected plasma {beta} while the high frequency fishbone branch is found to be destabilized as the plasma {beta} and the radius of the q=1 surface increase. The MHD branch can be destabilized at higher plasma {beta} or larger radii of the q=1 surface only for q profiles with a low magnetic shear within the q=1 surface.
Pinsky, Mark; Casanova, David; Alemany, Pere; Alvarez, Santiago; Avnir, David; Dryzun, Chaim; Kizner, Ziv; Sterkin, Alexander
2008-01-30
We introduce a new mathematical tool for quantifying the symmetry contents of molecular structures: the Symmetry Operation Measures. In this approach, we measure the minimal distance between a given structure and the structure which is obtained after applying a selected symmetry operation on it. If the given operation is a true symmetry operation for the structure, this distance is zero; otherwise it gives an indication of how different the transformed structure is from the original one. Specifically, we provide analytical solutions for measures of all the improper rotations, S n p, including mirror symmetry and inversion, as well as for all pure rotations, C n p. These measures provide information complementary to the Continuous Symmetry Measures (CSM) that evaluate the distance between a given structure and the nearest structure which belongs to a selected symmetry point-group.
The generation and damping of propagating MHD kink waves in the solar atmosphere
Morton, R. J.; Verth, G.; Erdélyi, R.; Hillier, A. E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk
2014-03-20
The source of the non-thermal energy required for the heating of the upper solar atmosphere to temperatures in excess of a million degrees and the acceleration of the solar wind to hundreds of kilometers per second is still unclear. One such mechanism for providing the required energy flux is incompressible torsional Alfvén and kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, which are magnetically dominated waves supported by the Sun's pervasive and complex magnetic field. In particular, propagating MHD kink waves have recently been observed to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere, but, until now, critical details of the transport of the kink wave energy throughout the Sun's atmosphere were lacking. Here, the ubiquity of the waves is exploited for statistical studies in the highly dynamic solar chromosphere. This large-scale investigation allows for the determination of the chromospheric kink wave velocity power spectra, a missing link necessary for determining the energy transport between the photosphere and corona. Crucially, the power spectra contain evidence for horizontal photospheric motions being an important mechanism for kink wave generation in the quiescent Sun. In addition, a comparison with measured coronal power spectra is provided for the first time, revealing frequency-dependent transmission profiles, suggesting that there is enhanced damping of kink waves in the lower corona.
Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan; ...
2017-01-23
Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. Here, in this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares withmore » polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. In addition, compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.« less
HBT-EP External Kink Mode Control Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navratil, G. A.; Debono, B.; Hanson, J. M.; James, R.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Shiraki, D.
2008-11-01
HBT-EP MHD mode control research is studying advanced Kalman filter control algorithms, ITER relevant internal modular feedback control coil configurations and their impact on kink mode rigidity, and the effects of edge neutral damping as a dissipation mechanism on the kink mode. HBT-EP incorporates a segmented adjustable conducting wall and 40 internal modular feedback control coils driven by a high-speed MIMO digital control system for external kink mode control. Primary research thrusts are to test advanced feedback control algorithms to increase feedback noise immunity, and the study of the physics of kink rotation stabilization by controlled variation of critical parameters such as dissipation and mode rotation. Recent results include measurement of the radial magnetic eigenmode structure and density and temperature perturbations of the external kink, and observation of Dα profiles and fluctuations during MHD spectroscopy experiments to quantify edge neutral dissipation. Enhancements of the VALEN modeling code, along with the design and construction of a new passive stabilizing wall and feedback coil system to study control coil modularity and coverage issues and their impact on kink mode rigidity will also be presented. *Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.
Effects of Boundary Conditions and Flow on the Kink Instability in a Cylindrical Plasma Column
Furno, I; Intrator, T P; Lapenta, G; Dorf, L; Ryutov, D D
2007-02-06
An experimental investigation of the kink instability is presented in a linear plasma column where one end is line-tied to the plasma source, and the other end is not line-tied and therefore free to slide over the surface of the end-plate. This latter boundary condition is a result of plasma sheath resistance that insulates, at least partially, the plasma from the end-plate. The helical m = 1 kink mode is observed to grow when the plasma current exceeds a threshold and, close to the criticality, is characterized by an axial mode structure with maximum displacement at the free axial boundary. Azimuthal rotation of the mode is observed such that the helically kinked column always screws into the free axial boundary. The kink mode structure, rotation frequency and instability threshold are accurately reproduced by a recent kink theory [D. D. Ryutov, et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 032105 (2006)], which includes axial plasma flow and one end of the plasma column that is free to move due to a perfect non-line-tying boundary condition which is experimentally verified. A brief review of the kink theory and its predictions for the boundary conditions relevant in the present experiments are presented.
Moving nonradiating kinks in nonlocal φ4 and φ4-φ6 models.
Alfimov, G L; Medvedeva, E V
2011-11-01
We explore the existence of moving nonradiating kinks in nonlocal generalizations of φ(4) and φ(4)-φ(6) models. These models are described by nonlocal nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, u(tt)-Lu+F(u)=0, where L is a Fourier multiplier operator of a specific form and F(u) includes either just a cubic term (φ(4) case) or cubic and quintic (φ(4)-φ(6) case) terms. The general mechanism responsible for the discretization of kink velocities in the nonlocal model is discussed. We report numerical results obtained for these models. It is shown that, contrary to the traditional φ(4) model, the nonlocal φ(4) model does not admit moving nonradiating kinks but admits solitary waves that do not exist in the local model. At the same time the nonlocal φ(4)-φ(6) model describes moving nonradiating kinks. The set of velocities allowed for these kinks is discrete with the highest possible velocity c(1). This set of velocities is unambiguously determined by the parameters of the model. Numerical simulations show that a kink launched at the velocity c higher than c(1) starts to decelerate, and its velocity settles down to the highest value of the discrete spectrum c(1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan; Taylor, Greg
2017-02-01
Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.
Tunnel creation of kink-antikink pairs from an inhomogeneous vacuum by an external field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krive, Ilya V.; Malomed, Boris A.; Rozhavsky, Alexander S.
1990-07-01
The problem of under-barrier creation of kink-antikink pairs by a constant background field is considered within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon and φ4 models with an inserted periodic lattice of local defects, which renders the true vacuum of the models spatially inhomogeneous. Two types of defects are considered, viz., the ones generating the inhomogeneous vacuum containing dipoles or quadrupoles pinned at sites of the lattice. A specific feature of the pair production in such a system is that one or both members of the pair appear on the mass shell in a state pinned at a site. The energy of a pinned kink is lower than that of a free kink, which results in a substantially shorter under-barrier trajectory and, hence, gives rise to a strong growth of the pair-production rate. In the absence of the background field the dipole inhomogeneous vacuum is double degenerate in its polarization, which gives rise to kinks of the second kind-the ones reversing the polarization. Mass, charge, and an exponent determining the kink-antikink tunnel-creation rate are found for these kinks.
Controlling Kink Geometry in Nanowires Fabricated by Alternating Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.
Chen, Yun; Li, Liyi; Zhang, Cheng; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Chen, Xin; Gao, Jian; Wong, Ching-Ping
2017-02-08
Kinked silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) have many special properties that make them attractive for a number of applications, such as microfluidics devices, microelectronic devices, and biosensors. However, fabricating NWs with controlled three-dimensional (3D) geometry has been challenging. In this work, a novel method called alternating metal-assisted chemical etching is reported for the fabrication of kinked Si NWs with controlled 3D geometry. By the use of multiple etchants with carefully selected composition, one can control the number of kinks, their locations, and their angles by controlling the number of etchant alternations and the time in each etchant. The resulting number of kinks equals the number times the etchant is alternated, the length of each segment separated by kinks has a linear relationship with the etching time, and the kinking angle is related to the surface tension and viscosity of the etchants. This facile method may provide a feasible and economical way to fabricate novel silicon nanowires, nanostructures, and devices for broad applications.
Noncommutative Tachyon Kinks as D(p-1)-branes from Unstable Dp-brane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Kim, Yoonbai; Kwon, O.-Kab
2005-01-01
We study noncommutative (NC) field theory of a real NC tachyon and NC U(1) gauge field, describing the dynamics of an unstable Dp-brane. For every given set of diagonal component of open string metric G 0 , NC parameter θ0 , and interpolating electric field hat E, we find all possible static NC kinks as exact solutions, in spite of complicated NC terms, which are classified by an array of NC kink-antikink and topological NC kinks. By computing their tensions and charges, those configurations are identified as an array of D0bar D0 and single stable D0 from the unstable D1, respectively. When the interpolating electric field has critical value as G 0 2 = hat E2 , the obtained topological kink becomes a BPS object with nonzero thickness and is identified as BPS D0 in the fluid of fundamental strings. Particularly in the scaling limit of infinite θ0 and vanishing G 0 and hat E, while keeping G 0θ0 = hat Eθ0 = 1, finiteness of the tension of NC kink corresponds to tensionless kink in ordinary effective field theory. An extension to stable D(p-1) from unstable Dp is straightforward for pure electric cases with parallel NC parameter and interpolating two-form field.
Spinor Structure and Internal Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varlamov, V. V.
2015-10-01
Spinor structure and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries P, T and their combination PT are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation C is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation C allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group and SU(3)-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of SU(3)). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of SU(3)-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin is established. The introduced spin-mass formula and its combination with Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.
Zetzsche, T; Meisenzahl, E M; Preuss, U W; Holder, J J; Kathmann, N; Leinsinger, G; Hahn, K; Hegerl, U; Möller, H J
2001-08-25
The aim of our study was to examine whether the degree of planum temporale (PT) asymmetry and the possible correlation of morphological PT asymmetries with handedness are influenced by the definition of PT borders. For this reason, we applied three different anatomical PT definitions formerly used in the literature. The PT total (with the end of the Sylvian fissure (SF) as its posterior border) was separated into anterior and posterior regions. The border between anterior and posterior PT was set according to the following definitions: at the end of Heschl's gyrus (1st definition); at the start of the ascending SF ramus according to the 'knife-cut' method (2nd definition); and at the bifurcation of the SF (3rd definition). Thirty right-handed healthy men were recruited. MRI data sets analyzed with the software program BRAINS were used for in vivo PT volumetry. The Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI) and the Hand Dominance Test were used to determine the degree of handedness. In summary, we detected that the type and the degree of asymmetry between left and right PT were strongly dependent on the definition used for PT borders: a left>right asymmetry was found in all PT regions, except a right>left asymmetry of the anterior PT according to our 1st PT definition (lateral to Heschl's gyrus) and a symmetry of the posterior PT according to our 3rd PT definition (posterior to SF bifurcation). In addition, a significant correlation was found between the degree of handedness measured by the EHI and the right posterior PT (3rd definition). We conclude that the influence of the definition of PT borders on the investigated variables may explain some of the variances between former investigations on PT asymmetry and handedness. The possible implications of the correlation between handedness and the extension of the right parietal PT are discussed and have to be elucidated by further studies.
Pseudospin Symmetry in Trigonometric PÖSCHL-TELLER Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candemir, Nuray
2012-06-01
We investigated the analytical ˜ {s}-wave solutions of Dirac equation for trigonometric Pöschl-Teller (PT) potential under the pseudospin symmetry condition. The energy eigenvalues equation and corresponding wave functions are obtained by using the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The energy bound states are also calculated numerically.
Paramagnetic properties of noncentrosymmetric superconductors: application to CePt3Si.
Samokhin, K V
2005-01-21
In a noncentrosymmetric crystal, the Zeeman interaction of the band electrons with an external magnetic field is highly anisotropic in the momentum space, vanishing along some high-symmetry planes. One of the consequences is that the paramagnetic susceptibility in superconductors without inversion symmetry, such as CePt3Si, shows an unusual temperature dependence.
Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example
Krokhotin, Andrey; Liwo, Adam; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Niemi, Antti J.; Scheraga, Harold A.
2014-01-01
The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a Cα-trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-α-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed α-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full α-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the Cα backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chain–side chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual kinks are
Kinks, loops, and protein folding, with protein A as an example
Krokhotin, Andrey; Liwo, Adam; Maisuradze, Gia G. Scheraga, Harold A.; Niemi, Antti J.
2014-01-14
The dynamics and energetics of formation of loops in the 46-residue N-terminal fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A has been studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using coarse-grained molecular dynamics with the united-residue (UNRES) force field. The results have been analyzed in terms of a kink (heteroclinic standing wave solution) of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In the case of proteins, the DNLS equation arises from a C{sup α}-trace-based energy function. Three individual kink profiles were identified in the experimental three-α-helix structure of protein A, in the range of the Glu16-Asn29, Leu20-Asn29, and Gln33-Asn44 residues, respectively; these correspond to two loops in the native structure. UNRES simulations were started from the full right-handed α-helix to obtain a clear picture of kink formation, which would otherwise be blurred by helix formation. All three kinks emerged during coarse-grained simulations. It was found that the formation of each is accompanied by a local free energy increase; this is expressed as the change of UNRES energy which has the physical sense of the potential of mean force of a polypeptide chain. The increase is about 7 kcal/mol. This value can thus be considered as the free energy barrier to kink formation in full α-helical segments of polypeptide chains. During the simulations, the kinks emerge, disappear, propagate, and annihilate each other many times. It was found that the formation of a kink is initiated by an abrupt change in the orientation of a pair of consecutive side chains in the loop region. This resembles the formation of a Bloch wall along a spin chain, where the C{sup α} backbone corresponds to the chain, and the amino acid side chains are interpreted as the spin variables. This observation suggests that nearest-neighbor side chain–side chain interactions are responsible for initiation of loop formation. It was also found that the individual
Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities
Zhang, Senlin; Yong, Zhengdong; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing
2016-01-01
The concept of parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) originates from the canonical quantum mechanics and has become a hot topic recently. As a versatile platform to investigate the intriguing concept, both theoretical and experimental works in optics have been implemented. In this paper, the PT symmetry breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the gain/loss level and the coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pair. Unidirectional light propagation is investigated, as well as enhanced sensitivity of single particle detection in the vicinity of the exceptional point. The proposed system is easy to be integrated with photonic integrated circuits and can be strongly coupled to optical waveguides. PMID:27075817
SEISMOLOGY OF STANDING KINK OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURES
Soler, R.; Arregui, I.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.
2010-10-20
We investigate standing kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a prominence fine structure modeled as a straight and cylindrical magnetic tube only partially filled with the prominence material and with its ends fixed at two rigid walls representing the solar photosphere. The prominence plasma is partially ionized and a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer is included between the prominence thread and the coronal medium. Thus, ion-neutral collisions and resonant absorption are the damping mechanisms considered. Approximate analytical expressions of the period, the damping time, and their ratio are derived for the fundamental mode in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. We find that the dominant damping mechanism is resonant absorption, which provides damping ratios in agreement with the observations, whereas ion-neutral collisions are irrelevant for damping. The values of the damping ratio are independent of both the prominence thread length and its position within the magnetic tube, and coincide with the values for a tube fully filled with the prominence plasma. The implications of our results in the context of the MHD seismology technique are discussed, pointing out that the reported short-period (2-10 minutes) and short-wavelength (700-8000 km) thread oscillations may not be consistent with a standing mode interpretation and could be related to propagating waves. Finally, we show that the inversion of some prominence physical parameters, e.g., Alfven speed, magnetic field strength, transverse inhomogeneity length scale, etc., is possible using observationally determined values of the period and damping time of the oscillations along with the analytical approximations of these quantities.
Plasma Flows Associated with Two Kink-Unstable Flux Ropes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeHaas, Timothy; Gekelman, W.; Van Compernolle, B.
2013-07-01
Magnetic flux ropes are self-organized, magnetized plasma structures embedded in an ambient medium. Their structure consists of helical field lines which vary in pitch due to the electric current flowing along a background magnetic field.1 Multiple braided flux ropes have been observed in the solar corona, and their unraveling is theorized to be the signature of magnetic reconnection.2 Two flux ropes (L=10 m, A=7 cm2, J=10 amp/cm2) were created in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA (Bo=330 G, no = 1012 cm-3, Te=4eV, Ar). The flux ropes are highly kink unstable, which cause the ropes to twist and oscillate at frequencies associated with shear Alfven waves. Through the use of a six-faced Mach probe, volumetric data was taken to determine the three-dimensional plasma flow. Volumetric b-field information was also obtained through use of a three-axis magnetic probe. The data collected from these probes is laden with Lorentzian pulses, a characteristic of deterministic chaos.3 The flux ropes are shown to twist, interact, then merge; while the plasma flows are shown to spiral around the two flux ropes in a singular O-point. A quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) forms as the flux ropes collide and the magnetic field lines reconnect. The relationship between flow and reconnection sites is explored. 1Gekelman, W. et al. ApJ 753, 131 2Cirtain, J.W. et al. Nature 493, 501-503 (2013) 3Maggs, J.E. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185003 (2011)
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.
2016-10-01
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
Baryogenesis from symmetry principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fong, Chee Sheng
2016-01-01
In this work, a formalism based on symmetry which allows one to express asymmetries of all the particles in terms of conserved charges is developed. The manifestation of symmetry allows one to easily determine the viability of a baryogenesis scenario and also to identify the different roles played by the symmetry. This formalism is then applied to the standard model and its supersymmetric extension, which constitute two important foundations for constructing models of baryogenesis.
Shock-induced PT-symmetric potentials in gas-filled photonic-crystal fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleh, Mohammed F.; Marini, Andrea; Biancalana, Fabio
2014-02-01
We have investigated the interaction between a strong soliton and a weak probe with certain configurations that allow optical trapping in gas-filled hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers in the presence of the shock effect. We have shown theoretically and numerically that the shock term can lead to an unbroken parity-time- (PT-) symmetric potential in these kinds of fibers. Time irreversible behavior, a signature feature of the PT symmetry, is also demonstrated numerically. Our results will open different configurations and avenues for observing PT-symmetry breaking in optical fibers, without the need to resort to complex optical systems.
EXCITATION OF KINK WAVES DUE TO SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE CHROMOSPHERE?
He Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Tian Hui; Tu Chuanyi
2009-11-10
The kink wave, which has often been observed in coronal loops, is considered as a possibly important energy source contributing to coronal heating. However, its generation has not yet been observed. Here, we report the first observation of kink-wave excitation caused by magnetic reconnection as inferred from Solar Optical Telescope measurements made in the Ca II line. We observed transverse-displacement oscillations on a spicule which propagated upwardly along the spicule trace and originated from the cusp of an inverted Y-shaped structure, where apparently magnetic reconnection occurred. Such transverse oscillation of an individual spicule is interpreted by us to be the signature of a kink wave that was excited by magnetic reconnection. We present the height variations of the velocity amplitude, deltav, and the phase speed, C {sub k}, of the kink wave, starting from its source region. The kink wave is found to steepen with height and to evolve into a nonlinear state with a large relative disturbance, yielding a (deltav/C {sub k}) of 0.21 at 5.5 Mm. This nonlinear kink wave seems to be damped in velocity amplitude beyond 5.5 Mm, which may result from the conversion of transverse-fluctuation energy to longitudinal-motion energy required to sustain the spicule. We also estimate the energy flux density carried by the kink wave, and in spite of its attenuation in the transition region conclude it to be sufficient for heating the quiet corona. Our findings shed new light on future modeling of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration involving magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere.
Motoyama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gurung, Pritam; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki
2016-01-01
Background: During microscopic procedures for neurovascular disease, we sometimes encounter kinking of arterial branches resulting in ischemic sequelae. A simple and useful technique that involves inserting a small, ball-like prosthesis made of oxidized cellulose or shredded Teflon with fibrin glue that corrects the arterial branch kinking and avoids subsequent compromise is reported. Methods: Between January and December 2014, three patients developed arterial kinking during microscopic procedures, including two in the caudal loop of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia and one in a branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) during clipping for an unruptured MCA aneurysm. Blood flow insufficiency was confirmed by microvascular Doppler ultrasonography (MDU) and indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography. The prosthesis, which was made of shredded Teflon in two cases and oxidized cellulose in one case, was inserted into the crotch of the kinked arteries to correct the kinking of the arteries and restore the proper vascular shape and normal blood flow. Results: The small, ball-shaped prosthesis corrected the kinked arteries and maintained the proper shape, which was confirmed by ICG videoangiography and MDU during the operation and three-dimensional computerized tomography angiography postoperatively. Postoperatively, the patients did not manifest any ischemic sequelae related to the kinked arteries. Conclusion: The insertion of prostheses with fibrin glue into the crotch of a kinked artery for repair is considered a simple and useful method for correcting a kinked artery that avoids ischemic sequelae. PMID:26862447
Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Schmit, P. F.; Peterson, K. J.; Hess, M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2015-03-01
This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode.
Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner
Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y. Gilgenbach, R. M.; Schmit, P. F.; Peterson, K. J.; Hess, M.
2015-03-15
This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode.
Successful percutaneous stent implantation for isolated dismal transverse aortic arch kinking
Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Tsauo, Jia-Yu; Chen, Mao; Feng, Yuan
2017-01-01
Abstract Rationale: Isolated dismal transverse aortic arch kinking in adults is rare, and there is no recommended therapy at present. Percutaneous stent implantation may be an effective method to correct it and could be considered. Patient concerns: We report a 46-year-old woman who suffered from recurrent migraine and refractory hypertension with a significant systolic blood pressure difference between upper limbs. Diagnoses: The woman was diagnosed with isolated dismal transverse aortic arch kinking with refractory hypertension. Interventions: Percutaneous stent implantation was performed. Due to the kinking nature of the diseased transverse aortic arch, the first covered stent moved forward to the proximal transverse aortic arch during deploying without the left common carotid artery occlusion. And then, a second stent was placed to cover the residual kinked part of the dismal transverse arch. Outcomes: Angiography and post-procedural computed tomography angiography revealed fully corrected of the diseased segment. At 6-month follow-up after procedure, the patient was free of any symptoms and had a normal blood pressure under antihypertensive treatment. Lessons: This case indicates that transverse aortic arch kinking in isolation can be well treated by percutaneous stent implantation in adult patients. Unlike pure aortic coarctation, elongation and bucking give the rise to the occurrence rate of stent sliding and migration and sometimes a second stent is needed. PMID:28272200
KINK AND SAUSAGE MODES IN NONUNIFORM MAGNETIC SLABS WITH CONTINUOUS TRANSVERSE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Guo, Ming-Zhe
2015-11-20
We examine the influence of a continuous density structuring transverse to coronal slabs on the dispersive properties of fundamental standing kink and sausage modes supported therein. We derive generic dispersion relations (DRs) governing linear fast waves in pressureless straight slabs with general transverse density distributions, and focus on cases where the density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width and in arbitrary form. The physical relevance of the solutions to the DRs is demonstrated by the corresponding time-dependent computations. For all profiles examined, the lowest order kink modes are trapped regardless of longitudinal wavenumber k. A continuous density distribution introduces a difference to their periods of ≲13% when k is the observed range relative to the case where the density profile takes a step function form. Sausage modes and other branches of kink modes are leaky at small k, and their periods and damping times are heavily influenced by how the transverse density profile is prescribed, in particular the length scale. These modes have sufficiently high quality to be observable only for physical parameters representative of flare loops. We conclude that while the simpler DR pertinent to a step function profile can be used for the lowest order kink modes, the detailed information on the transverse density structuring needs to be incorporated into studies of sausage modes and higher order kink modes.
A risk factor for kinked middle lobar bronchus following right upper lobectomy.
Masuda, Yoshiko; Marutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Makoto
2014-10-01
Kinking of the middle lobar bronchus is sometimes observed after a right upper lobectomy, but prevention and treatment have not been established. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for a kinked middle lobar bronchus causing postoperative middle lobe atelectasis. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 35 patients who underwent a right upper lobectomy in our hospital. Demographic and preoperative variables were compared in 4 patients with postoperative middle lobe atelectasis and kinking of the middle lobar bronchus and 31 without postoperative middle lobe atelectasis, determined by bronchoscopy and computed tomography findings. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, lung function test results, or volume ratio of the right upper lobe. A shorter distance from the carina to the middle lobe orifice was the only risk factor for a kinked middle lobar bronchus identified (40.25 ± 2.45 vs. 48.06 ± 4.78 mm, p = 0.006). A short distance from the carina to the middle lobe orifice could be a risk factor for kinking of the middle lobar bronchus in postoperative middle lobe atelectasis after right upper lobectomy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
ARPES study on the kink structure in σ-bands of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Keun Su
2015-03-01
Graphene has served as a prototypical model system for the study of electron-phonon interactions in low dimensions. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a powerful technique, which can not only visualize electron chirality, but also identify a signature of electron-boson interaction as a kink in dispersion. While ARPES spectra of graphene π-bands are known to show such kinked dispersion near the Fermi level, recently the similar kink features were also observed in σ-bands with binding energy greater than 4 eV [F. Mazzola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 216806 (2013)]. This kink feature was attributed to a signature of electron-phonon interaction, but its microscopic origin remains unclear. In this work, we performed systematic ARPES measurements for graphene σ-bands with various photon energies and polarization conditions. Our results demonstrate a strong matrix-element effect that can explain the kink-like features in σ-bands, regardless of manybody interactions. This work was supported by Institute for Basic Science (IBS, Grant No. IBS-R014-D1).
Kink and Sausage Modes in Nonuniform Magnetic Slabs with Continuous Transverse Density Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Guo, Ming-Zhe
2015-11-01
We examine the influence of a continuous density structuring transverse to coronal slabs on the dispersive properties of fundamental standing kink and sausage modes supported therein. We derive generic dispersion relations (DRs) governing linear fast waves in pressureless straight slabs with general transverse density distributions, and focus on cases where the density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width and in arbitrary form. The physical relevance of the solutions to the DRs is demonstrated by the corresponding time-dependent computations. For all profiles examined, the lowest order kink modes are trapped regardless of longitudinal wavenumber k. A continuous density distribution introduces a difference to their periods of ≲13% when k is the observed range relative to the case where the density profile takes a step function form. Sausage modes and other branches of kink modes are leaky at small k, and their periods and damping times are heavily influenced by how the transverse density profile is prescribed, in particular the length scale. These modes have sufficiently high quality to be observable only for physical parameters representative of flare loops. We conclude that while the simpler DR pertinent to a step function profile can be used for the lowest order kink modes, the detailed information on the transverse density structuring needs to be incorporated into studies of sausage modes and higher order kink modes.
FORWARD MODELING OF STANDING KINK MODES IN CORONAL LOOPS. I. SYNTHETIC VIEWS
Yuan, Ding; Doorsselaere, Tom Van
2016-04-15
Kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are frequently observed in various magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere. They may contribute significantly to coronal heating and could be used as a tool to diagnose the solar plasma. In this study, we synthesize the Fe ix λ171.073 Å emission of a coronal loop supporting a standing kink MHD mode. The kink MHD wave solution of a plasma cylinder is mapped into a semi-torus structure to simulate a curved coronal loop. We decompose the solution into a quasi-rigid kink motion and a quadrupole term, which dominate the plasma inside and outside of the flux tube, respectively. At the loop edges, the line of sight integrates relatively more ambient plasma, and the background emission becomes significant. The plasma motion associated with the quadrupole term causes spectral line broadening and emission suppression. The periodic intensity suppression will modulate the integrated intensity and the effective loop width, which both exhibit oscillatory variations at half of the kink period. The quadrupole term can be directly observed as a pendular motion at the front view.
Symmetries in Lagrangian Dynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrario, Carlo; Passerini, Arianna
2007-01-01
In the framework of Noether's theorem, a distinction between Lagrangian and dynamical symmetries is made, in order to clarify some aspects neglected by textbooks. An intuitive setting of the concept of invariance of differential equations is presented. The analysis is completed by deriving the symmetry properties in the motion of a charged…
Symmetries in Lagrangian Dynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrario, Carlo; Passerini, Arianna
2007-01-01
In the framework of Noether's theorem, a distinction between Lagrangian and dynamical symmetries is made, in order to clarify some aspects neglected by textbooks. An intuitive setting of the concept of invariance of differential equations is presented. The analysis is completed by deriving the symmetry properties in the motion of a charged…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marchis, Iuliana
2009-01-01
Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.
Solitons and kinks in a general car-following model.
Kurtze, Douglas A
2013-09-01
We study a general car-following model of traffic flow on an infinitely long single-lane road, which assumes that a car's acceleration depends on time-delayed values of its own speed, the headway between it and the car ahead, and the rate of change of headway, but makes minimal assumptions about the functional form of that dependence. We present a detailed characterization of the onset of linear instability; in particular we find a specific limit on the delay time below which the marginal wave number at the onset of instability is zero, and another specific limit on the delay time above which steady flow is always unstable. Crucially, the threshold of absolute stability generally does not coincide with an inflection point of the steady-state velocity function. When the marginal perturbation at onset has wave number 0, we show that Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations can be derived under the usual assumptions, and that corrections to the KdV equation "select" a single member of the one-parameter set of its one-soliton solutions by driving a slow evolution of the soliton parameter. While in previous models this selected soliton has always marked the threshold of a finite-amplitude instability of linearly stable steady flow, we find that it can alternatively be a stable, small-amplitude jam that occurs when steady flow is linearly unstable. The model reduces to the usual modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation only in the special situation that the threshold of absolute stability coincides with an inflection point of the steady-state velocity function; in general, near the threshold of absolute stability the model reduces instead to a KdV equation in the regime of small solitons, while near an inflection point it reduces to a Hayakawa-Nakanishi equation. Like the mKdV equation, the Hayakawa-Nakanishi equation admits a continuous family of kink solutions, and the selection criterion arising from the corrections to this equation can be written down
Solitons and kinks in a general car-following model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtze, Douglas A.
2013-09-01
We study a general car-following model of traffic flow on an infinitely long single-lane road, which assumes that a car's acceleration depends on time-delayed values of its own speed, the headway between it and the car ahead, and the rate of change of headway, but makes minimal assumptions about the functional form of that dependence. We present a detailed characterization of the onset of linear instability; in particular we find a specific limit on the delay time below which the marginal wave number at the onset of instability is zero, and another specific limit on the delay time above which steady flow is always unstable. Crucially, the threshold of absolute stability generally does not coincide with an inflection point of the steady-state velocity function. When the marginal perturbation at onset has wave number 0, we show that Burgers and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations can be derived under the usual assumptions, and that corrections to the KdV equation “select” a single member of the one-parameter set of its one-soliton solutions by driving a slow evolution of the soliton parameter. While in previous models this selected soliton has always marked the threshold of a finite-amplitude instability of linearly stable steady flow, we find that it can alternatively be a stable, small-amplitude jam that occurs when steady flow is linearly unstable. The model reduces to the usual modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation only in the special situation that the threshold of absolute stability coincides with an inflection point of the steady-state velocity function; in general, near the threshold of absolute stability the model reduces instead to a KdV equation in the regime of small solitons, while near an inflection point it reduces to a Hayakawa-Nakanishi equation. Like the mKdV equation, the Hayakawa-Nakanishi equation admits a continuous family of kink solutions, and the selection criterion arising from the corrections to this equation can be written down
Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices
Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf
2015-01-01
Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated. PMID:26215165
Motion of Domain Walls and the Dynamics of Kinks in the Magnetic Peierls Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buijnsters, F. J.; Fasolino, A.; Katsnelson, M. I.
2014-11-01
We study the dynamics of magnetic domain walls in the Peierls potential due to the discreteness of the crystal lattice. The propagation of a narrow domain wall (comparable to the lattice parameter) under the effect of a magnetic field proceeds through the formation of kinks in its profile. We predict that, despite the discreteness of the system, such kinks can behave like sine-Gordon solitons in thin films of materials such as yttrium iron garnets, and we derive general conditions for other materials. In our simulations, we also observe long-lived breathers. We provide analytical expressions for the effective mass and limiting velocity of the kink in excellent agreement with our numerical results.
Stack, Andrew G
2009-09-01
Solvation and kink site formation on step edges are known to be controlling parameters in crystal growth and dissolution. However, links from classical crystal growth models to specific reactions at the mineral-water interface have remained elusive. Molecular dynamics is used here to examine the water structure on barium surface sites and kink site formation enthalpies for material adsorbed to and removed from the step parallel to the [120] direction on the {001} barite-water interface. The bariums at the interface are shown to be coordinatively unsaturated with respect to water, and it is suggested that this is due to a steric hindrance from the nature of the interface. Kink site detachment energies that include hydration energies are endothermic for barium and exothermic for sulfate. The implications and problems of using these parameters in a crystal growth model are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergan, Andrew C.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.
2016-01-01
A new model is proposed that represents the kinematics of kink-band formation and propagation within the framework of a mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The model uses the recently proposed deformation gradient decomposition approach to represent a kink band as a displacement jump via a cohesive interface that is embedded in an elastic bulk material. The model is capable of representing the combination of matrix failure in the frame of a misaligned fiber and instability due to shear nonlinearity. In contrast to conventional linear or bilinear strain softening laws used in most mesoscale CDM models for longitudinal compression, the constitutive response of the proposed model includes features predicted by detailed micromechanical models. These features include: 1) the rotational kinematics of the kink band, 2) an instability when the peak load is reached, and 3) a nonzero plateau stress under large strains.
Role of electric fields in the MHD evolution of the kink instability
Lapenta, Giovanni; Skender, Marina
2017-02-17
Here, the discovery of electrostatic fields playing a crucial role in establishing plasma motion in the flux conversion and dynamo processes in reversed field pinches is revisited. In order to further elucidate the role of the electrostatic fields, a flux rope configuration susceptible to the kink instability is numerically studied with anMHDcode. Simulated nonlinear evolution of the kink instability is found to confirm the crucial role of the electrostatic fields. Anew insight is gained on the special function of the electrostatic fields: they lead the plasma towards the reconnection site at the mode resonant surface. Without this step the plasmamore » column could not relax to its nonlinear state, since no other agent is present to perform this role. While the inductive field generated directly by the kink instability is the dominant flow driver, the electrostatic field is found to allow the motion in the vicinity of the reconnection region.« less
Role of electric fields in the MHD evolution of the kink instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapenta, Giovanni; Skender, Marina
2017-02-01
The discovery (Bonfiglio et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 145001) of electrostatic fields playing a crucial role in establishing plasma motion in the flux conversion and dynamo processes in reversed field pinches is revisited. In order to further elucidate the role of the electrostatic fields, a flux rope configuration susceptible to the kink instability is numerically studied with an MHD code. Simulated nonlinear evolution of the kink instability is found to confirm the crucial role of the electrostatic fields. A new insight is gained on the special function of the electrostatic fields: they lead the plasma towards the reconnection site at the mode resonant surface. Without this step the plasma column could not relax to its nonlinear state, since no other agent is present to perform this role. While the inductive field generated directly by the kink instability is the dominant flow driver, the electrostatic field is found to allow the motion in the vicinity of the reconnection region.
Kinking of endotracheal tubes during maxima flexion of the atlanto-occipital joint in dogs.
Campoy, L; Hughes, J M L; McAllister, H; Bellenger, C R
2003-01-01
Endotracheal tubes manufactured from red rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were compared, using radiographic techniques, in dog cadavers, under in vitro conditions and in anaesthetised dogs (in vivo study). All endotracheal tubes were radiographed in 'neutral' and flexed positions and the percentage reduction in the ventrodorsal radiographical diameter of the tube was calculated. The red rubber tubes kinked completely in 40 per cent of the cadavers, 75 per cent of the in vitro study and 40 per cent of anaesthetised dogs. The PVC tubes kinked completely in only one case (in vivo study). However, these tubes had a mean reduction in diameter of 15 per cent in the dog cadaver study, 19 per cent in the in vitro study and 26 per cent in the in vivo study. During procedures in which the trachea is intubated and the atlanto-occipital joint of the patient must be flexed, PVC endotracheal tubes may be less prone to kinking than red rubber tubes.
Motion of domain walls and the dynamics of kinks in the magnetic Peierls potential.
Buijnsters, F J; Fasolino, A; Katsnelson, M I
2014-11-21
We study the dynamics of magnetic domain walls in the Peierls potential due to the discreteness of the crystal lattice. The propagation of a narrow domain wall (comparable to the lattice parameter) under the effect of a magnetic field proceeds through the formation of kinks in its profile. We predict that, despite the discreteness of the system, such kinks can behave like sine-Gordon solitons in thin films of materials such as yttrium iron garnets, and we derive general conditions for other materials. In our simulations, we also observe long-lived breathers. We provide analytical expressions for the effective mass and limiting velocity of the kink in excellent agreement with our numerical results.
[A fluoride-sensor for kink structure in DNA condensation process].
Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Ying-Bing; Li, Yu-Pu; Hu, Lin
2014-01-01
Bloomfield has pointed out that the kink structure occurs for sharp bending during DNA condensation process, until now, which has not been proved by experiments. Using UV Spectrophotometer, the effects of fluoride and chlorine on the polyamine-DNA condensation system can be detected. Fluoride and chlorine both belong to the halogen family, but their effects on spermine-DNA condensation system are totally different. Fluoride ions make blue-shift and hyperchromicity appear in the spermine-DNA condensation system, but chlorine ions only make insignificant hyperchromicity happen in this system. Both fluoride ions and chlorine ions only make insignificant hyperchromicity happen in spermidine-DNA condensation system. Based on the distinguished character of fluoride, a fluoride-sensor for "kink" structure in DNA condensation was developed and the second kind of "kink" structure only appear in the spermine-DNA condensation system.
Sausage instabilities on top of kinking lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine
2017-05-01
We theoretically explore the possibility of sausage instabilities developing on top of a kink instability in lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Observations indicate that the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in our cosmos and terrestrial experiments can involve topological changes faster than time scales predicted by resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Recent laboratory experiments suggest that hierarchies of instabilities, such as kink and Rayleigh-Taylor, could be responsible for initiating fast topological changes by locally accessing two-fluid and kinetic regimes. Sausage instabilities can also provide this coupling mechanism between disparate scales. Flux tube experiments can be classified by the flux tube's evolution in a configuration space described by a normalized inverse aspect-ratio k ¯ and current-to-magnetic flux ratio λ ¯ . A lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tube traverses this k ¯ - λ ¯ space and crosses stability boundaries. We derive a single general criterion for the onset of the sausage and kink instabilities in idealized magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents. The criterion indicates a dependence of the stability boundaries on current profiles and shows overlapping kink and sausage unstable regions in the k ¯ - λ ¯ space with two free parameters. Numerical investigation of the stability criterion reduces the number of free parameters to a single one that describes the current profile and confirms the overlapping sausage and kink unstable regions in k ¯ - λ ¯ space. A lengthening, ideal current-carrying magnetic flux tube can therefore become sausage unstable after it becomes kink unstable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.
2010-09-01
Aims: We present here a first comparative study between the observed damping of numerous fast kink oscillations and the theoretical model of their damping due to the cooling of coronal loops. The theory of damping of kink oscillations due to radiation of the solar plasma with a temporally varying background is applied here to all known cases of coronal kink oscillations. Methods: A recent dynamic model of cooling coronal loops predicts that transverse oscillations of such loops could be significantly damped due to the radiative cooling process (Morton & Erdélyi 2009, ApJ, 707, 750). The cooling of the loop plasma also has the consequence that the kink oscillation has a time-dependent frequency. The theory is applied to a relatively large number of known and reported examples of TRACE observations of damped kink oscillations. Results: We find that, for cooling timescales that are typical of EUV loops (500-2000 s), the observed damping of the transversal (i.e. kink) oscillations can be accounted for almost entirely by the cooling process in half of the examples. No other dissipative mechanism(s) seems to be needed to model the damping. In the remaining other examples, the cooling process does not appear to be able to account fully for the observed damping, though could still have a significant influence on the damping. In these cases another mechanism(s), e.g. resonant absorption, may be additionally required to account for the complete decay of oscillations. Also, we show that because of the dynamic nature of the background plasma, allowing for a time-dependent frequency provides a better fit profile for the data points of observations than a fit profile with a constant frequency, opening novel avenues for solar magneto-seismology.
Rotation roots and neoclassical viscosity in quasi-symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D.
2009-11-01
In a quasi-symmetric device, there exists a symmetry angle αh= θ-Nζ/M, such that |B| = B0(1 - ɛhM αh ) along a field-line, with several much smaller helical `sidebands.' Provided the departure from symmetry is small, i.e. δBeff/B0ɛh where δBeff/B0 is the effective helical sideband strength, flow damping and thus flow evolution along and `cross' the direction of symmetry in a flux surface decouple [1,2], and can be determined successively. In the context of a fluid-moment approach [3], the momentum equation in the symmetry direction is equivalent to the ambipolarity condition. Steady state rotation solutions of this equation are equivalent to ambipolar radial electric field `roots' in conventional stellarator theory and will be presented for various banana-drift neoclassical flow damping regimes [2].[4pt] [1] J. D. Callen, A. J. Cole, and C. C. Hegna, Tech. Rep. UW-CPTC 08-7, Univ. of Wisconsin, http://www.cptc.wisc.edu (2009).[0pt] [2] A. J. Cole, C. C. Hegna, and J. D. Callen, Tech. Rep. UW-CPTC 08-8, Univ. of Wisconsin, http://www.cptc.wisc.edu (2009).[0pt] [3] K. C. Shaing and J. D. Callen, Phys. Fluids 26, 3315 (1983).
Investigation of optically generated kink effect in GaAs-based heterojunction phototransistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, H. A.; Rezazadeh, A. A.
2011-09-01
An optically generated kink observed in the Gummel plot of AlGaAs/GaAs single heterojunction phototransistors (sHPTs) is reported when illuminated with relatively high optical powers. The observed sudden rise in collector current and decrease in the base current, referred to as `optical kink effect', is carefully studied and analyzed. The measurements are performed for incident optical power of up to 225 μW at an incident wavelength of 635 nm. This rise in the current gain of HPTs, in three terminal configuration, is associated with the base-collector space-charge modulation similar to the kirk effect.
Scattering of Klein–Gordon particles by a Kink-like potential
Hassanabadi, H.; Lu, Liangliang; Maghsoodi, E.; Liu, Guanghui; Zarrinkamar, S.
2014-03-15
The Klein–Gordon equation for the non-minimal vector and a scalar Kink-like potential is solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The scattering problem, i.e. the transmission and reflection coefficients, is studied as well. -- Highlights: •The Klein–Gordon equation for the non-minimal vector and a scalar Kink-like potential is solved. •We have calculated the corresponding transmission and reflection coefficients. •We discussed the behavior of the reflection and transmission coefficients vs. energy.
High energy density in the collision of N kinks in the ϕ4 model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marjaneh, Aliakbar Moradi; Saadatmand, Danial; Zhou, Kun; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zomorrodian, Mohammad Ebrahim
2017-08-01
Recently for the sine-Gordon equation it has been established that during collisions of N slow kinks maximal energy density increases as N2. In this numerical study, the same scaling rule is established for the non-integrable ϕ4 model for N ≤ 5. For odd (even) N the maximal energy density is in the form of potential (kinetic) energy density. Maximal elastic strain is also calculated. In addition, the effect of the kink's internal modes on the maximal energy density is analysed for N = 1 , 2, and 3. Our results suggest that in multi-soliton collisions very high energy density can be achieved in a controllable manner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Stefano
2017-01-01
We consider wave transport phenomena in a PT -symmetric extension of the periodically kicked quantum rotator model and reveal that dynamical localization assists the unbroken PT phase. In the delocalized (quantum resonance) regime, PT symmetry is always in the broken phase and ratchet acceleration arises as a signature of unidirectional non-Hermitian transport. An optical implementation of the periodically kicked PT -symmetric Hamiltonian, based on transverse beam propagation in a passive optical resonator with combined phase and loss gratings, is suggested to visualize acceleration modes in fractional Talbot cavities.
A universal symmetry detection algorithm.
Maurer, Peter M
2015-01-01
Research on symmetry detection focuses on identifying and detecting new types of symmetry. The paper presents an algorithm that is capable of detecting any type of permutation-based symmetry, including many types for which there are no existing algorithms. General symmetry detection is library-based, but symmetries that can be parameterized, (i.e. total, partial, rotational, and dihedral symmetry), can be detected without using libraries. In many cases it is faster than existing techniques. Furthermore, it is simpler than most existing techniques, and can easily be incorporated into existing software. The algorithm can also be used with virtually any type of matrix-based symmetry, including conjugate symmetry.
... fibrillation ) The presence of artificial heart valves Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) Antiphospholipid syndrome Occasionally, in heart attacks with certain risk factors The PT test may be used along with ...
Investigation on de-trapping mechanisms related to non-monotonic kink pattern in GaN HEMT devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Chandan; Laishram, Robert; Amit, Rawal, Dipendra Singh; Vinayak, Seema; Singh, Rajendra
2017-08-01
This article reports an experimental approach to analyze the kink effect phenomenon which is usually observed during the GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) operation. De-trapping of charge carriers is one of the prominent reasons behind the kink effect. The commonly observed non-monotonic behavior of kink pattern is analyzed under two different device operating conditions and it is found that two different de-trapping mechanisms are responsible for a particular kink behavior. These different de-trapping mechanisms are investigated through a time delay analysis which shows the presence of traps with different time constants. Further voltage sweep and temperature analysis corroborates the finding that different de-trapping mechanisms play a role in kink behavior under different device operating conditions.
Dynamical symmetries for fermions
Guidry, M.
1989-01-01
An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E{sub 2}) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Castanos, Octavio
2010-09-10
The purpose of this course is to study the evolution of the symmetry concept and establish its influence in the knowledge of the fundamental laws of nature. Physicist have been using the symmetry concept in two ways: to solve problems and to search for new understanding of the world around us. In quantum physics symmetry plays a key role in gaining an understanding of the physical laws governing the behavior of matter and field systems. It provides, generally, a shortcut based on geometry for discovering the secrets of the Universe. Because it is believed that the laws of physics are invariant under discrete and continuous transformation operations of the space and time, there are continuous symmetries, for example, energy and momentum together with discrete ones corresponding to charge, parity and time reversal operations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Groetsch, C. W.
2005-01-01
Resistance destroys symmetry. In this note, a graphical exploration serves as a guide to a rigorous elementary proof of a specific asymmetry in the trajectory of a point projectile in a medium offering linear resistance.
Sekhar Chivukula
2016-07-12
The symmetries of a quantum field theory can be realized in a variety of ways. Symmetries can be realized explicitly, approximately, through spontaneous symmetry breaking or, via an anomaly, quantum effects can dynamically eliminate a symmetry of the theory that was presentÂ at the classical level. Â Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD),Â the modern theoryÂ of the strong interactions, exemplify each ofÂ these possibilities.Â The interplayÂ of these effects determine theÂ spectrum of particles that we observeÂ and, ultimately, account forÂ 99% of the mass of ordinary matter.Â
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelady, Benjamin C.; Wheeler, James T.
2016-04-01
According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dimensional Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected S O (n ) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an S O (n -1 ,1 ) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original S O (n ) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golubitsky, Martin
2012-04-01
Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castaños, Octavio
2010-09-01
The purpose of this course is to study the evolution of the symmetry concept and establish its influence in the knowledge of the fundamental laws of nature. Physicist have been using the symmetry concept in two ways: to solve problems and to search for new understanding of the world around us. In quantum physics symmetry plays a key role in gaining an understanding of the physical laws governing the behavior of matter and field systems. It provides, generally, a shortcut based on geometry for discovering the secrets of the Universe. Because it is believed that the laws of physics are invariant under discrete and continuous transformation operations of the space and time, there are continuous symmetries, for example, energy and momentum together with discrete ones corresponding to charge, parity and time reversal operations.
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetterich, C.
2017-02-01
Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang-Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
DFT Study of Optical Properties of Pt-based Complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oprea, Corneliu I.; Dumbravǎ, Anca; Moscalu, Florin; Nicolaides, Atnanassios; Gîrţu, Mihai A.
2010-01-01
We report Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations providing the geometrical and electronic structures, as well as the vibrational and optical properties of the homologous series of Pt-pyramidalized olefin complexes (CH2)n-(C8H10)Pt(PH3)2, where n = 0, 1, and 2, in their neutral and oxidized states. All complexes were geometry optimized for the singlet ground state in vacuum using DFT methods with B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the Effective Core Potential LANL2DZ basis set, within the frame of Gaussian03 quantum chemistry package. We find the coordination geometry of Pt to be distorted square planar, with dihedral angles ranging from 0°, for n = 0 and 1, which have C2V symmetry to 3.4°, for n = 2 with C2 symmetry. The Mulliken charge analysis allows a discussion of the oxidation state of the Pt ion. Electronic transitions were calculated at the same level of theory by means of Time Dependant-DFT. For n = 2 the electronic absorption bands are located in the UV region of the spectrum, the transitions being assigned to metal to ligand charge transfers. The relevance of these Pt-based compounds as possible pigments for dye-sensitized solar cells is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamhalter, Jan; Turilova, Ekaterina
2017-02-01
Quantum symmetries of spectral lattices are studied. Basic properties of spectral order on A W ∗-algebras are summarized. Connection between projection and spectral automorphisms is clarified by showing that, under mild conditions, any spectral automorphism is a composition of function calculus and Jordan ∗-automorphism. Complete description of quantum spectral symmetries on Type I and Type II A W ∗-factors are completely described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.
2016-11-01
The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.
Bounded dynamics in finite PT-symmetric magnetic metamaterials.
Molina, Mario I
2014-03-01
We examine the PT-symmetry-breaking transition for a magnetic metamaterial of a finite extent, modeled as an array of coupled split-ring resonators in the equivalent circuit model approximation. Small-size arrays are solved completely in closed form, while for arrays larger than N=5 results were computed numerically for several gain and loss spatial distributions. In all cases, it is found that the parameter stability window decreases rapidly with the size of the array, until at N=20 approximately it is not possible to support a stable PT-symmetric phase.
Bounded dynamics in finite PT-symmetric magnetic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina, Mario I.
2014-03-01
We examine the PT-symmetry-breaking transition for a magnetic metamaterial of a finite extent, modeled as an array of coupled split-ring resonators in the equivalent circuit model approximation. Small-size arrays are solved completely in closed form, while for arrays larger than N =5 results were computed numerically for several gain and loss spatial distributions. In all cases, it is found that the parameter stability window decreases rapidly with the size of the array, until at N =20 approximately it is not possible to support a stable PT-symmetric phase.
Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume
2015-04-10
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.
RNA Tertiary Interactions in a Riboswitch Stabilize the Structure of a Kink Turn
Schroeder, Kersten T.; Daldrop, Peter; Lilley, David M.J.
2011-01-01
Summary The kink turn is a widespread RNA motif that introduces an acute kink into the axis of duplex RNA, typically comprising a bulge followed by a G⋅A and A⋅G pairs. The kinked conformation is stabilized by metal ions, or the binding of proteins including L7Ae. We now demonstrate a third mechanism for the stabilization of k-turn structure, involving tertiary interactions within a larger RNA structure. The SAM-I riboswitch contains an essential standard k-turn sequence that kinks a helix so that its terminal loop can make a long-range interaction. We find that some sequence variations in the k-turn within the riboswitch do not prevent SAM binding, despite preventing the folding of the k-turn in isolation. Furthermore, two crystal structures show that the sequence-variant k-turns are conventionally folded within the riboswitch. This study shows that the folded structure of the k-turn can be stabilized by tertiary interactions within a larger RNA structure. PMID:21893284
Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.
2014-10-01
This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.
Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA
Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J.; Malarkey, C. S.; Saperas, N.; Churchill, M. E. A.; Campos, J. L.
2015-06-30
The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.
Influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes
Biglari, H.; Chen, L.
1986-01-01
The influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes, dubbed ''fishbones'' in the literature, explored. A general dispersion relation, which recovers the ideal theory in its appropriate limit, is derived and analyzed. Implications of the theory for present generation fusion devices such as the Joint European Torus are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.
Non-linear propagation of kink waves to the solar chromosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stangalini, M.; Giannattasio, F.; Jafarzadeh, S.
2015-05-01
Small-scale magnetic field concentrations (magnetic elements) in the quiet Sun are believed to contribute to the energy budget of the upper layers of the Sun's atmosphere, as they are observed to support a large number of magneto-hydrodynamic modes. In recent years, kink waves in magnetic elements were observed at different heights in the solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the corona. However, the propagation of these waves has not been fully evaluated. Our aim is to investigate the propagation of kink waves in small magnetic elements in the solar atmosphere. We analysed high-quality, long duration spectropolarimetric data of a photospheric quiet Sun region observed near the disk centre with the spectropolarimeter CRISP at the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST). We complemented these data with simultaneous and co-spatial broadband chromospheric observations of the same region. Our findings reveal a clear upward propagation of kink waves with frequency above 2.6 mHz. Moreover, the signature of a non-linear propagation process is also observed. By comparing photospheric to chromospheric power spectra, no signature of an energy dissipation is found at least at the atmospheric heights at which the data analysed originate. This implies that most of the energy carried by the kink waves (within the frequency range under study < 17 mHz) flows to upper layers in the Sun's atmosphere.
Sachdeva, Virender; Haque, Nazmul; Pathengay, Avinash; Kekunnaya, Ramesh
2015-01-01
Neurofibromatosis Type I if associated with aplasia of greater wing of sphenoid may be associated with a pulsatile exophthalmos. However, very rarely it may be associated with a pulsatile enophthalmos. This clinical image describes a rare presentation with pulsatile enophthalmos, esotropia and kinking of the optic nerve due to neurofibomatosis type I. PMID:26903735
Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code
Li, G. Q. Xia, T. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.
2014-10-15
This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.
Fluid electron, gyrokinetic ion simulations of linear internal kink and energetic particle modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Michael; Mishchenko, Alexey; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Borchardt, Matthias
2014-07-01
The internal kink mode is an important plasma instability responsible for a broad class of undesirable phenomena in tokamaks, including the sawtooth cycle and fishbones. To predict and discover ways to mitigate this behaviour in current and future devices, numerical simulations are necessary. The internal kink mode can be modelled by reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Fishbone modes are an inherently kinetic and non-linear phenomenon based on the n = 1 Energetic Particle Mode (EPM), and have been studied using hybrid codes that combine a reduced MHD bulk plasma model with a kinetic treatment of fast ions. In this work, linear simulations are presented using a hybrid model which couples a fluid treatment of electrons with a gyrokinetic treatment of both bulk and fast ions. Studies of the internal kink mode in geometry relevant to large tokamak experiments are presented and the effect of gyrokinetic ions is considered. Interaction of the kink with gyrokinetic fast ions is also considered, including the destabilisation of the linear n = 1 EPM underlying the fishbone.
Fluid electron, gyrokinetic ion simulations of linear internal kink and energetic particle modes
Cole, Michael Mishchenko, Alexey; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Borchardt, Matthias
2014-07-15
The internal kink mode is an important plasma instability responsible for a broad class of undesirable phenomena in tokamaks, including the sawtooth cycle and fishbones. To predict and discover ways to mitigate this behaviour in current and future devices, numerical simulations are necessary. The internal kink mode can be modelled by reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Fishbone modes are an inherently kinetic and non-linear phenomenon based on the n = 1 Energetic Particle Mode (EPM), and have been studied using hybrid codes that combine a reduced MHD bulk plasma model with a kinetic treatment of fast ions. In this work, linear simulations are presented using a hybrid model which couples a fluid treatment of electrons with a gyrokinetic treatment of both bulk and fast ions. Studies of the internal kink mode in geometry relevant to large tokamak experiments are presented and the effect of gyrokinetic ions is considered. Interaction of the kink with gyrokinetic fast ions is also considered, including the destabilisation of the linear n = 1 EPM underlying the fishbone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Shang-You; Tang, Yi; Ren, Xi-Mei; Zhao, De-Jiang
2009-04-01
We report the oscillating propagation of kink in a nondissipative Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) chain driven by external DC force, which is different from the usual propagation of localized modes with equal speed. When the kink moves in the opposite direction of the external DC force, the kink will be accelerated and the potential of the FK chain in the external force field is transformed to be the kinetic energy of the kink. If the kink reaches the boundary of the FK chain, the kink will be bounced back and moves in the opposite direction, then the kink will be decelerated gradually and the kinetic energy of the kink is transformed to be the potential of the FK chain in the external force field. If the speed of the kink reaches zero, the kink will move in the opposite direction again driven by the external DC force, and a new oscillating cycle begins. Simulation result demonstrates exactly the transformation between the kinetic energy of the kink and the potential of the FK chain in the external force field. The interesting energy exchange is induced by the special topology of kinks, and other localized modes, such as breathers and envelope solitons, have no the interesting phenomenon.
Fantauzzi, Donato; Bandlow, Jochen; Sabo, Lehel; Mueller, Jonathan E; van Duin, Adri C T; Jacob, Timo
2014-11-14
ReaxFF force field parameters describing Pt-Pt and Pt-O interactions have been developed and tested. The Pt-Pt parameters are shown to accurately account for the chemical nature, atomic structures and other materials properties of bulk platinum phases, low and high-index platinum surfaces and nanoclusters. The Pt-O parameters reliably describe bulk platinum oxides, as well as oxygen adsorption and oxide formation on Pt(111) terraces and the {111} and {100} steps connecting them. Good agreement between the force field and both density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental observations is demonstrated in the relative surface free energies of high symmetry Pt-O surface phases as a function of the oxygen chemical potential, making ReaxFF an ideal tool for more detailed investigations of more complex Pt-O surface structures. Validation for its application to studies of the kinetics and dynamics of surface oxide formation in the context of either molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo simulations are provided in part by a two-part investigation of oxygen diffusion on Pt(111), in which nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations and MD simulations are used to characterize diffusion processes and to determine the relevant diffusion coefficients and barriers. Finally, the power of the ReaxFF reactive force field approach in addressing surface structures well beyond the reach of routine DFT calculations is exhibited in a brief proof-of-concept study of oxygen adsorbate displacement within ordered overlayers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidal-Iglesias, F. J.; Solla-Gullón, J.; Montiel, V.; Feliu, J. M.; Aldaz, A.
Ammonia has attracted attention as a possible fuel for direct fuel cells since it is easy to handle and to transport as liquid or as concentrated aqueous solution. However, on noble metal electrodes ammonia oxidation is a sluggish reaction and the electrocatalyst needs to be improved for developing efficient ammonia fuel cells. In this work, ammonia electrooxidation reaction on 3-4-nm bimetallic PtMe (Ir, Rh, Pd, Ru) and on preferentially oriented Pt(1 0 0) nanoparticles is reported. PtMe nanoparticles have been prepared by using water-in-oil microemulsions to obtain a narrow size distribution whereas preferentially oriented Pt nanoparticles have been prepared through colloidal routes. Among all the bimetallic samples tested, only Pt 75Ir 25 and Pt 75Rh 25 nanoparticles show, at the low potential range, an enhancement of the oxidation density current with respect to the behaviour found for pure platinum nanoparticles prepared by the same method. In addition, two Pt(1 0 0) preferentially oriented nanoparticles of different particle size (4 and 9 nm) have been also studied. These oriented nanoparticles show higher current densities than polycrystalline Pt nanoparticles due to the sensitivity of ammonia oxidation toward the presence of surface sites with square symmetry. The reactivity of the different 4-nm nanoparticles parallels well with that expected from bulk PtMe alloys and Pt single crystal electrodes.
Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S P
2013-04-28
PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on PT-symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a PT-symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the PT phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathematics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of PT-synthetic materials are being developed, and the PT phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics.
Pt redistribution during Ni(Pt) silicide formation
Demeulemeester, J.; Smeets, D.; Vantomme, A.; Van Bockstael, C.; Detavernier, C.; Comrie, C. M.; Barradas, N. P.; Vieira, A.
2008-12-29
We report on a real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry study of the erratic redistribution of Pt during Ni silicide formation in a solid phase reaction. The inhomogeneous Pt redistribution in Ni(Pt)Si films is a consequence of the low solubility of Pt in Ni{sub 2}Si compared to NiSi and the limited mobility of Pt in NiSi. Pt further acts as a diffusion barrier and resides in the Ni{sub 2}Si grain boundaries, significantly slowing down the Ni{sub 2}Si and NiSi growth kinetics. Moreover, the observed incorporation of a large amount of Pt in the NiSi seeds indicates that Pt plays a major role in selecting the crystallographic orientation of these seeds and thus in the texture of the resulting Ni{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}Si film.
Self-interconnecting Pt nanowire network electrode for electrochemical amperometric biosensor.
Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Li-Ping; Liang, Hai-Wei; Yu, Shu-Hong; Wen, Yongqiang; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Xueji
2015-07-14
One-dimensional Pt nanostructures are of considerable interest for the development of highly stable and sensitive electrochemical sensors. This paper describes a self-interconnecting Pt nanowire network electrode (PtNNE) for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose with ultrahigh sensitivity and stability. The as-prepared PtNNE consists of polycrystalline nanowires with high-index facets along the side surface which provides more active surface atoms on kinks and steps, those ultralong nanowires being interconnected with each other to form a free-standing network membrane. The excellent structural features of the PtNNE promoted its performance as a Pt-based electrochemical sensor both in terms of electrocatalytic activity and stability. Amperometric measurements towards hydrogen peroxide were performed; the PtNNE sensor showed an extremely high sensitivity of 1360 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). This excellent sensitivity is mainly attributed to the high-index facets of the nanowires resulting in their superior electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2, and the interconnected nanowire network forming an "electron freeway" transport model, which could provide multiple electron pathways and fast electron transport on the electrode, leading to rapid reaction and sensitive signal detection. The as-prepared PtNNE also holds promise as an oxidase-based biosensor. As a proof of concept, a PtNNE-based glucose biosensor also showed an outstanding sensitivity as high as 114 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a low detection limit of 1.5 μM, and an impressive detection range from 5 μM to 30 mM.
The transverse and rotational motions of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in the solar atmosphere
Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Verth, G.
2014-06-10
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves have now been observed to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere. With modern instruments, they have now been detected in the chromosphere, interface region, and corona. The key purpose of this paper is to show that kink waves do not only involve purely transverse motions of solar magnetic flux tubes, but the velocity field is a spatially and temporally varying sum of both transverse and rotational motion. Taking this fact into account is particularly important for the accurate interpretation of varying Doppler velocity profiles across oscillating structures such as spicules. It has now been shown that, as well as bulk transverse motions, spicules have omnipresent rotational motions. Here we emphasize that caution should be used before interpreting the particular MHD wave mode/s responsible for these rotational motions. The rotational motions are not necessarily signatures of the classic axisymmetric torsional Alfvén wave alone, because kink motion itself can also contribute substantially to varying Doppler velocity profiles observed across these structures. In this paper, the displacement field of the kink wave is demonstrated to be a sum of its transverse and rotational components, both for a flux tube with a discontinuous density profile at its boundary, and one with a more realistic density continuum between the internal and external plasma. Furthermore, the Doppler velocity profile of the kink wave is forward modeled to demonstrate that, depending on the line of sight, it can either be quite distinct or very similar to that expected from a torsional Alfvén wave.
Coronal loop seismology using damping of standing kink oscillations by mode coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Anfinogentov, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2016-05-01
Context. Kink oscillations of solar coronal loops are frequently observed to be strongly damped. The damping can be explained by mode coupling on the condition that loops have a finite inhomogeneous layer between the higher density core and lower density background. The damping rate depends on the loop density contrast ratio and inhomogeneous layer width. Aims: The theoretical description for mode coupling of kink waves has been extended to include the initial Gaussian damping regime in addition to the exponential asymptotic state. Observation of these damping regimes would provide information about the structuring of the coronal loop and so provide a seismological tool. Methods: We consider three examples of standing kink oscillations observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) for which the general damping profile (Gaussian and exponential regimes) can be fitted. Determining the Gaussian and exponential damping times allows us to perform seismological inversions for the loop density contrast ratio and the inhomogeneous layer width normalised to the loop radius. The layer width and loop minor radius are found separately by comparing the observed loop intensity profile with forward modelling based on our seismological results. Results: The seismological method which allows the density contrast ratio and inhomogeneous layer width to be simultaneously determined from the kink mode damping profile has been applied to observational data for the first time. This allows the internal and external Alfvén speeds to be calculated, and estimates for the magnetic field strength can be dramatically improved using the given plasma density. Conclusions: The kink mode damping rate can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool to determine the coronal loop density profile. This information can be used for further calculations such as the magnetic field strength or phase mixing rate.
Kink oscillations of cooling coronal loops with variable cross-section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruderman, M. S.; Shukhobodskiy, A. A.; Erdélyi, R.
2017-06-01
We study kink waves and oscillations in a thin expanding magnetic tube in the presence of flow. The tube consists of a core region and a thin transitional region at the tube boundary. In this region the plasma density monotonically decreases from its value in the core region to the value outside the tube. Both the plasma density and velocity of background flow vary along the tube and in time. Using the multiscale expansions we derive the system of two equations describing the kink oscillations. When there is no transitional layer the oscillations are described by the first of these two equations. We use this equation to study the effect of plasma density variation with time on kink oscillations of an expanding tube with a sharp boundary. We assume that the characteristic time of the density variation is much greater than the characteristic time of kink oscillations. Then we use the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) method to derive the expression for the adiabatic invariant, which is the quantity that is conserved when the plasma density varies. The general theoretical results are applied to the kink oscillations of coronal magnetic loops. We consider an expanding loop with the half-circle shape and assume that the plasma temperature inside a loop decays exponentially with time. We numerically calculated the dependences of the fundamental mode frequency, the ratio of frequencies of the first overtone and fundamental mode, and the oscillation amplitude on time. We obtained that the oscillation frequency and amplitude increase and the frequency ratio decreases due to cooling. The amplitude increase is stronger for loops with a greater expansion factor. This effect is also more pronounced for higher loops. However, it is fairly moderate even for loops that are quite high.
A CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE KINK INSTABILITY
Cho, Kyung-Suk; Bong, Su-Chan; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Lee, Jeongwoo; Joshi, Bhuwan
2009-09-20
We present a morphological study of the 2004 August 18 solar eruption that occurred in the active region NOAA 10656 near the west limb using extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) data from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), Halpha filtergram of Big Bear Solar Observatory, white light images of Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), hard X-ray (HXR) data of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and microwave data of the Owens Valley Solar Array. In this event, we have an excellent set of observations for tracing the early evolution of the coronal mass ejection (CME) from a flux rope emergence to its propagation into space as a well-connected series of events thanks to the coronameter's field of view (FOV) down to 1.1 solar radius in an overlap with that of the TRACE. This data set reveals continuously evolving EUV, Halpha, and WL features that suggest the rise of a small, low-lying loop, its writhing motion, break of the kinked loop at its crossing point, and transformation of the ejecta to the CME. The HXR and microwave sources are found in varying locations with a complicated temporal dependence, which, we interpret, is due to two successive flares in the event. The first flare appears to be associated with the rise of the small loop, which then triggers the second flare. During the second flare a HXR coronal source is detected at the crossing point of the kinked loop, and more intriguingly, the kinked loop apparently breaks at the crossing point of the two legs, which indicates a magnetic reconnection at the X-point configuration. After the break of the kinked UV loop, a CME structure shows up in the MLSO FOV, and propagates away from the Sun. It is concluded that this CME occurred due to the kink instability.
Magnetic properties of Co/Cu and Co/Pt bimetallic clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Q. L.; Zhu, L. Z.; Ma, L.; Wang, G. H.
2005-05-01
The ground state structures of Co/Cu and Co/Pt clusters are obtained by empirical genetic algorithm, and further optimized using the density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. For Co 13, Pt 13 and Cu 13, they show perfect Ih symmetry. The structures of bimetallic clusters are slightly distorted configuration of Co 13. The average magnetic moment of Co 13 is 2.38 μB/atom, and that of Cu 13 and Pt 13 is nonzero. The local moments of the central atom are smaller than that of the surface ones for Co 13 and Cu 13. But the cases are not held for Pt 13. The total magnetic moment of clusters Co/Pt monotonously decreases with increasing the concentration of Pt atoms. But the things are much more complicated for clusters Co/Cu, and the reasons are discussed in detail.
Possibility of charge density wave transition in a SrPt2Sb2 superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibuka, Soshi; Imai, Motoharu
2016-04-01
The first-order transition at T 0 = 270 K for the platinum-based SrPt2Sb2 superconductor was investigated using x-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. When polycrystalline SrPt2Sb2 was cooled down through T 0, the structure was transformed from monoclinic to a modulated orthorhombic structure, and no magnetic order was formed, which illustrates the possibility of a charge density wave (CDW) transition at T 0. SrPt2Sb2 can thus be a new example to examine the interplay of CDW and superconductivity in addition to SrPt2As2, BaPt2As2, and LaPt2Si2. It is unique that the average structure of the low-temperature phase has higher symmetry than that of the high-temperature phase.
Is space-time symmetry a suitable generalization of parity-time symmetry?
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier
2014-11-15
We discuss space-time symmetric Hamiltonian operators of the form H=H{sub 0}+igH{sup ′}, where H{sub 0} is Hermitian and g real. H{sub 0} is invariant under the unitary operations of a point group G while H{sup ′} is invariant under transformation by elements of a subgroup G{sup ′} of G. If G exhibits irreducible representations of dimension greater than unity, then it is possible that H has complex eigenvalues for sufficiently small nonzero values of g. In the particular case that H is parity-time symmetric then it appears to exhibit real eigenvalues for all 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheong, Sang-Wook
2008-03-01
Symmetries govern Nature ubiquitously from the beauty of human faces to the local gauge invariance of quantum field theory. Magnetic order in frustrated magnets can occur without space inversion symmetry. When it relaxes to the magnetically-ordered configuration through exchange-striction, lattice can also loose inversion symmetry, leading to the presence of ferroelectric polarization. In these magnetically-driven ferroelectrics, dielectric properties turn out to be highly susceptible to applied magnetic fields. Both symmetric and antisymmetric exchange coupling can be involved in the exchange-striction. One form of symmetry often broken in Nature is the symmetry between left- and right-handedness. For example, the manner in which light propagates naturally selects one handedness, and is customarily described by a right-handed rule, depicting the relationship among the oscillating electric field, magnetic field and propagation vector of light. Chiral molecules also have a definite handedness, and given the preponderance of chiral molecules, it is not surprising that most complex proteins as well as their constituent amino acids are chiral. What is remarkable however, is that most of naturally occurring amino acids share the same chirality; only left-handedness. Such handedness, or chirality, appears to be a characteristic signature of life. In the multiferroic spinel CoCr2O4, conical magnetic order accompanies ferroelectric polarization as well as ferromagnetic moment. The relevant handedness and chirality in the multiferroic state will be also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loebbert, Florian
2016-08-01
In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfel’d's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dilatation operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes. These lectures are illustrated by several examples, in particular the two-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model, the Heisenberg spin chain and { N }=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions.
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment.
On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts
Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.
2012-09-15
In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.
Symmetry in context: salience of mirror symmetry in natural patterns.
Cohen, Elias H; Zaidi, Qasim
2013-05-31
Symmetry is a biologically relevant, mathematically involving, and aesthetically compelling visual phenomenon. Mirror symmetry detection is considered particularly rapid and efficient, based on experiments with random noise. Symmetry detection in natural settings, however, is often accomplished against structured backgrounds. To measure salience of symmetry in diverse contexts, we assembled mirror symmetric patterns from 101 natural textures. Temporal thresholds for detecting the symmetry axis ranged from 28 to 568 ms indicating a wide range of salience (1/Threshold). We built a model for estimating symmetry-energy by connecting pairs of mirror-symmetric filters that simulated cortical receptive fields. The model easily identified the axis of symmetry for all patterns. However, symmetry-energy quantified at this axis correlated weakly with salience. To examine context effects on symmetry detection, we used the same model to estimate approximate symmetry resulting from the underlying texture throughout the image. Magnitudes of approximate symmetry at flanking and orthogonal axes showed strong negative correlations with salience, revealing context interference with symmetry detection. A regression model that included the context-based measures explained the salience results, and revealed why perceptual symmetry can differ from mathematical characterizations. Using natural patterns thus produces new insights into symmetry perception and its possible neural circuits.
Symmetry in context: Salience of mirror symmetry in natural patterns
Cohen, Elias H.; Zaidi, Qasim
2013-01-01
Symmetry is a biologically relevant, mathematically involving, and aesthetically compelling visual phenomenon. Mirror symmetry detection is considered particularly rapid and efficient, based on experiments with random noise. Symmetry detection in natural settings, however, is often accomplished against structured backgrounds. To measure salience of symmetry in diverse contexts, we assembled mirror symmetric patterns from 101 natural textures. Temporal thresholds for detecting the symmetry axis ranged from 28 to 568 ms indicating a wide range of salience (1/Threshold). We built a model for estimating symmetry-energy by connecting pairs of mirror-symmetric filters that simulated cortical receptive fields. The model easily identified the axis of symmetry for all patterns. However, symmetry-energy quantified at this axis correlated weakly with salience. To examine context effects on symmetry detection, we used the same model to estimate approximate symmetry resulting from the underlying texture throughout the image. Magnitudes of approximate symmetry at flanking and orthogonal axes showed strong negative correlations with salience, revealing context interference with symmetry detection. A regression model that included the context-based measures explained the salience results, and revealed why perceptual symmetry can differ from mathematical characterizations. Using natural patterns thus produces new insights into symmetry perception and its possible neural circuits. PMID:23729773
Seeing Science through Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, L. I.
Seeing Through Symmetry is a course that introduces non-science majors to the pervasive influence of symmetry in science. The concept of symmetry is usedboth as a link between subjects (such as physics, biology, mathematics, music, poetry, and art) and as a method within a subject. This is done through the development and use of interactive multimedia learning environments to stimulate learning. Computer-based labs enable the student to further explore the concept by being gently led from the arts to science. This talk is an update that includes some of the latest changes to the course. Explanations are given on methodology and how a variety of interactive multimedia tools contribute to both the lecture and lab portion of the course (created in 1991 and taught almost every semester since then, including one in Sweden).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Keh-Fei
The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of πNσ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral U(1) anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.
Weakly broken galileon symmetry
Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-09-01
Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.
BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryder, L. H.
2005-11-01
One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would
McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z.
2014-12-15
The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.
PT-symmetric metasurfaces: wave manipulation and sensing using singular points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakhdari, Maryam; Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen
2017-06-01
We investigate here active metasurfaces obeying parity-time (PT) symmetry and their sensing applications, taking advantage of singularities unique to non-Hermitian systems, such as the spontaneous PT-symmetry-breaking point (exceptional point or EP) and the coherent perfect absorber-laser (CPAL) point. We show theoretically that a PT-symmetric metasurface sensor may provide enhanced sensitivities compared to traditional passive sensors based on metamaterial/metasurface resonators, because the singular point of one-way zero reflection arising from the EP or the CPAL-related sharp resonance may result in dramatically modulated scattering responses or resonance offsets. We demonstrate the proposed concept with realistic metasurface sensors based on photopumped graphene metasurfaces that simultaneously offer terahertz optical gain and (bio)chemical sensing functions. The proposed PT-symmetric metasurfaces may impact not only loss compensation and extraordinary manipulation of electromagnetic waves, but also practical sensing and detection applications.
Symmetry constraint for foreground extraction.
Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen; Lin, Dongdai
2014-05-01
Symmetry as an intrinsic shape property is often observed in natural objects. In this paper, we discuss how explicitly taking into account the symmetry constraint can enhance the quality of foreground object extraction. In our method, a symmetry foreground map is used to represent the symmetry structure of the image, which includes the symmetry matching magnitude and the foreground location prior. Then, the symmetry constraint model is built by introducing this symmetry structure into the graph-based segmentation function. Finally, the segmentation result is obtained via graph cuts. Our method encourages objects with symmetric parts to be consistently extracted. Moreover, our symmetry constraint model is applicable to weak symmetric objects under the part-based framework. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach in extracting the foreground. Our method also shows improved results in segmenting objects with weak, complex symmetry properties.
Ordinary versus PT-symmetric Φ³ quantum field theory
Bender, Carl M.; Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele
2012-04-02
A quantum-mechanical theory is PT-symmetric if it is described by a Hamiltonian that commutes with PT, where the operator P performs space reflection and the operator T performs time reversal. A PT-symmetric Hamiltonian often has a parametric region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the energy eigenvalues are all real. There may also be a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. These regions are separated by a phase transition that has been repeatedly observed in laboratory experiments. This paper focuses on the properties of a PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. This quantum fieldmore » theory is the analog of the PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical theory described by the Hamiltonian H=p²+ix³, whose eigenvalues have been rigorously shown to be all real. This paper compares the renormalization group properties of a conventional Hermitian gΦ³ quantum field theory with those of the PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. It is shown that while the conventional gΦ³ theory in d=6 dimensions is asymptotically free, the igΦ³ theory is like a gΦ⁴ theory in d=4 dimensions; it is energetically stable, perturbatively renormalizable, and trivial.« less
Ordinary versus PT-symmetric Φ³ quantum field theory
Bender, Carl M.; Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele
2012-04-02
A quantum-mechanical theory is PT-symmetric if it is described by a Hamiltonian that commutes with PT, where the operator P performs space reflection and the operator T performs time reversal. A PT-symmetric Hamiltonian often has a parametric region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the energy eigenvalues are all real. There may also be a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. These regions are separated by a phase transition that has been repeatedly observed in laboratory experiments. This paper focuses on the properties of a PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. This quantum field theory is the analog of the PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical theory described by the Hamiltonian H=p²+ix³, whose eigenvalues have been rigorously shown to be all real. This paper compares the renormalization group properties of a conventional Hermitian gΦ³ quantum field theory with those of the PT-symmetric igΦ³ quantum field theory. It is shown that while the conventional gΦ³ theory in d=6 dimensions is asymptotically free, the igΦ³ theory is like a gΦ⁴ theory in d=4 dimensions; it is energetically stable, perturbatively renormalizable, and trivial.
Observation of spin rectification in Pt/yttrium iron garnet bilayer
Rao, Jinwei; Fan, Xiaolong Zhou, Hengan; Zhao, Xiaobing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Fengzhen; Xue, Desheng; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming
2015-05-07
We used the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to study the dc voltage generation in Pt 20 nm layer deposited on yttrium iron garnet. Although the main contribution to the FMR voltage comes from the inverse spin Hall effect associated with spin pumping, the spin rectification would also contribute the resonance signal via the “new” magnetoresistance effect in Pt layer. Based on a symmetry consideration, we can separate those two effects through angular dependent resonance amplitude.
Crystallography of Co/Pt multilayers and nanostructures
Zhang, Bing; Krishnan, K.M.; Farrow, R.F.C.
1992-04-01
Atomically engineered nanostructures and multilayers of Co/Pt exhibit strong perpendicular anisotropy. This unique property, that determines their potential as a magneto-optic recording media, is dependent on a variety of microstructural parameters that include the overall crystallography, thickness of the layers, orientation, defect formation, interface reactions etc. A series of Co/Pt multilayer samples with different thickness of the Co layer were studied by electron diffraction. It has been determined that the Co layers persists in the fcc structure up to a thickness of 50 {Angstrom}. As the thickness is varied fmm 3{Angstrom} to 50{Angstrom} in the multilayers, the Co film gradually relaxed to its bulk lattice parameter. (111) twinning and lattice strain at the interfaces between Pt and Co layers are also observed. The symmetry forbidden reflections observed at 1/3 (224) positions in (111) zone diffraction patterns of the multilayer are due to (111) twinning and compositional modulations along the multilayer growth direction.
PT-Symmetric Real Dirac Fermions and Semimetals.
Zhao, Y X; Lu, Y
2017-02-03
Recently, Weyl fermions have attracted increasing interest in condensed matter physics due to their rich phenomenology originated from their nontrivial monopole charges. Here, we present a theory of real Dirac points that can be understood as real monopoles in momentum space, serving as a real generalization of Weyl fermions with the reality being endowed by the PT symmetry. The real counterparts of topological features of Weyl semimetals, such as Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem, 2D subtopological insulators, and Fermi arcs, are studied in the PT symmetric Dirac semimetals and the underlying reality-dependent topological structures are discussed. In particular, we construct a minimal model of the real Dirac semimetals based on recently proposed cold atom experiments and quantum materials about PT symmetric Dirac nodal line semimetals.
Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.
2006-07-31
Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crumpecker, Cheryl
2003-01-01
Describes an art lesson used with children in the third grade to help them learn about symmetry, as well as encouraging them to draw larger than usual. Explains that students learn about the belief called "Horror Vacui" of the Northwest American Indian tribes and create their interpretation of this belief. (CMK)
Introduction to chiral symmetry
Koch, V.
1996-01-08
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.
Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-08-01
We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seidel, Judith Day
1998-01-01
Presents activities that demonstrate how technology can help students discover the mathematics in nature. Claims that these experiences can clarify students' vision of the symmetry of beauty that fills the world beyond the computer. Concludes that the use of flexible software tools helps students explore how a shape is affected when they change…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Renshaw, Barbara S.
1986-01-01
Trademark designs provide a familiar yet innovative way for students to look at a number of mathematical concepts. How line and rotational symmetry can be presented using trademarks is the focus of this article. The emphasis is on the design of bulletin boards. (MNS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto
2014-01-01
In contrast with the understanding of fluctuation symmetries for entropy production, similar ideas applied to the time-symmetric fluctuation sector have been less explored. Here we give detailed derivations of time-symmetric fluctuation symmetries in boundary-driven particle systems such as the open Kawasaki lattice gas and the zero-range model. As a measure of time-symmetric dynamical activity over time T we count the difference (Nℓ - Nr)/T between the number of particle jumps in or out at the left edge and those at the right edge of the system. We show that this quantity satisfies a fluctuation symmetry from which we derive a new Green-Kubo-type relation. It will follow then that the system is more active at the edge connected to the particle reservoir with the largest chemical potential. We also apply these exact relations derived for stochastic particle models to a deterministic case, the spinning Lorentz gas, where the symmetry relation for the activity is checked numerically.
An investigation of parity and time-reversal symmetry breaking in tight-binding lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, Derek Douglas
More than a decade ago, it was shown that non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with combined parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetry exhibit real eigenvalues over a range of parameters. Since then, the field of PT symmetry has seen rapid progress on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. These effective Hamiltonians are excellent candidates for describing open quantum systems with balanced gain and loss. Nature seems to be replete with examples of PT-symmetric systems; in fact, recent experimental investigations have observed the effects of PT symmetry breaking in systems as diverse as coupled mechanical pendula, coupled optical waveguides, and coupled electrical circuits. Recently, PT-symmetric Hamiltonians for tight-binding lattice models have been extensively investigated. Lattice models, in general, have been widely used in physics due to their analytical and numerical tractability. Perhaps one of the best systems for experimentally observing the effects of PT symmetry breaking in a one-dimensional lattice with tunable hopping is an array of evanescently-coupled optical waveguides. The tunneling between adjacent waveguides is tuned by adjusting the width of the barrier between them, and the imaginary part of the local refractive index provides the loss or gain in the respective waveguide. Calculating the time evolution of a wave packet on a lattice is relatively straightforward in the tight-binding model, allowing us to make predictions about the behavior of light propagating down an array of PT-symmetric waveguides. In this thesis, I investigate the the strength of the PT-symmetric phase (the region over which the eigenvalues are purely real) in lattices with a variety of PT-symmetric potentials. In Chapter 1, I begin with a brief review of the postulates of quantum mechanics, followed by an outline of the fundamental principles of PT-symmetric systems. Chapter 2 focuses on one-dimensional uniform lattices with a pair of PT-symmetric impurities in the case of
Nonlinear Modes in Finite-Dimensional PT-Symmetric Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zezyulin, D. A.; Konotop, V. V.
2012-05-01
By rearrangements of waveguide arrays with gain and losses one can simulate transformations among parity-time (PT-) symmetric systems not affecting their pure real linear spectra. Subject to such transformations, however, the nonlinear properties of the systems undergo significant changes. On an example of an array of four waveguides described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with dissipation and gain, we show that the equivalence of the underlying linear spectra does not imply similarity of the structure or stability of the nonlinear modes in the arrays. Even the existence of one-parametric families of nonlinear modes is not guaranteed by the PT symmetry of a newly obtained system. In addition, the stability is not directly related to the PT symmetry: stable nonlinear modes exist even when the spectrum of the linear array is not purely real. We use a graph representation of PT-symmetric networks allowing for a simple illustration of linearly equivalent networks and indicating their possible experimental design.
A New Series of Kinked Liquid Crystals: 2-(6-Alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methoxyquinolines
Chia, Win-Long; Liu, Chih-Wei
2015-01-01
A new series of 2-(6-alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methoxyquinolines (nO-NpQOMe, n = 3–8) liquid crystal compounds, a linear molecular structure with two kinks, were synthesized using a short two-step reaction with overall yields between 43% and 58%. Spectral analyses were in accord with the expected structures. Thermotropic behavior of these liquid crystal compounds were investigated using polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All compounds exhibited purely enantiotropic nematic phase at the medium–high temperature range of 162.4–234.2 °C. However, short ranges of nematic phase, 20.5–16.6 °C at heating and 46.7–37.0 °C at cooling, were observed in these linear liquid-crystalline compounds with two kinks. PMID:25849658
Disorder-free localization around the conduction band edge of crossing and kinked silicon nanowires
Keleş, Ümit; Çakan, Aslı; Bulutay, Ceyhun
2015-02-14
We explore ballistic regime quantum transport characteristics of oxide-embedded crossing and kinked silicon nanowires (NWs) within a large-scale empirical pseudopotential electronic structure framework, coupled to the Kubo-Greenwood transport analysis. A real-space wave function study is undertaken and the outcomes are interpreted together with the findings of ballistic transport calculations. This reveals that ballistic transport edge lies tens to hundreds of millielectron volts above the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, with a substantial number of localized states appearing in between, as well as above the former. We show that these localized states are not due to the oxide interface, but rather core silicon-derived. They manifest the wave nature of electrons brought to foreground by the reflections originating from NW junctions and bends. Hence, we show that the crossings and kinks of even ultraclean Si NWs possess a conduction band tail without a recourse to atomistic disorder.
Stability of the n{=}1 Internal Kink Mode in Plasmas with Centrally Peaked Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozeki, Takahisa; Azumi, Masafumi
1990-12-01
The stability of the n{=}1 internal kink mode in a tokamak is numerically analyzed for plasmas with a centrally peaked pressure profile. The effect of pressure profile is studied by the comparison of a strongly peaked pressure inside the q{=}1 surface with a parabolic pressure profile. The effects of shaping, i.e., elongation and triangularity, are also studied for the both pressure profiles. The plasma with the strongly peaked pressure profile has higher limiting value of poloidal beta defined within the q{=}1 surface than that of the parabolic pressure profile. Though the beta limit reduces with the increase of the elongation, the plasma with the peaked pressure profile has larger improvement due to the triangularity than that with the parabolic pressure profile. However, to enter the second stability region of the n{=}1 internal kink mode, the plasma with a flat pressure profile and the large minor radius of the q{=}1 surface is effective.
Disorder-free localization around the conduction band edge of crossing and kinked silicon nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keleş, Ümit; ćakan, Aslı; Bulutay, Ceyhun
2015-02-01
We explore ballistic regime quantum transport characteristics of oxide-embedded crossing and kinked silicon nanowires (NWs) within a large-scale empirical pseudopotential electronic structure framework, coupled to the Kubo-Greenwood transport analysis. A real-space wave function study is undertaken and the outcomes are interpreted together with the findings of ballistic transport calculations. This reveals that ballistic transport edge lies tens to hundreds of millielectron volts above the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, with a substantial number of localized states appearing in between, as well as above the former. We show that these localized states are not due to the oxide interface, but rather core silicon-derived. They manifest the wave nature of electrons brought to foreground by the reflections originating from NW junctions and bends. Hence, we show that the crossings and kinks of even ultraclean Si NWs possess a conduction band tail without a recourse to atomistic disorder.
Effects of Defects on the Mechanical Properties of Kinked Silicon Nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yun; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Chen, Xin; Gao, Jian; He, Yunbo; Wong, Ching-Ping
2017-03-01
Kinked silicon nanowires (KSiNWs) have many special properties that make them attractive for a number of applications. The mechanical properties of KSiNWs play important roles in the performance of sensors. In this work, the effects of defects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs are studied using molecular dynamics simulations and indirectly validated by experiments. It is found that kinks are weak points in the nanowire (NW) because of inharmonious deformation, resulting in a smaller elastic modulus than that of straight NWs. In addition, surface defects have more significant effects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs than internal defects. The effects of the width or the diameter of the defects are larger than those of the length of the defects. Overall, the elastic modulus of KSiNWs is not sensitive to defects; therefore, KSiNWs have a great potential as strain or stress sensors in special applications.
Effective distribution coefficients of a binary ideal solid solution controlled by kink kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Naoko; Kitamura, Masao
2001-01-01
Effective distribution coefficients of a binary ideal solid solution growing from dilute surroundings are derived for the steady state using a model in which atoms attach and detach only at kink sites on a (0 0 1) surface of a simple cubic crystal. A system of equations is presented to give the step-edge, terrace, and bulk compositions in terms of attachment and detachment frequencies. The total net flux of atoms from the mother phase to kink sites is also formulated as a function of these compositions and the frequencies. Numerical solutions to the system of equations show that the step-edge, terrace, and bulk compositions are different from one another and that the step-edge, terrace, and bulk distribution coefficients will all approach unity from their respective equilibrium values as the total net flux increases.
Cooper, W. A.; Brunetti, D.; Duval, B. P.; Faustin, J. M.; Graves, J. P.; Kleiner, A.; Patten, H.; Pfefferlé, D.; Porte, L.; Raghunathan, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T. M.
2016-04-15
Free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three dimensional deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed for the first time. The structures obtained have the appearance of saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. High edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number n = 1 corrugations for a high edge bootstrap current and larger n distortions when this current is small. Deformations in the plasma boundary region induce a nonaxisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlüter current driving a field-aligned current ribbon consistent with reported experimental observations. A variation in the 3D equilibrium confirms that the n = 1 mode is a kink/peeling structure. We surmise that our calculated equilibrium structures constitute a viable model for the edge harmonic oscillations and outer modes associated with a quiescent H-mode operation in shaped tokamak plasmas.
The worldvolume action of kink solitons in AdS spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.; Stokes, James
2012-08-01
A formalism is presented for computing the higher-order corrections to the worldvolume action of co-dimension one solitons. By modifying its potential, an explicit "kink" solution of a real scalar field in AdS spacetime is found. The formalism is then applied to explicitly compute the kink worldvolume action to quadratic order in two expansion parameters-associated with the hypersurface fluctuation length and the radius of AdS spacetime respectively. Two alternative methods are given for doing this. The results are expressed in terms of the trace of the extrinsic curvature and the intrinsic scalar curvature. In addition to conformal Galileon interactions, we find a non-Galileon term which is never sub-dominant. This method can be extended to any conformally flat bulk spacetime.
TOPICAL REVIEW Stabilization of the external kink and the resistive wall mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, M. S.; Okabayashi, M.
2010-12-01
The pursuit of steady-state economic production of thermonuclear fusion energy has led to research on the stabilization of the external kink and the resistive wall mode. Advances in both experiment and theory, together with improvements in diagnostics, heating and feedback methods have led to substantial and steady progress in the understanding and stabilization of these instabilities. Many of the theory and experimental techniques and results that have been developed are useful not only for the stabilization of the resistive wall mode. They can also be used to improve the general performance of fusion confinement devices. The conceptual foundations and experimental results on the stabilization of the external kink and the resistive wall mode are reviewed.
Nucleation rate of kink-antikink pairs in a driven and overdamped deformable chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yemélé, David; Kofané, Timoléon C.
1997-07-01
The equilibrium nucleation rate of thermally activated kink-antikink pairs, in nonlinear deformable substrate potential systems coupled to an external applied field, is determined analytically at low temperature, and in the limit of strong damping. We focus our attention on a class of parametrized one-site potential VRP(u,r) whose shape can be varied as a function of parameter r and which has the sine-Gordon shape as the particular case. We derive the driven kink velocity as well as the average velocity of the displacement of a particle as a function of an applied field. We show that for a given temperature this average velocity not only depends on the external field, but also on the shape parameter r. The model is used to describe the diffusion of atoms on metallic surfaces. Numerical values are estimated for the diffusion of hydrogen in tungsten (W) and ruthenium (Ru) substrates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, W. A.; Brunetti, D.; Duval, B. P.; Faustin, J. M.; Graves, J. P.; Kleiner, A.; Patten, H.; Pfefferlé, D.; Porte, L.; Raghunathan, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T. M.
2016-04-01
Free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three dimensional deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed for the first time. The structures obtained have the appearance of saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. High edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number n = 1 corrugations for a high edge bootstrap current and larger n distortions when this current is small. Deformations in the plasma boundary region induce a nonaxisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlüter current driving a field-aligned current ribbon consistent with reported experimental observations. A variation in the 3D equilibrium confirms that the n = 1 mode is a kink/peeling structure. We surmise that our calculated equilibrium structures constitute a viable model for the edge harmonic oscillations and outer modes associated with a quiescent H-mode operation in shaped tokamak plasmas.
Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge
Zheng, L. J.; Furukawa, M.
2014-08-15
It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the “peeling-off” modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture.
Effects of Defects on the Mechanical Properties of Kinked Silicon Nanowires.
Chen, Yun; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Chen, Xin; Gao, Jian; He, Yunbo; Wong, Ching-Ping
2017-12-01
Kinked silicon nanowires (KSiNWs) have many special properties that make them attractive for a number of applications. The mechanical properties of KSiNWs play important roles in the performance of sensors. In this work, the effects of defects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs are studied using molecular dynamics simulations and indirectly validated by experiments. It is found that kinks are weak points in the nanowire (NW) because of inharmonious deformation, resulting in a smaller elastic modulus than that of straight NWs. In addition, surface defects have more significant effects on the mechanical properties of KSiNWs than internal defects. The effects of the width or the diameter of the defects are larger than those of the length of the defects. Overall, the elastic modulus of KSiNWs is not sensitive to defects; therefore, KSiNWs have a great potential as strain or stress sensors in special applications.
Purgel, Mihály; Maliarik, Mikhail; Glaser, Julius; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Persson, Ingmar; Tóth, Imre
2011-07-04
the (CN)(4)Pt-Tl(dmso)(5)(+) system by using DFT calculations (B3LYP model) provide bond distances in excellent agreement with the EXAFS data. The four cyanide ligands are located in a square around the Pt atom, while the Tl atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral fashion with the metal being located 0.40 Å above the equatorial plane described by four oxygen atoms of dmso ligands. The four equatorial Tl-O bonds and the four cyano ligands around the Pt atom are arranged in an alternate geometry. The coordination environment around Pt may be considered as being square pyramidal, where the apical position is occupied by the Tl atom. The optimized geometry of (CN)(4)Pt-Tl(dmso)(5)(+) is asymmetrical (C(1) point group). This low symmetry might be responsible for the unusually large NMR linewidths observed due to intramolecular chemical exchange processes. The nature of the Pt-Tl bond has been studied by MO analysis. The metal-metal bond formation in (CN)(4)Pt-Tl(dmso)(5)(+) can be simply interpreted as the result of a Pt(5d(z(2)))(2) → Tl(6s)(0) donation. This bonding scheme may rationalize the smaller thermodynamic stability of this adduct compared to the related complexes with (CN)(5)Pt-Tl entity, where the linear C-Pt-Tl unit constitutes a very stable bonding system.
Hsu, S C; Bellan, P M
2003-05-30
The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma. Onset of column kinking agrees quantitatively with the Kruskal-Shafranov limit, and the kink acts as a dynamo which converts toroidal to poloidal flux. Regime II clearly leads to both poloidal flux amplification and the development of a spheromak configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takasao, Shinsuke; Fan, Yuhong; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Shibata, Kazunari
2015-11-01
We carried out an magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a subsurface twisted kink-unstable flux tube emerges from the solar interior to the corona. Unlike the previous expectations based on the bodily emergence of a knotted tube, we found that the kinked tube can spontaneously form a complex quadrupole structure at the photosphere. Due to the development of the kink instability before the emergence, the magnetic twist at the kinked apex of the tube is greatly reduced, although the other parts of the tube are still strongly twisted. This leads to the formation of a complex quadrupole structure: a pair of the coherent, strongly twisted spots and a narrow complex bipolar pair between it. The quadrupole is formed by the submergence of a portion of emerged magnetic fields. This result is relevant for understanding the origin of the complex multipolar δ-spot regions that have a strong magnetic shear and emerge with polarity orientations not following Hale-Nicholson and Joy Laws.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Kai; Qiao, Zhijun; Yin, Zhaoyang
2015-06-01
This paper is devoted to a new integrable two-component Camassa-Holm system with peaked solitons (peakons) and weak-kink solutions. It is the first integrable system that admits weak kink and kink-peakon interactional solutions. In addition, the new system includes both standard (quadratic) and cubic Camassa-Holm equations as two special cases. In the paper, we first establish the local well-posedness for the Cauchy problem of the system, and then derive a precise blow-up scenario and a new blow-up result for strong solutions to the system with both quadratic and cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, its peakon and weak kink solutions are discussed as well.
Petukhov, B. V.
2010-01-15
A model has been proposed for describing the influence of impurities adsorbed by dislocation cores on the mobility of dislocation kinks in materials with a high crystalline relief (Peierls barriers). The delay time spectrum of kinks at statistical fluctuations of the impurity density has been calculated for a sufficiently high energy of interaction between impurities and dislocations when the migration potential is not reduced to a random Gaussian potential. It has been shown that fluctuations in the impurity distribution substantially change the character of the migration of dislocation kinks due to the slow decrease in the probability of long delay times. The dependences of the position of the boundary of the dynamic phase transition to a sublinear drift of kinks x {proportional_to} t{sup {delta}} ({delta} {sigma} 1) and the characteristics of the anomalous mobility on the physical parameters (stress, impurity concentration, experimental temperature, etc.) have been calculated.
Takasao, Shinsuke; Shibata, Kazunari; Fan, Yuhong; Cheung, Mark C. M.
2015-11-10
We carried out an magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a subsurface twisted kink-unstable flux tube emerges from the solar interior to the corona. Unlike the previous expectations based on the bodily emergence of a knotted tube, we found that the kinked tube can spontaneously form a complex quadrupole structure at the photosphere. Due to the development of the kink instability before the emergence, the magnetic twist at the kinked apex of the tube is greatly reduced, although the other parts of the tube are still strongly twisted. This leads to the formation of a complex quadrupole structure: a pair of the coherent, strongly twisted spots and a narrow complex bipolar pair between it. The quadrupole is formed by the submergence of a portion of emerged magnetic fields. This result is relevant for understanding the origin of the complex multipolar δ-spot regions that have a strong magnetic shear and emerge with polarity orientations not following Hale-Nicholson and Joy Laws.
Feedback scheme for kink instability in ERL based electron ion collider
Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ptitsyn, V.
2011-03-28
Kink instability presents one of the limiting factors from achieving higher luminosity in ERL based electron ion collider (EIC). However, we can take advantage of the flexibility of the linac and design a feedback system to cure the instability. This scheme raises the threshold of kink instability dramatically and provides opportunity for higher luminosity. We studied the effectiveness of this system and its dependence on the amplitude and phase of the feedback. In this paper we present results of theses studies of this scheme and describe its theoretical and practical limitations. The main advantage of an energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron ion collider (EIC) over a ring-ring type counterpart is the higher achievable luminosity. In ERL-based version, one electron beam collides with the opposing ion beam only once so that the beam-beam parameter can largely exceed the usual limitation in an electron collider ring, while the beam-beam parameter for the ion beam remains small values. The resulting luminosity may be enhanced by one order of magnitude. The beam dynamics related challenges also arise as the luminosity boost in ERL based EIC due to the significant beam-beam effect on the electron beam. The effects on the electron beam include the additional large beam-beam tune shift and nonlinear emittance growth, which are discussed. The ion beam may develop a head-tail type instability, referred as 'kink instability', through the interaction with the electron beam. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of an active feedback system to mitigate the kink instability, by taking advantage of the flexibility of ERL. Throughout the paper, we will discuss the collision between proton and electron beam. Any other ion species can be scaled by its charge Z and ion mass A.
Jalwal, Gopal Krishan; Rajagopalan, Vanitha; Bindra, Ashish; Rath, Girija Prasad; Goyal, Keshav; Kumar, Atin; Gamanagatti, Shivanand
2014-04-01
The placement of central venous catheter using Seldinger's technique, remains a commonly performed procedure with its own risks and benefits. Various complications have been reported with the use of guide wire as well as catheter. We report a unique problem during subclavian vein cannulation due to guidewire malposition which led to its kinking and difficult retrieval requiring removal in fluoroscopy suit. The probable mechanism of guide wire entrapment and possible bedside management of similar problems is described.
M = 1 internal kink mode in the plateau and banana regimes in tokamaks
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Tsypin, V.S.
1983-01-01
A theory is derived for the m = 1 internal kink mode of a tokamak in the plateau and banana regimes. The growth rate for this mode in the plateau regime is shown to be smaller by a factor of a/R than the MHD prediction (a and R are the minor and major radii of the torus). The growth rate in the banana regime is higher than in the plateau regime and approaches the standard MHD value.
The Emergence of Kinked Flux Tubes as the Source of Delta-Spots on the Photosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knizhnik, Kalman; Linton, Mark; Norton, Aimee Ann
2017-08-01
It has been observationally well established that the magnetic configurations most favorable to producing energetic flaring events reside in so called delta-spots. These delta-spots are a subclass of sunspots, and are classified as sunspots which have umbrae (dark regions in the interior of sunspots) with opposite magnetic polarities that share a common penumbra. They are characterized by strong rotation and an extremely compact magnetic configuration, and are observed to follow an inverse-Hale law. It has been shown that over 90% of X-class flares that occurred during solar cycles 22 and 23 originated in delta-spots (Guo, Lin & Deng, 2014). Understanding the origin of delta-spots, therefore, is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of space weather forecasting. In this work, we argue that delta-spots arise during the emergence of kinked flux tubes into the corona, and that their unique properties are due to the emergence of knots present in the kink mode of twisted flux tubes. We present numerical simulations that study the emergence of both kink-stable and unstable flux tubes into the solar corona, and demonstrate quantitatively that their photospheric signatures are dramatically different, with the latter flux tubes demonstrating strong coherent rotation and a very tight flux distribution on the photosphere. We show that the coronal magnetic field resulting from the emergence of a kinked flux tube contains significantly more free energy than the unkinked case, potentially leading to more energetic flares. We discuss the implications of our simulations for observations.
Kink-antikink formation from an oscillation mode by sudden distortion of the evolution potential
Carvalho, C. S.; Perivolaropoulos, L.
2009-03-15
We demonstrate numerically that an oscillation mode in 1+1 dimensions (e.g., a breather or an oscillon) can decay into a kink-antikink pair by a sudden distortion of the evolution potential which occurs within a certain time or space domain. In particular, we consider the transition of a sine-Gordon potential into a {phi}{sup 4} potential. The breather field configuration is assumed to initially evolve in a sine-Gordon potential with velocity v and oscillation frequency {omega}. We then consider two types of numerical experiments: (a) an abrupt transition of the potential to a {phi}{sup 4} form at t{sub 0}=0 over the whole 1-dimensional lattice; and (b) the impact of the breather on a region x>x{sub 0}=0 where the potential has the {phi}{sup 4} form which is different from the sine-Gordon form valid at x
Synchronous oscillation prior to disruption caused by kink modes in HL-2A tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, M.; Hu, D.; Wang, X. G.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Zhong, W. L.; Dong, Y. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Gao, J. M.; Li, J. X.; Yang, Z. C.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, Y.
2015-08-01
A class of evident MHD activities prior to major disruption has been observed during recent radiation induced disruptions of the HL-2A tokamak discharges. It can be named SOD, synchronous oscillations prior to disruption, characterized by synchronous oscillation of electron cyclotron emission (ECE), core soft x-ray, Mirnov coil, and {{D}α} radiation signals at the divertor plate. The SOD activity is mostly observed in a parametric regime where the poloidal beta is low enough before disruption, typically corresponding to those radiation-induced disruptions. It has been found that the m/n = 2/1 mode is dominant during the SODs, and consequently it is the drop of the mode frequency and the final mode locking that lead to thermal quench. The mode frequency before the mode locking corresponds to the toroidal rotation frequency of the edge plasma. It is also found that during SODs, the location of the q = 2 surface is moving outward, and most of the plasma current is enclosed within the surface. This demonstrates that the current channel lies inside the rational surface during SOD, and thus the resistive kink mode is unstable. Further analysis of the electron temperature perturbation structure shows that the plasma is indeed dominated by the resistive kink mode, with kink-like perturbation in the core plasma region. It suggests that it is the nonlinear growth of the m/n = 2/1 resistive kink mode and its higher order harmonics, rather than the spontaneous overlapping of multiple neighboring islands, that ultimately triggered the disruption.
A draping technique for prevention of coronary bypass graft kinking and suture-line oozing.
Canver, C C
1996-01-01
Acute kinking of coronary bypass grafts and postoperative hemorrhage due to oozing from the anastomotic suture lines are uncommon but devastating complications of myocardial revascularization. Routine draping of arterial and venous coronary bypass grafts just prior to sternal closure by use of thrombin-soaked oxidized regenerated cellulose may help to avoid these potentially lethal complications. This practice appears to be devoid of any immediate or long-term sequela to the patient.
Whisker Hair (Acquired Progressive Kinking of the Hair): An Indication for Finasteride 1 mg?
Bagazgoitia, Lorea; Aboín, Sonsoles
2016-01-01
Acquired progressive kinking of the hair (APKH) and whisker hair are relatively rare conditions. To our knowledge, fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the English literature. We present the case of a 23-year-old man whose hair on the parietal and occipital areas changed and turned curlier and shorter. Patients suffering from APKH have higher risk of developing androgenetic alopecia and therefore finasteride 1 mg daily is proposed as an adequate treatment for these patients. PMID:27127372
Influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes
Biglari, H.; Chen, L.
1986-06-01
The influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes, dubbed ''fishbones'' in the literature, is explored. A general dispersion relation, which recovers the ideal theory in its appropriate limit, is derived and analyzed. An important implication of the theory for present generation fusion devices such as the Joint European Torus (Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, London, 1984), Vol I, p.11) is that they will be stable to fishbone activity.
Pt, Co-Pt and Fe-Pt alloy nanoclusters encapsulated in virus capsids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuda, M.; Eloi, J.-C.; Jones, S. E. Ward; Verwegen, M.; Cornelissen, J. J. L. M.; Schwarzacher, W.
2016-03-01
Nanostructured Pt-based alloys show great promise, not only for catalysis but also in medical and magnetic applications. To extend the properties of this class of materials, we have developed a means of synthesizing Pt and Pt-based alloy nanoclusters in the capsid of a virus. Pure Pt and Pt-alloy nanoclusters are formed through the chemical reduction of [PtCl4]- by NaBH4 with/without additional metal ions (Co or Fe). The opening and closing of the ion channels in the virus capsid were controlled by changing the pH and ionic strength of the solution. The size of the nanoclusters is limited to 18 nm by the internal diameter of the capsid. Their magnetic properties suggest potential applications in hyperthermia for the Co-Pt and Fe-Pt magnetic alloy nanoclusters. This study introduces a new way to fabricate size-restricted nanoclusters using virus capsid.
Hanson, Jeremy M.; De Bono, Bryan; Levesque, Jeffrey P.; Mauel, Michael E.; Maurer, David A.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Shiraki, Daisuke; James, Royce W.
2009-05-15
The simulation and experimental optimization of a Kalman filter feedback control algorithm for n=1 tokamak external kink modes are reported. In order to achieve the highest plasma pressure limits in ITER, resistive wall mode stabilization is required [T. C. Hender et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, S128 (2007)] and feedback algorithms will need to distinguish the mode from noise due to other magnetohydrodynamic activity. The Kalman filter contains an internal model that captures the dynamics of a rotating, growing n=1 mode. This model is actively compared with real-time measurements to produce an optimal estimate for the mode's amplitude and phase. On the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse experiment [T. H. Ivers et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 1926 (1996)], the Kalman filter algorithm is implemented using a set of digital, field-programmable gate array controllers with 10 {mu}s latencies. Signals from an array of 20 poloidal sensor coils are used to measure the n=1 mode, and the feedback control is applied using 40 poloidally and toroidally localized control coils. The feedback system with the Kalman filter is able to suppress the external kink mode over a broad range of phase angles between the sensed mode and applied control field. Scans of filter parameters show good agreement between simulation and experiment, and feedback suppression and excitation of the kink mode are enhanced in experiments when a filter made using optimal parameters from the scans is used.
SPATIAL DAMPING OF PROPAGATING KINK WAVES DUE TO RESONANT ABSORPTION: EFFECT OF BACKGROUND FLOW
Soler, R.; Goossens, M.; Terradas, J.
2011-06-20
Observations show the ubiquitous presence of propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in the solar atmosphere. Waves and flows are often observed simultaneously. Due to plasma inhomogeneity in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, kink waves are spatially damped by resonant absorption. The presence of flow may affect the wave spatial damping. Here, we investigate the effect of longitudinal background flow on the propagation and spatial damping of resonant kink waves in transversely nonuniform magnetic flux tubes. We combine approximate analytical theory with numerical investigation. The analytical theory uses the thin tube (TT) and thin boundary (TB) approximations to obtain expressions for the wavelength and the damping length. Numerically, we verify the previously obtained analytical expressions by means of the full solution of the resistive MHD eigenvalue problem beyond the TT and TB approximations. We find that the backward and forward propagating waves have different wavelengths and are damped on length scales that are inversely proportional to the frequency as in the static case. However, the factor of proportionality depends on the characteristics of the flow, so that the damping length differs from its static analog. For slow, sub-Alfvenic flows the backward propagating wave gets damped on a shorter length scale than in the absence of flow, while for the forward propagating wave the damping length is longer. The different properties of the waves depending on their direction of propagation with respect to the background flow may be detected by the observations and may be relevant for seismological applications.
Kink instability evidenced by analyzing the leg rotation of a filament
Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Ma, L.; Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. Q.; Liu, J. H.; Li, Z.
2014-02-20
Kink instability is a possible mechanism for solar filament eruption. However, it is very difficult to directly measure the twist of the solar filament from observation. In this paper, we measured the twist of a solar filament by analyzing its leg rotation. An inverse S-shaped filament in the active region NOAA 11485 was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2012 May 22. During its eruption, the leg of the filament exhibited a significant rotation motion. The 304 Å images were used to uncurl the circles, the centers of which are the axis of the filament's leg. The result shows that the leg of the filament rotated up to about 510° (about 2.83π) around the axis of the filament within 23 minutes. The maximal rotation speed reached 100 degrees/minute (about 379.9 km s{sup –1} at radius 18''), which is the fastest rotation speed reported. We also calculated the decay index along the polarity inversion line in this active region and found that the decline of the overlying field with height is not fast enough to trigger the torus instability. According to the kink instability condition, this indicates that the kink instability is the trigger mechanism for the solar filament eruption.
Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor.
Ishida, Y; Saitoh, T; Mochiku, T; Nakane, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S
2016-01-05
In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲ 70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc.
Sequence determinants of the folding properties of box C/D kink-turns in RNA.
Ashraf, Saira; Huang, Lin; Lilley, David
2017-09-27
Folding properties differ markedly between kink-turns (k-turns) that have different biological function. While ribosomal and riboswitch k-turns generally fold into their kinked conformation on addition of metal ions, box C/D snoRNP k-turns remain completely unfolded under these conditions, although they fold on addition of L7Ae protein. Sequence elements have been systematically exchanged between a standard ribosomal k-turn (Kt-7) that folds on addition of metal ions, and a box C/D k-turn. Folding was studied using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and gel electrophoresis. Three sequence elements each contribute in an approximately additive manner to the different folding properties of Kt-7 and box C/D k-turns from archaea. Bioinformatic analysis indicates that k-turn sequences evolve sequences that suit their folding properties to their biological function. The majority of ribosomal and riboswitch k-turns have sequences allowing unassisted folding in response to the presence of metal ions. By contrast, box C/D k-turns have sequences that require the binding of proteins to drive folding into the kinked conformation, consistent with their role in the assembly of the box C/D snoRNP apparatus. The rules governing the influence of sequence on folding properties can be applied to other standard k-turns to predict their folding characteristics. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Suppression of two-bounce windows in kink-antikink collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simas, F. C.; Gomes, Adalto R.; Nobrega, K. Z.; Oliveira, J. C. R. E.
2016-09-01
We consider a class of topological defects in (1, 1)-dimensions with a deformed ϕ 4 kink structure whose stability analysis leads to a Schrödinger-like equation with a zero-mode and at least one vibrational (shape) mode. We are interested in the dynamics of kink-antikink collisions, focusing on the structure of two-bounce windows. For small deformation and for one or two vibrational modes, the observed two-bounce windows are explained by the standard mechanism of a resonant effect between the first vibrational and the translational modes. With the increasing of the deformation, the effect of the appearance of more than one vibrational mode is the gradual disappearance of the initial two-bounce windows. The total suppression of two-bounce windows even with the presence of a vibrational mode offers a counterexample from what expected from the standard mechanism. For extremely large deformation the defect has a 2-kink structure with one translational and one vibrational mode, and the standard structure of two-bounce windows is recovered.
Extreme ultraviolet diagnostic upgrades for kink mode control on the HBT-EP tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levesque, J. P.; Brooks, J. W.; Desanto, S.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Page, J. W.; Hansen, C. J.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.
2016-10-01
Optical diagnostics can provide non-invasive measurements of tokamak equilibria and the internal characteristics of MHD mode activity. We present research plans and ongoing progress on upgrading extreme ultraviolet (EUV) diagnostics in the HBT-EP tokamak. Four sets of 16 poloidal views will allow tomographic reconstruction of plasma emissivity and internal kink mode structure. Emission characteristics of naturally-occurring m/n = 2/1, 3/2, and 3/1 tearing and kink modes will be compared with expectations from a synthetic diagnostic. Coupling between internal and external modes leading up to disruptions is studied. The internal plasma response to external magnetic perturbations is investigated, and compared with magnetic response measurements. Correlation between internal emissivity and external magnetic measurements provides a global picture of long-wavelength MHD instabilities. Measurements are input to HBT-EP's GPU-based feedback system, allowing active feedback for kink modes using only optical sensors and both magnetic and edge current actuators. A separate two-color, 16-chord tangential system will be installed next year to allow reconstruction of temperature profiles and their fluctuations versus time. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.
RESONANTLY DAMPED KINK MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD
Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.e
2009-12-10
Transverse oscillations of solar filament and prominence threads have been frequently reported. These oscillations have the common features of being of short period (2-10 minutes) and being damped after a few periods. The observations are interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave modes, whereas resonant absorption in the Alfven continuum and ion-neutral collisions are candidates to be the damping mechanisms. Here, we study both analytically and numerically the time damping of kink MHD waves in a cylindrical, partially ionized filament thread embedded in a coronal environment. The thread model is composed of a straight and thin, homogeneous filament plasma, with a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer where the plasma physical properties vary continuously from filament to coronal conditions. The magnetic field is homogeneous and parallel to the thread axis. We find that the kink mode is efficiently damped by resonant absorption for typical wavelengths of filament oscillations, the damping times being compatible with the observations. Partial ionization does not affect the process of resonant absorption, and the filament plasma ionization degree is only important for the damping for wavelengths much shorter than those observed. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the phenomenon of resonant absorption is studied in a partially ionized plasma.
Kink instability of force-free jets: a parameter space study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobacchi, E.; Lyubarsky, Y. E.; Sormani, M. C.
2017-07-01
In the paradigm of magnetic acceleration of relativistic jets, one of the key points is identifying a viable mechanism to convert the Poynting flux into the kinetic energy of the plasma beyond equipartition. A promising candidate is the kink instability, which deforms the body of the jet through helical perturbations. Since the detailed structure of real jets is unknown, we explore a large family of cylindrical, force-free equilibria to get robust conclusions. We find that the growth rate of the instability depends primarily on two parameters: (i) the gradient of the poloidal magnetic field and (ii) the Lorentz factor of the perturbation, which is closely related to the velocity of the plasma. We provide a simple fitting formula for the growth rate of the instability. As a tentative application, we use our results to interpret the dynamics of the jet in the nearby active galaxy M87. We show that the kink instability becomes non-linear at a distance from the central black hole comparable to where the jet stops accelerating. Hence (at least for this object), the kink instability of the jet is a good candidate to drive the transition from a Poynting-dominated to a kinetic-energy-dominated flow.
Nonlinear interactions of kink-unstable flux ropes and shear Alfvén waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Dehaas, T.; Tripathi, S. K. P.
2016-10-01
Magnetic flux ropes and shear Alfvén waves occur simultaneously in plasmas ranging from solar prominences, the solar wind, and the earth's magnetotail. If the flux ropes evolve to become unstable to the kink mode, interactions between the kink oscillations and the shear waves can arise, and may even lead to nonlinear phenomena. Experiments aimed at elucidating such interactions are performed in the upgraded Large Plasma Device at UCLA. Flux ropes are generated using a 20 cm × 20 cm LaB6 cathode discharge (with L=18 m and β 0.1 .) The ropes are embedded in a otherwise current-free, cylindrical (r = 30 cm) ambient plasma produced by a second, BaO cathode. Shear Alfvén waves are launched using either internal antennas, or by modulating the BaO cathode-anode discharge current. In the latter case, kink unstable oscillations and driven shear waves nonlinearly generate sidebands about the higher shear wave frequency (evident in power spectra) via three-wave coupling; this is demonstrated though bi-coherence calculations and k-matching. Informational complexity and entropy of the time series are also investigated. Future work will focus on antenna-launched waves to control amplitude and frequency, as well as a possible evolution to a turbulent state. Work performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by the DoE OFES and the NSF.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Wei, C. Q.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1988-01-01
This paper investigates the growth rates and eigenmode structures of the streaming sausage, kink, and tearing instabilities in a current sheet with a super-Alfvenic flow. The growth rates and eigenmode structures are first considered in the ideal incompressible limit by using a four-layer model, as well as a more realistic case in which all plasma parameters and the magnetic field vary continuously along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. An initial-value method is applied to obtain the growth rate and eigenmode profiles of the fastest growing mode, which is either the sausage mode or kink mode. It is shown that, in the earth's magnetotail, where super-Alfvenic plasma flows are observed in the plasma sheet and the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressures far away from the current layer is about 0.1-0.3 in the lobes, the streaming sausage and streaming tearing instabilities, but not kink modes, are likely to occur.
Nonlinear interactions of kink-unstable flux ropes and shear Alfvén waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincena, S. T.; Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W. N.
2016-12-01
Magnetic flux ropes and shear Alfvén waves occur simultaneously in plasmas ranging fromsolar prominences, the solar wind, and the earth's magnetotail. If the flux ropes evolve to becomeunstable to the kink mode, interactions between the kink oscillations and the shear waves can arise, andmay even lead to nonlinear phenomena.Experiments aimed at elucidating such interactions are performed in the upgraded Large Plasma Device at UCLA.Flux ropes are generated using a 20 cm × 20 cm LaB6 cathode discharge (with L=18 m and β ˜ 0.1.)The ropes are embedded in a otherwise current-free, cylindrical (r=30cm) ambient plasma produced by a second, BaO cathode. Shear Alfvén waves are launched using either internal antennas, or bymodulating the BaO cathode-anode discharge current. In the latter case, kink unstable oscillations and driven shear wavesnonlinearly generate sidebands about the higher shear wave frequency (evident in power spectra)via three-wave coupling; this is demonstrated though bi-coherence calculations and k-matching. Informational complexity and entropy of the time series are also investigated.Future work will focus on antenna-launched waves to control amplitude and frequency, as well as a possible evolution to a turbulent state.Work performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by the DoE OFES and the NSF.
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of kink waves in photospheric, chromospheric, and X-ray solar jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhelyazkov, I.
2013-09-01
One of the most enduring mysteries in solar physics is why the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, is millions of kelvins hotter than its surface. Among suggested theories for coronal heating are those that consider the role of various jets of plasma shooting up from just above the Sun's surface through the photosphere and chromosphere to corona. The energy carrying by the waves propagating along the jets can be dissipated and thus transferred to the medium via different mechanisms. Among the various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves which can propagate in the solar atmosphere the most promising for the heating process turns out to be the so cold kink waves. These waves actually are normal modes of the MHD waves running in spatially (or magnetically) bounded flux tubes. When plasma in a flux tube floats the kink mode can become unstable if the jet's speed exceeds some threshold/critical value. The instability which appears is of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type and it can trigger MHD turbulence, more specifically Alvfén waves' turbulence. Notably this kind of turbulence is considered to be one of the main mechanisms of coronal heating. Here, we consider the conditions under which kink waves traveling on three types of solar flowing plasmas, namely photospheric jets, spicules, and X-ray jets, can become unstable against the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
Active and passive kink mode studies in a tokamak with a movable ferromagnetic wall
Levesque, J. P.; Hughes, P. E.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P. J.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Rhodes, D. J.; Stoafer, C. C.
2015-05-15
High-resolution active and passive kink mode studies are conducted in a tokamak with an adjustable ferromagnetic wall near the plasma surface. Ferritic tiles made from 5.6 mm thick Hiperco{sup ®} 50 alloy have been mounted on the plasma-facing side of half of the in-vessel movable wall segments in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse device [D. A. Maurer et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 074016 (2011)] in order to explore ferritic resistive wall mode stability. Low-activation ferritic steels are a candidate for structural components of a fusion reactor, and these experiments examine MHD stability of plasmas with nearby ferromagnetic material. Plasma-wall separation for alternating ferritic and non-ferritic wall segments is adjusted between discharges without opening the vacuum vessel. Amplification of applied resonant magnetic perturbations and plasma disruptivity are observed to increase when the ferromagnetic wall is close to plasma surface instead of the standard stainless steel wall. Rapidly rotating m/n=3/1 external kink modes have higher growth rates with the nearby ferritic wall. Feedback suppression of kinks is still as effective as before the installation of ferritic material in vessel, in spite of increased mode growth rates.
Resonant absorption of kink magnetohydrodynamic waves by a magnetic twist in coronal loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars
2016-10-01
There is ample evidence of twisted magnetic structures in the solar corona. This motivates us to consider the magnetic twist as the cause of Alfvén frequency continuum in coronal loops, which can support the resonant absorption as a rapid damping mechanism for the observed coronal kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations. We model a coronal loop with a straight cylindrical magnetic flux tube, which has constant but different densities in the interior and exterior regions. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and aligned with the cylinder axis everywhere except for a thin layer near the boundary of the flux tube, which has an additional small magnetic field twist. Then, we investigate a number of possible instabilities that may arise in our model. In the thin tube thin boundary approximation, we derive the dispersion relation and solve it analytically to obtain the frequencies and damping rates of the fundamental (l = 1) and first/second overtone (l = 2, 3) kink (m = 1) MHD modes. We conclude that the resonant absorption by the magnetic twist can justify the rapid damping of kink MHD waves observed in coronal loops. Furthermore, the magnetic twist in the inhomogeneous layer can cause deviations from P1/P2 = 2 and P1/P3 = 3, which are comparable with the observations.
Structures and Symmetries in Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rangacharyulu, Chary
Symmetries play a very significant role in describing the dynamics of physical structures and phenomena. While preserved symmetries enable physicists to establish systematics and predict regularities, broken symmetries open up new avenues of research as they admit new degrees of freedom. Quite often, physicists resort to mathematical symmetries to define the patterns and use metaphors to convey meaning. A caution is warranted not to take the symbolisms too literally and to be aware of limitations while borrowing physics language into other disciplines.
Dynamic Release of Bending Stress in Short dsDNA by Formation of a Kink and Forks.
Kim, Cheolhee; Lee, O-chul; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Sung, Wokyung; Lee, Nam Ki
2015-07-27
Bending with high curvature is one of the major mechanical properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) that is essential for its biological functions. The emergence of a kink arising from local melting in the middle of dsDNA has been suggested as a mechanism of releasing the energy cost of bending. Herein, we report that strong bending induces two types of short dsDNA deformations, induced by two types of local melting, namely, a kink in the middle and forks at the ends, which we demonstrate using D-shaped DNA nanostructures. The two types of deformed dsDNA structures dynamically interconvert on a millisecond timescale. The transition from a fork to a kink is dominated by entropic contribution (anti-Arrhenius behavior), while the transition from a kink to a fork is dominated by enthalpic contributions. The presence of mismatches in dsDNA accelerates kink formation, and the transition from a kink to a fork is removed when the mismatch size is three base pairs. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vekilov, Peter
2010-03-01
Crystals, likely rhombohedral, of Zn-insulin hexamers form in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreases of many mammals. The suggested function of crystal formation is to protect the insulin from proteases and increase the degree of conversion of soluble proinsulin. To accomplish this, crystal growth should be fast and adaptable to rate fluctuations in the conversion reaction. Zn-insulin crystals grow layer-by-layer. Each layer spreads by the attachment of molecules to kinks located at the layers' edges, also called steps. The kinks are thought to be generated either by thermal fluctuations, as postulated by Gibbs, or by one-dimensional nucleation of new crystalline rows. The kink density determines the rate at which steps advance, and these two kink-generation mechanisms lead to weak near-linear responses of the growth rate to concentration variations. We demonstrate for the crystallization of Zn-insulin a novel mechanism of kink generation, whereby 2D clusters of several insulin molecules pre-formed on the terraces between steps associate to the steps. This mechanism results in several-fold higher kink density, faster rate of crystallization, and a high sensitivity of the kinetics to small increases of the solute concentration. If the found mechanism operates during insulin crystallization in vivo, it could be a part of the biological regulation of insulin production and function. For other crystallizing materials in biological and non-biological systems, this mechanism provides an understanding of the often seen non-linear acceleration of the kinetics.
Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2012-01-01
We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…
Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2012-01-01
We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…
Reflections on Symmetry and Proof
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrotsy, Peter
2008-01-01
The concept of symmetry is fundamental to mathematics. Arguments and proofs based on symmetry are often aesthetically pleasing because they are subtle and succinct and non-standard. This article uses notions of symmetry to approach the solutions to a broad range of mathematical problems. It responds to Krutetskii's criteria for mathematical…
Helical symmetry in linear systems
Bicak, Jiri; Schmidt, Bernd G.
2007-11-15
We investigate properties of solutions of the scalar wave equation and Maxwell's equations on Minkowski space with helical symmetry. Existence of local and global solutions with this symmetry is demonstrated with and without sources. The asymptotic properties of the solutions are analyzed. We show that the Newman-Penrose retarded and advanced scalars exhibit specific symmetries and generalized peeling properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chunfu; Zeng, Jiale
2017-02-01
Stability and dynamics of PT symmetric fundamental bright solitons supported by localized potentials in a focusing Kerr medium are investigated numerically. How the shape and magnitude of the imaginary component affect soliton stability is addressed when fixed real part of the potentials. The unbroken PT symmetry in linear case and stable region in nonlinear case are discussed. Numerical simulations proved that solitons can propagate stably when the loss or gain distribution become narrower. So we can stabilize the solitons through modulation the shape of imaginary component, and can use the method for solitons formation and control in other nonlinear media with PT potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Boer, Jan; Freivogel, Ben; Kabir, Laurens; Lokhande, Sagar F.
2017-07-01
In the AdS/CFT correspondence, bulk information appears to be encoded in the CFT in a redundant way. A local bulk field corresponds to many different non-local CFT operators (precursors). We recast this ambiguity in the language of BRST symmetry, and propose that in the large N limit, the difference between two precursors is a BRST exact and ghost-free term. This definition of precursor ambiguities has the advantage that it generalizes to any gauge theory. Using the BRST formalism and working in a simple model with global symmetries, we re-derive a precursor ambiguity appearing in earlier work. Finally, we show within this model that the obtained ambiguity has the right number of parameters to explain the freedom to localize precursors within different spatial regions of the boundary order by order in the large N expansion.
PSEUDOSPIN SYMMETRY IN NUCLEI, SPIN SYMMETRY IN HADRONS
P. PAGE; T. GOLDMAN; J. GINOCCHIO
2000-08-01
Ginocchio argued that chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is responsible for the relativistic pseudospin symmetry in the Dirac equation, explaining the observed approximate pseudospin symmetry in sizable nuclei. On a much smaller scale, it is known that spin-orbit splittings in hadrons are small. Specifically, new experimental data from CLEO indicate small splittings in D-mesons. For heavy-light mesons we identify a cousin of pseudospin symmetry that suppresses these splittings in the Dirac equation, known as spin symmetry. We suggest an experimental test of the implications of spin symmetry for wave functions in electron-positron annihilation. We investigate how QCD can give rise to two different dynamical symmetries on nuclear and hadronic scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Zhigang; Wang, Jer-Chyi; Pan, Liyang; Xu, Jun; Lai, Chao-Sung
2014-08-01
The total ionizing dose (TID) effects of 60Co γ ray radiation on the resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices with the structure of Ag/AlO x /Pt were studied. The resistance in low resistance state (LRS), set voltage, and reset voltage are almost immune to radiation, whereas the initial resistance, resistance at high resistance state (HRS), and forming voltage were significantly impacted after radiation due to the radiation-induced holes. A novel hybrid filament model is proposed to explain the radiation effects, presuming that holes are co-operated with Ag ions to build filaments. In addition, the thermal coefficients of the resistivity in LRS can support this hybrid filament model. The Ag/AlO x /Pt RRAM devices exhibit radiation immunity to a TID up to 1 Mrad(Si) and are highly suitable for radiation-hard electronics applications.
Chiral symmetry and pentaquarks
Dmitri Diakonov
2004-07-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, mesons and baryons are illustrated in the language of the Dirac theory. Various forces acting between quarks inside baryons are discussed. I explain why the naive quark models typically overestimate pentaquark masses by some 500 MeV and why in the fully relativistic approach to baryons pentaquarks turn out to be light. I discuss briefly why it can be easier to produce pentaquarks at low than at high energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojowald, Martin
2016-07-01
The equations of Hamiltonian gravity are often considered ugly cousins of the elegant and manifestly covariant versions found in the Lagrangian theory. However, both formulations are fundamental in their own rights because they make different statements about the nature of spacetime and its symmetries. These implications, along with the history of their derivation and an introduction of recent mathematical support, are the topic of this essay.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lopez, Hiram
1987-01-01
Transmission errors for zeros and ones tabulated separately. Binary-symmetry detector employs psuedo-random data pattern used as test message coming through channel. Message then modulo-2 added to locally generated and synchronized version of test data pattern in same manner found in manufactured test sets of today. Binary symmetrical channel shows nearly 50-percent ones to 50-percent zeroes correspondence. Degree of asymmetry represents imbalances due to either modulation, transmission, or demodulation processes of system when perturbed by noise.
Exceptional points and symmetry recovery in a two-state system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xu-Lin; Wang, Shubo; Chen, Wen-Jie; Chan, C. T.
2017-08-01
We consider a two-state system consisting of a pair of coupled ferromagnetic waveguides. A monotonically increasing bias magnetic field can dynamically manipulate the system to enter a PT -symmetry-broken phase and then reenter a symmetric phase. The symmetry recovery is enabled by the presence of accidental degeneracy points when the system has no loss and each degeneracy point can spawn a pair of exceptional points when asymmetric loss is introduced. We performed microwave experiments to demonstrate the presence of the exceptional point and symmetry recovery.
Symmetries in laminated composite plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.
1976-01-01
The different types of symmetry exhibited by laminated anisotropic fibrous composite plates are identified and contrasted with the symmetries of isotropic and homogeneous orthotropic plates. The effects of variations in the fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of the layers on the symmetries exhibited by composite plates are discussed. Both the linear and geometrically nonlinear responses of the plates are considered. A simple procedure is presented for exploiting the symmetries in the finite element analysis. Examples are given of square, skew and polygonal plates where use of symmetry concepts can significantly reduce the scope and cost of analysis.
Symmetry and Condensed Matter Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Batanouny, M.; Wooten, F.
2008-03-01
Preface; 1. Symmetry and physics; 2. Symmetry and group theory; 3. Group representations: concepts; 4. Group representations: formalism and methodology; 5. Dixon's method for computing group characters; 6. Group action and symmetry projection operators; 7. Construction of the irreducible representations; 8. Product groups and product representations; 9. Induced representations; 10. Crystallographic symmetry and space-groups; 11. Space groups: Irreps; 12. Time-reversal symmetry: color groups and the Onsager relations; 13. Tensors and tensor fields; 14. Electronic properties of solids; 15. Dynamical properties of molecules, solids and surfaces; 16. Experimental measurements and selection rules; 17. Landau's theory of phase transitions; 18. Incommensurate systems and quasi-crystals; References; Bibliography; Index.
Symmetry methods for option pricing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davison, A. H.; Mamba, S.
2017-06-01
We obtain a solution of the Black-Scholes equation with a non-smooth boundary condition using symmetry methods. The Black-Scholes equation along with its boundary condition are first transformed into the one dimensional heat equation and an initial condition respectively. We then find an appropriate general symmetry generator of the heat equation using symmetries and the fundamental solution of the heat equation. The symmetry generator is chosen such that the boundary condition is left invariant; the symmetry can be used to solve the heat equation and hence the Black-Scholes equation.
Invariants of broken discrete symmetries.
Kalozoumis, P A; Morfonios, C; Diakonos, F K; Schmelcher, P
2014-08-01
The parity and Bloch theorems are generalized to the case of broken global symmetry. Local inversion or translation symmetries in one dimension are shown to yield invariant currents that characterize wave propagation. These currents map the wave function from an arbitrary spatial domain to any symmetry-related domain. Our approach addresses any combination of local symmetries, thus applying, in particular, to acoustic, optical, and matter waves. Nonvanishing values of the invariant currents provide a systematic pathway to the breaking of discrete global symmetries.
Invariants of Broken Discrete Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalozoumis, P. A.; Morfonios, C.; Diakonos, F. K.; Schmelcher, P.
2014-08-01
The parity and Bloch theorems are generalized to the case of broken global symmetry. Local inversion or translation symmetries in one dimension are shown to yield invariant currents that characterize wave propagation. These currents map the wave function from an arbitrary spatial domain to any symmetry-related domain. Our approach addresses any combination of local symmetries, thus applying, in particular, to acoustic, optical, and matter waves. Nonvanishing values of the invariant currents provide a systematic pathway to the breaking of discrete global symmetries.
Active functional devices using parity-time symmetry optics (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brac de la Perriere, Vincent; Benisty, Henri; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Lupu, Anatole
2017-05-01
The progress of nanotechnologies has triggered the emergence of many photonic artificial structures: photonic crystals, metamaterials, plasmonic resonators. Recently the intriguing class of PT-symmetric devices, referring to Parity-Time symmetry [1] has attracted much attention. The characteristic feature of PT-symmetry is that the structures' refractive index profile is complex-valued due to the presence of alternating gain and loss regions in the system. Apart from fundamental research motivations, the tremendous interest in these artificial systems is strongly driven by the practical outcomes expected to foster a new generation of tunable, reconfigurable and non-reciprocal devices. The principle of gain-loss modulation lying in the heart of PT-symmetry optics enables a range of innovative solutions in the field of integrated optics at 1.5μm [2-7]. By using PT-symmetric coupled waveguides and Bragg reflectors as fundamental building blocks, it is possible to build a wide variety of functional optical devices. The PT-symmetry principle provides an alternative way for the realization of active devices that could become functional in a new platform for integrated optics. For instance one major bottleneck of the III-V/Si hybrid integration approach is that each type of active devices (laser, modulator, etc) requires a specific composition of III-V semiconductor alloy, involving a variety of (re)growth challenges. The advantage of the PT-symmetry solution is that the fabrication of all these devices can be done with a single stack of III-V semiconductor alloys that greatly simplifies the technological process. The aim of the current contribution is to provide a survey of the most promising applications of PT-symmetry in photonics with a particular emphases on the transition from theoretical concepts to experimental devices. The intention is to draw attention to the risks and issues related to the practical implementation that are most often overlooked in the basic
Mechanical properties of non-centrosymmetric CePt3Si and CePt3B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogl, G.; Legut, D.; Sýkora, R.; Müller, P.; Müller, H.; Bauer, E.; Puchegger, S.; Zehetbauer, M.; Rogl, P.
2017-05-01
Elastic moduli, hardness (both at room temperature) and thermal expansion (4.2-670 K) have been experimentally determined for polycrystalline CePt3Si and its prototype compound CePt3B as well as for single-crystalline CePt3Si. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to determine elastic properties (Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio ν) via the eigenfrequencies of the sample and the knowledge of sample mass and dimensions. Bulk and shear moduli were calculated from E and ν, and the respective Debye temperatures were derived. In addition, ab initio DFT calculations were carried out for both compounds. A comparison of parameters evaluated from DFT with those of experiments revealed, in general, satisfactory agreement. Positive and negative thermal expansion values obtained from CePt3Si single crystal data are fairly well explained in terms of the crystalline electric field model, using CEF parameters derived recently from inelastic neutron scattering. DFT calculations, in addition, demonstrate that the atomic vibrations keep almost unaffected by the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling present in systems with crystal structures having no inversion symmetry. This is opposite to electronic properties, where the antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction has shown to distinctly influence features like the superconducting condensate of CePt3Si.
Photoelectron spectroscopic and computational studies of the Pt@Pb101- and Pt@Pb121-/2- anions
Grubisic, Andrej; Wang, Haopeng; Li, Xiang; Ko, Yeon-Jae; Kocak, F. Sanem; Pederson, Mark R.; Bowen, Kit H.; Eichhorn, Bryan W.
2011-01-01
A combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations has elucidated the geometric and electronic structure of gas-phase endohedral Pt/Pb cage cluster anions. The anions, and were prepared from “preassembled” clusters generated from crystalline samples of [K(2,2,2-crypt)]2[Pt @ Pb12] that were brought into the gas phase using a unique infrared desorption/photoemission anion source. The use of crystalline [K(2,2,2-crypt)]2[Pt @ Pb12] also provided access to K[Pt @ Pbn]- anions in the gas phase (i.e., the K+ salts of the anions). Anion photoelectron spectra of , , and K[Pt @ Pb12]1- are presented. Extensive density functional theory calculations on and provided candidate structures and anion photoelectron spectra for and . Together, the calculated and measured photoelectron spectra show that and endohedral complexes maintain their respective D4d and slightly distorted Ih symmetries in the gas phase even for the charge states with open shell character. Aside from the fullerenes, the endohedral complex is the only bare cluster that has been structurally characterized in the solid state, solution, and the gas phase. PMID:21876183
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruderman, M. S.; Petrukhin, N. S.; Pelinovsky, E.
2016-04-01
We study kink oscillations of thin magnetic tubes. We assume that the density inside and outside the tube (and possibly also the cross-section radius) can vary along the tube. This variation is assumed to be of such a form that the kink speed is symmetric with respect to the tube centre and varies monotonically from the tube ends to the tube centre. Then we prove a theorem stating that the ratio of periods of the fundamental mode and first overtone is a monotonically increasing function of the ratio of the kink speed at the tube centre and the tube ends. In particular, it follows from this theorem that the period ratio is lower than two when the kink speed increases from the tube ends to its centre, while it is higher than two when the kink speed decreases from the tube ends to its centre. The first case is typical for non-expanding coronal magnetic loops, and the second for prominence threads. We apply the general results to particular problems. First we consider kink oscillations of coronal magnetic loops. We prove that, under reasonable assumptions, the ratio of the fundamental period to the first overtone is lower than two and decreases when the loop size increases. The second problem concerns kink oscillations of prominence threads. We consider three internal density profiles: generalised parabolic, Gaussian, and Lorentzian. Each of these profiles contain the parameter α that is responsible for its sharpness. We calculate the dependence of the period ratio on the ratio of the mean to the maximum density. For all considered values of α we find that a formula relating the period ratio and the ratio of the mean and maximum density suggested by Soler, Goossens, and Ballester ( Astron. Astrophys. 575, A123, 2015) gives a sufficiently good approximation to the exact dependence.
Dicyclic horizontal symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Otto Cho Wing
In the very successful standard theory of particle physics, the occurrence of repeated quark and lepton flavors, and especially their peculiar mass spectrum, can be accommodated parametrically but is largely unexplained. The present dissertation is an investigation into dicyclic horizontal symmetries as a theory addressing this elusive problem of flavor, as well as some other related issues in particle physics. A horizontal symmetry is a supplement to the perspective based on the experimentally well-established standard model, and its (supersymmetric) unification theories. Dicyclic groups are a special class of discrete non- abelian groups. The most pressing part of the flavor problem in the standard model is the existence of three families of (fermionic) matter and the unnaturally large hierarchy among the parameters describing their masses and mixing. In particular, the top quark is singled out as the only fermion having a natural mass at electroweak breaking scale. While bottom and tau masses may be suppressed by the Higgs vacuum expectation value, the small masses of the other two families beg an explanation. The supersymmetric counterpart of the problem is the need for a high degree of degeneracy especially among the squarks of the lighter two families. We first analyze the phenomenologically-viable quark and squark mass matrix textures using a simple algebraic method, paying particular attention to a 2 + 1 family structure. These serve as inputs for our model building exercises. We next illustrate how the various theoretical and phenomenological constraints single out a gauged dicyclic group as the most appealing candidate for a horizontal symmetry and discuss systematically our major model building strategies. A few models obtained along this line are then presented. These include a supersymmetric SU(5) /otimes Q12 /otimes U(1) model that successfully produces a phenomenologically-viable mass matrix texture pattern for the quarks and squarks.
1985-08-01
Symmetry representations can be computed robustly from input images and provide intuitive descriptions of elongated regions. For exam- pie , Figure 5...upper left), a squash (upper right), a pecan (lower left), and an eggplant (lower right). - 77 L 7 04 lI..’. Figure 4-15. Analysis of the images from...agree with my perceptions: some of the figures it analyzes as clearly one region seem to me to be on the borderline, e.g. the pecan in Figures 16 and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strocchi, Franco
One of the most powerful ideas of modern theoretical physics is the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is at the basis of most of the recent achievements in the description of phase transitions in Statistical Mechanics as well as of collective phenomena in solid state physics. It has also made possible the unification of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions in elementary particle physics. Philosophically, the idea is very deep and subtle (this is probably why its exploitation is a rather recent achievement) and the popular accounts do not fully do justice to it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Allen; Lee, Ha Youn; Kardar, Mehran
2005-09-01
Locomotion of bacteria by actin polymerization and in vitro motion of spherical beads coated with a protein catalyzing polymerization are examples of active motility. Starting from a simple model of forces locally normal to the surface of a bead, we construct a phenomenological equation for its motion. The singularities at a continuous transition between moving and stationary beads are shown to be related to the symmetries of its shape. Universal features of the phase behavior are calculated analytically and confirmed by simulations. Fluctuations in velocity are shown to be generically non-Maxwellian and correlated to the shape of the bead.
Characterization of azo dyes on Pt and Pt/polyaniline/dispersed Pt electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina, J.; Fernández, J.; del Río, A. I.; Bonastre, J.; Cases, F.
2012-06-01
The electrochemical characterization of two organic dyes (amaranth and procion orange MX-2R) has been performed on Pt electrodes and Pt electrodes coated with polyaniline and dispersed Pt. Electrodes with different Pt loads have been synthesized and characterized obtaining that a load of 300 μg cm-2 was the optimum one. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to observe the distribution and morphology of the Pt nanoparticles. The electroactivity of the electrodes has also been characterized by means of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The chemical characterization of Pt dispersed Pani coated Pt electrodes (Pt-Pani-Pt) was performed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical characterization of the dyes has been performed by means of cyclic voltammetry. Voltammograms have shown that the presence of the dyes diminishes characteristic Pt oxidation and reduction peaks. However, redox processes due to the dyes, appeared in the voltammograms. The different species responsible of these redox processes were generated in the vicinity of the electrode and were not adsorbed on the electrode surface since after stirring, the different redox processes disappeared. Characterization with different scan rates showed that redox processes of both dyes were controlled by diffusion.
Retroflection from slanted and kinked coastlines: models for Agulhas leakage variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharkov, V.; Nof, D.; Weijer, W.
2010-12-01
Agulhas leakage, the transport of Agulhas Current water from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean, has been shut off during past glacial periods, a phenomenon tentatively ascribed to northward migration of westerly wind bands. At present, the leakage is significant and its magnitude exhibits an anti-correlation with the current's incoming mass flux. Our work shows that both these phenomena can be explained by the orientation of the coastline along which the Agulhas Retroflection shifts. We developed two semi-analytical nonlinear 1 1/2 -layer models of current retroflection from slanted and ‘kinked’ coastlines on the β-plane. 'Slant,' γ, refers to the angle of the coastline relative to the zonal direction; a 'kink' is an abrupt change in that angle. Based on these models, we define lower and upper boundaries for the radius of a detached eddy, its propagation velocity, and its detachment period. For the case of a straightforward slanted coast, such limits are shown to intersect for a critical value of γ, thus imposing a strong restriction on ring detachment from the retroflection area when γ exceeds this critical value. In the case of a kinked coast with an eastern high-slant region and a western low-slant region, free westward propagation of eddies along the low-angle section is allowed. For a wide range of eastern slant, rings are shed from the retroflection area regardless of the degree of slant. However, when this eastern slant is nearly 90 degrees, the regime is nearly critical and few rings are shed. Glacial/interglacial migration of the Agulhas Retroflection was investigated using the slanted-coast (no-kink) model. Ring shedding in this case occurs only when the point of vanishing wind stress curl is located along a coastline of sufficiently low slant. During glacial periods, wind stress curl vanishes at a relatively low latitude, where the angle of the African coastline is greater than the critical angle, thus prohibiting the retroflection from
The compressibility of nanocrystalline Pt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikheykin, A. S.; Dmitriev, V. P.; Chagovets, S. V.; Kuriganova, A. B.; Smirnova, N. V.; Leontyev, I. N.
2012-10-01
High-pressure behavior of carbon supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) with an average particle size of 10.6 nm was investigated by in situ high-pressure synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction up to 14 GPa at ambient temperature. Our results show that the compressibility of Pt/C nanoparticles decreases substantially as the particle size decreases. An interpretation based upon the available mechanisms of structural compliance in nanoscale vs bulk materials was proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhen, Tiejun
Dislocation-based deformation in crystalline solids is almost always plastic. Once dislocations are generated they entangle and render the process irreversible. In our recent work we show that this does not apply to a new class of materials, best characterized as kinking nonlinear elastic (KNE) solids. KNE solids include the MAX phases, mica, graphite, boron nitride, so called nonlinear mesoscopic elastic (NME) solids discussed in geological literature and most probably ice. The MAX phases are a new class of layered machinable ternary carbides and nitrides, with the chemical formula M n+1AXn, where M is an early transition metal, A is an A-group element (mostly IIIA and IVA) and X is C or N. The compressive loading-unloading stress-strain curves of KNE solids in the elastic regime outline nonlinear, fully reversible, reproducible, rate-independent, closed hysteresis loops whose shape and extent of energy dissipated are strongly influenced by grain size with the energy dissipated being significantly larger in the coarse-grained material. This unique property is attributed to the formation and annihilation of incipient kink bands (IKBs), defined to be thin plates of sheared material bounded by opposite walls of dislocations. As long as the dislocation walls remain attached, the response is fully reversible. Furthermore, because the dislocations are confined to the basal planes work hardening does not occur and the dislocations can move reversibly over relatively large distances. This kind of dislocation motion renders KNE solids potentially high damping material. The loss factor for Ti3SiC2, a prime member of KNE solids, is higher than most woods, and comparable to polypropylene and nylon. At higher temperatures or stress, since the IKB dissociate and coalesce to form regular irreversible kink bands. The close hystesis loops are open, the response is strain-rate dependent, and cyclic hardening is observed even at 1200°C.
Switch-on Shock and Nonlinear Kink Alfvén Waves in Solar Polar Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Uritsky, Vadim
2016-05-01
It is widely accepted that solar polar jets are produced by fast magnetic reconnection in the low corona, whether driven directly by flux emergence from below or indirectly by instability onset above the photosphere. In either scenario, twisted flux on closed magnetic field lines reconnects with untwisted flux on nearby open field lines. Part of the twist is inherited by the newly reconnected open flux, which rapidly relaxes due to magnetic tension forces that transmit the twist impulsively into the outer corona and heliosphere. We propose that this transfer of twist launches switch-on MHD shock waves, which propagate parallel to the ambient coronal magnetic field ahead of the shock and convect a perpendicular component of magnetic field behind the shock. In the frame moving with the shock front, the post-shock flow is precisely Alfvénic in all three directions, whereas the pre-shock flow is super-Alfvénic along the ambient magnetic field, yielding a density enhancement at the shock front. Nonlinear kink Alfvén waves are exact solutions of the time-dependent MHD equations in the post-shock region when the ambient corona is uniform and the magnetic field is straight. We have performed and analyzed 3D Cartesian and spherical simulations of polar jets driven by instability onset in the corona. The results of both simulations are consistent with the generation of MHD switch-on shocks trailed predominantly by incompressible kink Alfvén waves. It is noteworthy that the kink waves are irrotational, in sharp contrast to the vorticity-bearing torsional waves reported from previous numerical studies. We will discuss the implications of the results for understanding solar polar jets and predicting their heliospheric signatures. Our research was supported by NASA’s LWS TR&T and H-SR programs.
Kink Waves in Non-isothermal Stratified Solar Waveguides: Effect of the External Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.
2017-10-01
We study the effect of an external magnetic field on the properties of kink waves, propagating along a thin non-isothermal stratified and diverging magnetic flux tube. A wave equation, governing the propagation of kink waves under the adopted model is derived. It is shown that the vertical gradient of temperature introduces a spatially local cut-off frequency ω c . The vertical distribution of the cut-off frequency is calculated for the reference VAL-C model of the solar atmosphere and for different values of a ratio of external to internal magnetic fields. The results show that the cut-off frequency is negative below the temperature minimum due to the negative temperature gradient. In the chromosphere the cut-off frequency at a given height is smaller for a stronger external magnetic field. For the appropriate range of a ratio B e /B i ≈ 0–0.8, the cutoff lies in the range ω c ≈ 0.003–0.010 s‑1 (periods 600 < P c < 2000 s). The estimate of the cut-off frequency in the transition region is provided as well. In the propagating wave regime, the effective wave energy flux in the non-isothermal diverging flux tubes is the same as in the straight and homogeneous cylindrical waveguides. The obtained wave equation in the limit β = 0 is used to study the kink oscillations of non-isothermal coronal loops. It is found that the gradient of temperature along the coronal loops reduces the frequency ratio of the first overtone to the fundamental mode, i.e., ω 2/ω 1 < 2. This reduction grows for a larger ratio of temperature at the loop top to the temperature at the footpoints. Moreover, the effect of reduction is most pronounced for the steeper temperature profiles.
Standing kink oscillations of thin twisted magnetic tubes with continuous equilibrium magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruderman, M. S.; Terradas, J.
2015-08-01
In this article we study standing kink waves in twisted magnetic tubes. We use the cold plasma and thin tube approximation. We assume that the plasma density is constant inside and outside the tube. We also assume that the magnetic twist is weak and take the ratio of the azimuthal and axial component of the magnetic field to be of the order of ratio of the tube radius and tube length. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field is proportional to the distance from the tube axis inside the tube, and inversely proportional to this distance outside the tube. Using the method of asymptotic expansions we derived the governing integral equation that determines the eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of the tube kink oscillations. In the approximation of a very weak twist, we calculated analytically the corrections to the frequencies of the fundamental mode and first overtone of a straight magnetic tube related to the presence of twist. The analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained using the full set of linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. We also calculated the ratio of frequencies of the fist overtone and fundamental mode. We found that the magnetic twist enhances this ratio for moderate values of the density ratio, and reduces this ratio for large values of the density ratio. In general, the deviation of the frequency ratio from 2 caused by the magnetic twist is comparable to that found in simultaneous observations of the fundamental mode and first overtone of the coronal loop kink oscillations. Finally, we studied the eigenmode polarization. We found that, in a particular case of linear polarization, the polarization direction rotates along the tube.
Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet
Li, C. K.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lamb, D.; ...
2016-10-07
X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the South-East jet in the Crab nebula changes direction every few years. This remarkable phenomenon is also observed in jets associated with pulsar wind nebulae and other astrophysical objects, and therefore is a fundamental feature of astrophysical jet evolution that needs to be understood. Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations have suggested that this phenomenon may be a consequence of magnetic fields (B) and current-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities taking place in the jet, but until now there has been no verification of this process in a controlled laboratory environment. Here we reportmore » the first such experiments, using scaled laboratory plasma jets generated by high-power lasers to model the Crab jet and monoenergetic-proton radiography to provide direct visualization and measurement of magnetic fields and their behavior. The toroidal magnetic field embedded in the supersonic jet triggered plasma instabilities and resulted in considerable deflections throughout the jet propagation, mimicking the kinks in the Crab jet. We also demonstrated that these kinks are stabilized by high jet velocity, consistent with the observation that instabilities alter the jet orientation but do not disrupt the overall jet structure. We successfully modeled these laboratory experiments with a validated three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation, which in conjunction with the experiments provide compelling evidence that we have an accurate model of the most important physics of magnetic fields and MHD instabilities in the observed, kinked jet in the Crab nebula. The experiments initiate a novel approach in the laboratory for visualizing fields and instabilities associated with jets observed in various astrophysical objects, ranging from stellar to extragalactic systems. We expect that future work along this line will have important impact on the study and understanding of such fundamental
Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet
Li, C. K.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.; Norreys, P. A.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Follett, R. K.; Froula, D. H.; Koenig, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Betti, R.; Frank, A.; Hu, S. X.; Sangster, T. C.; Hartigan, P.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Woolsey, N. C.
2016-10-07
X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the South-East jet in the Crab nebula changes direction every few years. This remarkable phenomenon is also observed in jets associated with pulsar wind nebulae and other astrophysical objects, and therefore is a fundamental feature of astrophysical jet evolution that needs to be understood. Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations have suggested that this phenomenon may be a consequence of magnetic fields (B) and current-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities taking place in the jet, but until now there has been no verification of this process in a controlled laboratory environment. Here we report the first such experiments, using scaled laboratory plasma jets generated by high-power lasers to model the Crab jet and monoenergetic-proton radiography to provide direct visualization and measurement of magnetic fields and their behavior. The toroidal magnetic field embedded in the supersonic jet triggered plasma instabilities and resulted in considerable deflections throughout the jet propagation, mimicking the kinks in the Crab jet. We also demonstrated that these kinks are stabilized by high jet velocity, consistent with the observation that instabilities alter the jet orientation but do not disrupt the overall jet structure. We successfully modeled these laboratory experiments with a validated three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation, which in conjunction with the experiments provide compelling evidence that we have an accurate model of the most important physics of magnetic fields and MHD instabilities in the observed, kinked jet in the Crab nebula. The experiments initiate a novel approach in the laboratory for visualizing fields and instabilities associated with jets observed in various astrophysical objects, ranging from stellar to extragalactic systems. We expect that future work along this line will have important impact on the study and understanding of such fundamental astrophysical
High-Speed Imaging of the First Kink Mode Instability in a Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Jonathan A.; Langendof, Samuel; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Polzin, Kurt; Kimberlin, Adam
2013-01-01
One of the biggest challenges to efficient magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT) operation is the onset of high-frequency voltage oscillations as the discharge current is increased above a threshold value. The onset regime is closely related to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities known as kink modes. This work documents direct observation of the formation and quasi-steady state behavior of an argon discharge plasma in a MPDT operating at discharge currents of 8 to 10 kA for a pulse length of approximately 4 ms. A high-speed camera images the quasi-steady-state operation of the thruster at 26,143 fps with a frame exposure time of 10 micro s. A 0.9 neutral density filter and 488-nm argon line filter with a 10-nm bandwidth are used on separate trials to capture the time evolution of the discharge plasma. Frame-by-frame analysis of the power flux incident on the CCD sensor shows both the initial discharge plasma formation process and the steady-state behavior of the discharge plasma. Light intensity levels on the order of 4-6 W/m2 indicate radial and azimuthal asymmetries in the concentration of argon plasma in the discharge channel. The plasma concentration exhibits characteristics that suggest the presence of a helical plasma column. This helical behavior has been observed in previous experiments that characterize plasma kink mode instabilities indirectly. Therefore, the direct imaging of these plasma kink modes further supports the link between MPDT onset behavior and the excitation of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosensteel, George
1995-01-01
Riemann ellipsoids model rotating galaxies when the galactic velocity field is a linear function of the Cartesian coordinates of the galactic masses. In nuclear physics, the kinetic energy in the linear velocity field approximation is known as the collective kinetic energy. But, the linear approximation neglects intrinsic degrees of freedom associated with nonlinear velocity fields. To remove this limitation, the theory of symplectic dynamical symmetry is developed for classical systems. A classical phase space for a self-gravitating symplectic system is a co-adjoint orbit of the noncompact group SP(3,R). The degenerate co-adjoint orbit is the 12 dimensional homogeneous space Sp(3,R)/U(3), where the maximal compact subgroup U(3) is the symmetry group of the harmonic oscillator. The Hamiltonian equations of motion on each orbit form a Lax system X = (X,F), where X and F are elements of the symplectic Lie algebra. The elements of the matrix X are the generators of the symplectic Lie algebra, viz., the one-body collective quadratic functions of the positions and momenta of the galactic masses. The matrix F is composed from the self-gravitating potential energy, the angular velocity, and the hydostatic pressure. Solutions to the hamiltonian dynamical system on Sp(3,R)/U(3) are given by symplectic isospectral deformations. The Casimirs of Sp(3,R), equal to the traces of powers of X, are conserved quantities.
Applications of chiral symmetry
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.
Critical point symmetry for the spherical to triaxially deformed shape phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu; Pan, Feng; Luo, Yan-An; Draayer, J. P.
2015-12-01
The critical point T(5) symmetry for the spherical to triaxially deformed shape phase transition is introduced from the Bohr Hamiltonian by approximately separating variables at a given γ deformation with 0 ° ≤ γ ≤ 30 °. The resulting spectral and E2 properties have been investigated in detail. The results indicate that the original X(5) and Z(5) critical point symmetries can be naturally realized within the T(5) model in the γ = 0 ° and γ = 30 ° limit, respectively, which thus provides a dynamical connection between the two symmetries. Comparison of the theoretical calculations for 148Ce, 160Yb, 192Pt and 194Pt with the corresponding experimental data is also made, which indicates that, to some extent, possible asymmetric deformation may be involved in these transitional nuclei.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jing; Liu, Yueqiang; Liu, Yue; Medvedev, S. Yu; Wang, Zhirui; Xia, Guoliang
2016-11-01
The effects of an ideal/resistive conducting wall, the drift kinetic resonances, as well as the toroidal plasma flow, on the stability of the ideal external kink mode are numerically investigated for a reactor-relevant tokamak plasma with strongly negative triangularity (NTR) shaping. Comparison is made for a similar plasma equilibrium, but with positive triangularity (PTR). It is found that the ideal wall stabilization is less efficient for the kink stabilization in the NTR plasma due to a less ‘external’ eigenmode structure compared to the PTR plasma. The associated plasma displacement in the NTR plasma does not ‘balloon’ near the outboard mid-plane, as is normally the case for the pressure-driven kink-ballooning instability in PTR plasmas, but being more pronounced near the X-points. The toroidal flow plays a similar role for the kink stability for both NTR and PTR plasmas. The drift kinetic damping is less efficient for the ideal external kink mode in the NTR plasma, despite a somewhat larger fraction of the particle trapping near the plasma edge compared to the PTR equilibrium. However, the drift kinetic damping of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in the NTR plasma is generally as efficient as that of the PTR plasma, although the RWM window, in terms of the normalized pressure, is narrower for the NTR plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosevich, Yuriy A.
2017-05-01
The problem of electron or hole trapping by supersonic lattice kink is revisited. Supersonic kinks in molecular chains with realistic interatomic potential produce local compression of the lattice. Lattice compression enhances electron Fermi energy and therefore produces for the electron a local potential hill, rather than a potential well, through the deformation potential of the proper sign. Here we discuss the possibility of electron trapping above the top of its tight-binding conduction band, where it possesses negative effective mass, by supersonic kink in a molecular chain with realistic interatomic potentials and electron-phonon interactions. The localization length of the electron wave function is much larger than lattice period in the case of adiabatic electron dynamics and decreases with the velocity of the ultradiscrete supersonic kink with the approximately sinusoidal envelope with the “magic” wave number. Such kinks were revealed in lattices with different interatomic potentials with hardening anharmonicity. Electron or hole can also be trapped by discrete breather (intrinsic localized mode) in the lattice with realistic asymmetric anharmonic potential. The local quasi-static strain, produced by the stationary or slowly-moving discrete breather in the lattice, can trap the electron (or hole) with its localization below the lower edge of the conduction (or above the upper edge of the valence) band.
Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco
2008-01-01
Although there is a growing body of evidence to document the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of carotid stenosis, surgical indications for elongation and kinking of the internal carotid artery remain controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical correction of internal carotid artery kinking in patients with persistent hemispheric symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy. A consecutive series of 81 patients (mean age, 64 years) underwent 83 surgical procedures to correct kinking of the internal carotid artery either by shortening and reimplanting the vessel on the common carotid artery, inserting a bypass graft, or transposing the vessel onto the external carotid artery. Mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 15-135 months). Study endpoints were 30-day mortality and any stroke occurring during follow-up. No postoperative death was observed. The postoperative stroke rate was 1%. Primary patency, freedom from neurologic symptoms, and late survival at 5 years (x +/- standard deviation) were 89 +/- 4.1%, 92 +/- 4%, and 71 +/- 6%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that surgical correction for symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in relieving symptoms and preventing stroke. Operative correction should be considered as the standard treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid kinking that does not respond to antiplatelet therapy.
Monte Carlo study of kink effect in isolated-gate InAs/AlSb high electron mobility transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasallo, B. G.; Rodilla, H.; González, T.; Moschetti, G.; Grahn, J.; Mateos, J.
2010-11-01
A semiclassical two-dimensional ensemble Monte Carlo simulator is used to perform a physical analysis of the kink effect in InAs/AlSb high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Kink effect, this is, an anomalous increase in the drain current ID when increasing the drain-to-source voltage VDS, leads to a reduction in the gain and a rise in the level of noise, thus limiting the utility of these devices for microwave applications. Due to the small band gap of InAs, InAs/AlSb HEMTs are very susceptible to suffer from impact ionization processes, with the subsequent hole transport through the structure, both implicated in the kink effect. The results indicate that, when VDS is high enough for the onset of impact ionization, holes thus generated tend to pile up in the buffer (at the gate-drain side) due to the valence-band energy barrier between the buffer and the channel. Due to this accumulation of positive charge the channel is further opened and ID increases, leading to the kink effect in the I-V characteristics and eventually to the device electrical breakdown. The understanding of this phenomenon provides useful information for the development of kink-effect-free InAs/AlSb HEMTs.
Borioni, R; Garofalo, M; Actis Dato, G M; Pierri, M D; Caprara, E; Albano, P; Chiariello, L
1994-08-01
The incidence of carotid artery kinking is reported from 4% to 25% in different studies. During cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) in cardiac surgery the hemodynamic effects related to the kinking could produce hypoperfusion especially if associated with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. We report our experience of 653 patients (538 males, 115 females, mean age 58.3 years) studied by coronaroangiography and internal carotid artery duplex scanning during the period January 1991-December 1992. Thirty-seven patients (22 males, 15 females, mean age 64.9 years), revealed anomalies of the internal carotid artery classificated as tortuosity (9 patients; 24.4%), and kinking (28 patients; 75.6%). All but 4 patients underwent cardiac surgery isolated or associated with carotid thrombo-endarterectomy (TEA) with Dacron patch arterioplasty. Three patients died (8.1%), one of them from cerebrovascular accident. He was a patient who had thromboembolism from the ascending aorta but without associated atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries. Asymptomatic isolated internal carotid artery kinking does not seem to be a risk factor for neurological complications during CPB. If carotid kinking is symptomatic and associated with atherosclerotic plaque producing internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 75%, we strongly suggest surgical treatment before cardiac operation.
Soft X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, R. F.; Vilmer, N.; Brun, A. S.
2015-04-01
Context. Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. Kink-unstable twisted flux-ropes provide a source of magnetic energy that can be released impulsively and may account for the heating of the plasma in flares. Aims: We investigate the temporal, spectral, and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal continuum X-ray emission produced in such kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes and discuss the results of the simulations with respect to solar flare observations. Methods: We computed the temporal evolution of the thermal X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops based on a series of magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulations. The numerical setup consisted of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. We let the kink instability develop, computed the evolution of the plasma properties in the loop (density, temperature) without accounting for mass exchange with the chromosphere. We then deduced the X-ray emission properties of the plasma during the whole flaring episode. Results: During the initial (linear) phase of the instability, plasma heating is mostly adiabatic (as a result of compression). Ohmic diffusion takes over as the instability saturates, leading to strong and impulsive heating (up to more than 20 MK), to a quick enhancement of X-ray emission, and to the hardening of the thermal X-ray spectrum. The temperature distribution of the plasma becomes broad, with the emission measure depending strongly on temperature. Significant emission measures arise for plasma at temperatures higher than 9 MK. The magnetic flux-rope then relaxes progressively towards a lower energy state as it reconnects with the background flux. The loop plasma suffers smaller sporadic heating events, but cools down globally by thermal conduction. The total thermal X-ray emission slowly fades away during this phase, and the high
Fermi surface, charge-density-wave gap, and kinks in 2H- TaSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossnagel, K.; Rotenberg, Eli; Koh, H.; Smith, N. V.; Kipp, L.
2005-09-01
The Fermi surface of the layered charge-density-wave compound 2H-TaSe2 is measured by angle-resolved photoemission as a function of temperature. A surprising Fermi-surface topology and a Fermi-surface branch-dependent charge-density-wave gap are found. In the charge-density-wave state band hybridization effects are strong and responsible for kinks in the band dispersions at relatively high binding energy. The implications of the results on the charge-density-wave mechanism are discussed.
The effect of energetic trapped particles on the ''ideal'' internal kink mode
Zhang, Y.Z.; Berk, H.L.; Mahajan, S.M.
1988-12-01
The internal kink stability of a tokamak in the presence of energetic particles is studied. It is found that there exists a stable window when a finite population of energetic particles are present, and the relation between the predictions of the fishbone theory of Chen-White-Rosenbluth and the fishbone theory of Coppi-Porcelli is explained. The theory indicates why some experiments, like PDX and TFTR, are likely to see fishbone oscillations in conjunction with sawtooth modes, while other experiments can observe sawtooth suppression in presence of hot particles. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Destabilization of Internal Kink Modes at High Frequency by Energetic Circulating Ions
Wang, Shaojie
2001-06-04
A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the high-frequency fishbone instability observed in tangential neutral-beam-injection discharges in a tokamak. It is shown that, when the beam ion beta exceeds a critical value, energetic circulating ions can indeed destabilize the internal kink mode through circulation resonance at a high frequency comparable to the circulation frequency of the energetic ions. The critical beta value of the energetic ions, the real frequency, and the growth rate of the mode are in general agreement with the high-frequency fishbone instability observed in experiments.
Dislocation kink-pair energetics and pencil glide in body-centered-cubic crystals.
Ngan, A H; Wen, M
2001-08-13
When body-centered-cubic crystals undergo plastic deformation, the slip planes are often noncrystallographic. By performing atomistic simulation on the activation pathway of dislocation jumps in bcc iron, we show that the main reason for bcc crystals to exhibit this phenomenon is that one type of kink pair has significantly lower energy than all the other types on the same slip plane. Dislocation motion therefore cannot continue on the same slip plane, and the dislocation has to cross slip onto an intersecting slip plane after each atomic jump. Thus in the long run, the average slip plane would be zigzag and noncrystallographic.
Growth of Pt Clusters from Mixture Film of Pt-C and Dynamics of Pt Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shintaku, Masayuki; Kumamoto, Akihito; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kaito, Chihiro
2007-06-01
A complete mixture film of carbon and platinum produced by coevaporation in a vacuum was directly heated in a transmission electron microscope. It was found that the diffusion and crystal growth of Pt clusters in the mixture film take place at approximately 500 °C. Pt clusters with a size of 2-5 nm were connected with each other in a parallel orientation or twin-crystal configuration in the mixture film. The growth of onion-like carbon with a hole at the center also occurred. The grown Pt clusters with twin-crystal structures appeared on and in the carbon film. The diffusion of Pt atoms in carbon was discussed as the problem of elusion in fuel cells. Direct observation of the movement of Pt clusters on and in the carbon film was carried out. The movement difference of Pt clusters in and on carbon film has been directly presented.
Wilczek, Frank
2005-01-20
Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world. The discrepancy is ascribed to a pervasive symmetry-breaking field, which fills all space uniformly, rendering the Universe a sort of exotic superconductor. So far, the evidence for these bold ideas is indirect. But soon the theory will undergo a critical test depending on whether the quanta of this symmetry-breaking field, the so-called Higgs particles, are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (due to begin operation in 2007).
[Symmetries and homologies of Geomerida].
Zarenkov, N A
2005-01-01
The symmetry of Earths life cover (Geomerida) was described generally by L.A. Zenkevich (1948). It coincides with the symmetry of geographic cover. Its symmetry elements are equatorial plane and three meridonal planes corresponded to oceans and continents. The hypsographic curve with point of inflection (symmetry element) on 3 km depth line should be added to these elements. The plankton and benthos communities as well as fauna of taxons are distributed symmetrically according these symmetry elements. Zenkevich model was successfully extrapolated to plankton by K.V. Beklemishev (1967, 1969) and to abyssal benthos by Sokolova M.N. (1986). The plankton communities inhabiting symmetrically located macrocirculations are considered as homologous. The character of circulation determines the trophic structure of plankton and benthos. In the case of high productivity of plankton, benthic grazing animals feed on sedimented particles have bilateral symmetric mouthpart. Otherwise they have to acquire food from water column and use cyclomeric mouthpart. Thus, the symmetry of macrocirculations determines the symmetry distribution of benthic animals with two major symmetries of mouthparts. The peculiarities of organisms' symmetry are discussed in the context of Pierre Curie principle and the ideas of K.V. Beklemishev concerning evolution of morphological axes.
Symmetry breaking in confined fluids.
Ruckenstein, Eli; Berim, Gersh O
2010-02-26
The recent progress in the theoretical investigation of the symmetry breaking (the existence of a stable state of a system, in which the symmetry is lower than the symmetry of the system itself) for classical and quantum fluids is reviewed. The emphasis is on the conditions which cause symmetry breaking in the density distribution for one component fluids and binary mixtures confined in a closed nanoslit between identical solid walls. The existing studies have revealed that two kinds of symmetry breaking can occur in such systems. First, a one-dimensional symmetry breaking occurs only in the direction normal to the walls as a fluid density profile asymmetric with respect of the middle of the slit and uniform in any direction parallel to the walls. Second, a two-dimensional symmetry breaking occurs in the fluid density distribution which is nonuniform in one of the directions parallel to the walls and asymmetrical in the direction normal to the walls. It manifests through liquid bumps and bridges in the fluid density distribution. For one component fluids, conditions of existence of symmetry breaking are provided in terms of the average fluid density, strength of fluid-solid interactions, distance at which the solid wall generates a hard core repulsion, and temperature. In the case of binary mixtures, the occurrence of symmetry breaking also depends on the composition of the confined mixtures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamilselvan, K.; Kanna, T.; Khare, Avinash
2017-10-01
We systematically construct a distinct class of complex potentials including parity-time (PT ) symmetric potentials for the stationary Schrödinger equation by using the soliton and periodic solutions of the four integrable real nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs), namely the sine-Gordon (sG) equation, the modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) equation, combined mKdV–sG equation and the Gardner equation. These potentials comprise of kink, breather, bion, elliptic bion, periodic and soliton potentials which are explicitly constructed from the various respective solutions of the NLEEs. We demonstrate the relevance between the identified complex potentials and the potential of the graphene model from an application point of view.
From Molecular Point Group Symmetry to Space Group Symmetry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hathaway, Brian
1979-01-01
Describes undergraduate chemistry curricula in which the student is asked to either build a model of one asymmetric unit in the unit cell and to indicate the positions of the symmetry-related units by putting in key atoms, or to identify on a prebuild model the asymetric and symmetry-related units. (BB)
Structural and magnetic phase transitions in triclinic Ca10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8).
Stürzer, T; Friederichs, G M; Luetkens, H; Amato, A; Klauss, H-H; Johrendt, Dirk
2013-03-27
We report the structural and magnetic phase transitions of triclinic Ca10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8), which is the parent compound of the 1038-type iron-arsenide superconductors. High-resolution x-ray diffraction reveals splitting of the in-plane (a,b) lattice parameters at T(s) ≈ 120 K. Platinum-doping weakens the distortion and shifts the transition temperature to 80 K in Ca10(Fe(1-x)Pt(x)As)10(Pt3As8) with x = 0.03. μSR experiments show the onset of magnetic order near T and a broad magnetic phase transition. The structural transition involves no reduction of the space group symmetry in contrast to the other parent compounds of iron-arsenide superconductors; nevertheless the local fourfold symmetry of the FeAs-layers in Ca10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8) is broken.
Symmetry and surface symmetry energies in finite nuclei
Lee, S. J.; Mekjian, A. Z.
2010-12-15
A study of the properties of the symmetry energy of nuclei is presented based on density-functional theory. Calculations for finite nuclei are given so that the study includes isospin-dependent surface symmetry considerations as well as isospin-independent surface effects. Calculations are done at both zero and nonzero temperature. It is shown that the surface symmetry energy term is the most sensitive to the temperature while the bulk energy term is the least sensitive. It is also shown that the temperature-dependence terms are insensitive to the force used and even more insensitive to the existence of neutron skin. Results for a symmetry energy with both volume and surface terms are compared with a symmetry energy with only volume terms along the line of {beta} stability. Differences of several MeV are shown over a good fraction of the total mass range in A. Also given are calculations for the bulk, surface and Coulomb terms.
Symmetry reduction related with nonlocal symmetry for Gardner equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Bo
2017-01-01
Based on the truncated Painlevé method or the Möbious (conformal) invariant form, the nonlocal symmetry for the (1+1)-dimensional Gardner equation is derived. The nonlocal symmetry can be localized to the Lie point symmetry by introducing one new dependent variable. Thanks to the localization procedure, the finite symmetry transformations are obtained by solving the initial value problem of the prolonged systems. Furthermore, by using the symmetry reduction method to the enlarged systems, many explicit interaction solutions among different types of solutions such as solitary waves, rational solutions, Painlevé II solutions are given. Especially, some special concrete soliton-cnoidal interaction solutions are analyzed both in analytical and graphical ways.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mezhov-Deglin, L. P.; Mukhin, S. I.
2011-10-01
The possible interpretation of experimental data on low-temperature anomalies in weakly deformed metallic crystals prepared form ultra-pure lead, copper, and silver, as well as in crystals of 4He is discussed within the previously proposed theoretical picture of dislocations with dynamical kinks. In the case of pure metals the theoretical predictions give a general picture of interaction of conduction electrons in a sample with newly-introduced dislocations, containing dynamic kinks in the Peierls potential relief. In the field of random stresses appearing due to plastic deformation of a sample, kinks on the dislocation line form a set of one-dimensional oscillators in potential wells of different shapes. In the low temperature region at low enough density of defects pinning kinks the inelastic scattering of electrons on kinks should lead to deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. In particular, the inelastic scattering on kinks should result in a quadratic temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in a metallic sample along preferential directions of dislocation axes. In the plane normal to the dislocation axis the elastic large-angle scattering of electrons is prevalent. The kink pinning by a point defect or by additional dislocations as well as the sample annealing leading to the disappearance of kinks should induce suppression of transport anomalies. Thus, the energy interval for the spectrum of kink oscillations restricted by characteristic amplitude of the Peierls relief is a "passport of deformation history" for each specific sample. For instance, in copper the temperature/energy region of the order of 1 K corresponds to it. It is also planned to discuss in the other publication applicability of mechanism of phonon scattering on mobile dislocation kinks and pinning of kinks by impurities in order to explain anomalies of phonon thermal conductivity of 4He crystals and deformed crystals of pure lead in a superconducting state.
Mohamadou, Alidou; Wamba, Etienne; Lissouck, Daniel; Kofane, Timoleon C
2012-04-01
The matter-wave solutions of Bose-Einstein condensates with three-body interaction are examined through the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By using a modified lens-type transformation and a further extension of the tanh-function method we obtain the exact analytical solutions which describe the propagation of kink-shaped solitons, anti-kink-shaped solitons, and other families of solitary waves. We realize that the shape of a kink solitary wave depends on both the scattering length and the parameter of atomic exchange with the substrate. The stability of the solitary waves is examined using analytical and numerical methods. Our results can also be applied to nonlinear optics in the presence of cubic-quintic media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, Daniel S.; Qu, Hao; Bulla, Delenda; Zocchi, Giovanni
2013-02-01
A 10-nm-long DNA molecule can bend through large angles reversibly. Past the linear regime, its equilibrium nonlinear bending elasticity is governed by a critical bending torque τc≈30pN×nm at which the molecule develops a kink. This nonlinearity has long been attributed to the nucleation of a bubble or melted region in the molecule. Here we measure the temperature dependence of the critical bending torque for nicked DNA, and determine that the entropy associated with the kink in the nonlinear regime is negligible. Thus in the case of nicked DNA the kink is not a bubble, but a compact region deformed beyond a yield strain. We further argue that, with our boundary conditions, the same is likely true for intact DNA. The present measurements confirm that the critical bending torque τc is a materials parameter of DNA mechanics analogous to the bending modulus B≈200pN×nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Pino, J. E.; Rowley, D. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Tipton, R. E.
2013-10-01
NIF CH ablator symmetry capsules are filled with hydrogen or helium gas. SymCaps have more moderate convergence ratios ~ 15 as opposed to ~ 35 for ignition capsules with DT ice layers, and better agreement has been achieved between simulations and experimental data. We will present modeling of capsules with CD layers and tritium fill, for which we are able to match the dependence of DT yield on recession distance of the CD layer from the gas. We can also match the performance of CH capsules with D3 He fill. The simulations include surface roughness, drive asymmetry, a mock-up of modulation introduced by the tent holding the capsule, and an empirical prescription for ablator-gas atomic mix. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
{PT}-symmetric optical superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Stefano
2014-04-01
The spectral and localization properties of {PT}-symmetric optical superlattices, either infinitely extended or truncated at one side, are theoretically investigated, and the criteria that ensure a real energy spectrum are derived. The analysis is applied to the case of superlattices describing a complex ( {PT}-symmetric) extension of the Harper Hamiltonian in the rational case.
3D Magnetic Measurements of Kink and Locked Modes in DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Hanson, J. M.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Logan, N. C.; Lanctot, M. J.; Shiraki, D.
2013-10-01
The DIII-D magnetics diagnostic has been greatly expanded to fully characterize non-axisymmetric ``3D'' fields. Five poloidal locations now recover n <= 3 , while new HFS arrays provide poloidal spectral resolution of 7.4 cm. Initial measurements suggest externally driven kink structures deviate from MARS-F and IPEC models. These variations extend to the ideal regime, where toroidal agreement is observed. The plasma response to an n = 3 RMP increases monotonically as beta increases and q95 decreases, contrary to predictions of a screening to kink valley. Finally, the temporal evolution of the 3D eigenstructure of a slowly rotating (5 Hz) quasi-static, born locked, tearing mode provides the first evidence of an appreciable n = 2 error field, and an estimate of the phase for future correction. This new 3D capability will be used to understand and optimize control of RWMs, NTV torque, ELMs, and error field correction to extend stable tokamak operation. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-95ER54309, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-04ER54761 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Role of step stiffness and kinks in the relaxation of vicinal (001) with zigzag [110] steps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahjoub, B.; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Einstein, TL.
2017-08-01
We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics and steady state configurations of <110> steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because <110> (fully kinked) steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than <100> (nominally straight) steps. In this study we show how this leads to different relaxation dynamics as well as to different steady state configurations, including that 2-bond breaking processes are rate determining for <110> steps in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for <100>-steps found in previous work [Surface Sci. 602, 3569 (2008)]. The analysis of the terrace-width distribution (TWD) shows a significant role of kink-generation-annihilation processes during the relaxation of steps: the kinetic of relaxation, toward the steady state, is much faster in the case of <110>-zigzag steps, with a higher standard deviation of the TWD, in agreement with a decrease of step stiffness due to orientation. We conclude that smaller step stiffness leads inexorably to faster step dynamics towards the steady state. The step-edge anisotropy slows the relaxation of steps and increases the strength of step-step effective interactions.
Soft X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Rui; Vilmer, Nicole; Brun, Allan Sacha
Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. We investigate the temporal, spectral and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal X-ray emission produced in simulated kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes. The numerical setup used consists of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. The magnetic flux-rope reconnects with the background flux after the triggering of the kink instability and is then allowed to relax to a lower energy state. Strong ohmic heating leads to strong and quick heating (up to more than 15 MK), to a strong peak of X-ray emission and to the hardening of the thermal X-ray spectrum. The emission pattern is often filamentary and the amount of twist deduced from the X-ray emission alone is considerably lower than the maximum twist in the simulated flux-ropes. The flux-rope plasma becomes strongly multi-thermal during the flaring episode. The emission measure evolves into a bi-modal distribution as a function of temperature during the saturation phase, and later converges to the power-law distribution mathrm{EM}~ T(-4.2) (during the relaxation/cooling) phase. These soft X-ray emission properties are maintained for a large range of coronal magnetic field strength, plasma density and flux-rope twist values.
Kink-mode Waves and Bifurcated Current Sheets: CLUSTER Observations and Analysis Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cully, C.; Donovan, E.; Buchert, S.; Lucek, E.
2003-12-01
Although the magnetic configuration of the tail current sheet in the moments before reconnection is of considerable interest, many fundamental observational questions remain. What does the large-scale structure typically look like? How thick is the sheet? Is it bifurcated? What bulk wavemodes are active, and at what amplitude? Cluster observations, when combined with multipoint analysis techniques, offer the opportunity to observationally resolve some of these questions. We present an analysis technique that we use to first solve for the local normal vector to the current sheet at each data point, and then to identify the presence and wavemode of large-scale bulk wave modes (e.g. kink modes). We then take this motion into account when reconstructing the large-scale structure of the sheet from the measurements. We apply these techniques to Cluster observations of the tail current sheet before a substorm on the 11th of October, 2001. At the Cluster location 19 Re downtail, we find large-amplitude kink-mode waves that are propagating duskward in the minutes before reconnection onset.
Analytical model of wall forces produced by kink perturbations in tokamaks
Mironov, D. V.; Pustovitov, V. D.
2015-05-15
Analytical model of the electromagnetic forces produced by kink modes on the tokamak wall [H. R. Strauss et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 082505 (2010)] is revisited. One of the main conclusions of the mentioned paper is that the largest force occurs at γτ{sub w}≈1, where γ is the kink growth rate and τ{sub w} is the wall penetration time. In the present study, a similar approach is developed under less restrictive assumptions on the plasma and dynamics of perturbation, and a different result is obtained: the force increases with γ and must be maximal at γτ{sub w}→∞. Additionally, the dependence of its amplitude on the plasma parameters is clarified. All distinctions and their reasons are explained in detail. The analysis is performed in the cylindrical model incorporating a resistive wall treated without traditional thin-wall constraints and covering therefore a full range in γτ{sub w}. It is applicable to either locked or rotating modes. Estimates of the sideways force are presented and compared with earlier forecasts.
Kink deformation of Weibel-mediated current filaments and onset of shock formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruyer, Charles; Alves, E. Paulo; Fiuza, Frederico
2016-10-01
The Weibel instability is believed to mediate the interaction of high Mach number collisionless shocks in weakly magnetized astrophysical environments. Although the generation of current filaments and strong magnetic fields by this instability has now been demonstrated experimentally, it is still not clear what is the long-term evolution of these filaments and how they lead to shock formation. We have studied the stability of Weibel-mediated current filaments using 2D/3D Particle-In-Cell simulations and analytical theory. We show that these are prone to kink-like instabilities that we characterize in both the linear and non-linear stage for a single filament, leading to an efficient ion slowing down and isotropization. We then demonstrate that our results are relevant to the self-consistent counter-streaming plasma interaction. Our 3D simulations show that the kink deformation dominates the late-stage of the interaction, when the current filaments break and most of the flow dissipation occurs, leading to the onset of magnetic turbulence and shock formation. We will discuss the important implications of these results for the shock structure and its ability to accelerate particles. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science (FWP 100182).
Elementary excitations in hole- and electron-doped cuprates: kink and resonance peak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manske, Dirk; Eremin, Ilya; Bennemann, Karl
2004-03-01
Elementary excitations in high-Tc cuprates are of central interest in order to learn more about the electronic correlations and the pairing mechanism for superconductivity. In this talk we focus on recent experimental and theoretical work on the kink feature and resonance peak and their possible interpretations due to phonons and spin fluctuations (1-3). Although the phase diagram of hole- and electron-doped cuprates reveal some similarities (4), both effects seem to be present only in hole-doped cuprates, but not in electron-doped ones. The kink feature and resonance peak are also related to tunneling experiments and measurements of the optical conductivity and shed important light on the essential ingredients a theory for Cooper-pairing in the cuprates must contain (5). (1) A. Lanzara et al., Nature 412, 510 (2001) (2) Ph. Bourges et al., Science 288, 1234 (2000) (3) D. Manske et al., PRB 63, 054517 (2001); D. Manske et al., PRL 87, 177005 (2001) (4) D. Manske et al., PRB 64, 144520 (2001); D. Manske et al., PRB 63, 13922 (2000) (5) D. Manske et al., PRB 67, 134520 (2003)
Fracture problems of a superconducting slab with a central kinked crack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, S. W.; Feng, W. J.; Liu, J. X.
2013-12-01
In this work, the central kinked crack problem is investigated for a long rectangular superconducting slab under electromagnetic forces. The distributions of both the current density and the magnetic flux density in the slab are obtained analytically in the Kim critical state model for both the zero-field cooling and the field cooling magnetization processes. And based on the finite element method, the stress intensity factors at the crack tips for decreasing magnetic fields are numerically calculated. Numerical results obtained show that the zero-field cooling activation process generally has more significant influence on the stress intensity factors than the field cooling activation process, and that for every activation process, as the applied field decreases, the superconducting slab is most dangerous when the currents in the crack region are just be influenced. In general, both the maximal mode-I stress intensity factors (SIFs) and mode-II SIFs decrease with the increasing of either the introduced dimensionless parameter p in the Kim model or the crack length. However, the effects of kinked angles on the SIFs are complex. The present study should be helpful to the design and application of high-temperature superconductors.
A Study on the Excitation and Resonant Absorption of Coronal Loop Kink Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Dae Jung; Van Doorsselaere, Tom
2016-11-01
We study theoretically the issue of externally driven excitations of standing kink waves and their resonant absorption into torsionally polarized m = 1 waves in the coronal loops in pressureless plasmas. We use the ideal MHD equations, for which we develop an invariant imbedding method available in cylindrical geometry. We assume a sinusoidal density profile at the loop boundary where the density inside the loop is lower than the outside and vice versa. We present field distributions for these two cases and find that they have similar behaviors. We compare the results for the overdense loops, which describe the usual coronal loops, with the analytical solutions of Soler et al. obtained using the Frobenius method. Our results show some similarity for thin nonuniform layers but deviate a lot for thick nonuniform layers. For the first case, which describes the wave train propagation in funnels, we find that resonant absorption depends crucially on the thickness of the nonuniform boundary, loop length, and density contrast. The resonant absorption of the kink mode is dominant when the loop length is sufficiently larger compared with its radius (thin loop). The behavior of the far-field pattern of the scattered wave by the coronal loop is closely related to that of the resonant absorption. For the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas, a certain universal behavior of the resonant absorption is found for the first time. We expect that the main feature may also apply to the overdense loops and discuss its relation to the damping rate.