Science.gov

Sample records for ptc im vergleich

  1. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  2. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  3. CaPTC Biennial Meetings

    Cancer.gov

    CaPTC hosts the 'Biennial Science of Global Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men' conference to address the growing global public health problem of prostate cancer among Black men in industrialized and developing countries.

  4. SNL-ptc2acis

    2002-07-15

    SNL-ptc2acis translates Pro/Engineer descriptions of parts, assemblies, and cross-sections to ACIS representation. It is developed using Pro/Toolkit and the ACIS kernel. As such, it requires a Pro/Engineer license in order to execute, but is not subject to the issues of file encryption as a direct file reader would be.

  5. 49 CFR 236.1015 - PTC Safety Plan content requirements and PTC System Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... additional requirements apply to: (1) Non-vital overlay. A PTC system proposed as an overlay on the existing... greater than the level of safety for the previous PTC systems. (2) Vital overlay. A PTC system proposed on a newly constructed track or as an overlay on the existing method of operation and built...

  6. 49 CFR 236.1015 - PTC Safety Plan content requirements and PTC System Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1015 PTC Safety Plan content... established and can maintain a quality control system for PTC system design and manufacturing acceptable...

  7. ASME PTC 46 -- Acceptance test code for overall plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Yost, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    ASME published PTC 46 in 1996 after five years of development. PTC 46 is the first industry standard providing explicit procedures for conducting acceptance tests to determine the overall thermal performance and output of power generating units. It is applicable to any heat cycle power generating unit. This survey paper provides an overview of PTC 46 and discusses how PTC 46 can be used for acceptance testing of new combined cycle and fossil steam power generating units. Several technical papers have been previously presented that provide more detailed information and discussion on the use of PTC 46 in acceptance testing.

  8. 49 CFR 236.1011 - PTC Implementation Plan content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refers to use, pursuant to subpart H of this part, of technology embedded in PTC systems that does not... INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1011 PTC Implementation Plan content requirements. Link to...

  9. 49 CFR 236.1011 - PTC Implementation Plan content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... technology embedded in PTC systems that does not employ all of the functionalities required by this subpart... INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1011 PTC Implementation Plan content requirements. (a) Contents....

  10. 49 CFR 236.1011 - PTC Implementation Plan content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... technology embedded in PTC systems that does not employ all of the functionalities required by this subpart... INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1011 PTC Implementation Plan content requirements. (a) Contents....

  11. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... automation system that performs safety-critical functions within, or affects the safety performance of, the PTC system. For purposes of this section, “office automation system” means any centralized...

  12. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... automation system that performs safety-critical functions within, or affects the safety performance of, the PTC system. For purposes of this section, “office automation system” means any centralized...

  13. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... automation system that performs safety-critical functions within, or affects the safety performance of, the PTC system. For purposes of this section, “office automation system” means any centralized...

  14. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... automation system that performs safety-critical functions within, or affects the safety performance of, the PTC system. For purposes of this section, “office automation system” means any centralized...

  15. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... automation system that performs safety-critical functions within, or affects the safety performance of, the PTC system. For purposes of this section, “office automation system” means any centralized...

  16. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expertmore » users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.« less

  17. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section 236.1031 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  18. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section 236.1031 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section 236.1031 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section 236.1031 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  1. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section 236.1031 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  2. RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Massimo; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2006-11-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently associated with RET gene rearrangements that generate the so-called RET/PTC oncogenes. In this review, we examine the data about the mechanisms of thyroid cell transformation, activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and modulation of gene expression induced by RET/PTC. These findings have advanced our understanding of the processes underlying PTC formation and provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to this disease.

  3. RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Massimo; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2006-11-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently associated with RET gene rearrangements that generate the so-called RET/PTC oncogenes. In this review, we examine the data about the mechanisms of thyroid cell transformation, activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and modulation of gene expression induced by RET/PTC. These findings have advanced our understanding of the processes underlying PTC formation and provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to this disease. PMID:17062879

  4. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  5. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  6. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  7. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  8. 49 CFR 236.1006 - Equipping locomotives operating in PTC territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... segment equipped with a PTC system shall be controlled by a locomotive equipped with an onboard PTC... shall include in its PTCIP specific goals for progressive implementation of onboard systems and... operative PTC onboard equipment. The PTCIP shall include a brief but sufficient explanation of how...

  9. RET/PTC Translocations and Clinico-Pathological Features in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Romei, Cristina; Elisei, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent endocrine cancer accounting for 5–10% of thyroid nodules. Papillary histotype (PTC) is the most prevalent form accounting for 80% of all thyroid carcinoma. Although much is known about its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, and biological behavior, the only documented risk factor for PTC is the ionizing radiation exposure. Rearrangements of the Rearranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene are found in PTC and have been shown to play a pathogenic role. The first RET rearrangement, named RET/PTC, was discovered in 1987. This rearrangement constitutively activates the transcription of the RET tyrosine-kinase domain in follicular cell, thus triggering the signaling along the MAPK pathway and an uncontrolled proliferation. Up to now, 13 different types of RET/PTC rearrangements have been reported but the two most common are RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3. Ionizing radiations are responsible for the generation of RET/PTC rearrangements, as supported by in vitro studies and by the evidence that RET/PTC, and particularly RET/PTC3, are highly prevalent in radiation induced PTC. However, many thyroid tumors without any history of radiation exposure harbor similar RET rearrangements. The overall prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements varies from 20 to 70% of PTCs and they are more frequent in childhood than in adulthood thyroid cancer. Controversial data have been reported on the relationship between RET/PTC rearrangements and the PTC prognosis. RET/PTC3 is usually associated with a more aggressive phenotype and in particular with a greater tumor size, the solid variant, and a more advanced stage at diagnosis which are all poor prognostic factors. In contrast, RET/PTC1 rearrangement does not correlate with any clinical–pathological characteristics of PTC. Moreover, the RET protein and mRNA expression level did not show any correlation with the outcome of patients with PTC and no correlation between RET/PTC rearrangements and the

  10. Protein phosphatases pph3, ptc2, and ptc3 play redundant roles in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Hicks, Wade M; Li, Jin; Tay, Sue Yen; Haber, James E

    2011-02-01

    In response to a DNA double-strand break (DSB), cells undergo a transient cell cycle arrest prior to mitosis until the break is repaired. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the DNA damage checkpoint is regulated by a signaling cascade of protein kinases, including Mec1 and Rad53. When DSB repair is complete, cells resume cell cycle progression (a process called "recovery") by turning off the checkpoint. Recovery involves two members of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family, Ptc2 and Ptc3, as well as the protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) enzyme, Pph3. Here, we demonstrate a new function of these three phosphatases in DSB repair. Cells lacking all three phosphatases Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 exhibit synergistic sensitivities to the DNA-damaging agents camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate, as well as hydroxyurea but not to UV light. Moreover, the simultaneous absence of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 results in defects in completing DSB repair, whereas neither single nor double deletion of the phosphatases causes a repair defect. Specifically, cells lacking all three phosphatases are defective in the repair-mediated DNA synthesis. Interestingly, the repair defect caused by the triple deletion of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 is most prominent when a DSB is slowly repaired and the DNA damage checkpoint is fully activated.

  11. The Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is activated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and mediates cell proliferation stimulated by RET/PTC.

    PubMed

    Rusciano, Maria Rosaria; Salzano, Marcella; Monaco, Sara; Sapio, Maria Rosaria; Illario, Maddalena; De Falco, Valentina; Santoro, Massimo; Campiglia, Pietro; Pastore, Lucio; Fenzi, Gianfranco; Rossi, Guido; Vitale, Mario

    2010-03-01

    RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), TRK-T, or activating mutations of Ras and BRaf are frequent genetic alterations in PTC, all leading to the activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk) cascade. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) in the signal transduction leading to Erk activation in PTC cells. In normal thyroid cells, CaMKII and Erk were in the inactive form in the absence of stimulation. In primary PTC cultures and in PTC cell lines harboring the oncogenes RET/PTC-1 or BRaf(V600E), CaMKII was active also in the absence of any stimulation. Inhibition of calmodulin or phospholipase C (PLC) attenuated the level of CaMKII activation. Expression of recombinant RET/PTC-3, BRaf(V600E), or Ras(V12) induced CaMKII activation. Inhibition of CaMKII attenuated Erk activation and DNA synthesis in thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC-1), a cell line harboring RET/PTC-1, suggesting that CaMKII is a component of the Erk signal cascade in this cell line. In conclusion, PTCs contain an active PLC/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signal inducing constitutive activation of CaMKII. This kinase is activated by BRaf(V600E), oncogenic Ras, and by RET/PTC. CaMKII participates to the activation of the Erk pathway by oncogenic Ras and RET/PTC and contributes to their signal output, thus modulating tumor cell proliferation.

  12. PTC MathCAD and Workgroup Manager: Implementation in a Multi-Org System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, the presenter will review what was done at Kennedy Space Center to deploy and implement PTC MathCAD and PTC Workgroup Manager in a multi-org system. During the presentation the presenter will explain how they configured PTC Windchill to create custom soft-types and object initialization rules for their custom numbering scheme and why they choose these methods. This presentation will also include how to modify the EPM default soft-type file in the PTC Windchill server codebase folder. The presenter will also go over the code used in a start up script to initiate PTC MathCAD and PTC Workgroup Manager in the proper order, and also set up the environment variables when running both PTC Workgroup Manager and PTC Creo. The configuration.ini file the presenter used will also be reviewed to show you how to set up the PTC Workgroup Manager and customized it to their user community. This presentation will be of interest to administrators trying to create a similar set-up in either a single org or multiple org system deployment. The big take away will be ideas and best practices learned through implementing this system, and the lessons learned what to do and not to do when setting up this configuration. Attendees will be exposed to several different sets of code used and that worked well and will hear some limitations on what the software can accomplish when configured this way.

  13. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Katsounaros, Ioannis; Witte, Jonathon; Bongard, Hans J; Topalov, Angel A; Baldizzone, Claudio; Mezzavilla, Stefano; Schüth, Ferdi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS). All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested. PMID:24605273

  14. ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Air separation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.

    1998-07-01

    Air separation units have been incorporated into the designs of many gasification combined cycle projects worldwide for the supply of pressurized oxygen and nitrogen. Pressurized gaseous oxygen at a purity usually above 95% by volume is supplied to the gasification unit to partially oxidized a hydrocarbon feed to yield syngas. Nitrogen streams are used for purging and inerting purposes or for the reactor. Several facilities have incorporated integration of air and/or nitrogen streams between the gas turbine and the air separation unit to improve overall facility cost, power output and efficiency. Gasification processes that are based on air as the oxidant source may also require an air separation unit to supply pressurized nitrogen for inerting and dry fuel transport. This paper reports on the progress of PTC 47's air separation subcommittee in defining test measurement boundaries and performance parameter definitions for the testing of an air separation unit as a subsystem of the gasification combined cycle facility.

  15. Tasting Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC): A New Integrative Genetics Lab with an Old Flavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Robert B.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Slatko, Barton; Weiner, Michael P.; Ingram, Jessica; Sciarra, Kristianna; Weiner, Evan

    2008-01-01

    First reported in the early 1930s, variation in the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) has since become one of the most widely studied of all human genetic traits. Guo and Reed (2001) provide an excellent review of work on this polymorphism prior to the identification and sequencing of the PTC gene by Kim et al. (2003), and Wooding (2006)…

  16. 49 CFR 236.1029 - PTC system use and en route failures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PTC system use and en route failures. 236.1029..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1029 PTC system use and en route failures. (a) When any safety-critical...

  17. Involvement of two type 2C protein phosphatases BcPtc1 and BcPtc3 in the regulation of multiple stress tolerance and virulence of Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Jiang, Jinhua; Mayr, Christiane; Hahn, Matthias; Ma, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases (PP2Cs) are involved in various cellular processes in many eukaryotes, but little has been known about their functions in filamentous fungi. Botrytis cinerea contains four putative PP2C genes, named BcPTC1, -3, -5, and -6. Biological functions of these genes were analysed by gene deletion and complementation. While no phenotypes aberrant from the wild type were observed with mutants of BcPTC5 and BcPTC6, mutants of BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 had reduced hyphal growth, increased conidiation, and impaired sclerotium development. Additionally, BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall degrading enzymes. Both mutants exhibited dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. All of the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the mutants with wild-type BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 respectively. Different from what is known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BcPtc3, but not BcPtc1, negatively regulates phosphorylation of BcSak1 (the homologue of S. cerevisiae Hog1) in B. cinerea, although both BcPTC1 and BcPTC3 were able to rescue the growth defects of a yeast PTC1 deletion mutant under various stress conditions. These results demonstrated that BcPtc1 and BcPtc3 play important roles in the regulation of multiple stress tolerance and virulence of B. cinerea. PMID:23601355

  18. ASME PTC47.4 -- IGCC performance testing issues for the power block

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, A.K.; Parmar, J.

    1999-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants that utilize solid and unconventional liquid fuels have now reached commercialization stage as evidenced by their worldwide construction and new orders. The complex nature or integration between the power generating and the fuel gas generating gasification units of an IGCC has created a need to provide guidance and procedures on how to conduct the performance test for the users and owners of these power plants. ASME Performance Test Code 47 (PTC47) and the associated subsets (PTC47.1, PTC47.2, PTC47.3 and PTC47.4) are being written to define the significant performance factors and provide recommendations how these factors should be applied on test measurements to evaluate the deviation from the IGCC equipment guarantees. This paper reports the progress and issues pertaining to the PTC 47.4 for the IGCC Power Block and how it differs from ASME PTC 46 test code. The paper also discusses the creation of a thermodynamic Power Block model of Wabash River Repowering IGCC plant using a proprietary software. Correction curves derived from the model, which define the performance at design and off design from site conditions are also presented.

  19. Concurrent overexpression of RET/PTC1 and TTF1 confers tumorigenicity to thyrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    A variant located on 14q13.3 nearest to thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) predisposes individuals to thyroid cancer, but whether this variant is related to the RET/PTC rearrangement associated with human papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) is unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of RET/PTC1 on the expression of thyroid-specific genes in thyrocytes and their relationship with malignant transformation of the thyrocytes. In the absence or presence of TSH, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase was phosphorylated in FRTL5 cells that stably expressed RET/PTC1, and these cells grew independently of TSH. FRTL (RET/PTC1) cells produced 566% more thyroglobulin mRNA and 474% more Na+/I− symporter mRNA than did the control FRTL (pcDNA) cells. FRTL (RET/PTC1) cells expressed 468% more Ttf1 mRNA than did FRTL (pcDNA) cells, but these two cell types did not differ significantly with respect to Pax8 or Ttf2 mRNA levels. When FRTL (RET/PTC1) cells and FRTL (pcDNA), cells were injected into each of nine nude mice, each mouse developed a single tumor at the site of FRTL (RET/PTC1) cell injection; in contrast, tumor formation never occurred at sites of FRTL (cDNA) cells injection. Tumors resulting from FRTL (RET/PTC1) cells retained 125I-uptake activity; moreover, the cells invaded into surrounding skeletal muscle. When overexpression of Ttf1 in FRTL (RET/PTC1) cells was silenced, the cells completely lost their tumorigenic potential. Exogenous TTF1 cDNA enhanced the tumorigenicity of BHP18-21v cells, human PTC cells that express RET/PTC1, in nude mice. These results indicated that concurrent overexpression of RET/PTC1 and TTF1 confers tumorigenicity to FRTL5 and BHP18-21v cells in nude mice. PMID:24014739

  20. Relationship of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taster Status to Olfactory and Gustatory Function in Patients with Chemosensory Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; De Fonte, Tatiana Prosini

    2016-10-01

    Poor sensitivity to the bitter taste of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and related substances has been associated with a number of diseases. We determined, in patients with chemosensory dysfunction from multiple etiologies, whether PTC "tasters" (n = 511) exhibit less smell and taste dysfunction than their non-PTC-tasting counterparts (n = 432) on a comprehensive battery of olfactory and gustatory tests. The proportion of tasters (54%) in our study population was much lower than that calculated from 11 North American population studies (76.5%; P < 0.0001). This taster/nontaster ratio was maintained across a range of etiologic categories. More women (60.7%) than men (45.5%) were PTC tasters (P < 0.0001). Although PTC tasting status was unrelated to scores on the olfactory tests (which included tests of odor identification, detection threshold, and odor memory/discrimination), tasters significantly outperformed nontasters on suprathreshold identification and intensity taste tests employing both bitter (caffeine) and nonbitter (sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride) tasting stimuli. Regardless of PTC taster status, women outperformed men on the taste tests. Our findings suggest the possibility that the T2R38 gene may protect against significant olfactory dysfunction, but once such dysfunction becomes manifest at a level where professional help is sought, such protection is not evident. However, other hypotheses for this phenomenon are possible. This study demonstrates that patients with chemosensory disturbances who are PTC tasters outperform their non-PTC taster counterparts in both identifying and perceiving the intensity of a range of suprathreshold tastants, including ones that do not taste bitter.

  1. Relationship of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taster Status to Olfactory and Gustatory Function in Patients with Chemosensory Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; De Fonte, Tatiana Prosini

    2016-10-01

    Poor sensitivity to the bitter taste of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and related substances has been associated with a number of diseases. We determined, in patients with chemosensory dysfunction from multiple etiologies, whether PTC "tasters" (n = 511) exhibit less smell and taste dysfunction than their non-PTC-tasting counterparts (n = 432) on a comprehensive battery of olfactory and gustatory tests. The proportion of tasters (54%) in our study population was much lower than that calculated from 11 North American population studies (76.5%; P < 0.0001). This taster/nontaster ratio was maintained across a range of etiologic categories. More women (60.7%) than men (45.5%) were PTC tasters (P < 0.0001). Although PTC tasting status was unrelated to scores on the olfactory tests (which included tests of odor identification, detection threshold, and odor memory/discrimination), tasters significantly outperformed nontasters on suprathreshold identification and intensity taste tests employing both bitter (caffeine) and nonbitter (sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride) tasting stimuli. Regardless of PTC taster status, women outperformed men on the taste tests. Our findings suggest the possibility that the T2R38 gene may protect against significant olfactory dysfunction, but once such dysfunction becomes manifest at a level where professional help is sought, such protection is not evident. However, other hypotheses for this phenomenon are possible. This study demonstrates that patients with chemosensory disturbances who are PTC tasters outperform their non-PTC taster counterparts in both identifying and perceiving the intensity of a range of suprathreshold tastants, including ones that do not taste bitter. PMID:27402661

  2. Electronic structure of U2PtC2 and U2RhC2

    DOE PAGES

    Ronning, F.; Zhu, J. -X.

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we present density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation of U2RhC2 and U2PtC2. We find the calculated density of states are significantly less than that measured by specific heat indicating the need for electronic correlations. The mass enhancement found for U2PtC2 is m*/mband ≈ 4.

  3. Radiation exposure, young age, and female gender are associated with high prevalence of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 in papillary thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuan; Li, Zhaoqu; He, Caiyun; Chen, Weichao; Fu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ankui

    2016-01-01

    Background RET/PTC rearrangements have been identified as a specific genetic event in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We conducted this meta-analysis to identify an enriched population who were more likely to occur RET/PTC fusion genes. Methods All relevant studies in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched up to June 2015. The studies found were screened according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All analyses were performed using STATA software. Results Eventually, 38 eligible studies comprising 2395 participants were included. Overall analysis indicated that radiation exposure contributed to increased RET/PTC risk (OR = 2.82; 95%CI: 1.38–5.78, P = 0.005). Stratified analysis according to RET/PTC subtype and geographical area showed that this association was restricted to the RET/PTC3 subtype (OR = 8.30, 95%CI: 4.32–15.96, P < 0.001) in the Western population. In addition, age < 18 years, i.e., young age, was associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC3 (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.14–3.62, P = 0.017), especially in the radiation-exposure subpopulation (OR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.01–5.49, P = 0.048). The association between female gender and RET/PTC1 risk was more significant in the PTC patients without radiation exposure (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.04–2.74, P = 0.034). Conclusion Both radiation exposure and young age are associated with increased risk of RET/PTC3 and that female gender is associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC1 in the subpopulation without radiation exposure. The RET/PTC status in combination with radiation exposure, age, and sex should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspicious PTC. PMID:26918339

  4. IMS - MS Data Extractor

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    An automated drift time extraction and computed associated collision cross section software tool for small molecule analysis with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The software automatically extracts drift times and computes associated collision cross sections for small molecules analyzed using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) based on a target list of expected ions provided by the user.

  5. Type 2C protein phosphatase Ptc6 participates in activation of the Slt2-mediated cell wall integrity pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Dilruba; Sasano, Yu; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Harashima, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The phosphorylation status of cellular proteins results from an equilibrium between the activities of protein kinases and protein phosphatases (PPases). Reversible protein phosphorylation is an important aspect of signal transduction that regulate many biological processes in eukaryotic cells. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes 40 PPases, including seven members of the protein phosphatase 2C subfamily (PTC1 to PTC7). In contrast to other PPases, the cellular roles of PTCs have not been investigated in detail. Here, we sought to determine the cellular role of PTC6 in S. cerevisiae with disruption of PTC genes. We found that cells with Δptc6 disruption were tolerant to the cell wall-damaging agents Congo red (CR) and calcofluor white (CFW); however, cells with simultaneous disruption of PTC1 and PTC6 were very sensitive to these agents. Thus, simultaneous disruption of PTC1 and PTC6 gave a synergistic response to cell wall damaging agents. The level of phosphorylated Slt2 increased significantly after CR treatment in Δptc1 cells and more so in Δptcptc6 cells; therefore, deletion of PTC6 enhanced Slt2 phosphorylation in the Δptc1 disruptant. The level of transcription of KDX1 upon exposure to CR increased to a greater extent in the Δptcptc6 double disruptant than the Δptc1 single disruptant. The Δptcptc6 double disruptant cells showed normal vacuole formation under standard growth conditions, but fragmented vacuoles were present in the presence of CR or CFW. Our analyses indicate that S. cerevisiae PTC6 participates in the negative regulation of Slt2 phosphorylation and vacuole morphogenesis under cell wall stress conditions.

  6. Molecular basis for the high-affinity binding and stabilization of firefly luciferase by PTC124

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, Douglas S.; Lovell, Scott; Thorne, Natasha; Lea, Wendy A.; Maloney, David J.; Shen, Min; Rai, Ganesha; Battaile, Kevin P.; Thomas, Craig J.; Simeonov, Anton; Hanzlik, Robert P.; Inglese, James

    2010-04-07

    Firefly luciferase (FLuc), an ATP-dependent bioluminescent reporter enzyme, is broadly used in chemical biology and drug discovery assays. PTC124 Ataluren; (3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid) discovered in an FLuc-based assay targeting nonsense codon suppression, is an unusually potent FLuc-inhibitor. Paradoxically, PTC124 and related analogs increase cellular FLuc activity levels by posttranslational stabilization. In this study, we show that FLuc inhibition and stabilization is the result of an inhibitory product formed during the FLuc-catalyzed reaction between its natural substrate, ATP, and PTC124. A 2.0 {angstrom} cocrystal structure revealed the inhibitor to be the acyl-AMP mixed-anhydride adduct PTC124-AMP, which was subsequently synthesized and shown to be a high-affinity multisubstrate adduct inhibitor (MAI; KD = 120 pM) of FLuc. Biochemical assays, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and near-attack conformer modeling demonstrate that formation of this novel MAI is absolutely dependent upon the precise positioning and reactivity of a key meta-carboxylate of PTC124 within the FLuc active site. We also demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of PTC124-AMP is relieved by free coenzyme A, a component present at high concentrations in luciferase detection reagents used for cell-based assays. This explains why PTC124 can appear to increase, instead of inhibit, FLuc activity in cell-based reporter gene assays. To our knowledge, this is an unusual example in which the 'off-target' effect of a small molecule is mediated by an MAI mechanism.

  7. Molecular basis for the high-affinity binding and stabilization of firefly luciferase by PTC124.

    PubMed

    Auld, Douglas S; Lovell, Scott; Thorne, Natasha; Lea, Wendy A; Maloney, David J; Shen, Min; Rai, Ganesha; Battaile, Kevin P; Thomas, Craig J; Simeonov, Anton; Hanzlik, Robert P; Inglese, James

    2010-03-16

    Firefly luciferase (FLuc), an ATP-dependent bioluminescent reporter enzyme, is broadly used in chemical biology and drug discovery assays. PTC124 (Ataluren; (3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid) discovered in an FLuc-based assay targeting nonsense codon suppression, is an unusually potent FLuc-inhibitor. Paradoxically, PTC124 and related analogs increase cellular FLuc activity levels by posttranslational stabilization. In this study, we show that FLuc inhibition and stabilization is the result of an inhibitory product formed during the FLuc-catalyzed reaction between its natural substrate, ATP, and PTC124. A 2.0 A cocrystal structure revealed the inhibitor to be the acyl-AMP mixed-anhydride adduct PTC124-AMP, which was subsequently synthesized and shown to be a high-affinity multisubstrate adduct inhibitor (MAI; K(D) = 120 pM) of FLuc. Biochemical assays, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and near-attack conformer modeling demonstrate that formation of this novel MAI is absolutely dependent upon the precise positioning and reactivity of a key meta-carboxylate of PTC124 within the FLuc active site. We also demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of PTC124-AMP is relieved by free coenzyme A, a component present at high concentrations in luciferase detection reagents used for cell-based assays. This explains why PTC124 can appear to increase, instead of inhibit, FLuc activity in cell-based reporter gene assays. To our knowledge, this is an unusual example in which the "off-target" effect of a small molecule is mediated by an MAI mechanism.

  8. Male and female correlations for taster (P.T.C.) phenotypes and rate of adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Whissell-Buechy, D; Wills, C

    1989-01-01

    Growth and development from infancy to age 18 years in tasters and non-tasters of phenylthiocarbamide (P.T.C.) were studied in 50 female and 44 male subjects. Taster girls reached all indices of maturation an average of 3.8 months earlier than non-taster girls. The reverse was true for boys, non-tasters maturing on average 6.2 months earlier than tasters. For both sexes, there was a significant correlation between an overall Maturity Index and P.T.C. sensitivity, positive for girls and negative for boys. Thirty-two of the females and 20 of the males could be classified according to P.T.C. genotype. For these, the onset, midpoint, and end of the pubertal growth spurt was estimated. Heterozygotes reached these points at times intermediate to homozygotes. Taster females preceded non-taster females and non-taster males preceded taster males by about 6 months. The finding of reversed associations between P.T.C. phenotype and maturation in males and females implies that factors underlying the P.T.C. polymorphism may not be confined to mediation through thyroid metabolism, but may also involve other complex pathways of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, particularly those of the sex hormones. The data were examined for evidence of whether or not the findings could be related to a means of maintaining the P.T.C. polymorphism. A significant negative assortative mating pattern was found. This accords with reports from the literature indicating personality differences between early and late maturers and a tendency for spouses to have similar personality characteristics. However, disassortative mating alone could not produce a stable equilibrium. A hypothesis for the maintenance of the P.T.C. polymorphism is developed on the assumption that the timing of puberty is related to reproductive fitness and subject to balancing selection. Heterozygotes for P.T.C. would be at an advantage because they have intermediate maturation times. In this small sample, P.T.C. heterozygotes

  9. ETEM observation of Pt/C electrode catalysts in a moisturized cathode atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Zhang, X.; Tanaka, N.; Boyes, E. D.; Gai, P. L.

    2014-06-01

    There have been reports of challenges in designing platinum carbon (Pt/C) electrode catalysts for PEMFC. Pt/C electrode catalysts deactivate much faster on the cathode (in moisturized O2) than on the anode (in H2). To understand influences of moisture and oxygen on the deactivation of the Pt/C catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), spherical-aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (AC-ETEM) was applied with a high-speed CCD camera. Structural changes of the Pt/C electrode catalysts were dynamically recorded in moisturized nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. The mass spectrometry confirmed the moisture content (between 5 to 30 %) of nitrogen driving gas through a humidifier. Coalescence of platinum nanoparticles (D = 3.24 nm) was carefully evaluated in pure N2 and moisturized N2 atmosphere. The Pt/C showed considerable structural weakness in a moisturized N2 atmosphere. Comparable results obtained by AC-ETEM in different gas atmospheres also suggested ways to improve the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this paper, the deactivation process due to moisture (hydroxylation) of carbon supports is discussed using for comparison the movement of platinum nanoparticles measured in moisturized nitrogen and pure nitrogen atmospheres.

  10. Evaluation of Annual Modis Ptc Data for Deforestation and Forest Degradation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ghilardi, A.; Mas, J. F.; Paneque-Galvez, J.; Skutsch, M.

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change, e.g. deforestation and forest degradation cause carbon emissions. To estimate deforestation and forest degradation, it is important to have reliable data on forest cover. In this analysis, we evaluated annual MODIS Percent Tree Cover (PTC) data for the detection of forest change including deforestation, forest degradation, reforestation and revegetation. The annual MODIS PTC data (2000 - 2010) were pre-processed by applying quality layer. Based on the PTC values of the annual MODIS data, forest change maps were produced and assessed by comparing with the data from visual interpretation of SPOT-5 images. The assessment was applied to two case-studies: Ayuquila Basin and Monarch Reserve. Results show that the detected deforestation patches by visual interpretation are roughly 4 times in quantity more than those by MODIS PTC data, which can be partially due to the much higher spatial resolution of SPOT-5, being able to pick up small deforestation patches. This analysis found poor spatial overlapping for both case-studies. Possible reasons for the discrepancy in quantity and spatial coincidence were provided. It is necessary to refine the methodology for forest change detection by PTC images; also to refine the validation data in terms of data periods and forest change categories to ensure a better assessment.

  11. Assessing RET/PTC in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirates: the FISH point of view.

    PubMed

    Caria, Paola; Dettori, Tinuccia; Frau, Daniela V; Borghero, Angela; Cappai, Antonello; Riola, Alessia; Lai, Maria L; Boi, Francesco; Calò, Piergiorgio; Nicolosi, Angelo; Mariotti, Stefano; Vanni, Roberta

    2013-08-01

    RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF(V600E) mutation are the two prevalent molecular alterations associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and their identification is increasingly being used as an adjunct to cytology in diagnosing PTC. However, there are caveats associated with the use of the molecular approach in fine-needle aspiration (FNA), particularly for RET/PTC, that should be taken into consideration. It has been claimed that a clonal or sporadic presence of this abnormality in follicular cells can distinguish between malignant and benign nodules. Nevertheless, the most commonly used PCR-based techniques lack the capacity to quantify the number of abnormal cells. Because fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most sensitive method for detecting gene rearrangement in a single cell, we compared results from FISH and conventional RT-PCR obtained in FNA of a large cohort of consecutive patients with suspicious nodules and investigated the feasibility of setting a FISH-FNA threshold capable of distinguishing non-clonal from clonal molecular events. For this purpose, a home brew break-apart probe, able to recognize the physical breakage of RET, was designed. While a ≥3% FISH signal for broken RET was sufficient to distinguish nodules with abnormal follicular cells, only samples with a ≥6.8% break-apart FISH signal also exhibited positive RT-PCR results. On histological analysis, all nodules meeting the ≥6.8% threshold proved to be malignant. These data corroborate the power of FISH when compared with RT-PCR in quantifying the presence of RET/PTC in FNA and validate the RT-PCR efficiency in detecting clonal RET/PTC alterations.

  12. Functional characterization of the PP2C phosphatase CaPtc2p in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinrong; Zhao, Jingwen; Li, Jing; Zhang, Lilin; Jiang, Linghuo

    2010-09-01

    Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) are monomeric enzymes and their activities require the presence of magnesium or manganese ion. There are seven PP2C-like genes in Candida albicans. In this study, we demonstrate that CaPtc2p is a PP2C phosphatase. Surprisingly, in addition to the cytoplasmic localization, CaPtc2p is partially associated with mitochondria in yeast-form and filamentous cells of C. albicans. Expression of CaPTC2 is developmentally regulated during the serum-induced filamentation. Deletion of CaPTC2 renders C. albicans cells sensitive to SDS and azole antifungals, as well as the DNA methylation agent methylmethane sulphonate and the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea. Therefore, CaPtc2p might fulfil multiple functions, including the regulation of mitochondrial physiology and checkpoint recovery from DNA damage in C. albicans cells. PMID:20641018

  13. Hydrogenation of fructose to 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran using a sulfur poisoned Pt/C catalyst

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the number of biobased chemicals available, fructose has been hydrogenated to 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran using a sulfided Pt/C catalyst. The reaction was carried out in a stirred reactor at 10.3 MPa H2 and 175°C which allowed a 10% fructose solution to be converted in about 2 h. ...

  14. PTC 2005: Pulaski Technical College's Strategic Plan for Serving Central Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark

    Intended as a long-range agenda for Arkansas' Pulaski Technical College (PTC), this plan describes the planning process used at the college, sets forth college goals through the year 2005, and reviews strategies to help the college achieve its goals. Following introductory sections, the educational and training needs of Central Arkansas are…

  15. Implications of a PTC Extension on U.S. Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Steinberg, D.; Mendelsohn, M.; Zinaman, O.; James, T.; Porro, G.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Logan, J.; Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2014-04-01

    This analysis explores the potential effects of wind production tax credit expiration and various extension scenarios on future wind deployment with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS), a model of the U.S. electricity sector. The analysis does not estimate the potential implications on government tax revenue associated with the PTC. Key findings include: Under a scenario in which the PTC is not extended and all other policies remain unchanged, wind capacity additions are expected to be between 3 and 5 GW per year from 2013-2020; PTC extension options that ramp-down from the current level to zero-credit by year-end 2022 appear to be insufficient to support deployment at the recent historical average; Extending the PTC at its historical level may provide the best opportunity to support deployment consistent with recent levels across a range of potential market conditions; it therefore may also provide the best opportunity to sustain wind power installation and manufacturing sector at current levels.

  16. Mechanism of PTC124 activity in cell-based luciferase assays of nonsense codon suppression.

    PubMed

    Auld, Douglas S; Thorne, Natasha; Maguire, William F; Inglese, James

    2009-03-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) assays used in drug discovery frequently use reporter enzymes such as firefly luciferase (FLuc) as indicators of target activity. An important caveat to consider, however, is that compounds can directly affect the reporter, leading to nonspecific but highly reproducible assay signal modulation. In rare cases, this activity appears counterintuitive; for example, some FLuc inhibitors, acting through posttranslational Fluc reporter stabilization, appear to activate gene expression. Previous efforts to characterize molecules that influence luciferase activity identified a subset of 3,5-diaryl-oxadiazole-containing compounds as FLuc inhibitors. Here, we evaluate a number of compounds with this structural motif for activity against FLuc. One such compound is PTC124 {3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid}, a molecule originally identified in a cell-based FLuc assay as having nonsense codon suppression activity [Welch EM, et al., Nature (2007) 447:87-91]. We find that the potency of FLuc inhibition for the tested compounds strictly correlates with their activity in a FLuc reporter cell-based nonsense codon assay, with PTC124 emerging as the most potent FLuc inhibitor (IC(50) = 7 +/- 1 nM). However, these compounds, including PTC124, fail to show nonsense codon suppression activity when Renilla reniformis luciferase (RLuc) is used as a reporter and are inactive against the RLuc enzyme. This suggests that the initial discovery of PTC124 may have been biased by its direct effect on the FLuc reporter, implicating firefly luciferase as a molecular target of PTC124. Our results demonstrate the value of understanding potential interactions between reporter enzymes and chemical compounds and emphasize the importance of implementing the appropriate control assays before interpreting HTS results.

  17. Ptc6 Is Required for Proper Rapamycin-Induced Down-Regulation of the Genes Coding for Ribosomal and rRNA Processing Proteins in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    González, Asier; Casado, Carlos; Ariño, Joaquín; Casamayor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ptc6 is one of the seven components (Ptc1-Ptc7) of the protein phosphatase 2C family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to other type 2C phosphatases, the cellular role of this isoform is poorly understood. We present here a comprehensive characterization of this gene product. Cells lacking Ptc6 are sensitive to zinc ions, and somewhat tolerant to cell-wall damaging agents and to Li+. Ptc6 mutants are sensitive to rapamycin, albeit to lesser extent than ptc1 cells. This phenotype is not rescued by overexpression of PTC1 and mutation of ptc6 does not reproduce the characteristic genetic interactions of the ptc1 mutation with components of the TOR pathway, thus suggesting different cellular roles for both isoforms. We show here that the rapamycin-sensitive phenotype of ptc6 cells is unrelated to the reported role of Pt6 in controlling pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Lack of Ptc6 results in substantial attenuation of the transcriptional response to rapamycin, particularly in the subset of repressed genes encoding ribosomal proteins or involved in rRNA processing. In contrast, repressed genes involved in translation are Ptc6-independent. These effects cannot be attributed to the regulation of the Sch9 kinase, but they could involve modulation of the binding of the Ifh1 co-activator to specific gene promoters. PMID:23704987

  18. Phase 1 Study of Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of PTC299, an Inhibitor of Stress‐Regulated Protein Translation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Thomas; Elfring, Gary; Northcutt, Valerie; Cao, Liangxian; Moon, Young‐Choon; Riebling, Peter; Dali, Mandar; Hirawat, Samit; Babiak, John; Colacino, Joseph; Almstead, Neil; Spiegel, Robert; Peltz, Stuart W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract PTC299 is a novel small molecule that specifically blocks the production of protein from selected mRNAs that under certain conditions use noncanonical ribosomal translational pathways. Hypoxia, oncogenic transformation, and viral infections limit normal translation and turn on these noncanonical translation pathways that are sensitive to PTC299. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) is an example of a transcript that is posttranscriptionally regulated. Single doses of PTC299 (0.03 to 3 mg/kg) were administered orally to healthy volunteers in a phase 1 single ascending‐dose study. In a subsequent multiple ascending‐dose study in healthy volunteers, multiple‐dose regimens (0.3 to 1.2 mg/kg twice a day or 1.6 mg/kg 3 times a day for 7 days) were evaluated. PTC299 was well tolerated in these studies. As expected in healthy volunteers, mean plasma VEGF levels did not change. Increases in Cmax and AUC of PTC299 were dose‐proportional. The target trough plasma concentration associated with preclinical efficacy was achieved within 7 days at doses of 0.6 mg/kg twice daily and above. These data demonstrate that PTC299 is orally bioavailable and well tolerated and support clinical evaluation of PTC299 in cancer, certain viral infections, or other diseases in which deregulation of translational control is a causal factor. PMID:27310330

  19. Astrophysik Lichtecho im Einhorn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bührke, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    Viele elektronische Geräte sind ohne Grafikdisplays nicht denkbar - idealer weise in Farbe. In den meisten Fällen basieren diese auf Flüssigkristallanzeigen (liquid crystal display, LCD). Diese sind allerdings im Dunkeln gar nicht und von der Seite nur eingeschränkt erkennbar. Organische Leuchtdioden (OLEDs) sind eine mögliche Alternative für die nächste Generation kleiner Displays. Kürzlich gelang es, eine neue chemische Substanzklasse herzustellen, die es erlaubt, hochaufgelöste OLED-Displays in den drei Grundfarben Rot, Grün und Blau (RGB) nasschemisch herzustellen [1].

  20. Ultrasound assisted PTC catalyzed saponification of vegetable oils using aqueous alkali.

    PubMed

    Bhatkhande, B S; Samant, S D

    1998-03-01

    A few vegetable oils were saponified using aqueous KOH and different PTCs at room temperature in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of saponification was studied using the saponification value as a reference. Optimizations of various parameters such as time, selection of PTC, quantity of PTC, quantity of KOH and quantity of water were carried out using soyabean oil as a sample oil under sonication with stirring. To study the effect of ultrasound, the saponification was also carried out at 35 +/- 2 degrees C under different conditions, namely stirring, sonication, stirring and sonication, and heating at 100 degrees C. It was found that the heterogeneous liquid-liquid phase saponification of different vegetable oils using aq. KOH/CTAB was remarkably accelerated at 35 +/- 2 degrees C in the presence of ultrasound along with stirring.

  1. Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Pt/C Cathode Degradation in PEM Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Erfan; Maleki, Nasim

    2016-08-01

    Use of computational modeling with a few experiments is considered useful to obtain the best possible result for a final product, without performing expensive and time-consuming experiments. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) can produce clean electricity, but still require further study. An oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) takes place at the cathode, and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) is commonly used as an electrocatalyst. The harsh conditions during PEMFC operation result in Pt/C degradation. Observation of changes in the Pt/C layer under operating conditions provides a tool to study the lifetime of PEMFCs and overcome durability issues. Recently, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used to solve, predict, and optimize a wide range of scientific problems. In this study, several rates of change at the cathode were modeled using ANNs. The backpropagation (BP) algorithm was used to train the network, and experimental data were employed for network training and testing. Two different models are constructed in the present study. First, the potential cycles, temperature, and humidity are used as inputs to predict the resulting Pt dissolution rate of the Pt/C at the cathode as the output parameter of the network. Thereafter, the Pt dissolution rate and Pt ion diffusivity are regarded as inputs to obtain values of the Pt particle radius change rate, Pt mass loss rate, and surface area loss rate as outputs. The networks are finely tuned, and the modeling results agree well with experimental data. The modeled responses of the ANNs are acceptable for this application.

  2. Materials for damping the PTC-induced thermal fluctuations of the cold-head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catarino, I.; Martins, D.; Sudiwala, R.

    2015-12-01

    The cold head on mechanical Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTCs) is subject to substantially less mechanical vibration and electromagnetic interference compared to that typically found in Gifford MacMahon coolers. However, thermal fluctuations at the PTC frequency are still present at the cold-head, typically at a level of 200 mK peak-to-peak at 1.4 Hz for a Cryomech Model PT405 cooler running at 4 K. It is highly desirable to damp out these fluctuations if PTCs are to be used successfully for running systems sensitive to such thermal fluctuations, for example, bolometeric detectors. We report here the characterization over the temperature range 2.5 K to 6 K of two materials, GOS (Gd2O2S) and GAP (GdAlO3), for use as low-pass thermal filters. These materials have antiferromagnetic transitions at around 4 K giving rise to an enhanced heat capacity and have a high thermal conductance. These are two highly desirable properties for thermal dampers in this application. Those materials were fired as ceramic discs to be tested as thermal dumpers. Thermal filter assemblies with discs of diameter 75 mm and thickness 2.5 mm and 1.6 mm (GOS and GAP, respectively) mounted in a PTC show thermal attenuation levels of x0.12 (GOS) and x0.11 (GAP) at 0.01Hz with a clean-side temperature of 4 K; the PTC induced fluctuations at 1.48 Hz are damped completely to within the noise limits (0.2 mK) of the thermometers. Experimentally determined thermal conductance and heat capacity data are reported. For this system, with a PTC cold-head (dirty-side) temperature of 3.3 K, a clean-side power dissipation of up to 30 mW is realized before its temperature rises above 4.2 K.

  3. Identification of Genes Associated with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) for Diagnosis by Integrated Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, W-B; Zhou, J; Xu, L; Su, X-L; Liu, Q; Pang, H

    2016-04-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid carcinoma, and our understanding of its pathogenesis is incomplete. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying such progression and identify novel diagnostic markers, we aimed to discover the underlying gene associated with PTC. Integrated analysis of microarray datasets was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PTCs and normal tissues. GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were then performed to uncover the functions of DEGs. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed. Five GEO datasets were obtained. Totally, 154 DEGs across the studies were identified, including 26 upregulated and 128 downregulated DEGs. In the PPI network, MLLT1, DLG2, and EFEMP1 were the hub proteins, in which DLG2 and EFEMP1 were involved in tumor progression. Among the top 10 up- and downregulated genes, the dysregulation genes of TPO, CDH16, and MPPED2 may be closely related to the tumorigenesis of PTC. By integrated analysis of multiple gene expression profiles, we propose that the dysregulation genes of TPO and MPPED2 will be the promising diagnostic markers for PTCs.

  4. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  5. Energieeffizienz im Rechenzentrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hintemann, Ralph; Skurk, Holger

    In den stark automatisierten, arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsystemen der Industrienationen ist die eine effiziente und zuverlässige zentrale Informationstechnik (IT) der Unternehmen entscheidend für den Geschäftserfolg. Immer mehr Unternehmensabläufe werden durch die IT unterstützt. Vielfach ist es sogar nur noch durch die umfassende IT-Unterstützung der Geschäftsprozesse möglich, im globalen Wettbewerb erfolgreich zu sein. Die installierte Rechenleistung in modernen Unternehmen steigt dabei ständig an. Neue und verbesserte Anwendungen und Programm-Features erfordern leistungsfähige Server. In den Rechenzentren kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen sind heute Rechenleistungen installiert, die vor wenigen Jahren ausschließlich einigen Großunternehmen vorbehalten waren. Diese im Grundsatz positive Entwicklung kann aber auch zu hohen Strom- und Kühlleistungen in Rechenzentren führen. Damit stellen sich neue Herausforderungen an die Planung, Ausführung und den Betrieb einer IT-Infrastruktur.

  6. The β-catenin Axis Integrates Multiple Signals Downstream From RET/PTC and Leads to Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Castellone, Maria Domenica; De Falco, Valentina; Rao, Deva Magendra; Bellelli, Roberto; Muthu, Magesh; Basolo, Fulvio; Fusco, Alfredo; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Santoro, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    RET/PTC (RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma) oncoproteins result from the in-frame fusion of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase domain with protein dimerization motifs encoded by heterologous genes. Here we show that RET/PTC stimulates the β-catenin pathway. By stimulating PI3K/AKT and Ras/ERK, RET/PTC promotes GSK3β phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK3β-mediated N-terminal β-catenin (Ser33/Ser37/Thr41) phosphorylation. In addition, RET/PTC physically interacts with β-catenin, and increases its phosphotyrosine content. The increased free pool of S/T(nonphospho)/Y(phospho)β-catenin is stabilized as a result of the reduced binding affinity for the Axin/GSK3β complex and activates the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factor. Moreover, through the ERK pathway, RET/PTC stimulates cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and promotes the formation of a β-catenin-CREB-CBP/p300 transcriptional complex. Transcriptional complexes containing β-catenin are recruited to the cyclin D1 promoter and a cyclin D1 gene promoter reporter is active in RET/PTC expressing cells. Silencing of β-catenin by siRNA inhibits proliferation of RET/PTC transformed PC thyrocytes, whereas a constitutively active form of β-catenin stimulates autonomous proliferation of thyroid cells. Thus, multiple signaling events downstream from RET/PTC converge on β-catenin to stimulate cell proliferation. PMID:19223551

  7. Evolution of Functionally Diverse Alleles Associated with PTC Bitter Taste Sensitivity in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael C.; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril; Omar, Sabah; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Lema, Godfrey; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A. S.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Although human bitter taste perception is hypothesized to be a dietary adaptation, little is known about genetic signatures of selection and patterns of bitter taste perception variability in ethnically diverse populations with different diets, particularly from Africa. To better understand the genetic basis and evolutionary history of bitter taste sensitivity, we sequenced a 2,975 bp region encompassing TAS2R38, a bitter taste receptor gene, in 611 Africans from 57 populations in West Central and East Africa with diverse subsistence patterns, as well as in a comparative sample of 132 non-Africans. We also examined the association between genetic variability at this locus and threshold levels of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) bitterness in 463 Africans from the above populations to determine how variation influences bitter taste perception. Here, we report striking patterns of variation at TAS2R38, including a significant excess of novel rare nonsynonymous polymorphisms that recently arose only in Africa, high frequencies of haplotypes in Africa associated with intermediate bitter taste sensitivity, a remarkably similar frequency of common haplotypes across genetically and culturally distinct Africans, and an ancient coalescence time of common variation in global populations. Additionally, several of the rare nonsynonymous substitutions significantly modified levels of PTC bitter taste sensitivity in diverse Africans. While ancient balancing selection likely maintained common haplotype variation across global populations, we suggest that recent selection pressures may have also resulted in the unusually high level of rare nonsynonymous variants in Africa, implying a complex model of selection at the TAS2R38 locus in African populations. Furthermore, the distribution of common haplotypes in Africa is not correlated with diet, raising the possibility that common variation may be under selection due to their role in nondietary biological processes. In addition, our data

  8. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC

    PubMed Central

    Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice. PMID:26392334

  9. Increase of a group of PTC(+) transcripts by curcumin through inhibition of the NMD pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dairong; Su, Ruey-Chyi; Zou, Liping; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Huang, Shangzhi; Xie, Jiuyong

    2015-08-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an mRNA surveillance mechanism, eliminates premature termination codon-containing (PTC⁺) transcripts. For instance, it maintains the homeostasis of splicing factors and degrades aberrant transcripts of human genetic disease genes. Here we examine the inhibitory effect on the NMD pathway and consequent increase of PTC+ transcripts by the dietary compound curcumin. We have found that several PTC⁺ transcripts including that of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) were specifically increased in cells by curcumin. We also observed a similar curcumin effect on the PTC⁺ mutant transcript from a Tay-Sachs-causing HEXA allele or from a beta-globin reporter gene. The curcumin effect was accompanied by significantly reduced expression of the NMD factors UPF1, 2, 3A and 3B. Consistently, in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, curcumin specifically reduced the occupancy of acetyl-histone H3 and RNA polymerase II at the promoter region (-376 to -247nt) of human UPF1, in a time- and dosage-dependent way. Importantly, knocking down UPF1 abolished or substantially reduced the difference of PTC(+) transcript levels between control and curcumin-treated cells. The disrupted curcumin effect was efficiently rescued by expression of exogenous Myc-UPF1 in the knockdown cells. Together, our data demonstrate that a group of PTC⁺ transcripts are stabilized by a dietary compound curcumin through the inhibition of UPF factor expression and the NMD pathway. PMID:25934542

  10. The RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF linear signaling cascade mediates the motile and mitogenic phenotype of thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Rosa Marina; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Guarino, Valentina; De Falco, Valentina; Cirafici, Anna Maria; Salvatore, Giuliana; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Basolo, Fulvio; Giannini, Riccardo; Kruhoffer, Mogens; Orntoft, Torben; Fusco, Alfredo; Santoro, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    In papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), rearrangements of the RET receptor (RET/PTC) and activating mutations in the BRAF or RAS oncogenes are mutually exclusive. Here we show that the 3 proteins function along a linear oncogenic signaling cascade in which RET/PTC induces RAS-dependent BRAF activation and RAS- and BRAF-dependent ERK activation. Adoptive activation of the RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF axis induced cell proliferation and Matrigel invasion of thyroid follicular cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the 3 oncogenes activate a common transcriptional program in thyroid cells that includes upregulation of the CXCL1 and CXCL10 chemokines, which in turn stimulate proliferation and invasion. Thus, motile and mitogenic properties are intrinsic to transformed thyroid cells and are governed by an epistatic oncogenic signaling cascade. PMID:15761501

  11. RET/PTC rearrangements preferentially occurred in papillary thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors exposed to high radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Ito, Reiko; Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Taga, Masataka; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John; Soda, Midori; Arihiro, Koji; Fujihara, Megumu; Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2008-09-01

    A major early event in papillary thyroid carcinogenesis is constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway caused by alterations of a single gene, typically rearrangements of the RET and NTRK1 genes or point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes. In childhood papillary thyroid cancer, regardless of history of radiation exposure, RET/PTC rearrangements are a major event. Conversely, in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer among the general population, the most common molecular event is BRAF(V600E) point mutation, not RET/PTC rearrangements. To clarify which gene alteration, chromosome aberration, or point mutation preferentially occurs in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer, we have performed molecular analyses on RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation in 71 papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors (including 21 cases not exposed to atomic bomb radiation), in relation to radiation dose as well as time elapsed since atomic bomb radiation exposure. RET/PTC rearrangements showed significantly increased frequency with increased radiation dose (P(trend) = 0.002). In contrast, BRAF(V600E) mutation was less frequent in cases exposed to higher radiation dose (P(trend) < 0.001). Papillary thyroid cancer subjects harboring RET/PTC rearrangements developed this cancer earlier than did cases with BRAF(V600E) mutation (P = 0.03). These findings were confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. These results suggest that RET/PTC rearrangements play an important role in radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis.

  12. Nickel-doped ceria nanoparticles for promoting catalytic activity of Pt/C for ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiang; Du, Chunyu; Sun, Yongrong; Du, Lei; Yin, Geping; Gao, Yunzhi

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis of monodispersed nickel-doped ceria nanoparticles by a thermal decomposition method, which is used to promote catalytic properties of Pt/C. The Pt/Ni-doped CeO2/C catalyst obtained exhibits remarkably high activity and stability towards the ethanol electrooxidation in acidic media. This is attributed to higher oxygen releasing capacity and stronger interaction of Ni-doped CeO2 with Pt than pure CeO2 nanoparticles that contribute positively to the removal of poisoning intermediates. We believe that the design concept and synthetic strategy of metal doped oxides used for fuel cell catalysts can be potentially extended to other catalytic fields.

  13. Recent Updates to the Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    An actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit, designed and fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, underwent a range of tests at MSFC in early 2007. During this period, system transient responses and the performance of the liquid metal pump were evaluated. In May of 2007, the circuit was drained and cleaned to prepare for multiple modifications: the addition of larger upper and lower reservoirs, the installation of an annular linear induction pump (ALIP), and the inclusion of a closeable orifice in the test section. Modifications are now complete and testing has resumed. Performance of the ALIP, provided by Idaho National Laboratory (1NL), is the subject of the first round of experimentation. This presentation details the physical changes made to the FSP-PTC and the current test program.

  14. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  18. Development of latent fingermarks on surfaces submerged in water: Optimization studies for phase transfer catalyst (PTC) based reagents.

    PubMed

    Jasuja, O P; Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Gagandeep

    2015-09-01

    The use of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) based reagent for the development of latent fingermarks is relatively a recent one and therefore a thorough evaluation is required before making any suggestion for its use in the routine fingermark development protocol. In the present study, non-porous surfaces including the sticky side of adhesive tapes loaded with latent fingermarks (eccrine, groomed and natural fingermarks) were submerged in water for different times and were treated with a PTC based reagent to develop fingermarks. The PTC based reagent was able to develop latent fingermarks on various surfaces submerged in water for different time intervals. The proposed method has been compared with standard methods like superglue fuming, small particle reagent and gentian violet (for adhesive tapes). The results have shown that the duration of submersion and the method selected for visualization have influences on the quality of developed fingermarks. The performance of the PTC technique against conventional methods was evaluated and compared thoroughly as a part of the optimization studies for the reagent. PMID:26385716

  19. Development of latent fingermarks on surfaces submerged in water: Optimization studies for phase transfer catalyst (PTC) based reagents.

    PubMed

    Jasuja, O P; Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Gagandeep

    2015-09-01

    The use of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) based reagent for the development of latent fingermarks is relatively a recent one and therefore a thorough evaluation is required before making any suggestion for its use in the routine fingermark development protocol. In the present study, non-porous surfaces including the sticky side of adhesive tapes loaded with latent fingermarks (eccrine, groomed and natural fingermarks) were submerged in water for different times and were treated with a PTC based reagent to develop fingermarks. The PTC based reagent was able to develop latent fingermarks on various surfaces submerged in water for different time intervals. The proposed method has been compared with standard methods like superglue fuming, small particle reagent and gentian violet (for adhesive tapes). The results have shown that the duration of submersion and the method selected for visualization have influences on the quality of developed fingermarks. The performance of the PTC technique against conventional methods was evaluated and compared thoroughly as a part of the optimization studies for the reagent.

  20. Applicability of plasmid calibrant pTC1507 in quantification of TC1507 maize: an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2012-01-11

    To enforce the labeling regulations of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the application of DNA plasmids as calibrants is becoming essential for the practical quantification of GMOs. This study reports the construction of plasmid pTC1507 for a quantification assay of genetically modified (GM) maize TC1507 and the collaborative ring trial in international validation of its applicability as a plasmid calibrant. pTC1507 includes one event-specific sequence of TC1507 maize and one unique sequence of maize endogenous gene zSSIIb. A total of eight GMO detection laboratories worldwide were invited to join the validation process, and test results were returned from all eight participants. Statistical analysis of the returned results showed that real-time PCR assays using pTC1507 as calibrant in both GM event-specific and endogenous gene quantifications had high PCR efficiency (ranging from 0.80 to 1.15) and good linearity (ranging from 0.9921 to 0.9998). In a quantification assay of five blind samples, the bias between the test values and true values ranged from 2.6 to 24.9%. All results indicated that the developed pTC1507 plasmid is applicable for the quantitative analysis of TC1507 maize and can be used as a suitable substitute for dried powder certified reference materials (CRMs). PMID:22148678

  1. PTC simulations, stochastic optimization and safety strategies for groundwater pumping management: case study of the Hersonissos Coastal Aquifer in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratis, P. N.; Dokou, Z. A.; Karatzas, G. P.; Papadopoulou, E. P.; Saridakis, Y. G.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the well-known Princeton Transport Code (PTC), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulator, has been coupled with the ALgorithm of Pattern EXtraction (ALOPEX), a real-time stochastic optimization method, to provide a freshwater pumping management tool for coastal aquifers, aiming in preventing saltwater intrusion. In our previous work (Proceedings of INASE/CSCC-WHH 2015, Recent Advances in Environmental and Earth Sciences and Economics, pp 329-334, 2015), the PTC-ALOPEX approach was used in studying the saltwater contamination problem for the coastal aquifer at Hersonissos, Crete. Extending these results, in the present study the PTC-ALOPEX approach is equipped with a nodal safety strategy that effectively controls saltwater front's advancement inside the aquifer. In cooperation with an appropriate penalty system, the performance of PTC-ALOPEX algorithm is studied considering several pumping and weather condition scenarios. This study also establishes pumping/well scenarios that ensure the needed volume of fresh water to the local community without risking saltwater contamination.

  2. Successful Strategies for Rapidly Upgrading PTC Windchill 9.1 to Windchill 10.1 on a Light Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: The Frugal Times Historical Upgrade Process; Planning for Possible Constraints; PTC Compatibility Matrix; In-Place Upgrade Process; Pre-Upgrade Activities; Upgrade Activities; Post Upgrade Activities; Results of the Upgrade; Tips for an Upgrade On a Shoestring Budget.

  3. Applicability of plasmid calibrant pTC1507 in quantification of TC1507 maize: an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2012-01-11

    To enforce the labeling regulations of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the application of DNA plasmids as calibrants is becoming essential for the practical quantification of GMOs. This study reports the construction of plasmid pTC1507 for a quantification assay of genetically modified (GM) maize TC1507 and the collaborative ring trial in international validation of its applicability as a plasmid calibrant. pTC1507 includes one event-specific sequence of TC1507 maize and one unique sequence of maize endogenous gene zSSIIb. A total of eight GMO detection laboratories worldwide were invited to join the validation process, and test results were returned from all eight participants. Statistical analysis of the returned results showed that real-time PCR assays using pTC1507 as calibrant in both GM event-specific and endogenous gene quantifications had high PCR efficiency (ranging from 0.80 to 1.15) and good linearity (ranging from 0.9921 to 0.9998). In a quantification assay of five blind samples, the bias between the test values and true values ranged from 2.6 to 24.9%. All results indicated that the developed pTC1507 plasmid is applicable for the quantitative analysis of TC1507 maize and can be used as a suitable substitute for dried powder certified reference materials (CRMs).

  4. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  5. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  6. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  7. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems...

  8. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  9. Capabilities and Testing of the Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    An actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit, designed and fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is currently undergoing testing in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF). Sodium potassium (NaK), which was used in the SNAP-10A fission reactor, was selected as the primary coolant. Basic circuit components include: simulated reactor core, NaK to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, liquid metal flowmeter, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, test section, and instrumentation. Operation of the circuit is based around a 37-pin partial-array core (pin and flow path dimensions are the same as those in a full core), designed to operate at 33 kWt. NaK flow rates of greater than 1 kg/sec may be achieved, depending upon the power applied to the EM pump. The heat exchanger provides for the removal of thermal energy from the circuit, simulating the presence of an energy conversion system. The presence of the test section increases the versatility of the circuit. A second liquid metal pump, an energy conversion system, and highly instrumented thermal simulators are all being considered for inclusion within the test section. This paper summarizes the capabilities and ongoing testing of the Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC).

  10. Chemical tuning of PtC nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Plank, Harald; Haber, Thomas; Gspan, Christian; Kothleitner, Gerald; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental dependence between process parameters during focused electron beam induced deposition and the chemistry of functional PtC nanostructures have been studied via a multi-technique approach using SEM, (S)TEM, EELS, AFM, and EFM. The study reveals that the highest Pt contents can only be achieved by an ideal balance between potentially dissociating electrons and available precursor molecules on the surface. For precursor regimes apart from this situation, an unwanted increase of carbon is observed which originates from completely different mechanisms: (1) an excess of electrons leads to polymerization of precursor fragments whereas (2) a lack of electrons leads to incompletely dissociated precursor molecules incorporated into the nanostructures. While the former represents an unwanted class of carbon, the latter condition maximizes the volume growth rates and allows for post-growth curing strategies which can strongly increase the functionality. Furthermore, the study gives an explanation of why growing deposits can dynamically change their chemistry and provides a straightforward guide towards more controlled fabrication conditions.

  11. LTC America`s, Inc. PTC-6 vacuum system (metal): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC coating removal system consisted of several hand tools, a Roto Peen scaler, and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These hand tools are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. The dust exposure was minimal but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  12. Modifications and Modelling of the Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    An actively pumped alkali metal flow circuit, designed and fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, underwent a range of tests at MSFC in early 2007. During this period, system transient responses and the performance of the liquid metal pump were evaluated. In May of 2007, the circuit was drained and cleaned to prepare for multiple modifications: the addition of larger upper and lower reservoirs, the installation of an annular linear induction pump (ALIP), and the inclusion of the Single Flow Cell Test Apparatus (SFCTA) in the test section. Performance of the ALIP, provided by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), will be evaluated when testing resumes. The SFCTA, which will be tested simultaneously, will provide data on alkali metal flow behavior through the simulated core channels and assist in the development of a second generation thermal simulator. Additionally, data from the first round of testing has been used to refine the working system model, developed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). This paper covers the modifications of the FSP-PTC and the updated GFSSP system model.

  13. Single-Molecule Nanocatalysis Shows In Situ Deactivation of Pt/C Electrocatalysts during the Hydrogen-Oxidation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuwei; Chen, Tao; Alia, Shaun; Pivovar, Bryan S; Xu, Weilin

    2016-02-24

    By coupling a Pt-catalyzed fluorogenic reaction with the Pt-electrocatalyzed hydrogen-oxidation reaction (HOR), we combine single-molecule fluorescence microscopy with traditional electrochemical methods to study the real-time deactivation kinetics of a Pt/C electrocatalyst at single-particle level during electrocatalytic hydrogen-oxidation reaction. The decay of the catalytic performance of Pt/C could be mainly attributed to the electrocatalysis-induced etching or dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. Spontaneous regeneration of activity and incubation period of the Pt electrocatalyst were also observed at single-particle level. All these new insights are practically useful for the understanding and rational design of highly efficient electrocatalysts for application in fuel cells. PMID:26821777

  14. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWalker{trademark} and Blastrac{reg_sign} shot blast cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools.

  15. Gain determination of non-linear IR detectors with the differential photon transfer curve (dPTC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, Armin; Hilbert, Bryan; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Misselt, Karl; Rieke, Marcia; Robberto, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Conversion gain is a basic detector property which relates the raw counts in a pixel in data numbers (DN) to the number of electrons detected. The standard method for determining the gain is called the Photon Transfer Curve (PTC) method and involves the measurement the change in variance as a function of signal level. For non-linear IR detectors, this method depends strongly on the non-linearity correction and is therefore susceptible to systematic biases due to calibration issues. We have developed a new, robust, and fast method, the differential Photon Transfer Curve (dPTC) method, which is independent of non-linearity corrections, but still delivers gain values similar in precision but higher in accuracy.

  16. Promotion effect of manganese oxide on the electrocatalytic activity of Pt/C for methanol oxidation in acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Hameed, R. M.; Fetohi, Amani E.; Amin, R. S.; El-Khatib, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The modification of Pt/C by incorporating metal oxides for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol has gained major attention because of the efficiency loss during the course of long-time operation. This work describes the preparation of Pt-MnO2/C electrocatalysts through a chemical route using ethylene glycol or a mixture of ethylene glycol and sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The crystallite structure and particle size of synthesized electrocatalysts are determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The addition of MnO2 improves the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. The electrocatalytic activity of Pt-MnO2/C towards methanol oxidation in H2SO4 solution is investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The onset potential value of methanol oxidation peak is negatively shifted by 169 mV when MnO2 is introduced to Pt/C. Moreover, the charge transfer resistance value at Pt-MnO2/C is about 10 times as low as that at Pt/C. Chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry show that CO tolerance is greatly improved at Pt-MnO2/C. The increased electrocatalytic activity and enhanced ability to clean platinum surface elect manganese oxide as a suitable promoter for the anode performance in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  17. [Dose-Response Dependences for Frequency of RET/PTC Gene Rearrangements in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma after Irradiation. Simple Pooling Analysis of Molecular Epidemiological Data].

    PubMed

    Koterov, A N; Ushenkova, L N; Biryukov, A P

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of all possible publications on the theme included in the previously formed base of sources on molecular epidemiology of RET/PTC rearrangements in thyroid papillary carcinoma a pooled analysis ("simple pooling data") on determination of the dose-effect dependences for RET/PTC frequency in radiogenic carcinomas of various irradiated groups was performed. (They are groups subjected to radiotherapeutic exposure, residents near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) and victims of nuclear bombing). The tendency to Pearson linear correlation (r = 0.746; p = 0.148) between the frequency of RET/PTC and the estimated dose on thyroid in the regions affected by the CNPP accident was revealed. But this tendency was recognized to be random owing to abnormally low values of the indicator for the most contaminated Gomel region. The method tentatively called "case-control" showed reliable differences in thyroid dose values for carcinomas with RET/PTC and without those. The versatility of changes was found: the lack of RET/PTC for radiotherapeutic impacts was associated with higher doses, whereas in case of the CNPP accident and for nuclear bombing victims it was the opposite. Probably, in the first case the "cellular cleaning" phenomenon after exposure to very high doses took place. Search of direct Pearson correlations between average/median thyroid doses on groups and RET/PTC frequency in carcinomas of these groups showed a high reliability for the dose-effect dependences- at the continuous dose scale (for RET/PTC in total and RET/PTC1 respectively: r = 0.830; p = 0.002 and r = 0.906; p = 0.0003); while there was no significant correlation received for RET/PTC3. When using the weighting least square regression analysis (proceeding from the number of carcinomas in samples), the specified regularities remained. Attempts to influence the strength of correlation by exception ofthe data of all the samples connected with the accident on the CNPP did not significantly

  18. [Dose-Response Dependences for Frequency of RET/PTC Gene Rearrangements in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma after Irradiation. Simple Pooling Analysis of Molecular Epidemiological Data].

    PubMed

    Koterov, A N; Ushenkova, L N; Biryukov, A P

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of all possible publications on the theme included in the previously formed base of sources on molecular epidemiology of RET/PTC rearrangements in thyroid papillary carcinoma a pooled analysis ("simple pooling data") on determination of the dose-effect dependences for RET/PTC frequency in radiogenic carcinomas of various irradiated groups was performed. (They are groups subjected to radiotherapeutic exposure, residents near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) and victims of nuclear bombing). The tendency to Pearson linear correlation (r = 0.746; p = 0.148) between the frequency of RET/PTC and the estimated dose on thyroid in the regions affected by the CNPP accident was revealed. But this tendency was recognized to be random owing to abnormally low values of the indicator for the most contaminated Gomel region. The method tentatively called "case-control" showed reliable differences in thyroid dose values for carcinomas with RET/PTC and without those. The versatility of changes was found: the lack of RET/PTC for radiotherapeutic impacts was associated with higher doses, whereas in case of the CNPP accident and for nuclear bombing victims it was the opposite. Probably, in the first case the "cellular cleaning" phenomenon after exposure to very high doses took place. Search of direct Pearson correlations between average/median thyroid doses on groups and RET/PTC frequency in carcinomas of these groups showed a high reliability for the dose-effect dependences- at the continuous dose scale (for RET/PTC in total and RET/PTC1 respectively: r = 0.830; p = 0.002 and r = 0.906; p = 0.0003); while there was no significant correlation received for RET/PTC3. When using the weighting least square regression analysis (proceeding from the number of carcinomas in samples), the specified regularities remained. Attempts to influence the strength of correlation by exception ofthe data of all the samples connected with the accident on the CNPP did not significantly

  19. IMS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-11-30

    Information Management System An online user interface which provides data and metadata ... on a 24-hour basis; accepts user orders for data; provides information about future data acquision and processing schedules and maintains ...

  20. Toward a Rationale for the PTC124 (Ataluren) Promoted Readthrough of Premature Stop Codons: A Computational Approach and GFP-Reporter Cell-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The presence in the mRNA of premature stop codons (PTCs) results in protein truncation responsible for several inherited (genetic) diseases. A well-known example of these diseases is cystic fibrosis (CF), where approximately 10% (worldwide) of patients have nonsense mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. PTC124 (3-(5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-benzoic acid), also known as Ataluren, is a small molecule that has been suggested to allow PTC readthrough even though its target has yet to be identified. In the lack of a general consensus about its mechanism of action, we experimentally tested the ability of PTC124 to promote the readthrough of premature termination codons by using a new reporter. The reporter vector was based on a plasmid harboring the H2B histone coding sequence fused in frame with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA, and a TGA stop codon was introduced in the H2B-GFP gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Additionally, an unprecedented computational study on the putative supramolecular interaction between PTC124 and an 11-codon (33-nucleotides) sequence corresponding to a CFTR mRNA fragment containing a central UGA nonsense mutation showed a specific interaction between PTC124 and the UGA codon. Altogether, the H2B-GFP-opal based assay and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation support the hypothesis that PTC124 is able to promote the specific readthrough of internal TGA premature stop codons. PMID:24483936

  1. I'm Not Lisa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Abstract "I'm Not Lisa," which evolved from the pain of the breakup of a nearly 15-year relationship, attempts to explore the fine line between love, intimacy, and insanity. Although in earlier drafts Lisa was dispatched in nasty (albeit quick and clean) fashion, the writing served as a catharsis of sorts, and the author decided that life and art is indeed more interesting with Lisa in it. As Lisa put it, "Kate, you can kill me asmany times as you need to, if that's what it takes."

  2. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present

  3. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems provides... facilities and systems and improvement in the coordination in planning, and implementation of air, water,...

  4. GEOSPATIAL IT/IM QA CHECKLIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance (QA) of information technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) systems help to ensure that the end product is of known quality and integrity. As the complexity of IT & IM processes increase, so does the need for regular QA evaluation.

    The areas revi...

  5. Direct Determination of the Ionization Energies of PtC, PtO, and PtO2 with VUVRadiation

    SciTech Connect

    Citir, Murat; Metz, Ricardo B.; Belau, Leonid; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-07-21

    Photoionization efficiency curves were measured for gas-phase PtC, PtO, and PtO2 using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at the Advanced Light Source. The molecules were prepared by laser ablation of a platinum tube, followed by reaction with CH4 or N2O and supersonic expansion. These measurements providethe first directly measured ionization energy for PtC, IE(PtC) = 9.45 +- 0.05 eV. The direct measurement also gives greatly improved ionization energies for the platinum oxides, IE(PtO) = 10.0 +- 0.1 eV and IE(PtO2) = 11.35 +- 0.05 eV. The ionization energy connects the dissociation energies of the neutral and cation, leading to greatly improved 0 K bond dissociation energies for the neutrals: D0(Pt-C) = 5.95 +- 0.07 eV, D0(Pt-O)= 4.30 +- 0.12 eV, and D0(OPt-O) = 4.41 +- 0.13 eV, as well as enthalpies of formation for the gas-phase molecules Delta H0 f,0(PtC(g)) = 701 +- 7 kJ/mol, Delta H0f,0(PtO(g)) = 396 +- 12 kJ/mol, and Delta H0f,0(PtO2(g)) = 218 +- 11 kJ/mol. Much of the error in previous Knudsen cell measurements of platinum oxide bond dissociation energies is due to the use of thermodynamic second law extrapolations. Third law values calculated using statistical mechanical thermodynamic functions are in much better agreement with values obtained from ionization energies and ion energetics. These experiments demonstrate that laser ablation production with direct VUV ionization measurements is a versatile tool to measure ionization energies and bond dissociation energies for catalytically interesting species such as metal oxides and carbides.

  6. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  7. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  8. Insights into the Binding of Phenyltiocarbamide (PTC) Agonist to Its Target Human TAS2R38 Bitter Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Giorgetti, Alejandro; Lanzara, Carmela; Gasparini, Paolo; Carloni, Paolo; Born, Stephan; Brockhoff, Anne; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Humans' bitter taste perception is mediated by the hTAS2R subfamily of the G protein-coupled membrane receptors (GPCRs). Structural information on these receptors is currently limited. Here we identify residues involved in the binding of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and in receptor activation in one of the most widely studied hTAS2Rs (hTAS2R38) by means of structural bioinformatics and molecular docking. The predictions are validated by site-directed mutagenesis experiments that involve specific residues located in the putative binding site and trans-membrane (TM) helices 6 and 7 putatively involved in receptor activation. Based on our measurements, we suggest that (i) residue N103 participates actively in PTC binding, in line with previous computational studies. (ii) W99, M100 and S259 contribute to define the size and shape of the binding cavity. (iii) W99 and M100, along with F255 and V296, play a key role for receptor activation, providing insights on bitter taste receptor activation not emerging from the previously reported computational models. PMID:20811630

  9. Insights into the binding of Phenyltiocarbamide (PTC) agonist to its target human TAS2R38 bitter receptor.

    PubMed

    Biarnés, Xevi; Marchiori, Alessandro; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Lanzara, Carmela; Gasparini, Paolo; Carloni, Paolo; Born, Stephan; Brockhoff, Anne; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Humans' bitter taste perception is mediated by the hTAS2R subfamily of the G protein-coupled membrane receptors (GPCRs). Structural information on these receptors is currently limited. Here we identify residues involved in the binding of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and in receptor activation in one of the most widely studied hTAS2Rs (hTAS2R38) by means of structural bioinformatics and molecular docking. The predictions are validated by site-directed mutagenesis experiments that involve specific residues located in the putative binding site and trans-membrane (TM) helices 6 and 7 putatively involved in receptor activation. Based on our measurements, we suggest that (i) residue N103 participates actively in PTC binding, in line with previous computational studies. (ii) W99, M100 and S259 contribute to define the size and shape of the binding cavity. (iii) W99 and M100, along with F255 and V296, play a key role for receptor activation, providing insights on bitter taste receptor activation not emerging from the previously reported computational models. PMID:20811630

  10. PTC, ITC, or Cash Grant? An Analysis of the Choice Facing Renewable Power Projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Cory, Karlynn; James, Ted

    2009-03-11

    Renewable power technologies are inherently capital-intensive, often (but not always) with relatively high construction costs and low operating costs. For this reason, renewable power technologies are typically more sensitive to the availability and cost of financing than are natural gas power plants, for example. In the United States, the bulk of renewable project finance in recent years has been provided by 'tax equity investors' (typically large investment banks and insurance companies) who partner with project developers through highly specialized financing structures (Bolinger, 2009; Cory et al., 2008; Harper et al., 2007). These structures have been designed primarily to capitalize on federal support for renewable power technologies, which has historically come in the form of tax credits and accelerated depreciation deductions. The number of tax equity investors active in the renewable power market has declined precipitously, however, as a result of the financial crisis that began unfolding across the globe in the summer of 2008. The resulting shortage and increased cost of project financing has, in turn, slowed the development of new renewable power projects, leading to layoffs throughout the entire industry supply chain. In recognition of the fact that tax-based policy incentives are not particularly effective when tax burdens are shrinking or non-existent, Congress included several provisions in 'The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009' (ARRA 2009) designed to make federal incentives for renewable power technologies more useful. Among these provisions is one that allows projects eligible to receive the production tax credit ('the PTC', see Text Box 1) to instead elect the investment tax credit ('the ITC', see Text Box 2). Another provision enables ITC-eligible projects (which now include most PTC-eligible renewable power projects) to instead receive--for a limited time only--a cash grant of equivalent value. These two provisions (among others

  11. Role of structural H 2O in TiO 2 nanotubes in enhancing Pt/C direct ethanol fuel cell anode electro-catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huanqiao; Qiu, Xinping; Guo, Daojun; Li, Fushen

    TiO 2 nanotubes (TNTs) with different structural water were obtained by heat treatment under different temperatures. The role of the structural water in TNTs co-catalyzing ethanol oxidation with Pt/C catalyst was studied systematically. Electrochemical studies using cyclic voltammetry and CO stripping voltammetry indicated that more structural water in TNTs was favorable for improving the tolerance of Pt/C to poisoning species; while chronoamperometry curves and repeated cyclic voltammograms showed that slightly less structural water in TNTs actually led to higher catalytic activity and better stability of Pt/C catalysts for ethanol oxidation. This strange result has been analyzed and was ascribed to the appropriate balance of bi-functional mechanism and ethanol transfer in the catalyst layer with less structural water.

  12. Same-View Nano-XAFS/STEM-EDS Imagings of Pt Chemical Species in Pt/C Cathode Catalyst Layers of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Takao, Shinobu; Sekizawa, Oki; Samjeské, Gabor; Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Takuma; Yamamoto, Takashi; Higashi, Kotaro; Nagasawa, Kensaku; Uruga, Tomoya; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-01

    We have made the first success in the same-view imagings of 2D nano-XAFS and TEM/STEM-EDS under a humid N2 atmosphere for Pt/C cathode catalyst layers in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) with Nafion membrane to examine the degradation of Pt/C cathodes by anode gas exchange cycles (start-up/shut-down simulations of PEFC vehicles). The same-view imaging under the humid N2 atmosphere provided unprecedented spatial information on the distribution of Pt nanoparticles and oxidation states in the Pt/C cathode catalyst layer as well as Nafion ionomer-filled nanoholes of carbon support in the wet MEA, which evidence the origin of the formation of Pt oxidation species and isolated Pt nanoparticles in the nanohole areas of the cathode layer with different Pt/ionomer ratios, relevant to the degradation of PEFC catalysts.

  13. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  14. Therapeutic effect of prenatal alkalization and PTC124 in Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter 1 p.W516* knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y-W; Yang, S-S; Chau, T; Nakamura, M; Yamazaki, O; Seki, G; Yamada, H; Hsu, H-M; Cheng, C-J; Lin, S-H

    2015-05-01

    We created Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) p.W516* knock-in mice as a model of isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis showing early lethality associated with severe metabolic acidosis to investigate the therapeutic effects of prenatal alkalization or posttranscriptional control 124 (PTC124). NBCe1(W516*/W516*) mice were treated with non-alkalization (control, n=12), prenatal alkalization postcoitus (prenatal group, n=7) and postnatal alkalization from postnatal day 6 (postnatal group, n=12). Mutation-specific therapy, PTC124 (60 mg kg(-1)) or gentamicin (30 mg kg(-1)), was administered intraperitoneally from postnatal day 6. Blood and urine biochemistry, acid-base analysis, survival rate and renal histology were examined. NBCe1 protein, mRNA abundance and activity ex vivo were assessed after PTC124 and gentamicin treatment. Prenatal group mice had similar initial body weight to wild-type mice and achieved significant weight gain thereafter compared with controls. They had higher serum bicarbonate level (15.5 ± 1.4 vs 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol l(-1), P<0.05) on postnatal day 14 and better renal function, histology and survival rates (60.8 ± 23.5 vs 41.1 ± 15.8 days, P<0.05) than the postnatal group. Compared with the control and gentamicin therapies, PTC124 therapy significantly increased NBCe1 protein abundance despite unchanged mRNA transcription. Only PTC124 therapy significantly increased survival rate and partially rescued NBCe1 activity ex vivo. In NBCe1(W516*/W516*) mice, prenatal alkali therapy achieved higher survival rates and ameliorated organ dysfunction. PTC124 therapy for this nonsense mutation was partially effective in increasing NBCe1 expression and activity.

  15. I'm a Map, I'm a Green Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    I'm talking about the ways we represent ourselves and our world. I've put some thoughts on the topic together here--a gathering that enacts new media creating and takes up conceptual layers like metaphors, models, and composing. The primary sources are videos from the Get a Mac campaign, aka I'm a Mac; I'm a PC ads. Posthuman concepts blending…

  16. Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platts, Thomas

    Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten, im Folgenden auch als Verbundabdichtungen oder mit Kurzzeichen als AIV bezeichnet, haben sich in der Baupraxis insbesondere in Innenräumen wegen des vereinfachten konstruktiven Aufbaus gegenüber Bahnenabdichtungen nach DIN 18195-5 [14.1] in der Mehrzahl der Ausführungen durchgesetzt und bewährt. Sie können im Innen- und Außenbereich angeordnet werden und sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nutzschicht in Boden- und Wandbereichen im Dünnbettverfahren unmittelbar auf die Abdichtung aufgebracht wird. Aufwändige Zwischenschichten oder Einbauteile wie armierter Putz, Telleranker etc. entfallen (Bild 14.1) und es lassen sich geringere Aufbauhöhen realisieren.

  17. The pinhole interface for IMS/MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Glenn E.

    1995-01-01

    An important supplementary technique for ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is mass spectrometry (MS). A mass spectrometer coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS/MS) can provide significant information on the composition of the ions contributing to an ion mobility peak. On the other hand, the interpretation of IMS/MS results requires knowledge of processes which can occur at the pinhole interface. When the ion composition is a mixture of ion clusters, the observed cluster distribution may not be an accurate representation of the ion clusters in the IMS. Depending on the buffer gas, lower clusters can form by equilibrating with reduced concentrations in the continuum regime of the expansion and larger clusters can form by collisional stabilization in the cooled jet stream. Besides water, nitrogen molecules can also add to the ion clusters. Even though nitrogen is non-polar, this addition is made possible by an ion-induced dipole interaction between the ion and molecule.

  18. Highly Unsaturated Platinum and Palladium Carbenes PtC3 and PdC3 Isolated and Characterized in the Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Tew, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carbenes of platinum and palladium, PtC3 and PdC3, were generated in the gas phase through laser vaporization of a metal target in the presence of a low concentration of a hydrocarbon precursor undergoing supersonic expansion. Rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations confirm that both molecules are linear. The geometry of PtC3 was accurately determined by fitting to the experimental moments of inertia of twenty‐six isotopologues. The results are consistent with the proposal of an autogenic isolobal relationship between O, Au+, and Pt atoms. PMID:27478275

  19. Highly Unsaturated Platinum and Palladium Carbenes PtC3 and PdC3 Isolated and Characterized in the Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Tew, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carbenes of platinum and palladium, PtC3 and PdC3, were generated in the gas phase through laser vaporization of a metal target in the presence of a low concentration of a hydrocarbon precursor undergoing supersonic expansion. Rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations confirm that both molecules are linear. The geometry of PtC3 was accurately determined by fitting to the experimental moments of inertia of twenty‐six isotopologues. The results are consistent with the proposal of an autogenic isolobal relationship between O, Au+, and Pt atoms. PMID:26879473

  20. Highly Unsaturated Platinum and Palladium Carbenes PtC3 and PdC3 Isolated and Characterized in the Gas Phase

    DOE PAGES

    Bittner, Dror M.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Tew, David P.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Legon, Anthony C.

    2016-02-16

    Carbenes of platinum and palladium, PtC3 and PdC3 , were generated in the gas phase through laser vaporization of a metal target in the presence of a low concentration of a hydrocarbon precursor undergoing supersonic expansion. Rotational spectroscopy and abinitio calculations confirm that both molecules are linear. The geometry of PtC3 was accurately determined by fitting to the experimental moments of inertia of twenty-six isotopologues. In conclusion, the results are consistent with the proposal of an autogenic isolobal relationship between O, Au+ , and Ptatoms.

  1. A comparative evaluation of NB30, NB54 and PTC124 in translational read-through efficacy for treatment of an USH1C nonsense mutation.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Tobias; Overlack, Nora; Möller, Fabian; Belakhov, Valery; van Wyk, Michiel; Baasov, Timor; Wolfrum, Uwe; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin

    2012-11-01

    Translational read-through-inducing drugs (TRIDs) promote read-through of nonsense mutations, placing them in the spotlight of current gene-based therapeutic research. Here, we compare for the first time the relative efficacies of new-generation aminoglycosides NB30, NB54 and the chemical compound PTC124 on retinal toxicity and read-through efficacy of a nonsense mutation in the USH1C gene, which encodes the scaffold protein harmonin. This mutation causes the human Usher syndrome, the most common form of inherited deaf-blindness. We quantify read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in cell culture and show the restoration of harmonin function. We do not observe significant differences in the read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in retinal cultures; however, we show an excellent biocompatibility in retinal cultures with read-through versus toxicity evidently superior for NB54 and PTC124. In addition, in vivo administration of NB54 and PTC124 induced recovery of the full-length harmonin a1 with the same efficacy. The high biocompatibilities combined with the sustained read-through efficacies of these drugs emphasize the potential of NB54 and PTC124 in treating nonsense mutation-based retinal disorders. PMID:23027640

  2. Characterization of an inversion on the long arm of chromosome 10 juxtaposing D10S170 and RET and creating the oncogenic sequence RET/PTC.

    PubMed Central

    Pierotti, M A; Santoro, M; Jenkins, R B; Sozzi, G; Bongarzone, I; Grieco, M; Monzini, N; Miozzo, M; Herrmann, M A; Fusco, A

    1992-01-01

    RET/PTC is a transforming sequence created by the fusion of the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET protooncogene with the 5' end of the locus D10S170 designated by probe H4 and is frequently found activated in human papillary thyroid carcinomas. RET and D10S170 have been mapped to contiguous regions of the long arm of chromosome 10: q11.2 and q21, respectively. To identify the mechanism leading to the generation of the oncogenic sequence RET/PTC, a combined cytogenetic and molecular analysis of several cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas was done. In four cases the results indicated that these tumors had RET/PTC activation and a paracentric inversion of the long arm of chromosome 10, inv(10)(q11.2q21), with breakpoints coincident with the regions where RET and D10S170 are located. Therefore, a chromosome 10q inversion provides the structural basis for the D10S170-RET fusion that forms the hybrid transforming sequence RET/PTC. Images PMID:1542652

  3. A comparative evaluation of NB30, NB54 and PTC124 in translational read-through efficacy for treatment of an USH1C nonsense mutation

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Tobias; Overlack, Nora; Möller, Fabian; Belakhov, Valery; van Wyk, Michiel; Baasov, Timor; Wolfrum, Uwe; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Translational read-through-inducing drugs (TRIDs) promote read-through of nonsense mutations, placing them in the spotlight of current gene-based therapeutic research. Here, we compare for the first time the relative efficacies of new-generation aminoglycosides NB30, NB54 and the chemical compound PTC124 on retinal toxicity and read-through efficacy of a nonsense mutation in the USH1C gene, which encodes the scaffold protein harmonin. This mutation causes the human Usher syndrome, the most common form of inherited deaf-blindness. We quantify read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in cell culture and show the restoration of harmonin function. We do not observe significant differences in the read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in retinal cultures; however, we show an excellent biocompatibility in retinal cultures with read-through versus toxicity evidently superior for NB54 and PTC124. In addition, in vivo administration of NB54 and PTC124 induced recovery of the full-length harmonin a1 with the same efficacy. The high biocompatibilities combined with the sustained read-through efficacies of these drugs emphasize the potential of NB54 and PTC124 in treating nonsense mutation-based retinal disorders. PMID:23027640

  4. Transversal modulation ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS): exploring the IMS-IMS-MS possibilities of the instrument.

    PubMed

    Vidal-de-Miguel, G; Macía, M; Barrios, C; Cuevas, J

    2015-02-01

    A prototype is introduced based on the transversal modulation ion mobility spectrometry (TMIMS) technique, which provides a continuous output of mobility-selected ions, greatly easing the synchronization between different analyzing stages. In the new architecture, two stages of filtration are used to drastically reduce the background produced by one stage alone. Two-stages TMIMS was coupled with two different atmospheric pressure interface mass spectrometers (MS). The new system enables IMS-IMS-MS analysis and other modes of operation: IMS prefiltration, IMS-IMS, and full transmission mode. It provides a resolving power R > 60 in IMS mode, and R > 40 in each stage of IMS-IMS mode. 2-Propanol vapors were introduced in one of the stages to enhance the mobility variations, and their effect was studied on a set of tetraalkylammonium ions. We found that concentrations as low as 1% (in partial pressure) produce mobility variations as high as 20%, which suggest that IMS-IMS separation using dried N2 (in one stage) and a dopant (in the other stage), could be a very powerful way to enhance the separation capacity of the IMS-IMS prefiltration approach.

  5. Histopathological changes induced by selective inactivation of menin on the thyroid gland in RET÷PTC3 and E7 transgenic mice. A study of 77 cases.

    PubMed

    Căpraru, Oana Maria; Berger, Nicole; Gadot, Nicolas; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Zhang, Chang; Borda, Angela; Szilágyi, Tibor; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Selmi-Ruby, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) does not involve the thyroid gland, but animal studies have shown that mice with inactivation of menin could develop thyroid pathologies. The objective was to evaluate if the selective inactivation of menin in murine thyroid glands expressing RET÷PTC3 and E7 oncogenes, might induce an increased index of proliferation and a more rapid development of thyroid hyperplasia and÷or tumors. The thyroid glands of 77 mice aged 4-18 months (31 expressing the E7 oncogene and 25 the RET÷PTC3 oncogene) were analyzed for histological changes and Ki67 proliferation index. Fifty-two mice had selective inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland (16 mice with RET÷PTC3 oncogene and 19 mice with E7 oncogene). As compared to wild type, mice with inactivation of menin presented an increased Ki67 proliferation index. Mice presenting the E7 oncogene showed larger thyroid glands with a pattern of diffuse hyperplasia. Mice expressing the RET÷PTC3 oncogene presented larger thyroid glands compared to the wild type mice but smaller compared to E7 mice. The lesions in the RET÷PTC3 group were "proliferative papillary cystic changes" (60%), "cribriform" (16%), "solid" (8%) and a combination of these patterns in the rest of the thyroid glands. The inactivation of menin in the thyroid gland of young mice does not seem to change the histological pattern, but it influences the proliferation of follicular cells. Further molecular studies especially in aged mice are needed to better understand the correlation between certain oncogenes and the inactive status of menin.

  6. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features that includes associated information about the detected features.

  7. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features thatmore » includes associated information about the detected features.« less

  8. Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC Rearrangements Is Feasible in Routine Air-Dried Fine Needle Aspiration Smears

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Precht Jensen, Eva Magrethe; Bösenberg, Eileen; Narz, Frank; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Eszlinger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), their detection in FNA smears could improve the FNA diagnosis. To date, these rearrangements have never been analyzed in routine air-dried FNA smears, but only in frozen tissue, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and in fresh FNA material. Fixed routine air-dried FNA samples have hitherto been judged as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods A new method for RNA extraction from routine air-dried FNA smears was established, which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). To assess RNA quality, an intron-spanning PAX8 cDNA was amplified. Results Acceptable RNA quality was obtained from 95% of the FNA samples and 92% of the FFPE samples. PAX8/PPARG was detected in 4 of 96 FFPEs and in 6 of 96 FNAs. PAX8/PPARG was present in 4 of 10 FTCs and in 3 of 42 follicular adenomas (FAs). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. Conclusion These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements with RT-qPCR. These promising methodological advances, if confirmed in larger series of FNA and FFPE samples, may lead to

  9. A Learning Design Ontology Based on the IMS Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorim, Ricardo R.; Lama, Manuel; Sanchez, Eduardo; Riera, Adolfo; Vila, Xose A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ontology to represent the semantics of the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification, a meta-language used to describe the main elements of the learning design process. The motivation of this work relies on the expressiveness limitations found on the current XML-Schema implementation of the IMS LD conceptual model. To…

  10. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.

  11. Ptc1 protein phosphatase 2C contributes to glucose regulation of SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Amparo; Xu, Xinjing; Carlson, Marian

    2013-10-25

    The SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs) function in energy regulation in eukaryotic cells. SNF1/AMPKs are αβγ heterotrimers that are activated by phosphorylation of the activation loop Thr on the catalytic subunit. Protein kinases that activate SNF1/AMPK have been identified, but the protein phosphatases responsible for dephosphorylation of the activation loop are less well defined. For Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1/AMPK, Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase 1 and Sit4 type 2A-related phosphatase function together to dephosphorylate Thr-210 on the Snf1 catalytic subunit during growth on high concentrations of glucose; reg1Δ and sit4Δ single mutations do not impair dephosphorylation when inappropriate glycogen synthesis, also caused by these mutations, is blocked. We here present evidence that Ptc1 protein phosphatase 2C also has a role in dephosphorylation of Snf1 Thr-210 in vivo. The sit4Δ ptc1Δ mutant exhibited partial defects in regulation of the phosphorylation state of Snf1. The reg1Δ ptc1Δ mutant was viable only when expressing mutant Snf1 proteins with reduced kinase activity, and Thr-210 phosphorylation of the mutant SNF1 heterotrimers was substantially elevated during growth on high glucose. This evidence, together with findings on the reg1Δ sit4Δ mutant, indicates that although Reg1-Glc7 plays the major role, all three phosphatases contribute to maintenance of the Snf1 activation loop in the dephosphorylated state during growth on high glucose. Ptc1 has overlapping functions with Reg1-Glc7 and Sit4 in glucose regulation of SNF1/AMPK and cell viability.

  12. Phase I and pharmacokinetic trial of PTC299 in pediatric patients with refractory or recurrent central nervous system tumors: a PBTC study.

    PubMed

    Packer, Roger J; Rood, Brian R; Turner, David C; Stewart, Clinton F; Fisher, Michael; Smith, Christopher; Young-Pouissant, Tina; Goldman, Stewart; Lulla, Rishi; Banerjee, Anu; Pollack, Ian; Kun, Larry; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Wu, Shengjie; Boyett, James M; Fouladi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    PTC299 is a novel, orally-bioavailable small molecule that selectively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. Based on promising preclinical results, we conducted a pediatric phase I study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose, describe dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of PTC299 in children with recurrent CNS tumors. PTC299 was administered orally twice or three times daily, depending on the regimen. Four regimens were evaluated using the rolling 6 design, starting with 1.2 mg/kg/dose twice daily and escalating to 2 mg/kg/dose three times daily. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the first two courses. Twenty-seven children (14 male, median age 11.2, range 5.5-21 years) with recurrent brain tumors were treated; 21 were fully evaluable for toxicity assessment. Therapy was well-tolerated, and the only DLT was grade 3 hyponatremia. Grade three and grade four toxicities were uncommon in subsequent cycles. Median AUC0-Tlast values at the 2 mg/kg were similar to those observed in adults. The study was terminated while patients were being treated at the highest planned dose, due to hepatotoxicity encountered in the ongoing adult phase I studies. No complete or partial responses were observed. Two patients with low-grade gliomas were noted to have minor responses, and at the time of the study's closure, 5 children with low-grade gliomas had been on therapy for 8 or more courses (range 8-16). PTC299 was well-tolerated at the highest dose level tested (2 mg/kg/dose TID) in children with recurrent brain tumors and prolonged disease stabilization was seen in children with low-grade gliomas.

  13. Preclinical activity of the novel B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 inhibitor PTC-209 in acute myeloid leukemia: Implications for leukemia therapy.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yuki; Maeda, Aya; Chachad, Dhruv; Ishizawa, Jo; Qiu, Yi Hua; Kornblau, Steven M; Kimura, Shinya; Andreeff, Michael; Kojima, Kensuke

    2015-12-01

    Curing patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge. The polycomb complex protein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) is required for the self-renewal and maintenance of leukemia stem cells. We investigated the prognostic significance of BMI-1 in AML and the effects of a novel small molecule selective inhibitor of BMI-1, PTC-209. BMI-1 protein expression was determined in 511 newly diagnosed AML patients together with 207 other proteins using reverse-phase protein array technology. Patients with unfavorable cytogenetics according to Southwest Oncology Group criteria had higher levels of BMI-1 compared to those with favorable (P = 0.0006) or intermediate cytogenetics (P = 0.0061), and patients with higher levels of BMI-1 had worse overall survival (55.3 weeks vs. 42.8 weeks, P = 0.046). Treatment with PTC-209 reduced protein level of BMI-1 and its downstream target mono-ubiquitinated histone H2A and triggered several molecular events consistent with the induction of apoptosis, this is, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 cleavage, BAX activation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. PTC-209 induced apoptosis in patient-derived CD34(+)CD38(low/-) AML cells and, less prominently, in CD34(-) differentiated AML cells. BMI-1 reduction by PTC-209 directly correlated with apoptosis induction in CD34(+) primary AML cells (r = 0.71, P = 0.022). However, basal BMI-1 expression was not a determinant of AML sensitivity. BMI-1 inhibition, which targets a primitive AML cell population, might offer a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:26450753

  14. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  15. Toward an Intelligent Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Carla J. Miller

    2003-07-01

    The ultimate goal is to design and build a very smart ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) that can operate autonomously. To accomplish this, software capable of interpreting spectra so that it can be used in control loops for data interpretation as well as adjusting instrument parameters is being developed. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy numbers are used in this IMS spectra classification scheme. Fuzzy logic provides a straight forward method for developing a classification/detection system, whenever rules for classifying the spectra can be described linguistically. Instead of using 'max' and 'min' values, the product of the truth values is used to determine class membership. Using the product allows rule-bases that utilize the AND function to allow each condition to discount truth value in determining membership, while rule-bases with an OR function are allowed to accumulate membership. Fuzzy numbers allow encapsulation of the uncertainties due to ion mobility peak widths as well as measured instrumental parameters, such as pressure and temperature. Associating a peak with a value of uncertainty, in addition to making adjustments to the mobility calculation based on variations in measured parameters, enables unexpected shifts to be more reliably detected and accounted for; thereby, reducing the opportunity for 'false negative' results. The measure of uncertainty is anticipated to serve the additional purpose of diagnosing the operational conditions of the IMS instrument.

  16. Impact of metal cations on the electrocatalytic properties of Pt/C nanoparticles at multiple phase interfaces.

    PubMed

    Durst, Julien; Chatenet, Marian; Maillard, Frédéric

    2012-10-01

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) use carbon-supported nanoparticles based on platinum and its alloys to accelerate the rate of the sluggish oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR). The most common metals alloyed to Pt include Co, Ni and Cu, and are thermodynamically unstable in the PEMFC environment. Their dissolution yields the formation and redistribution of metal cations (M(y+)) within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Metal cations can also contaminate the MEA when metallic bipolar plates are used as current collectors. In each case, the electrical performance of the PEMFC severely decreases, an effect that is commonly attributed to the poisoning of the sulfonic acid groups of the perfluorosulfonated membrane (PEM) and the resulting decrease of the proton transport properties. However, the impact of metal cations on the kinetics of electrochemical reactions involving adsorption/desorption and bond-breaking processes remains poorly understood. In this paper, we use model electrodes to highlight the effect of metal cations on Pt/C nanoparticles coated or not with a perfluorosulfonated ionomer for the CO electrooxidation reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction. We show that metal cations negatively impact the ORR kinetics and the mass-transport resistance of molecular oxygen. However, the specific adsorption of sulfonate groups of the Nafion® ionomer locally modifies the double layer structure and increases the tolerance to metal cations, even in the presence of sulphate ions in the electrolyte. The survey is extended by using an ultramicroelectrode with cavity and a solid state cell (SSC) specifically developed for this study. PMID:22903748

  17. Evaluation of Arizona's enhanced I/M program

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom

    1999-04-21

    MOBILE5 slightly overpredicts initial reductions in CO and HC, and dramatically overpredicts initial reductions in NOx. About one-third of the vehicles that fail initial I/M testing do not complete the I/M program. Only a small portion of these receive a waiver. Initial I/M repair effectiveness as measured by remote sensing is only half of that as measured by IM240. Possible causes are sensitivity to operating mode, and how long after repair emissions are measured. 37% of the vehicles that initially fail and eventually pass in 1995 fail again in 1997. Half of these fail for the same combination of pollutants in both years. Vehicles that never pass the Im240 are still being driven in the I/M area; these vehicles are from all model years.

  18. Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 is induced by conditional expression of RET/PTC in thyroid PCCL3 cells through the activation of the MEK-ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Puxeddu, Efisio; Mitsutake, Norisato; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Moretti, Sonia; Kim, Hei W; Seta, Karen A; Brockman, Diane; Myatt, Leslie; Millhorn, David E; Fagin, James A

    2003-12-26

    RET/PTC rearrangements are believed to be tumor-initiating events in papillary thyroid carcinomas. We identified microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) as a RET/PTC-inducible gene through subtraction hybridization cloning and expression profiling with custom microarrays. The inducible prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthetic enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and mPGES-1 are up-regulated in many cancers. COX-2 is overexpressed in thyroid malignancies compared with benign nodules and normal thyroid tissues. Eicosanoids may promote tumorigenesis through effects on tumor cell growth, immune surveillance, and angiogenesis. Conditional RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3 expression in PCCL3 thyroid cells markedly induced mPGES-1 and COX-2. PGE2 was the principal prostanoid and up-regulated (by approximately 60-fold), whereas hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid metabolites were decreased, consistent with shunting of prostanoid biosynthesis toward PGE2 by coactivation of the two enzymes. RET/PTC activated mPGES-1 gene transcription. Based on experiments with kinase inhibitors, with PCCL3 cell lines with doxycycline-inducible expression of RET/PTC mutants with substitutions of critical tyrosine residues in the kinase domain, and lines with inducible expression of activated mutants of H-RAS and MEK1, RET/PTC was found to regulate mPGES-1 through Shc-RAS-MEK-ERK. These data show a direct relationship between activation of a tyrosine kinase receptor oncogene and regulation of PGE2 biosynthesis. As enzymes involved in prostanoid biosynthesis can be targeted with pharmacological inhibitors, these findings may have therapeutic implications. PMID:14555660

  19. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure with patent V blue dye in 153 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): is it an accurate staging method?

    PubMed

    Rubello, D; Nanni, C; Merante Boschin, I; Toniato, A; Piotto, A; Rampin, L; Mariani, G; Al-Nahhas, A; Pelizzo, M R

    2006-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping performed by intratumoral injection of blue dye in a large series of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). 153 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients had a preoperative cytological diagnosis of PTC, and none had clinical or ultrasonographic (US) evidence of nodal involvement. At surgery, vital patent V blue dye was injected into the malignant thyroid nodule. Subsequently, total thyroidectomy, central compartment (CC) node dissection, and median inferior jugulocarotid node dissection of laterocervical compartment, ipsilateral to the primary tumour, were performed. The excised thyroid, the blue-positive SLN and blue-negative lymph nodes were sent for frozen section and definitive histophatologic analysis. At surgery, blue-positive SLN were found in 107/153 patients (69.9%), of whom 36 (33.6%) had micrometastasis in SLN; moreover, in 13 of these 36 patients (36.1%), other nodes were found to be metastatic. In the remaining 71/107 blue-positive SLN patients, both the SLN itself and the other removed nodes were found negative for the presence of metastatic disease. In 4 cases, a normal parathyroid gland and in 3 cases fibro-adipous tissue were blue-stained and mistakenly removed as SLN (7 false positive results). On the other hand, SLN was blue-negative in 46/153 patients (30.1%), of whom 7 patients (15.2%) had micrometastases in blue-negative lymph nodes. On the basis of these data, the blue dye procedure for SLN detection appears inappropriate as a standard of care in PTC due to a relatively high number of false negative and false positive results.

  20. The architecture of Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory 1906 - 1912, compared with other observatories (German Title: Die Architektur der Hamburg-Bergedorfer Sternwarte 1906 - 1912 im Vergleich mit anderen Observatorien)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Peter

    The foundation of the astrophysical observatories in Potsdam-Telegrafenberg in 1874, in Meudon near Paris in 1875 and in Mount Hamilton in California in 1875 resulted in a complete change of observatory architecture. Astrometry had become irrelevant; meridian halls, i.e. an exact north-south orientation, were no longer necessary. The location in the centre of a (university) town was disadvantageous, due to vibrations caused by traffic and artificial light at night. New principles were defined: considerable distance (from the city center), secluded and exposed position (on a mountain) and construction of pavilions: inside a park a pavilion was built for each instrument. Other observatories of this type are: Pic du Midi in the French Alps, built as from 1878 as the first permanent observatory in the high mountains; Nice, Mont Gros, (1879); Brussels, Uccle (1883); Edinburgh, Blackford Hill (1892); Heidelberg, Königstuhl (1896); Barcelona, Monte Tibidado (1902). The original Hamburg Observatory was a modest rectangular building near the Millernrtor; in 1833 it became a State institute. As from 1906 erection of a spacious complex in Bergedorf, 20 km northeast of the city center, took place. Except for the unavailable position on a mountain, this complex fulfilled all principles of a modern observatory: in a park pavilion architecture in an elegant neo-baroque style designed by Albert Erbe (architect of the new Hamburger Kunsthalle with cupola). At the Hamburg Observatory the domed structures were cleverly hierarchised leaving an open view to the south. At the beginning astrometry and astrophysics were equally important; there was still a meridian circle. Apart from that, the instruments were manifold: a large refractor 0.60 m (installed by Repsold/Hamburg, 9 m focal length) and a large reflector 1 m (Zeiss/Jena, 3m focal length). Both were the largest instruments of their kind in the German Empire. In addition, there was the Lippert Astrograph on an elegant polar-axis-type mounting, used for astrophotography. In 1931, Bernhard Schmidt developed the Schmidt telescope here, consisting of a special correction plate and a spherical mirror adequate for “coma-free” astrophotography. To this day, it is still used worldwide. In the Second World War Hamburg was severely hit by Anglo-American bombings. Fortunately, the Bergedorf Observatory on the outskirts was spared. In the meantime, many buildings have been repeatedly restored - the entire complex is of high monument value.

  1. Zehn Jahre nach der Wende: Elterliche Einstellungen zur Schule im Ost/West-Vergleich (Ten Years after the Fall of the GDR: A Comparison of East and West German Parental Attitudes towards School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtin, Renate; Rosenfeld, Heidrun

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether parents with elementary school children demonstrate signs of a growing dissatisfaction with elementary schools and whether there are differences between parents from East and West Berlin (Germany). Finds that parent dissatisfaction increased related to school framework conditions and that there is a difference between parents of…

  2. pTC Plasmids from Sulfolobus Species in the Geothermal Area of Tengchong, China: Genomic Conservation and Naturally-Occurring Variations as a Result of Transposition by Mobile Genetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Xiaoxing; Wang, Haina; Huang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids occur frequently in Archaea. A novel plasmid (denoted pTC1) containing typical conjugation functions has been isolated from Sulfolobus tengchongensis RT8-4, a strain obtained from a hot spring in Tengchong, China, and characterized. The plasmid is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 20,417 bp. Among a total of 26 predicted pTC1 ORFs, 23 have homologues in other known Sulfolobus conjugative plasmids (CPs). pTC1 resembles other Sulfolobus CPs in genome architecture, and is most highly conserved in the genomic region encoding conjugation functions. However, attempts to demonstrate experimentally the capacity of the plasmid for conjugational transfer were unsuccessful. A survey revealed that pTC1 and its closely related plasmid variants were widespread in the geothermal area of Tengchong. Variations of the plasmids at the target sites for transposition by an insertion sequence (IS) and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) were readily detected. The IS was efficiently inserted into the pTC1 genome, and the inserted sequence was inactivated and degraded more frequently in an imprecise manner than in a precise manner. These results suggest that the host organism has evolved a strategy to maintain a balance between the insertion and elimination of mobile genetic elements to permit genomic plasticity while inhibiting their fast spreading. PMID:25686154

  3. Functional Overview of SWRL/IMS Version 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, John F.

    Version 3 of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS) is a fully automated system which accepts pupil criterion exercises from remote sites and returns various reports to the same location. This paper briefly describes the SWRL/IMS system design and functional characteristics. The instructional system…

  4. OPSN: The IMS COMSYS 1 and 2 Data Preprocessing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, John

    The Instructional Management System (IMS) developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) processes student and teacher-generated data through the use of an optical scanner that produces a magnetic tape (Scan Tape) for input to IMS. A series of computer routines, OPSN, preprocesses the Scan Tape and prepares the data for transmission to the…

  5. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A A A Text Size I ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? – Eliza* ...

  6. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on graphite oxide, Prussian blue, and PTC-NH2 for the detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in human serum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liuliu; He, Junlin; Xu, Wailan; Zhang, Jing; Hui, Junmin; Guo, Yanlei; Li, Wenjuan; Yu, Chao

    2014-12-15

    α2,6-Sialylated glycans are crucial molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and clinical research. In this work, a novel ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was fabricated based on a graphite oxide (GO), Prussian blue (PB), and PTC-NH2 (an ammonolysis product of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) nanocomposite for the selective detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans. To increase the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were immobilized on a GO-PB-PTC-NH2 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Sambucus nigra agglutinins (SNAs), which specifically bind with α2,6-sialylated glycans, were covalently immobilized on GNPs for the sensitive detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in serum. This proposed method can be applied to human serum, and it worked well over a broad linear range (0.1 pg mL(-1)-500 ng mL(-1)) with detection limits of 0.03 pg mL(-1). Moreover, recovery of the spiked samples ranged from 100.2% to 105.0%, suggesting that this excellent electrochemical biosensor can be used for the practical detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans.

  7. Fog-like fluffy structured N-doped carbon with a superior oxygen reduction reaction performance to a commercial Pt/C catalyst.

    PubMed

    You, Chenghang; Zen, Xiaoyuan; Qiao, Xiaochang; Liu, Fangfang; Shu, Ting; Du, Li; Zeng, Jianhuang; Liao, Shijun

    2015-02-28

    A high-performance N-doped carbon catalyst with a fog-like, fluffy structure was prepared through pyrolyzing a mixture of polyacrylonitrile, melamine and iron chloride. The catalyst exhibits an excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance, with a half-wave potential 27 mV more positive than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst (-0.120 vs. -0.147 V) and a higher diffusion-limiting current density than that of Pt/C (5.60 vs. 5.33 mA cm(-2)) in an alkaline medium. Moreover, it also shows outstanding methanol tolerance, remarkable stability and nearly 100% selectivity for the four-electron ORR process. To our knowledge, it is one of the most active doped carbon ORR catalysts in alkaline media to date. By comparing catalysts derived from precursors containing different amounts of melamine, we found that the added melamine not only gives the catalyst a fluffy structure but also modifies the N content and the distribution of N species in the catalyst, which we believe to be the origins for the catalyst's excellent ORR performance.

  8. Effect of cationic molecules on the oxygen reduction reaction on fuel cell grade Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst in potassium hydroxide (aq, 1 mol dm(-3)).

    PubMed

    Ong, Ai Lien; Inglis, Kenneth K; Whelligan, Daniel K; Murphy, Sam; Varcoe, John R

    2015-05-14

    This study investigates the effect of 1 mmol dm(-3) concentrations of a selection of small cationic molecules on the performance of a fuel cell grade oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst (Johnson Matthey HiSPEC 3000, 20 mass% Pt/C) in aqueous KOH (1 mol dm(-3)). The cationic molecules studied include quaternary ammonium (including those based on bicyclic systems) and imidazolium types as well as a phosphonium example: these serve as fully solubilised models for the commonly encountered head-groups in alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEM) and anion-exchange ionomers (AEI) that are being developed for application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs), batteries and electrolysers. Both cyclic and hydrodynamic linear sweep rotating disk electrode voltammetry techniques were used. The resulting voltammograms and subsequently derived data (e.g. apparent electrochemical active surface areas, Tafel plots, and number of [reduction] electrons transferred per O2) were compared. The results show that the imidazolium examples produced the highest level of interference towards the ORR on the Pt/C catalyst under the experimental conditions used. PMID:25877304

  9. PRELIMINARY IN-SITU X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE EXAMINATION OF PT/C AND PTCO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS IN AN OPERATIONAL POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, B.T.; Myers, D.J.; Smith, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art polymer electrolyte fuel cells require a conditioning period to reach optimized cell performance. There is insuffi cient understanding about the behavior of catalysts during this period, especially with regard to the changing environment of the cathode electrocatalyst, which is typically Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/C). The purpose of this research was to record preliminary observations of the changing environment during the conditioning phase using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XAFS was recorded for a Pt/C cathode at the Pt L3-edge and a PtCo/C cathode at both the Pt L3-edge and Co K-edge. Using precision machined graphite cell-blocks, both transmission and fl uorescence data were recorded at Sector 12-BM-B of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source. The fl uorescence and transmission edge steps allow for a working description of the changing electrocatalyst environment, especially water concentration, at the anode and cathode as functions of operating parameters. These features are discussed in the context of how future analysis may correlate with potential, current and changing apparent thickness of the membrane electrode assembly through loss of catalyst materials (anode, cathode, carbon support). Such direct knowledge of the effect of the conditioning protocol on the electrocatalyst may lead to better catalyst design. In turn, this may lead to minimizing, or even eliminating, the conditioning period.

  10. GC-IMS: a technology for many applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Lawrence V.; Romeskie, Julian M.

    1998-12-01

    Fast GC (gas chromatography) - IMS (ion mobility spectrometry) as a core technology is sufficiently flexible with respect to a broad range of chemical detection capabilities. The application of this dual technology can provide unique solutions in many operational environments. GC-IMS is the next evolutionary step in the advancement of IMS technology. Using the advantages of IMS (i.e., small, high sensitivity, rugged, operates at atmospheric pressure, etc.) And the chemical selection capability of GC, this detector configuration can be customized to detect and identify explosives, ICAO markers, and narcotics. This paper will present a technical discussion on GC-IMS and describe several commercial off the shelf (COTS) systems with potential application in many operating environments. Instruments include the Orion for explosives detection, Ariel for narcotics detection, Sirius for both explosives and narcotics detection, and NorthStar for handheld narcotics detection.

  11. IMS R and D program at Canada customs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilon, Pierre; Mungham, Tony; Ng, Lay-Keow; Lawrence, Andre

    1995-01-01

    Over the last few years, Revenue Canada, in collaboration with Barringer Instruments Limited, has been involved in the development of a field-usable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work has culminated in the manufacturing and commercialization by Barringer of the Ionscan 350 instruments, now in use by various law enforcement agencies worldwide. Although IMS exhibits a very strong and distinctive response toward some nitrogen containing drugs, e.g., cocaine, like all separation techniques it has inherent limitations, namely moderate resolution and low chemical signal to noise ratio which may affect the reliability of IMS-based drug detectors. A program is in place at the Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate (LSSD) to investigate the applicability of various digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to IMS output signals. The application of neural network techniques to overlapping IMS peaks is presented.

  12. Isothermal aging of IM7/8320 and IM7/5260

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1992-01-01

    Isothermal aging was conducted on two composite systems being considered as possible candidates for the next generation supersonic transport. The composite systems were IM7/5260, a carbon/thermoset, and IM7/8320, a carbon/amorphous thermoplastic. The materials were isothermally aged for a total of 5000 hours at 125 C and 175 C. These temperatures are approximately equivalent to the upper skin temperatures of an aircraft flying at Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4, respectively. The variations of the following properties were determined as a function of aging time: weight loss, moduli, glass transition temperature, microcracking, and modulus and strength of a +/- 45 laminate. The difficulties and accuracy of strain measurements are also discussed.

  13. A digital boxcar integrator for IMS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin J.; Stimac, Robert M.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Parker, Donald C.

    1995-01-01

    When trying to detect or quantify a signal at or near the limit of detectability, it is invariably embeded in the noise. This statement is true for nearly all detectors of any physical phenomena and the limit of detectability, hopefully, occurs at very low signal-to-noise levels. This is particularly true of IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometers) spectra due to the low vapor pressure of several chemical compounds of great interest and the small currents associated with the ionic detection process. Gated Integrators and Boxcar Integrators or Averagers are designed to recover fast, repetitive analog signals. In a typical application, a time 'Gate' or 'Window' is generated, characterized by a set delay from a trigger or gate pulse and a certain width. A Gated Integrator amplifies and integrates the signal that is present during the time the gate is open, ignoring noise and interference that may be present at other times. Boxcar Integration refers to the practice of averaging the output of the Gated Integrator over many sweeps of the detector. Since any signal present during the gate will add linearly, while noise will add in a 'random walk' fashion as the square root of the number of sweeps, averaging N sweeps will improve the 'Signal-to-Noise Ratio' by a factor of the square root of N.

  14. Agile machining and inspection thrust area team-on-machine probing / compatibility assessment of Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) pro/CMM DMIS with Zeiss DMISEngine.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, James Rokwel; Tomlinson, Kurt; Bryce, Edwin Anthony

    2008-09-01

    The charter goal of the Agile Machining and Inspection Thrust Area Team is to identify technical requirements, within the nuclear weapons complex (NWC), for Agile Machining and Inspection capabilities. During FY 2008, the team identified Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) Pro/CMM as a software tool for use in off-line programming of probing routines--used for measurement--for machining and turning centers. The probing routine would be used for in-process verification of part geometry. The same Pro/CMM program used on the machine tool could also be employed for program validation / part verification using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Funding was provided to determine the compatibility of the Pro/CMM probing program with CMM software (Zeiss DMISEngine).

  15. Porous Mn2 O3 : A Low-Cost Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media with Comparable Activity to Pt/C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhai; Geng, Jing; Kuai, Long; Li, Min; Geng, Baoyou

    2016-07-11

    Preparing nonprecious metal catalysts with high activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can promote the development of energy conversion devices. Support-free porous Mn2 O3 was synthesized by a facile aerosol-spray-assisted approach (ASAA) and subsequent thermal treatment, and exhibited ORR activity that is comparable to commercial Pt/C The catalyst also exhibits notably higher activity than other Mn-based oxides, such as Mn3 O4 and MnO2 . The rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study indicates a typical 4-electron ORR pathway on Mn2 O3 . Furthermore, the porous Mn2 O3 demonstrates considerable stability and a good methanol tolerance in alkaline media. In light of the low cost and high earth abundance of Mn, the highly active Mn2 O3 is a promising candidate to be used as a cathode material in metal-air batteries and alkaline fuel cells. PMID:27258474

  16. Porous Mn2 O3 : A Low-Cost Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media with Comparable Activity to Pt/C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhai; Geng, Jing; Kuai, Long; Li, Min; Geng, Baoyou

    2016-07-11

    Preparing nonprecious metal catalysts with high activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can promote the development of energy conversion devices. Support-free porous Mn2 O3 was synthesized by a facile aerosol-spray-assisted approach (ASAA) and subsequent thermal treatment, and exhibited ORR activity that is comparable to commercial Pt/C The catalyst also exhibits notably higher activity than other Mn-based oxides, such as Mn3 O4 and MnO2 . The rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study indicates a typical 4-electron ORR pathway on Mn2 O3 . Furthermore, the porous Mn2 O3 demonstrates considerable stability and a good methanol tolerance in alkaline media. In light of the low cost and high earth abundance of Mn, the highly active Mn2 O3 is a promising candidate to be used as a cathode material in metal-air batteries and alkaline fuel cells.

  17. The effect of low concentrations of CO on H2 adsorption and activation on Pt/C: Part 2-In the presence of H2O vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jack Z.; Hongsirikarn, Kitiya; Goodwin, James G.

    2011-08-01

    CO affects H2 activation on supported Pt in the catalyst layers of a PEMFC and significantly degrades overall fuel cell performance. This paper establishes a more fundamental understanding of the effect of humidity on CO poisoning of Pt/C at typical fuel cell conditions (80 °C, 2 atm). In this work, direct measurements of hydrogen surface concentration on Pt/C were performed utilizing an H2-D2 switch with Ar purge (HDSAP). The presence of water vapor decreased the rate of CO adsorption on Pt, but had very little effect on the resulting CO surface coverage on PtS (θCO) at steady-state. The steady-state θCOs at 80 °C for Pt exposed to H2 (PH2 = 1 atm) and a mixture of H2/H2O (1 atm H2, 10%RH) were 0.70 and 0.66 ML, respectively. Furthermore, total strongly bound surface hydrogen measured after exposure to H2/H2O was, surprisingly, the sum of the exchangeable surface hydrogen contributed by each component, even in the presence of CO. In the absence of any evidence for strong chemisorption of H2O on the carbon support with/without Pt, this additive nature and seemingly lack of interaction from the co-adsorption of H2 and H2O on Pt may be explained by the repulsion of strongly adsorbed H2O to the stepped-terrace interface at high coverages of surface hydrogen.

  18. No Sex Please, I'm a Stressed New Mom

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159263.html No Sex Please, I'm a Stressed New Mom Study ... HealthDay News) -- First-time parents may see their sex life hit the skids if mom feels stressed ...

  19. PTC '87: Telecommunications--Asia, Americas, Pacific. Pacific Telecommunications Users: A Spectrum of Requirements. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council (9th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 18-21, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Bissell, Mary Sue, Ed.

    More than 60 papers presented at the 1987 Pacific Telecommunications Council (PTC) conference on telecommunications needs, primarily in and around the Pacific region, are included in this volume. Contributions from major industry user groups, governments, developmental institutions, and the small user are represented. Four keynote addresses open…

  20. Overview of IMS infrasound station and engineering projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Doury, B.; Kramer, A.; Martysevich, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in acoustic source detection, localization and characterization. The infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) constitutes the only worldwide ground-based infrasound network. It consists of sixty stations, among which forty-eight are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. The characteristics of infrasonic waves are computed in near real-time by IDC automatic detection software and are used as an input to IDC source categorization and localization algorithms. The PTS is continuously working towards the completion and sustainment of the IMS infrasound network. The objective of this presentation is to review the main activities performed in the IMS infrasound network over the last five years. This includes construction, installation, certification, major upgrade and revalidation activities. Major technology development projects to improve the reliability and robustness of IMS infrasound stations as well as their compliance with IMS Operational Manual requirements will also be presented. This includes advances in array geometry, wind noise reduction, system calibration, meteorological data as well as power and communication infrastructures. Finally the impact of all these changes on the overall detection capability of the IMS infrasound network will be highlighted.

  1. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  2. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  3. The expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Seiichi . E-mail: katayama@ankaken.co.jp; Ashizawa, Koji; Gohma, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Tadahiro; Narumi, Kazunori; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Tatemoto, Hideki; Nakada, Tadashi; Nagai, Kenji

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and an ER antagonist on the expression of Hedgehog genes (Indian hedgehog: Ihh; Desert hedgehog: Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Patched 1: Ptc1; glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1: Gli1; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II: Coup-TfII) in the rat uterus. Immature female rats were administered once with 17{alpha}-ethynyl estradiol (EE, an ER agonist), propyl pyrazole triole (PPT, an ER{alpha}-selective agonist), diarylpropionitrile (DPN, an ER{beta}-selective agonist), or ICI 182,780 (an ER antagonist). Expression of mRNA for Ihh, Dhh, and Ptc1 was dose-dependently downregulated by EE in the uterus of immature rats, mediated by ER as confirmed by coadministration of ICI 182,780. The mRNA expression levels of Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII were simultaneously downregulated during the period in which the mRNA expression levels of Ihh and Dhh were downregulated in the uterus after administration of EE. PPT downregulated the transcription of Ihh, Dhh, Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII, indicating that expression of these genes was regulated by the ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. DPN also downregulated the transcription of Ihh and Dhh, although the effect was weaker than that of PPT, indicating that the regulation of uterine Ihh and Dhh transcription was also affected by the ER{beta}-dependent pathway. These results suggest that the expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats.

  4. Evaluation of Gas Chromatography/Mini-IMS to Detect VOCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Peters, Randy; James, John T.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Toxicology Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has pioneered the use of gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) for measuring target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) aboard spacecraft. Graseby Dynamics, under contract to NASA/Wyle, has built several volatile organic analyzers (VOA) based on GC/IMS. Foremost among these have been the volatile organic analyzer-risk mitigation unit and the two flight VOA units for International Space Station (ISS). The development and evaluation of these instruments has been chronicled through presentations at the International Conference on Ion Mobility Spectrometry over the past three years. As the flight VOA from Graseby is prepared for operation on ISS at JSC, it is time to begin evaluations of technologies for the next generation VOA, Although the desired instrument characteristics for the next generation unit are the same as the current unit, the requirements are much more stringent. As NASA looks toward future missions beyond Earth environs, a premium will be placed upon small, light, reliable, autonomous hardware. It is with these visions in mind that the JSC Toxicology Laboratory began a search for the next generation VOA. One technology that is a candidate for the next generation VOA is GC/IMS. The recent miniaturization of IMS technology permits it to compete with other, inherently small, technologies such as chip-sized sensor arrays. This paper will discuss the lessons learned from the VOA experience and how that has shaped the design of a potential second generation VOA based upon GC/IMS technology. Data will be presented from preliminary evaluations of GC technology and the mini-IMS when exposed to VOCs likely to be detected aboard spacecraft. Results from the evaluation of an integrated GC/mini-IMS system will be shown if available.

  5. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  6. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  7. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Special IMS periods for 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Special International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) Satellite Periods selected at times when two or more satellites are expected to be in interesting regions of the magnetosphere simultaneously are described. Data are presented to aid in defining a program of magnetospheric observations which emphasizes coordinated measurements of satellites, rockets, balloons, aircraft, and ground-based stations. The position is given of currently operating high altitude spacecraft in the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic, Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric, and Solar Magnetic coordinate systems to determine their passage through the bow shock, the magnetopause, the cusp, or the neutral sheet region. Information on the synchronous and low altitude spacecraft and experiments are included in tabular form along with a tabular summary of all the rocket, balloon, and aircraft campaigns in 1976.

  8. Renaturierung von Sandökosystemen im Binnenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe-Kratochwil, Angelika; Kratochwil, Anselm

    Das Vorkommen von Sandökosystemen im Binnenland (Flugsand- und Decksandfelder, Dünen) ist vor allem an Sand-Akkumulationen der vorletzten Eiszeit (in Nordeuropa: Saaleeiszeit und Sand-Ablagerungen an größeren Flüssen gebunden. So finden wir die Verbreitungsschwerpunkte von binnenländischen Sandökosystemen in Mitteleuropa einerseits vor allem im Bereich der flächenhaften saalezeitlichen Ablagerungen in den Niederlanden und in Norddeutschland (Castel et al. 1989), andererseits kommen Sandökosysteme des Binnenlandes linear in den Flussgebieten z.B. von Maas, Rhein, Ems, Elbe, Oder und Regnitz vor. In Niederösterreich fanden sich einst großflächige Dünen- und Flugsandgebiete im Marchfeld östlich von Wien (Wiesbauer et al. 1997). Die Flugsandbildung setzte bereits im Spätglazial ca. 11000 v. Chr. ein, als eine den Sand fixierende Vegetation noch fehlte. Es bildeten sich im norddeutschen Raum aus den leicht verwehbaren Talsanden bereits um 9000 v. Chr.

  9. Direct analysis of organic priority pollutants by IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giam, C. S.; Reed, G. E.; Holliday, T. L.; Chang, L.; Rhodes, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many routine methods for monitoring of trace amounts of atmospheric organic pollutants consist of several steps. Typical steps are: (1) collection of the air sample; (2) trapping of organics from the sample; (3) extraction of the trapped organics; and (4) identification of the organics in the extract by GC (gas chromatography), HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), or MS (Mass Spectrometry). These methods are often cumbersome and time consuming. A simple and fast method for monitoring atmospheric organics using an IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometer) is proposed. This method has a short sampling time and does not require extraction of the organics since the sample is placed directly in the IMS. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses in the IMS to organic 'priority pollutants'. Priority pollutants including representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, phenols, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were analyzed in both the positive and negative detection mode at ambient atmospheric pressure. Detection mode and amount detected are presented.

  10. IMS: a new technology to develop a telemedicine system.

    PubMed

    Uceda, J D; Elena, M; Blasco, S; Tarrida, C L; Quero, J M

    2008-01-01

    The emergent IMS (Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem) technology appears to improve the current communication technologies. Its characteristics, such as Quality of Service (QoS), make it an advantageous system for innovative applications. Providing integrated services to users is one of the main reasons for the existence of IMS. Operators provide the technology as an open source, to be able to use services developed by researchers. Combining and integrating them, users will receive completely new services. Our proposal of use for IMS is the development of a telemedicine platform, designed to support not only remote biological signal monitoring, but value-added services for diagnosis and medical care, both of these working in real time.

  11. Robust sliding mode continuous control of an IM drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jezernik, K.; Hren, A.; Drevensek, D.

    1995-12-31

    A control approach for robust trajectory tracking of IM servodrive based on the variable structure systems (VSS) is described. A new discrete-time control algorithm has been developed by combining VSS and Lyapunov design. It possesses all the good properties of the sliding mode and avoids the unnecessary discontinuity of the control input, thus eliminating chattering which has been considering as serious obstacles for applications of VSS. A unified control approach for current, torque and motion control based on the discrete-time sliding mode for application in indirect vector control of an IM drive is developed. The sliding mode approach can be applied to the control of an Im drive due to the replacement of the hysteresis controller with widely used PWM technique. All the theoretical issues are verified by experiment. The experimental system consists of a transputer and a microcontroller, thus allowing parallel processing.

  12. A Trust Ranking Method to Prevent IM Spam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jun

    The problem of IM (Instant Messaging) SPAM, also known as SPIM, has become a challenge in recent years. The current anti-SPAM methods are not quite suitable for SPIM because of the differences in system infrastructures and characteristics between IM and email service. In order to effectively eliminate SPIM, we propose a trust ranking method in this paper. The mechanism to build up reputation network, global reputation and local trust ranking algorithms, reputation management, and SPIM filtering methods are presented. The experiments under five treat modes and algorithms enhancement are also introduced. The experiment shows that the proposed method is resilient to deal with SPIM attacks under several threat models.

  13. Characteristics of the GOES I-M Imager and Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, Thomas J.; Koenig, Edward W.

    1990-01-01

    The design and the parameters of the improved thermal-imaging and sounding instruments (the Imager and the Sounder) that will be part of the instrument complements of the next-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES I-M) are discussed. The new design incorporates many features that enhance instrumental reliability over the previous GOES radiometric instruments, such as independently functioning Sounder and Imager, redundancy, and more reliable position sensors and lubrication methods. Tables are presented which list the instrument parameters of the GOES I-M Imager and Sounder and the performance characteristics of the two instruments.

  14. Performance of Pt-C, CrC-CrC, CrC-C, and Ru-C Fixed Points for Thermocouple Calibrations Above 1600 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.; Elliott, C. J.; Lowe, D. H.; Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Sadli, M.; Machin, G.

    2014-04-01

    A series of high-temperature fixed points (HTFPs) Pt-C (1738 , and Ru-C (1953 ) have been constructed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais and Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (LNE-Cnam). These are required for the calibration of high-temperature thermocouples in the framework of work package 6 of the European Metrology Research Programme IND01 project "HiTeMS." The goal of this work package is to establish a European capability that can determine low-uncertainty reference functions of non-standard high-temperature thermocouples. For reference functions to be widely applicable, measurements must be performed by more than one institute and preferably by more than one method. Due to the high price of the ingot materials, miniature HTFP cells are used. NPL and LNE-Cnam constructed their HTFP cells with different designs; these are described here, together with the performance of the cells using both radiation thermometry and thermocouples. The melting temperature of the Ru-C cells (for thermocouple calibrations) was determined using radiation thermometry at both NPL and LNE-Cnam, and the two results are compared. The suitability of the cells for calibration of W-Re and Rh-Ir thermocouples is evaluated, and some results are presented. Some discussion is given regarding the materials challenges when calibrating Rh-Ir thermocouples up to 2000 C.

  15. A comparative study of Pt/C cathodes in Sn 0.9In 0.1P 2O 7 and H 3PO 4 ionomers for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y. C.; Okada, M.; Hibino, T.

    New Pt/C cathodes with many reaction sites for the oxygen reduction reaction as well as high tolerance to Pt corrosion have been designed for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), wherein a composite mixture of Sn 0.9In 0.1P 2O 7 (SIPO) and sulfonated polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene/butylene)-b-polystyrene (sSEBS) functioned as an ionomer. The microstructure of the Pt-SIPO-sSEBS/C cathode was characterized by homogeneous distribution of the ionomer over the catalyst layer and close contact between the ionomer and the Pt/C powder. As a result, the activation and concentration overpotentials of the Pt-SIPO-sSEBS/C cathode between 100 and 200 °C were lower than those of an H 3PO 4-impregnated Pt/C cathode, which suggests that the present ionomer can avoid poisoning of Pt by phosphate anions and the limitation of gas diffusion through the catalyst layer. Moreover, agglomeration of Pt in the Pt-SIPO-sSEBS/C cathode was not observed during a durability test at 150 °C for 6 days, although it was significant in the Pt-H 3PO 4/C cathode. Therefore, it is concluded that the Pt-SIPO-sSEBS/C electrode is a very promising cathode candidate for high-temperature PEMFCs.

  16. Adolescent Subtest Norms for the ImPACT Neurocognitive Battery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Luke C; Sandel, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive testing of sports concussion for injury management and return-to-play decisions has long been considered the gold standard in evaluation of the injury. Computerized testing batteries are frequently employed, with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms to evaluate concussion. ImPACT's clinical report yields four normed composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, and Reaction Time) and another composite score that is not normed but is used as a validity measure (Impulse Control), as well as their corresponding subtest scores, which are not normed. The current study provides normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 13 to 21 years old and are stratified by the norm age brackets already employed by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:25412432

  17. The Education of Children in Im/Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzubiaga, Angela E.; Nogueron, Silvia C.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of im/migrant children in schools have increased throughout the world. The principal receiving areas are North America, Western Europe, the Persian Gulf, Asia and the Pacific, and the Southern Cone of South America. In the United States, one out of every four children younger than the age of 8 lives in a family where at least one…

  18. IM Set to Talk with You with Text!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses text messaging and instant messaging (IM). In a nutshell, text messaging is another name for Short Message Service (SMS). SMS is a service available on most digital mobile phones that permits the sending of short messages (also known as SMSes, text messages, messages, or more colloquially texts or even txts)…

  19. Criteria Underlying the Formation of Alternative IMS Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Ashok

    To assist the formation of IMS (Instructional Management System) configurations, three categories of characteristics are developed and explained. Categories 1 and 2 emphasize automation, and the necessity of forming workable configurations to carry out instructional management for Southwest Regional Laboratory developed instructional and/or…

  20. Static corrections for enhanced signal detection at IMS seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Neil; Wookey, James; Selby, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Seismic monitoring forms an important part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Analysis of seismic data can be used to discriminate between nuclear explosions and the tens of thousands of natural earthquakes of similar magnitude that occur every year. This is known as "forensic seismology", and techniques include measuring the P-to-S wave amplitude ratio, the body-to-surface wave magnitude ratio (mb/Ms), and source depth. Measurement of these seismic discriminants requires very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, and this has led to the development and deployment of seismic arrays as part of the IMS. Array processing methodologies such as stacking can be used, but optimum SNR improvement needs an accurate estimate of the arrival time of the particular seismic phase. To enhance the imaging capability of IMS arrays, we aim to develop site-specific static corrections to the arrival time as a function of frequency, slowness and backazimuth. Here, we present initial results for the IMS TORD array in Niger. Vespagrams are calculated for various events using the F-statistic to clearly identify seismic phases and measure their arrival times. Observed arrival times are compared with those predicted by 1D and 3D velocity models, and residuals are calculated for a range of backazimuths and slownesses. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement in signal fidelity provided by these corrections.

  1. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history, as well…

  2. Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusch, Gene E.

    This student manual explains an innovative strategy through which Bellingham Technical College's (Washington) evening Industrial Electrician and Millwright Apprenticeships were aggregated with workforce upgrade course offerings to form the college's first evening degree program in Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Section 1 contains a…

  3. Choosing the Right Free IM Providers and Clients for Your Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izenstark, Amanda K.

    2009-01-01

    With virtual library services increasing, public services librarians may find themselves with questions such as: What instant messaging services (IM) are available? Which IM service would best suit my patrons' needs? Which IM service best suits my library's technology profile? This column describes the features and functionality of major instant…

  4. Overview of the IMS Version 3 Computer Software Considerations in the 1971-72 System Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Howard

    Hardware and software components employed in the 1971-72 tryout of a research-based, computer-operated Instructional Management System (IMS) are listed and described. Purposes of the tryout are given, and the communications system detailed. Source-input and output documents are listed, along with the IMS computer programs and IMS files.…

  5. The Effect of the Rear Cavity Wall Ingot Shape on the Evolution of the Liquid-Solid Interface During Melting for the Eutectic Pt-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, P.; Bloembergen, P.; Arroyo, A.

    2014-04-01

    When characterizing high-temperature fixed points, the fraction of the melting time of the regular part of the plateau with respect to the total melting time, is critical. Maximizing the melting duration minimizes the uncertainty associated with the determination of the fixed-point temperature. One factor that affects this quality is the effect of the thermal bridging between the external and internal surfaces of the ingot enclosed by the cell. This paper presents the results of simulations for the eutectic Pt-C, investigating the effects of different ingot shapes on the duration of the melt plateau. It was found that the formation of a thermal bridge from the rear of the blackbody cavity toward the outer surface of the ingot was critical and that its formation could be delayed or suppressed through a proper choice of the ingot shape. The shapes considered included, firstly, the shape of the rear of the cavity, in contact with the ingot, either cone-shaped or dome-shaped, and secondly, the inside rear surface of the cell, in contact with the ingot, being a cone, a convex dome, or flat. The presence of impurities in the alloy was taken into consideration, and its influence in the evolution of the liquid-solid interface compared with that for the pure alloy. The effect of changing the thermal isolation of the cell, at its front side, was also considered. A dome-shaped surface for the rear of the cavity was found to be more favorable for the development of a regular melting front, in conjunction with the segregation of impurities during melting. At the rear of the cell, a flat surface ensures the back wall is the last to experience thermal bridging, resulting in more extended melting plateaus.

  6. IM30 triggers membrane fusion in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Raoul; Heidrich, Jennifer; Saur, Michael; Schmüser, Lars; Roeters, Steven J; Hellmann, Nadja; Woutersen, Sander; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias; Markl, Jürgen; Schneider, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria is a unique internal membrane system harbouring the complexes of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Despite their apparent importance, little is known about the biogenesis and maintenance of thylakoid membranes. Although membrane fusion events are essential for the formation of thylakoid membranes, proteins involved in membrane fusion have yet to be identified in photosynthetic cells or organelles. Here we show that IM30, a conserved chloroplast and cyanobacterial protein of approximately 30 kDa binds as an oligomeric ring in a well-defined geometry specifically to membranes containing anionic lipids. Triggered by Mg(2+), membrane binding causes destabilization and eventually results in membrane fusion. We propose that IM30 establishes contacts between internal membrane sites and promotes fusion to enable regulated exchange of proteins and/or lipids in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. PMID:25952141

  7. Im Blickwinkel: Wie man die Zeit aufhalten kann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    Siehe eine Sanduhr: Da läßt sich nichts durch Rütteln und Schütteln erreichen, schrieb Christian Morgenstern. So wahr dieser Ausspruch auch sein mag, im Allgemeinen stimmt er nicht. Wenn man eine Sanduhr schüttelt, also beispielsweise rhythmisch auf und ab bewegt, oder ihren unteren Teil erwärmt, so geht sie mit der Zeit nach.

  8. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  9. Detection of tetrahydrocannabinol residues on hands by ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS). Correlation of IMS data with saliva analysis.

    PubMed

    Sonnberg, Saskia; Armenta, Sergio; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Ion-mobility spectroscopy (IMS) was evaluated as a high-throughput, cheap, and efficient analytical tool for detecting residues of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on hands. Regarding the usefulness of hand residues as potential samples for determining THC handling and abuse, we studied the correlation between data obtained from cannabis consumers who were classified as positive after saliva analysis and from those who were classified as positive on the basis of the information from hand-residue analysis. Sampling consisted of wiping the hands with borosilicate glass microfiber filters and introducing these directly into the IMS after thermal desorption. The possibility of false positive responses, resulting from the presence of other compounds with a similar drift time to THC, was evaluated and minimised by applying the truncated negative second-derivative algorithm. The possibility of false negative responses, mainly caused by competitive ionisation resulting from nicotine, was also studied. Graphical abstract THC residues: from hands to analytical signals. PMID:26072207

  10. Detection of tetrahydrocannabinol residues on hands by ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS). Correlation of IMS data with saliva analysis.

    PubMed

    Sonnberg, Saskia; Armenta, Sergio; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Ion-mobility spectroscopy (IMS) was evaluated as a high-throughput, cheap, and efficient analytical tool for detecting residues of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on hands. Regarding the usefulness of hand residues as potential samples for determining THC handling and abuse, we studied the correlation between data obtained from cannabis consumers who were classified as positive after saliva analysis and from those who were classified as positive on the basis of the information from hand-residue analysis. Sampling consisted of wiping the hands with borosilicate glass microfiber filters and introducing these directly into the IMS after thermal desorption. The possibility of false positive responses, resulting from the presence of other compounds with a similar drift time to THC, was evaluated and minimised by applying the truncated negative second-derivative algorithm. The possibility of false negative responses, mainly caused by competitive ionisation resulting from nicotine, was also studied. Graphical abstract THC residues: from hands to analytical signals.

  11. Achieving E-learning with IMS Learning Design--Workflow Implications at the Open University of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim; Brouns, Francis; Pannekeet, Kees; Janssen, Jose; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the Open University of the Netherlands as an instructive case for the introduction of e-learning based on the IMS Learning Design specification (IMS LD). The IMS LD specification, as approved by the IMS Global Learning Consortium in 2003, enables the specification and encoding of learning scenarios that describe any design of a…

  12. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R-IM

  13. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  15. Characteristics of the GOES I-M imager and sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    The key features and operational characteristics of the thermal imaging and sounding instruments included into the next-generation GOES spacecraft (GOES I-M) are described. The GOES Imager's censor module has five spectral channels, including an eigth-element visible channel, three IR channels, and a water-vapor channel. The GOES Sounder's detector and filter arrangement makes use of four spectral bands: long-wave, mid-wave, short-wave, and visible. Tables of the Imager and the Sounder sensing performance characteristics are presented together with diagrams of the Imager optic parts and the Imager and the Sounder field and scan patterns.

  16. [Leben im Eismeer - Tauchuntersuchungen zur Biologie arktischer Meerespflanzen und Meerestiere

    PubMed

    Lippert; Karsten; Wiencke

    2000-01-01

    Die Maske wird nochmals auf Dichtigkeit überprüft, der Knoten der Sicherungsleine mit zwei halben Schlägen fixiert, dann rutscht die Taucherin von der Eiskante in das kalte Wasser. Eine halbe Stunde vergeht, bevor ihr Kopf wieder aus dem Eisloch auftaucht und sie ein großes Sammelnetz nach oben reicht, gefüllt mit verschiedenen Arten von Makroalgen. Obwohl noch große Flächen des Kongsfjordes im arktischen Spitzbergen zugefroren sind und das Festland von einer dicken Schneedecke bedeckt ist, hat unter Wasser in den Algenwäldern bereits der Sommer und damit die Saison der Meeresbiologen begonnen.

  17. Building Adaptive Game-Based Learning Resources: The Integration of IMS Learning Design and

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgos, Daniel; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a specification to create units of learning (UoLs), which express a certain pedagogical model or strategy (e.g., adaptive learning with games). However, the authoring process of a UoL remains difficult because of the lack of high-level authoring tools for IMS-LD, even more so when the focus is on specific topics,…

  18. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  19. Completing and sustaining IMS network for the CTBT Verification Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, N.

    2015-12-01

    The CTBT International Monitoring System is to be comprised of 337 facilities located all over the world for the purpose of detecting and locating nuclear test explosions. Major challenges remain, namely the completion of the network where most of the remaining stations have either environmental, logistical and/or political issues to surmont (89% of the stations have already been built) and the sustainment of a reliable and state-of the-art network covering 4 technologies - seismic, infrasound , hydroacoustic and radionuclide. To have a credible and trustworthy verification system ready for entry into force of the Treaty, the CTBTO is protecting and enhancing its investment of its global network of stations and is providing effective data to the International Data Centre (IDC) and Member States. Regarding the protection of the CTBTO's investment and enhanced sustainment of IMS station operations, the IMS Division is enhancing the capabilities of the monitoring system by applying advances in instrumentation and introducing new software applications that are fit for purpose. Some examples are the development of noble gas laboratory systems to process and analyse subsoil samples, development of a mobile noble gas system for onsite inspection purposes, optimization of Beta Gamma detectors for Xenon detection, assessing and improving the efficiency of wind noise reduction systems for infrasound stations, development and testing of infrasound stations with a self-calibrating capability, and research into the use of modular designs for the hydroacoustic network.

  20. Crystal Structure of the 25 kDa Subunit of Human Cleavage Factor I{m}

    SciTech Connect

    Coseno,M.; Martin, G.; Berger, C.; Gilmartin, G.; Keller, W.; Doublie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cleavage factor Im is an essential component of the pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing machinery in higher eukaryotes, participating in both the polyadenylation and cleavage steps. Cleavage factor Im is an oligomer composed of a small 25 kDa subunit (CF Im25) and a variable larger subunit of either 59, 68 or 72 kDa. The small subunit also interacts with RNA, poly(A) polymerase, and the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein. These protein-protein interactions are thought to be facilitated by the Nudix domain of CF Im25, a hydrolase motif with a characteristic {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} fold and a conserved catalytic sequence or Nudix box. We present here the crystal structures of human CF Im25 in its free and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) bound forms at 1.85 and 1.80 Angstroms, respectively. CF Im25 crystallizes as a dimer and presents the classical Nudix fold. Results from crystallographic and biochemical experiments suggest that CF Im25 makes use of its Nudix fold to bind but not hydrolyze ATP and Ap4A. The complex and apo protein structures provide insight into the active oligomeric state of CF Im and suggest a possible role of nucleotide binding in either the polyadenylation and/or cleavage steps of pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing.

  1. Computer-Aided Teaching Using MATLAB/Simulink for Enhancing an IM Course With Laboratory Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentounsi, A.; Djeghloud, H.; Benalla, H.; Birem, T.; Amiar, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic procedure using MATLAB software to plot the circle diagram for two induction motors (IMs), with wound and squirrel-cage rotors, from no-load and blocked-rotor tests. The advantage of this approach is that it avoids the need for a direct load test in predetermining the IM characteristics under reduced power.…

  2. The Conceptual Structure of IMS Learning Design Does Not Impede Its Use for Authoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derntl, M.; Neumann, S.; Griffiths, D.; Oberhuemer, P.

    2012-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (LD) is the only available interoperability specification in the area of technology enhanced learning that allows the definition and orchestration of complex activity flows and resource environments in a multirole setting. IMS LD has been available since 2003, and yet it has not been widely adopted either by practitioners or by…

  3. Procedures for COMSYS 3 for the 1971-72 IMS Tryout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Gordon L.

    During the 1971-72 pilot test of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS), three alternative procedures were used to gather data within the classroom, transmit those data to SWRL for processing, and send IMS output to the appropriate recipients in the schools. ComSys 3--one of the three…

  4. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carolyn; DeMuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians’ expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  5. Cleavage factor Im (CFIm) as a regulator of alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Jessica G; Norbury, Chris J

    2016-08-15

    Most mammalian protein coding genes are subject to alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), which can generate distinct mRNA 3'UTRs with differing regulatory potential. Although this process has been intensely studied in recent years, it remains unclear how and to what extent cleavage site selection is regulated under different physiological conditions. The cleavage factor Im (CFIm) complex is a core component of the mammalian cleavage machinery, and the observation that its depletion causes transcriptome-wide changes in cleavage site use makes it a key candidate regulator of APA. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of the CFIm complex, and explores the evidence surrounding its potential contribution to regulation of APA. PMID:27528751

  6. Use of the IMS infrasound network for global atmospheric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Farges, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The development of the Infrasound International Monitoring System (IMS), used for the verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, represents a powerful tool to measure permanently, at a global scale and over large periods of time, the disturbances of the atmosphere. The network is mostly sensitive to infrasound in the range 0.02 to 5 Hz, but it also measures gravity waves at lower frequencies and tidal waves. Measurements with the IMS infrasound network provide both the state of the atmospheric wave guide and of the atmospheric waves which can be used to study the dynamics of the atmosphere. The first way is to study the variability of infrasound from quasi continuous sources such as ocean swells or volcanoes in relation with changes in large scale atmospheric structures. Since infrasound propagate in the stratosphere and mesosphere, atmospheric parameters which affect the infrasound propagation can be investigated from ground measurements of infrasound. Azimuth changes of infrasound from volcanis eruption were used to retrieve mesospheric zonal winds. The amplitude fluctuations of infrasound from ocean swells represent planetary waves which modulate the atmospheric wave guide. Fluctuations are much larger in Northern hemispheres than in Southern hemisphere, because the amplitude of planetary waves is larger in Northern hemisphere where continental areas are more important. Infrasound monitoring also revealed anomalies at a seasonal scale in Antarctica or at the scale of several days in Arctic regionsin relation with Sudden Stratospheric Warming. The second way is the direct observation of large scale gravity waves. These waves, mainly produced in the troposphere, propagate upwards and break in the stratosphere producing a chaotic forcing of the stratosphere. This is at the origin of a slow and large scale motion in which air masses are driven upward and poleward from the tropical lower stratosphere. In polar regions, they are pushed downward producing

  7. Software enhancements to the IVSEM model of the CTBTO IMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) developed the Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model (IVSEM) to estimate the performance of the International Monitoring System (IMS) operated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). IVSEM was developed in several phases between 1995 and 2000. The model was developed in FORTRAN with an IDL-based user interface and was compiled for Windows and UNIX operating systems. Continuing interest in this analysis capability, coupled with numerous advances in desktop computer hardware and software since IVSEM was written, enabled significant improvements to IVSEM run-time performance and data analysis capabilities. These improvements were implemented externally without modifying the FORTRAN executables, which had been previously verified. This paper describes the parallelization approach developed to significantly reduce IVSEM run-times and the new test setup and analysis tools developed to facilitate better IVSEM operation.

  8. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carolyn; Demuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians' expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies.

  9. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Southworth, John E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  10. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS).

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Smith, R Theodore; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2012-01-01

    We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm-650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device. PMID:22254167

  11. Single-Molecule Studies of the Im7 Folding Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Sara D.; Gell, Christopher; Smith, D. Alastair; Radford, Sheena E.; Brockwell, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, the four-helical Im7 (immunity protein 7) folds from an ensemble of unfolded conformers to a highly compact native state via an on-pathway intermediate. Here, we investigate the unfolded, intermediate, and native states populated during folding using diffusion single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer by measuring the efficiency of energy transfer (or proximity or P ratio) between pairs of fluorophores introduced into the side chains of cysteine residues placed in the center of helices 1 and 4, 1 and 3, or 2 and 4. We show that while the native states of each variant give rise to a single narrow distribution with high P values, the distributions of the intermediates trapped at equilibrium (denoted Ieqm) are fitted by two Gaussian distributions. Modulation of the folding conditions from those that stabilize the intermediate to those that destabilize the intermediate enabled the distribution of lower P value to be assigned to the population of the unfolded ensemble in equilibrium with the intermediate state. The reduced stability of the Ieqm variants allowed analysis of the effect of denaturant concentration on the compaction and breadth of the unfolded state ensemble to be quantified from 0 to 6 M urea. Significant compaction is observed as the concentration of urea is decreased in both the presence and absence of sodium sulfate, as previously reported for a variety of proteins. In the presence of Na2SO4 in 0 M urea, the P value of the unfolded state ensemble approaches that of the native state. Concurrent with compaction, the ensemble displays increased peak width of P values, possibly reflecting a reduction in the rate of conformational exchange among iso-energetic unfolded, but compact conformations. The results provide new insights into the initial stages of folding of Im7 and suggest that the unfolded state is highly conformationally constrained at the outset of folding. PMID:20211187

  12. Single-molecule studies of the Im7 folding landscape.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Sara D; Gell, Christopher; Smith, D Alastair; Radford, Sheena E; Brockwell, David J

    2010-04-23

    Under appropriate conditions, the four-helical Im7 (immunity protein 7) folds from an ensemble of unfolded conformers to a highly compact native state via an on-pathway intermediate. Here, we investigate the unfolded, intermediate, and native states populated during folding using diffusion single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer by measuring the efficiency of energy transfer (or proximity or P ratio) between pairs of fluorophores introduced into the side chains of cysteine residues placed in the center of helices 1 and 4, 1 and 3, or 2 and 4. We show that while the native states of each variant give rise to a single narrow distribution with high P values, the distributions of the intermediates trapped at equilibrium (denoted I(eqm)) are fitted by two Gaussian distributions. Modulation of the folding conditions from those that stabilize the intermediate to those that destabilize the intermediate enabled the distribution of lower P value to be assigned to the population of the unfolded ensemble in equilibrium with the intermediate state. The reduced stability of the I(eqm) variants allowed analysis of the effect of denaturant concentration on the compaction and breadth of the unfolded state ensemble to be quantified from 0 to 6 M urea. Significant compaction is observed as the concentration of urea is decreased in both the presence and absence of sodium sulfate, as previously reported for a variety of proteins. In the presence of Na(2)SO(4) in 0 M urea, the P value of the unfolded state ensemble approaches that of the native state. Concurrent with compaction, the ensemble displays increased peak width of P values, possibly reflecting a reduction in the rate of conformational exchange among iso-energetic unfolded, but compact conformations. The results provide new insights into the initial stages of folding of Im7 and suggest that the unfolded state is highly conformationally constrained at the outset of folding.

  13. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Daily summary for IMS high-altitude satellites, days 182-365 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The orbital positions of a number of high-altitude satellites, capable of making magnetospheric measurements in the second half of 1977, are described. The following satellites are considered: Vela 5A, Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Solrad 11A, Solrad 11B, Hawkeye 1, Prognoz 5, Explorer 47, Explorer 50, and ISEE-A/-B. The orbit elements used for generating the satellite ephemeris are shown. Complete presentations of the positions of these satellites for the second half of 1977 are given, as well as the IMS/SSC special periods. Detailed plots illustrating these periods are provided. Time-ordered tables of magnetopause crossings, bow shock crossings, neutral sheet passes, midlatitude magnetotail passes, high-latitude magnetotail passes, and Hawkeye 1 northern cusp passes are presented. Bar charts covering the second half of 1977 are given which identify thirteen special periods (Nos. 10-22) based upon certain conjunctions of the high-altitude satellites.

  14. On the Impurity Parameters for Impurities Detected in the Eutectics Co-C and Pt-C and Their Role in the Estimate of the Uncertainty in the Eutectic Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloembergen, Pieter; Dong, Wei; Bai, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Tie-Jun

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, impurity parameters m i and k i have been calculated for a range of impurities I as detected in the eutectics Co-C and Pt-C, by means of the software package Thermo-Calc within the ternary phase spaces Co-C- I and Pt-C- I. The choice of the impurities is based upon a selection out of the results of impurity analyses performed for a representative set of samples for each of the eutectics in study. The analyses in question are glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-mass). Tables and plots of the impurity parameters against the atomic number Z i of the impurities will be presented, as well as plots demonstrating the validity of van't Hoff's law, the cornerstone to this study, for both eutectics. For the eutectics in question, the uncertainty u( T E - T liq ) in the correction T E - T liq will be derived, where T E and T liq refer to the transition temperature of the pure system and to the liquidus temperature in the limit of zero growth rate of the solid phase during solidification of the actual system, respectively. Uncertainty estimates based upon the current scheme SIE-OME, combining the sum of individual estimates (SIE) and the overall maximum estimate (OME) are compared with two alternative schemes proposed in this paper, designated as IE-IRE, combining individual estimates (IE) and individual random estimates (IRE), and the hybrid scheme SIE-IE-IRE, combining SIE, IE, and IRE.

  15. Different enzyme requirements for the synthesis of biodiesel: Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, Estela; Otero, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of biodiesel via alcoholysis of different vegetable oils (sunflower, borage, olive and soybean) have been studied. Loss of lipase activity induced by the nucleophile is greater with methanol than with ethanol, and is greater for Lipozyme TL IM than for Novozym 435. The optimum volume of ethanol depends on the loading of solid biocatalyst and is higher for preparations of Novozym 435 than for Lipozyme TL IM. Maximum rates were obtained with Lipozyme TL IM, for a molar ratio of alcohol to FA residues of 0.33. By contrast, Novozym 435 requires at least a 2:1 ratio. Alcoholysis of the vegetable oils is faster with Lipozyme TL IM than with Novozym 435. Use of a high loading of Novozym 435 (50% w/w) and a large molar excess of ethanol are required to obtain an initial rate similar to that obtained with Lipozyme TL IM at a lower enzyme loading (10% w/w) and an equimolar ratio of ethanol and FA residues. Novozym 435 produces quantitative conversions in only 7h at 25 degrees C, but complete conversions are not obtained with Lipozyme TL IM. Three stage stepwise addition of ethanol yields 84% conversion to ethyl esters for Lipozyme TL IM. Hence use of Novozym 435 is preferred. After nine cycles in a batch reactor Novozym 435 retained 85% of its initial activity. PMID:17321130

  16. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    , they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

  17. CDDO-Im protects from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity through induction of Nrf2-dependent genes

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, Scott A.; Buckley, David B.; Tanaka, Yuji; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-04-01

    CDDO-Im is a synthetic triterpenoid recently shown to induce cytoprotective genes through the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, an important mechanism for the induction of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Upon oxidative or electrophilic insult, the transcription factor Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins, and binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the upstream promoter regions of various cytoprotective genes. To further elucidate the hepatoprotective effects of CDDO-Im, wild-type and Nrf2-null mice were pretreated with CDDO-Im (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO), and then administered acetaminophen (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment of wild-type mice with CDDO-Im reduced liver injury caused by acetaminophen. In contrast, hepatoprotection by CDDO-Im was not observed in Nrf2-null mice. CDDO-Im increased Nrf2 protein expression and Nrf2-ARE binding in wild-type, but not Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, CDDO-Im increased the mRNA expression of the Nrf2 target genes NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1); glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (Gclc); and heme-oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conversely, CDDO-Im did not induce Nqo1, Gclc, and Ho-1 mRNA expression in Nrf2-null mice. Collectively, the present study shows that CDDO-Im pretreatment induces Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes and protects the liver from acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury.

  18. CDDO-Im Protects from Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity Through Induction of Nrf2-Dependent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reisman, Scott A.; Buckley, David B.; Tanaka, Yuji; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    CDDO-Im is a synthetic triterpenoid recently shown to induce cytoprotective genes through the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, an important mechanism for the induction of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Upon oxidative or electrophilic insult, the transcription factor Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins, and binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the upstream promoter regions of various cytoprotective genes. To further elucidate the hepatoprotective effects of CDDO-Im, wild-type and Nrf2-null mice were pretreated with CDDO-Im (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO), and then administered acetaminophen (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment of wild-type mice with CDDO-Im reduced liver injury caused by acetaminophen. In contrast, hepatoprotection by CDDO-Im was not observed in Nrf2-null mice. CDDO-Im increased Nrf2 protein expression and Nrf2-ARE binding in wild-type, but not Nrf2–null mice. Furthermore, CDDO-Im increased the mRNA expression of the Nrf2 target genes NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1); glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (Gclc); and heme-oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conversely, CDDO-Im did not induce Nqo1, Gclc, and Ho-1 mRNA expression in Nrf2-null mice. Collectively, the present study shows that CDDO-Im pretreatment induces Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes and protects the liver from acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. PMID:19371629

  19. Large meteoroid detection using the global IMS infrasound system

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D. O.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous signals will be routinely detected using the 60 array, global IMS (International Monitoring System) infrasound network. Infrasonic signals are sub-audible quasi longitudinal, atmospheric waves in the frequency band from about 10 Hz to -5 minutes in period (limited by human acoustic audibility in the high frequency limit and by the wave-guide acoustic cut-off frequency and the Brunt Vaisalla frequency in the low frequency limit) These small amplitude waves are a natural subset of the well-known atmospheric acoustic-gravity wave regime which has been identified from the linearized equations of geophysical fluid mechanics in the flat earth approximation, neglecting the earth's rotation, etc. For the IMS network the instrumental pressure sensor response was chosen to range from -4 to 0.02 Hz. These are ground-based arrays of typically 4 to 9 sensors with separations of about 1-2 km between the array elements. Examples of naturally occurring impulsive sources of infrasound include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, bolides (large meteor-fireballs entering the atmospheric at very high speeds up to -300 times faster than ground-level sound waves), microbaroms (the 'voice of the sea' due to the interaction of atmospheric storms and surface ocean waves) and the supersonic motion of the auroral electrojet at about 100 km altitude (auroral infrasonic waves), etc. In this paper we will briefly summarize our current state of knowledge of infrasound signals from bolides. This summary will include the generation of the signals at the complex, quasi-cylindrical line source, to the refraction and diffraction of the propagating waves by the middle atmospheric and tropospheric temperature and wind systems and finally, the detection of the signals and their interpretation by inferring the source properties, Le., source altitude, blast radius (see below) and the source energy, etc. In addition, we will use infrasound from energetic bolides to estimate the expected steady state

  20. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Manuel; Giudicelli, Véronique; Ginestoux, Chantal; Stoehr, Peter; Robinson, James; Bodmer, Julia; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Bontrop, Ronald; Lemaitre, Marc; Lefranc, Gérard; Chaume, Denys; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2000-01-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database (http://imgt.cines.fr:8104 ), is a high-quality integrated database specialising in Immunoglobulins (Ig), T cell Receptors (TcR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules of all vertebrate species, created in 1989 by Marie-Paule Lefranc, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, Montpellier, France (lefranc@ ligm.igh.cnrs.fr ). At present, IMGT includes two databases: IMGT/LIGM-DB, a comprehensive database of Ig and TcR from human and other vertebrates, with translation for fully annotated sequences, and IMGT/HLA-DB, a database of the human MHC referred to as HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens). The IMGT server provides a common access to expertized genomic, proteomic, structural and polymorphic data of Ig and TcR molecules of all vertebrates. By its high quality and its easy data distribution, IMGT has important implications in medical research (repertoire in autoimmune diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas), therapeutic approaches (antibody engineering), genome diversity and genome evolution studies. IMGT is freely available at http://imgt.cines.fr:8104 . The IMGT Index is provided at the IMGT Marie-Paule page (http://imgt.cines.fr:8104/textes/IMGTindex.html ). PMID:10592230

  1. Analyzing Electric Field Morphology Through Data-Model Comparisons of the GEM IM/S Assessment Challenge Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Gallagher, Dennis L.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Henderson, Michael G.; Denton, Michael H.; Brandt, Pontus C.; Goldstein, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    The storm-time inner magnetospheric electric field morphology and dynamics are assessed by comparing numerical modeling results of the plasmasphere and ring current with many in situ and remote sensing data sets. Two magnetic storms are analyzed, April 22,2001 and October 21-23,2001, which are the events selected for the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Inner Magnetosphere/Storms (IM/S) Assessment Challenge (IMSAC). The IMSAC seeks to quantify the accuracy of inner magnetospheric models as well as synthesize our understanding of this region. For each storm, the ring current-atmosphere interaction model (RAM) and the dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM) were run together with various settings for the large-scale convection electric field and the nightside ionospheric conductance. DGCPM plasmaspheric parameters were compared with IMAGE-EUV plasmapause extractions and LANL-MPA plume locations and velocities. RAM parameters were compared with Dst*, LANL-MPA fluxes and moments, IMAGE-MENA images, and IMAGE-HENA images. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons were made to determine the electric field morphology that allows the model results to best fit the plasma data at various times during these events. The simulations with self-consistent electric fields were, in general, better than those with prescribed field choices. This indicates that the time-dependent modulation of the inner magnetospheric electric fields by the nightside ionosphere is quite significant for accurate determination of these fields (and their effects). It was determined that a shielded Volland-Stern field description driven by the 3-hour Kp index yields accurate results much of the time, but can be quite inconsistent. The modified Mcllwain field description clearly lagged in overall accuracy compared to the other fields, but matched some data sets (like Dst*) quite well. The rankings between the simulations varied depending on the storm and the individual data sets, indicating that

  2. A structural comparison of the colicin immunity proteins Im7 and Im9 gives new insights into the molecular determinants of immunity-protein specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, C A; Videler, H; Pauptit, R A; Wallis, R; James, R; Moore, G R; Kleanthous, C

    1998-01-01

    We report the first detailed comparison of two immunity proteins which, in conjunction with recent protein engineering data, begins to explain how these structurally similar proteins are able to bind and inhibit the endonuclease domain of colicin E9 (E9 DNase) with affinities that differ by 12 orders of magnitude. In the present work, we have determined the X-ray structure of the Escherichia coli colicin E7 immunity protein Im7 to 2.0 A resolution by molecular replacement, using as a trial model the recently determined NMR solution structure of Im9. Whereas the two proteins adopt similar four-helix structures, subtle structural differences, in particular involving a conserved tyrosine residue critical for E9 DNase binding, and the identity of key residues in the specificity helix, lie at the heart of their markedly different ability to bind the E9 DNase. Two other crystal structures were reported recently for Im7; in one, Im7 was a monomer and was very similar to the structure reported here, whereas in the other it was a dimer to which functional significance was assigned. Since this previous work suggested that Im7 could exist either as a monomer or a dimer, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to investigate this question further. Under a variety of solution conditions, we found that Im7 only ever exists in solution as a monomer, even up to protein concentrations of 15 mg/ml, casting doubt on the functional significance of the crystallographically observed dimer. This work provides a structural framework with which we can understand immunity-protein specificity, and in addition we believe it to be the first successfully refined crystal structure solved by molecular replacement using an NMR trial model with less than 100% sequence identity. PMID:9639578

  3. Global R&D through the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huray, Paul G.

    1997-01-01

    The industry-led, international intelligent manufacturing systems (IMS) program provides a special vehicle for joint research and development between government, industry and academia in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, and Europe. Since its beginning in 1989, the IMS program has progressed through a feasibility phase which demonstrated that international legal barriers, trade issues, and intellectual property problems could be overcome. The program is constructed to provide higher quality design, customized products, shorter delivery cycles and lower costs. Interactions between partner companies have led to new business opportunities for mutual profit and some claim to have learned strategic information about their international competitors. The IMS program is growing through the participation of hundreds of corporate and university partners who share responsibilities in specific projects and jointly reap benefits for their manufacturing products and processes. The logic for choosing or not choosing the IMS mechanisms will be discussed and R and D projects will be identified.

  4. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623: EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate...

  5. Electron-phonon interaction in two dimensions: Variation of Im[Sigma]([epsilon][sub [ital p

    SciTech Connect

    Kostur, V.N.; Mitrovic, B. )

    1993-12-01

    The interaction between phonons and a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas is studied beyond the Migdal approximation. The analysis of the vertex function leads to the relative correction of [vert bar]Im[Sigma]([epsilon][sub [ital p

  6. A Base Solution for Exposing IMS Telecommunication Services to Web 2.0 Enabled Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deinert, Florian; Murarasu, Alin; Bachmann, Andreas; Magedanz, Thomas

    The convergence of telecommunication and Web 2.0 services is leading to new opportunities for the telecommunications market. Companies are looking for ways to include their services in Web 2.0 applications. Predictions suggest that future telecommunication networks will be based on the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), an all IP telecommunication core network. This paper describes an approach to combining Web 2.0 enabled applications, namely widgets, with telecommunication features using IMS. Widgets are small applications based on Web technologies that run on the client device. A new abstraction layer with interfaces for the different telecommunication features will be introduced. In addition a widget engine that makes these telecommunication interfaces available to its widgets will be presented. This will allow the rapid development of IMS applications for external developers and the combination of other Web 2.0 services with IMS features.

  7. IM-133N - A Useful Herbal Combination for Eradicating Disease-triggering Pathogens in Mice via Immunotherapeutic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Firashathulla, Syed; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Rafiq, Mohamed; Viswanatha, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry; Sharath Kumar, Lakkavalli Mohan; Babu, Uddagiri Venkanna; Ramakrishnan, Shyam; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunomodulatory (IM) activity of IM-133N, a herbal combination in various immunotherapeutic experimental models. Methods: The IM activity of IM-133N was evaluated against three experimental models namely, effect of IM- 133N against Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced abdominal sepsis in mice, and carbon clearance test was performed in Wistar albino rats to evaluated the phagocytic potential of IM-133N, in addition IM-133N was evaluated for its immunoglobulin enhancing potential in rats, where the immunoglobulin levels were measured by zinc sulphate turbity (ZST) test. Further, IM-133N was subjected for detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS analysis to identify the probable active constituents present in it. Results: The findings of the present study has demonstrated very promising IM property of IM-133N in all the experimental models. Briefly, pretreatment with IM-133N at 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg, p.o. doses had protected the mice against E. coli-induced abdominal sepsis and mortality, further the effect of IM- 133N was found to be significant and dose-dependent. In support of this, in another study administration of IM-133N showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in serum immunoglobulin levels, estimated by ZST test. In line with the above findings, in the carbon clearance test the low doses (125 and 250 mg/ kg, p.o.) of IM-133N increased the rate of carbon clearance, whereas the higher doses (500 and 1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) did not sustain the response, and saturation effect was considered as one of the possible reason for futility of higher doses for IM-133N. In addition, A detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of IM-133N showed 17 bioactive phytochemical constituents: namely, apigenin, chaulmoogric acid, mesquitol, quercetin, symphoxanthone, salireposide, β-sitosterol, nonaeicosanol, β-amyrin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, symplososide, symponoside, symploveroside, symplocomoside

  8. NMR investigation of the interaction of the inhibitor protein Im9 with its partner DNase.

    PubMed Central

    Boetzel, R.; Czisch, M.; Kaptein, R.; Hemmings, A. M.; James, R.; Kleanthous, C.; Moore, G. R.

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial toxin colicin E9 is secreted by producing Escherichia coli cells with its 9.5 kDa inhibitor protein Im9 bound tightly to its 14.5 kDa C-terminal DNase domain. Double- and triple-resonance NMR spectra of the 24 kDa complex of uniformly 13C and 15N labeled Im9 bound to the unlabeled DNase domain have provided sufficient constraints for the solution structure of the bound Im9 to be determined. For the final ensemble of 20 structures, pairwise RMSDs for residues 3-84 were 0.76 +/- 0.14 A for the backbone atoms and 1.36 +/- 0.15 A for the heavy atoms. Representative solution structures of the free and bound Im9 are highly similar, with backbone and heavy atom RMSDs of 1.63 and 2.44 A, respectively, for residues 4-83, suggesting that binding does not cause a major conformational change in Im9. The NMR studies have also allowed the DNase contact surface on Im9 to be investigated through changes in backbone chemical shifts and NOEs between the two proteins determined from comparisons of 1H-1H-13C NOESY-HSQC spectra with and without 13C decoupling. The NMR-defined interface agrees well with that determined in a recent X-ray structure analysis with the major difference being that a surface loop of Im9, which is at the interface, has a different conformation in the solution and crystal structures. Tyr54, a key residue on the interface, is shown to exhibit NMR characteristics indicative of slow rotational flipping. A mechanistic description of the influence binding of Im9 has on the dynamic behavior of E9 DNase, which is known to exist in two slowly interchanging conformers in solution, is proposed. PMID:11045617

  9. IM-133N modulates cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, R Sandeep; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kumar, L M Sharath; Babu, U Venkanna; Patki, S Pralhad

    2016-01-01

    An indigenous herbal extract IM-133N containing extracts of Prosopis glandulosa Torr and Symplocos racemosa Roxb were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory effects using RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The incubation of the cells for 24 h with IM-133N over a dose range 0-125 µg/ml did not cause cytotoxicity that exceeded 10%. The results indicated that non-cytotoxic doses of IM-133N effectively up-regulated iNOS, TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and IFNγ gene expression in both the RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The results also indicated IM-133N elicited dose-related increases in nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells. These results demonstrated that IM-133N could stimulate NO and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by monocytes/macrophages. As clinical studies have shown IM-133N to be an effective immunomodulator without any adverse effects, the results of the present study provide further support for the potential use of this agent as an immunostimulant or as an immunotherapy adjuvant.

  10. ImOSM: intermittent evolution and robustness of phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Thi Nguyen, Minh Anh; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-02-01

    Among the criteria to evaluate the performance of a phylogenetic method, robustness to model violation is of particular practical importance as complete a priori knowledge of evolutionary processes is typically unavailable. For studies of robustness in phylogenetic inference, a utility to add well-defined model violations to the simulated data would be helpful. We therefore introduce ImOSM, a tool to imbed intermittent evolution as model violation into an alignment. Intermittent evolution refers to extra substitutions occurring randomly on branches of a tree, thus changing alignment site patterns. This means that the extra substitutions are placed on the tree after the typical process of sequence evolution is completed. We then study the robustness of widely used phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and a distance-based method (BIONJ) to various scenarios of model violation. Violation of rates across sites (RaS) heterogeneity and simultaneous violation of RaS and the transition/transversion ratio on two nonadjacent external branches hinder all the methods recovery of the true topology for a four-taxon tree. For an eight-taxon balanced tree, the violations cause each of the three methods to infer a different topology. Both ML and MP fail, whereas BIONJ, which calculates the distances based on the ML estimated parameters, reconstructs the true tree. Finally, we report that a test of model homogeneity and goodness of fit tests have enough power to detect such model violations. The outcome of the tests can help to actually gain confidence in the inferred trees. Therefore, we recommend using these tests in practical phylogenetic analyses.

  11. Reversible NO motion in crystalline [Fe(Porph)(1-MeIm)(NO)] derivatives.

    PubMed

    Silvernail, Nathan J; Pavlik, Jeffrey W; Noll, Bruce C; Schulz, Charles E; Scheidt, W Robert

    2008-02-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and X-ray structures of three low-spin (nitrosyl)iron(II) tetraarylporphyrinates, [Fe(TpXPP)(NO)(1-MeIm)], where X = F (in a triclinic and a monoclinic form) and OCH(3) are reported. All three molecules, at 100 K, have a single orientation of NO. These structures are the first examples of ordered NO's in [Fe(Porph)(NO)(1-MeIm)] complexes. The three new derivatives have similar structural features including a previously unnoted "bowing" of the N(NO)-Fe-N(Im) angle caused by a concerted tilting of the axial Fe-N(NO) and Fe-N(Im) bonds. Structural features such as the displacement of Fe out of the mean porphyrin plane toward NO, tilting of the Fe-N(NO) bond off the heme normal, and the asymmetry of the Fe-N(por) bonds further strengthen and confirm observations from earlier studies. The [Fe(TpXPP)(NO)(1-MeIm)] complexes were also studied at temperatures between 125 and 350 K to investigate temperature-dependent variations and trends in the coordination group geometry. At varying temperatures (above 150 K), all three derivatives display a second orientation of the NO ligand. The population and depopulation of this second orientation are thermally driven, with no apparent hysteresis. Crystal packing appears to be the significant feature in defining the order/disorder of the NO ligand. The length of the bond trans to NO, Fe-N(Im), was also found to be sensitive to temperature variation. The Fe-N(Im) bond length increases with increased temperature, whereas no other bonds change appreciably. The temperature-dependent Fe-N(Im) bond length change and cell volume changes are consistent with a "soft" Fe-N(Im) bond. Variable-temperature measurements show that the N-O stretching frequency changes with the Fe-N(Im) bond length. Temperature-dependent changes in the Fe-NIm bond length and N-O stretching frequency were also found to be completely reversible with no apparent hysteresis.

  12. Inhibition of human SERCA3 by PL/IM430. Molecular analysis of the interaction.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekera, Charukeshi P; Lytton, Jonathan

    2003-04-01

    The monoclonal antibody PL/IM430 has previously been reported to uncouple Ca(2+) transport from ATP hydrolysis in platelet membranes (Hack, N., Wilkinson, J. M., and Crawford, N. (1988) Biochem. J. 250, 355-361). More recently, we have demonstrated that this antibody is specific for human SERCA3 (Poch, E., Leach, S., Snape, S., Cacic, T., MacLennan, D. H., and Lytton, J. (1998) Am. J. Physiol. 275, C1449-C1458). In this paper, we have extended the analysis of the PL/IM430-SERCA3 interaction. Using HEK293 cells to express human SERCA3a, we were able to measure both ATP-mediated, oxalate-dependent (45)Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-dependent ATP hydrolysis activities due exclusively to SERCA3. Treatment with PL/IM430 inhibited both activities almost identically, with a maximal inhibition of 81 and 73% and a half-maximal concentration of 8.3 and 5.9 microg/ml, for Ca(2+) uptake and ATP hydrolysis, respectively. We conclude that PL/IM430 does inhibit SERCA3 activity but does not uncouple Ca(2+) transport from ATP hydrolysis. Using a combination of partial proteolysis, GST fusion protein expression, and mutation of residues that differ between rat and human SERCA3, we have identified human SERCA3 amino acids Pro(8) and Glu(192) as essential to forming the PL/IM430 epitope. PL/IM430 thus recognizes a linearly noncontiguous set of amino acids within the actuator domain of human SERCA3. We propose that PL/IM430 inhibits SERCA3 activity by sterically preventing movement of the actuator domain into a catalytically critical position in the E2 conformation of the enzyme.

  13. Improved Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Bovine Lymph Node Tissue Using Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS)-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Linda D.; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Gordon, Alan; Grant, Irene R.

    2013-01-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR) or culture (IMS-MGIT). This study describes application of these novel IMS-based methods to test for M. bovis in a survey of 280 bovine lymph nodes (206 visibly lesioned (VL), 74 non-visibly lesioned (NVL)) collected at slaughter as part of the Northern Ireland bovine TB eradication programme. Their performance was evaluated relative to culture. Overall, 174 (62.1%) lymph node samples tested positive by culture, 162 (57.8%) by IMS-PCR (targeting IS6110), and 191 (68.2%) by IMS-MGIT culture. Twelve (6.9%) of the 174 culture positive lymph node samples were not detected by either of the IMS-based methods. However, an additional 79 M. bovis positive lymph node samples (27 (13.1%) VL and 52 (70.3%) NVL) were detected by the IMS-based methods and not by culture. When low numbers of viable M. bovis are present in lymph nodes (e.g. in NVLs of skin test reactor cattle) decontamination prior to culture may adversely affect viability, leading to false negative culture results. In contrast, IMS specifically captures whole M. bovis cells (live, dead or potentially dormant) which are not subject to any deleterious treatment before detection by PCR or MGIT culture. During this study only 2.7% of NVL lymph nodes tested culture positive, whereas 70.3% of the same samples tested M. bovis positive by the IMS-based tests. Results clearly demonstrate that not only are the IMS-based methods more rapid but they have greater detection sensitivity than the culture approach currently used for the detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. Adoption of the IMS-based methods for lymph node testing would have the potential to improve M. bovis detection in clinical samples. PMID:23469275

  14. 2016 IMS Recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J; Panay, N; Fenton, A

    2016-04-01

    The International Menopause Society (IMS) has produced these new 2016 recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy (MHT) to help guide health-care professionals in optimizing their management of women in the menopause transition and beyond. The term MHT has been used to cover therapies including estrogens, progestogens and combined regimens. For the first time, the 2016 IMS recommendations now include grades of recommendations, levels of evidence and 'good practice points', in addition to section-specific references. Where possible, the recommendations are based on and linked to the evidence that supports them, unless good-quality evidence is absent. Particular attention has been paid to published evidence from 2013 onwards, the last time the IMS recommendations were updated. Databases have been extensively searched for relevant publications using key terms specific to each specialist area within menopause physiology and medicine. Information has also been drawn from international consensus statements published by bodies such as the IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society and the North American Menopause Society. The recommendations have been produced by experts derived mainly from the IMS, with the assistance of key collaborators where deemed advantageous. In preparing these international recommendations, experts have taken into account geographical variations in medical care, prevalence of diseases, and country-specific attitudes of the public, medical community and health authorities towards menopause management. The variation in availability and licensing of MHT and other products has also been considered.

  15. Data collection in IMS: It's not as easy as it looks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis M.; Maswadeh, Waleed; Shoff, Donald B.; Harden, Charles S.; Snyder, A. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data collection in Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is not as easy an endeavor as it appears. Despite the advent of high speed personal computers and fast analog-to-digital converters (ADC's), care must be taken to ensure that reliable data are obtained in a timely fashion. This is especially true in hyphenated techniques, e.g. GC-IMS, where the amount of data increases dramatically when gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) data is being collected. Using the Graseby GC-IMS, with a gate repetition rate of 33 Hz, it is theoretically possible to collect 33 spectra per second. This collection rate is not realistically obtained due to a number of factors. Among these factors are inaccuracy of the timing signal from the IMS, the necessity to store the data, disk input/output limitations, disk operating system limitations, and program overhead. Taking these factors into account, we have achieved a data collection rate of 20 spectra per second. This paper will describe these problems, demonstrate the practical effects these problems present, and present methods for minimizing these effects.

  16. Suggested severe local storm operational scenario for GOES I-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.; Mosher, Fredrick

    1987-01-01

    The GOES I-M satellite system is expected to provide continuous high resolution estimates of temperature and moisture profiles, winds from cloud motions, surface temperature, cloud properties, and precipitation for severe local storm and tropical cyclone events. The suggested operational schedule for the GOES I-M satellite emphasizes the observation frequencies, spatial coverage, spectral bands, etc. for the GOES I-M imager and sounder instruments that are expected to optimize the determination of the relevant meteorological parameters. During severe local storm events, the imager would be programmed to perform high frequency imaging (less than or= 3.5 min) for determining winds from cloud motions and for monitoring severe convection. In addition, the sounder would provide temperature and moisture profiles every hour over a 3000 X 3000 km domain during the antecedent stage or over a 1000 X 1000 km area every 10 minutes during the mature storm stage.

  17. [New Progress of MALDI-TOF-IMS in the Study of Proteomics].

    PubMed

    Ren, Guan-heng; Weng, Rong-hua; Shi, Yan; Huang, Ping; Li, Zheng-dong; Shao, Yu; Deng, Kai-fei; Liu, Ning-guo; Chen, Yi-jiu

    2016-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-IMS) has been a classical technique for studying proteomics in present and a tool for analyzing the distribution of proteins and small molecules within biological tissue sections. MALDI-TOF-IMS can analyze multiple unknown compounds in biological tissue sections simultaneously through a single measurement which can obtain molecule imaging of the tissue while maintaining the integrity of cellular and molecules in tissue. In recent years, imaging mass spectrometry technique develops relatively quickly in all biomedical domain. This paper based on the relevant data and reviews the present developing level of MALDI-TOF-IMS, the principle of imaging mass spectrometry, methology and the prospect in forensic pathology. PMID:27501686

  18. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  19. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-21

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles.

  20. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-21

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles. PMID:26750519

  1. Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density is developed for hyperspectral microscopy, measuring a datacube of dimensions 285 × 285 × 60 (x, y, λ). The spatial resolution is ~0.45 µm with a FOV of 100 × 100 µm2. The measured spectrum is from 450 nm to 650 nm and is sampled by 60 spectral channels with average sampling interval ~3.3 nm. The channel’s spectral resolution is ~8nm. The spectral imaging results demonstrate the potential of the IMS for real-time cellular fluorescence imaging. PMID:20639917

  2. Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in forensic chemistry and toxicology with focus on biological matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Werner; Keller, Thomas; Regenscheit, Priska

    1995-01-01

    The IMS (Ion Mobility Spectroscopy) instrument 'Ionscan' takes advantage of the fact that trace quantities of illicit drugs are adsorbed on dust particles on clothes, in cars and on other items of evidence. The dust particles are collected on a membrane filter by a special attachment on a vacuum cleaner. The sample is then directly inserted into the spectrometer and can be analyzed immediately. We show casework applications of a forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratory. One new application of IMS in forensic chemistry is the detection of psilocybin in dried mushrooms without any further sample preparation.

  3. Aufbau von organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagementprozessen im Projekt IntegraTUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Knittl, Silvia

    Das Projekt IntegraTUM wird in enger Kooperation zwischen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) und dem Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) durchgeführt. In diesem Projekt werden Dienste gemeinsam entwickelt, die nachhaltig vom LRZ betrieben werden sollen. Die damit verbundene Rezentralisierung erfordert auch eine enge Kooperation im Falle von technischen Störungen und Fehlern im Betriebsablauf bei diesen Diensten über die Organisationsgrenzen hinweg. Unsere Aktivitäten in diesem organisationsübergreifenden Fehlermanagement werden hier beschrieben.

  4. Datamart use for complex data retrieval in an ArcIMS application

    SciTech Connect

    Scherma, S.; Bolivar, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of datamarts and data warehousing concepts to expedite retrieval and display of complex attribute data from multi-million record databases. Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed an Internet application (SMART) using ArcIMS that relies on datamarts to quickly retrieve attribute data, associated with, but not contained within GIS layers. The volume of data and the complex relationships within the transactional database made data display within ArcIMS impractical without the use of datamarts. The technical issues and solutions involved in the development are discussed.

  5. Stress-strain behaviour of IM7/977-2 and IM7/APC2 carbon fibre composites at low and high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, D. J.; Al-Hazmi, F. S.

    2003-09-01

    The dynamic compressive behaviour of two IM7 carbon fibre composite systems has been studied at room temperature at strain rates from about 10^{-3} s^{-1} to 10^3 s^{-1}. A Hopkinson bar method was used for high rates and a conventional screw machine for low rates. One composite system (IM7/977-2) has a thermoset epoxy resin matrix toughened with thermoplastic material; the other system (IM7/APC2) has a thermoplastic PEEK matrix. Three types of fibre configuration were used for each system: (a) longitudinal unidirectional, 0° (LU), (b) transverse unidirectional, 90° (TU), and (c) transverse isotropic, (0°/90°/±45°)s (TI). At low rates, both systems showed similar stress-strain behaviour. For the LU types, the fracture stresses were about 790 MPa, while for the TU types the values were about 235 MPa. For the Tl specimens, the maximum available stress of 950 MPa was insufficient for fracture. At high rates, the fracture stress was about 25% greater than the quasistatic values for both LU types, and about 30% higher for both TU types. The major difference between the two systems was with the TI types: the energy density to fracture was about 65 MJ m^{-3} for the epoxy composite, while it was about 40 MJ m^{-3} for the PEEK composite.

  6. Effect of Interferon-γ on the Basal and the TNFα-Stimulated Secretion of CXCL8 in Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Bearing Either the RET/PTC Rearrangement Or the BRAF V600e Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rotondi, Mario; Coperchini, Francesca; Awwad, Oriana; Di Buduo, Christian A.; Abbonante, Vittorio; Magri, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    CXCL8 displays several tumor-promoting effects. Targeting and/or lowering CXCL8 concentrations within the tumor microenvironment would produce a therapeutic benefit. Aim of this study was to test the effect of IFNγ on the basal and TNFα-stimulated secretion of CXCL8 in TCP-1 and BCPAP thyroid cancer cell lines (harboring RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF V600e mutation, resp.). Cells were incubated with IFNγ (1, 10, 100, and 1000 U/mL) alone or in combination with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. CXCL8 and CXCL10 concentrations were measured in the cell supernatants. IFNγ inhibited in a dose-dependent and significant manner both the basal (ANOVA F: 22.759; p < 0.00001) and the TNFα-stimulated (ANOVA F: 15.309; p < 0.00001) CXCL8 secretions in BCPAP but not in TPC-1 cells (NS). On the other hand, IFNγ and IFNγ + TNF-α induced a significant secretion of CXCL10 in both BCPAP (p < 0.05) and TPC-1 (p < 0.05) cells. Transwell migration assay showed that (i) CXCL8 increased cell migration in both TPC-1 and BCPAP cells; (ii) IFNγ significantly reduced the migration only of BCPAP cells; and (iii) CXCL8 reverted the effect of IFNγ. These results constitute the first demonstration that IFNγ inhibits CXCL8 secretion and in turn the migration of a BRAF V600e mutated thyroid cell line. PMID:27555670

  7. Effect of Interferon-γ on the Basal and the TNFα-Stimulated Secretion of CXCL8 in Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Bearing Either the RET/PTC Rearrangement Or the BRAF V600e Mutation.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Mario; Coperchini, Francesca; Awwad, Oriana; Pignatti, Patrizia; Di Buduo, Christian A; Abbonante, Vittorio; Magri, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra; Chiovato, Luca

    2016-01-01

    CXCL8 displays several tumor-promoting effects. Targeting and/or lowering CXCL8 concentrations within the tumor microenvironment would produce a therapeutic benefit. Aim of this study was to test the effect of IFNγ on the basal and TNFα-stimulated secretion of CXCL8 in TCP-1 and BCPAP thyroid cancer cell lines (harboring RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF V600e mutation, resp.). Cells were incubated with IFNγ (1, 10, 100, and 1000 U/mL) alone or in combination with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. CXCL8 and CXCL10 concentrations were measured in the cell supernatants. IFNγ inhibited in a dose-dependent and significant manner both the basal (ANOVA F: 22.759; p < 0.00001) and the TNFα-stimulated (ANOVA F: 15.309; p < 0.00001) CXCL8 secretions in BCPAP but not in TPC-1 cells (NS). On the other hand, IFNγ and IFNγ + TNF-α induced a significant secretion of CXCL10 in both BCPAP (p < 0.05) and TPC-1 (p < 0.05) cells. Transwell migration assay showed that (i) CXCL8 increased cell migration in both TPC-1 and BCPAP cells; (ii) IFNγ significantly reduced the migration only of BCPAP cells; and (iii) CXCL8 reverted the effect of IFNγ. These results constitute the first demonstration that IFNγ inhibits CXCL8 secretion and in turn the migration of a BRAF V600e mutated thyroid cell line. PMID:27555670

  8. 75 FR 64694 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 33E; DNP IMS America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 33E; DNP IMS America Corporation (Thermal Transfer Ribbon Printer Roll Manufacturing); Mount Pleasant, PA... scope of manufacturing authority on behalf of DNP IMS America Corporation (DNP), within Subzone 33E...

  9. Out-Life Characteristics of IM7/977-3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Sutter, James K.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Martin, Richard E.; Maryanski, Michael; Schlea, Michelle; Gardner, John M.; Schiferl, Zack R.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to manufacture large structures leads to weight savings and reduced risk relative to joining smaller components. However, manufacture of increasingly large composite components is pushing the out-time limits of epoxy/ carbon fiber prepreg. IM7/977-3 is an autoclave processable prepreg material, commonly used in aerospace structures. The out-time limit is reported as 30 days by the manufacturer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the material processability and composite properties of 977-3 resin and IM7/977-3 prepreg that had been aged at room temperature for up to 60 days. The effects of room temperature aging on the thermal and visco-elastic properties of the materials were investigated. Neat resin was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry to characterize thermal properties and change in activation energy of cure. Neat resin was also evaluated by rheometry to characterize its processability in composite fabrication. IM7/977-3 prepreg was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis to characterize the curing behavior. Prepreg tack was also evaluated over 60 days. The overall test results suggested that IM7/977-3 was a robust material that offered quality laminates throughout this aging process when processed by autoclave.

  10. Knowledge Base for Automatic Generation of Online IMS LD Compliant Course Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina Giacomini; Trigano, Philippe; Alupoaie, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Our article presents a pedagogical scenarios-based web application that allows the automatic generation and development of pedagogical websites. These pedagogical scenarios are represented in the IMS Learning Design standard. Our application is a web portal helping teachers to dynamically generate web course structures, to edit pedagogical content…

  11. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall include on-road testing (including out-of-cycle repairs in the case of confirmed failures) of at... nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section... the IM240 driving cycle, two-speed testing (as described in appendix B of this subpart S) of...

  12. "I'm Sorry + Naming the Offense": A Format for Apologizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Letizia; Colón de Carvajal, Isabel; Ticca, Anna Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The present article focuses on "I'm sorry + naming the offense"-formatted apologies occurring in phone calls in English. Apologies of this kind "emerge" and are oriented to as relevant actions when addressing an apologizable that is not the main business in ongoing talk. The sequential analysis of apologies and responses to…

  13. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two measures…

  14. Generic Service Integration in Adaptive Learning Experiences Using IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Fuente-Valentin, Luis; Pardo, Abelardo; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    IMS Learning Design is a specification to capture the orchestration taking place in a learning scenario. This paper presents an extension called Generic Service Integration. This paradigm allows a bidirectional communication between the course engine in charge of the orchestration and conventional Web 2.0 tools. This communication allows the…

  15. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Exhaust emission test type. Transient mass-emission testing on 1986 and later model year vehicles using the IM240 driving cycle, two-speed testing (as described in appendix B of this subpart S) of 1981-1985... for the idle, two-speed tests and loaded steady-state tests (as described in appendix B of...

  16. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Exhaust emission test type. Transient mass-emission testing on 1986 and later model year vehicles using the IM240 driving cycle, two-speed testing (as described in appendix B of this subpart S) of 1981-1985... for the idle, two-speed tests and loaded steady-state tests (as described in appendix B of...

  17. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Exhaust emission test type. Transient mass-emission testing on 1986 and later model year vehicles using the IM240 driving cycle, two-speed testing (as described in appendix B of this subpart S) of 1981-1985... for the idle, two-speed tests and loaded steady-state tests (as described in appendix B of...

  18. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Exhaust emission test type. Transient mass-emission testing on 1986 and later model year vehicles using the IM240 driving cycle, two-speed testing (as described in appendix B of this subpart S) of 1981-1985... for the idle, two-speed tests and loaded steady-state tests (as described in appendix B of...

  19. W8...b4 IM, how did u rite??! Digital Writing in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    From word processing computers, to mobile telephones, to the advent of the Internet, and finally to online communication venues like Instant Messenger (IM), the past four decades have brought an increasing prevalence of technology into our culture that is altering the English language. While decried by parents and lamented by teachers, these…

  20. I'm a Scientist, Get Me out of Here! (Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The May event of I'm a Scientist, Get Me Out of Here! harnessed fifteen scientists in three general zones, engaging almost 800 students from twenty two schools across the country, generating 624 answered questions, 406 comments and fifty three live-chat sessions. (Contains 4 photos.)

  1. The Role of Ki 'Im in Orchestrating Contrastive Focus in Biblical Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Grace Jeongyeon

    2011-01-01

    The so-called compound use of ki 'im has been interpreted mainly either with exceptive ("except" or "unless") or adversative meaning ("but" or "rather"), although it has sometimes also been interpreted in other ways such as "only" or "surely". These various meanings have been applied…

  2. No More "I'm Done!": Fostering Independent Writers in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Yes! Primary students can grow into being independent writers! Disregarding the false notion that writing instruction in the primary grades needs to be mostly teacher directed, Jennifer Jacobson shows teachers how to develop a primary writing workshop that helps nurture independent, engaged writers. "No More I'm Done!" demonstrates how to create a…

  3. Engineering and development projects for the sustainment and enhancement of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Martysevich, P.; Kramer, A.; Haralabus, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in infrasound source localization and characterization. This capability is based on the processing of data recorded by the infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This infrasound network consists of sixty stations, among which forty-five are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. It is the responsibility of the Engineering and Development Section of the IMS Division to ensure the highest quality for IMS infrasound data. This includes the design of robust and reliable infrasound stations, the use of accurate and calibrated infrasound measuring chains, the installation of efficient wind noise reduction systems and the implementation of quality-control tools. The purpose of this paper is to present ongoing PTS infrasound engineering and development projects related to the testing and validation of wind noise reduction system models, the implementation of infrasound data QC tools, the definition of guidelines for the design of IMS power supply systems and the development of a portable infrasound calibrator and of field kits for site survey and certification.

  4. Using the Personal Competence Manager as a Complementary Approach to IMS Learning Design Authoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Martens, Harrie; van Bruggen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In this article TENCompetence will be presented as a framework for lifelong competence development. More specifically, the relationship between the TENCompetence framework and the IMS Learning Design (LD) specification is explored. LD authoring has proven to be challenging and the toolset currently available is targeting expert users mostly…

  5. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  6. The Aries Program with emphasis on the International Magnetospherics Studies /IMS/-Porcupine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecker, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper will discuss the present state of the development of the Aries Sounding Rocket System with particular emphasis on the configuration and subsystems required to support the IMS Program. A brief history of the development program will be presented. The results of the first five flights, three successes and two failures, will be presented and the observed performance compared to theoretical performance.

  7. InstanceCollage: A Tool for the Particularization of Collaborative IMS-LD Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villasclaras-Fernandez, Eloy D.; Hernandez-Gonzalo, Julio A.; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    Current research work in e-learning and more specifically in the field of CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) deals with design of collaborative activities, according to computer-interpretable specifications, such as IMS Learning Design, and their posterior enactment using LMSs (Learning Management Systems). A script that describes…

  8. "Chemie im Kontext": A Symbiotic Implementation of a Context-Based Teaching and Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Baer, Anja; Nentwig, Peter; Demuth, Reinhard; Ralle, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    "Chemie im Kontext" (ChiK) is a project that aims at the improvement of chemistry teaching at secondary school in Germany. Based on a framework that was derived from theories and empirical data on the teaching and learning of science, science education researchers and teachers work together on learning communities to transform this framework into…

  9. I'm Sorry "About That": Apologies, Indexicals, and (Unnamed) Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margutti, Piera; Traverso, Véronique; Pugliese, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an apology format, "I'm sorry about it/that," where indexical terms (pronouns) refer to the offense rather than naming it. We identified two subsets in our collection of indexical apologies. In one, indexicals are subsequent either to the offense formulation or to an apology-relevant event; in the second, indexicals are…

  10. The (Im)Materiality of Literacy: The Significance of Subjectivity to New Literacies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Cathy; Merchant, Guy; Pahl, Kate; Rowsell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article deconstructs the online and offline experience to show its complexities and idiosyncratic nature. It proposes a theoretical framework designed to conceptualise aspects of meaning-making across on- and offline contexts. In arguing for the "(im)materiality" of literacy, it makes four propositions which highlight the complex…

  11. The (Im)possibility of Poststructuralist Ethnography--Researching Identities in Borrowed Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsolidis, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The notion of site is critical to ethnography and provides a sense of spatial stability--somewhere the researcher enters in order to research what is contained within. Using contemporary understandings of space, the author reflects on two studies to explore the (im)possibility of poststructuralist ethnography. The first study was undertaken in a…

  12. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  13. Electrocardiogram-gated coronary CT angiography dose estimates using ImPACT.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Haba, Tomonobu; Kawaguchi, Ai; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi

    2016-07-08

    The primary study objective was to assess radiation doses using a modified form of the Imaging Performance Assessment of Computed Tomography (CT) scanner (ImPACT) patient dosimetry for cardiac applications on an Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner, including the Ca score, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA, continuous CTA/cardiac function analysis (CFA), and CTA/CFA modulation. Accordingly, we clarified the CT dose index (CTDI) to determine the relationship between heart rate (HR) and X-ray exposure. As a secondary objective, we compared radiation doses using modified ImPACT, a whole-body dosimetry phantom study, and the k-factor method to verify the validity of the dose results obtained with modified ImPACT. The effective dose determined for the reference person (4.66 mSv at 60 beats per minute (bpm) and 33.43 mSv at 90bpm) were approximately 10% less than those determined for the phantom study (5.28 mSv and 36.68 mSv). The effective doses according to the k-factor (0.014 mSv•mGy-1•cm-1; 2.57 mSv and 17.10 mSv) were significantly lower than those obtained with the other two methods. In the present study, we have shown that ImPACT, when modified for cardiac applications, can assess both absorbed and effective doses. The results of our dose comparison indicate that modified ImPACT dose assessment is a promising and practical method for evaluating coronary CTA.

  14. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  15. Electrocardiogram-gated coronary CT angiography dose estimates using ImPACT.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Haba, Tomonobu; Kawaguchi, Ai; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi

    2016-01-01

    The primary study objective was to assess radiation doses using a modified form of the Imaging Performance Assessment of Computed Tomography (CT) scanner (ImPACT) patient dosimetry for cardiac applications on an Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner, including the Ca score, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA, continuous CTA/cardiac function analysis (CFA), and CTA/CFA modulation. Accordingly, we clarified the CT dose index (CTDI) to determine the relationship between heart rate (HR) and X-ray exposure. As a secondary objective, we compared radiation doses using modified ImPACT, a whole-body dosimetry phantom study, and the k-factor method to verify the validity of the dose results obtained with modified ImPACT. The effective dose determined for the reference person (4.66 mSv at 60 beats per minute (bpm) and 33.43 mSv at 90bpm) were approximately 10% less than those determined for the phantom study (5.28 mSv and 36.68 mSv). The effective doses according to the k-factor (0.014 mSv•mGy-1•cm-1; 2.57 mSv and 17.10 mSv) were significantly lower than those obtained with the other two methods. In the present study, we have shown that ImPACT, when modified for cardiac applications, can assess both absorbed and effective doses. The results of our dose comparison indicate that modified ImPACT dose assessment is a promising and practical method for evaluating coronary CTA. PMID:27455500

  16. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Study design Retrospective cohort study Methods Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. Results There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury

  17. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder. Detecting Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography, Ion Mobility, and Mass Spectrometry Features in Complex Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Kevin L.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Lamarche, Brian L.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-09-05

    We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time, and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension.

  18. Reduction of lung metastasis by ImH[trans-RuCl4(DMSO)Im]: mechanism of the selective action investigated on mouse tumors.

    PubMed

    Sava, G; Clerici, K; Capozzi, I; Cocchietto, M; Gagliardi, R; Alessio, E; Mestroni, G; Perbellini, A

    1999-01-01

    NAMI-A (imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethylsulfoxidetetrachlororuthenate, ImH[trans-RuCl4(DMSO)Im]) is a new ruthenium compound active against lung metastasis of solid metastasizing tumors. We have tested this compound in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma or MCa mammary carcinoma in order to compare the effects on primary tumor and lung metastases with possible alterations of cell cycle distribution of tumor cells. We have also investigated whether there were unequal tissue accumulations of the compound itself at different dose levels ranging from 17.5 to 70 mg/kg/day given for six consecutive days. NAMI-A caused a reduction of metastasis weight larger than that of metastasis number; we explain this finding as the capacity of NAMI-A to selectively interfere with the growth of metastases already settled in the lungs. However, this specificity is not simply related to a larger concentration of NAMI-A in the lungs than in other tissues. Following i.p. treatment, NAMI-A rapidly disappeared from the peritoneal cavity; its low blood concentration may be caused by rapid renal clearance. These data provide further evidence for a selective anti-metastasis effect of the ruthenium complex NAMI-A. The reduction of lung metastasis is followed by a significant prolongation of the host's life-time expectancy, indicating a therapeutic benefit of NAMI-A on lung metastases from solid tumors.

  19. Contaminant screening of wastewater with HPLC-IM-qTOF-MS and LC+LC-IM-qTOF-MS using a CCS database.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Susanne; Hippler, Joerg; Köhler, Timo; Deeb, Ahmad A; Schmidt, Torsten C; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Non-target analysis has become an important tool in the field of water analysis since a broad variety of pollutants from different sources are released to the water cycle. For identification of compounds in such complex samples, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are often used. The introduction of ion mobility spectrometry provides an additional separation dimension and allows determining collision cross sections (CCS) of the analytes as a further physicochemical constant supporting the identification. A CCS database with more than 500 standard substances including drug-like compounds and pesticides was used for CCS data base search in this work. A non-target analysis of a wastewater sample was initially performed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an ion mobility-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (IM-qTOF-MS). A database search including exact mass (±5 ppm) and CCS (±1 %) delivered 22 different compounds. Furthermore, the same sample was analyzed with a two-dimensional LC method, called LC+LC, developed in our group for the coupling to IM-qTOF-MS. This four dimensional separation platform revealed 53 different compounds, identified over exact mass and CCS, in the examined wastewater sample. It is demonstrated that the CCS database can also help to distinguish between isobaric structures exemplified for cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Graphical Abstract Scheme of sample analysis and database screening. PMID:27497965

  20. Contaminant screening of wastewater with HPLC-IM-qTOF-MS and LC+LC-IM-qTOF-MS using a CCS database.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Susanne; Hippler, Joerg; Köhler, Timo; Deeb, Ahmad A; Schmidt, Torsten C; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Non-target analysis has become an important tool in the field of water analysis since a broad variety of pollutants from different sources are released to the water cycle. For identification of compounds in such complex samples, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are often used. The introduction of ion mobility spectrometry provides an additional separation dimension and allows determining collision cross sections (CCS) of the analytes as a further physicochemical constant supporting the identification. A CCS database with more than 500 standard substances including drug-like compounds and pesticides was used for CCS data base search in this work. A non-target analysis of a wastewater sample was initially performed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an ion mobility-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (IM-qTOF-MS). A database search including exact mass (±5 ppm) and CCS (±1 %) delivered 22 different compounds. Furthermore, the same sample was analyzed with a two-dimensional LC method, called LC+LC, developed in our group for the coupling to IM-qTOF-MS. This four dimensional separation platform revealed 53 different compounds, identified over exact mass and CCS, in the examined wastewater sample. It is demonstrated that the CCS database can also help to distinguish between isobaric structures exemplified for cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Graphical Abstract Scheme of sample analysis and database screening.

  1. Evaluation of SDS depletion using an affinity spin column and IMS-MS detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hengel, Shawna M.; Floyd, Erica A.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Si; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-11-01

    While the use of detergents is necessary for a variety of protein isolation preparation protocols, often prior to mass spectral (MS) analysis, they are not compatible with MS analysis due to ion suppression and adduct formation. This manuscript describes optimization of detergent removal, using commercially available SDS depletion spin columns containing an affinity resin, providing for both increased protein recovery and thorough SDS removal. Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) allowed for a concurrent analysis of both analyte and detergent. In the case of both proteins and peptides, higher detergent concentrations than previously reported provided an increase of sample recovery; however there was a limit as SDS was detected by IMS-MS at higher levels of SDS indicating incomplete detergent depletion. The results also suggest optimal conditions for SDS removal are dependent on the sample concentration. Overall, this study provides a useful guide for proteomic studies where SDS is required for efficient sample preparation.

  2. Investigating perfect timesharing: the relationship between IM-compatible tasks and dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Kimberly M; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-04-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two measures of dual-task performance (simultaneous stimulus presentation blocks and simultaneous stimulus presentation trials in blocks with mixed SOAs), and show that these different measures produce different estimates of the cost. Next we examine whether the near elimination of costs can be explained by assuming that one or both of the tasks bypasses capacity-limited central operations. The results indicate that both tasks must be IM-compatible to nearly eliminate the dual-task costs, suggesting that the relationship between the tasks plays a critical role in overlapping performance. PMID:22866763

  3. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  4. Detecting and Cataloging Global Explosive Volcanism Using the IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Green, D. N.; LE Pichon, A.; Fee, D.; Shearer, P. M.; Mialle, P.; Ceranna, L.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. These eruptions can also inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled aviation corridors, thus posing a significant societal and economic hazard. Detecting and counting the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps with progress toward several goals in earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. This project aims to build a quantitative catalog of global explosive volcanic activity using the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network. We are developing methodologies to search systematically through IMS infrasound array detection bulletins to identify signals of volcanic origin. We combine infrasound signal association and source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent infrasound signals in a global grid. When volcanic signals are identified, we extract metrics such as location, origin time, acoustic intensity, signal duration, and frequency content, compiling the results into a catalog. We are testing and validating our method on several well-known case studies, including the 2009 eruption of Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and the 2015 eruption of Calbuco, Chile. This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better characterization of volcanic signal detection helps improve understanding of operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities of the IMS network.

  5. Mathematik im Kontext Bericht aus dem Projekt "Fächerkonzepte und Bildung"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohns, Andreas

    "Mathematik - das hab ich nie verstanden". Wenn man diese Aussage im Alltag hört, dann ist damit in der Regel mehr gemeint als der bloße Hinweis auf gewisse individuelle Wissenslücken. Es geht auch (vielleicht sogar vorrangig) um eine mangelnde Vorstellung davon, worin eigentlich die Bedeutung dessen liegt, was man unter der Überschrift "Mathematik" in der Schule gelernt hat.

  6. Delineating diseases by IMS-MS profiling of serum N-linked glycans.

    PubMed

    Isailovic, Dragan; Plasencia, Manolo D; Gaye, Maissa M; Stokes, Sarah T; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Pungpapong, Vitara; Zhang, Min; Kyselova, Zuzana; Goldman, Radoslav; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V; Clemmer, David E

    2012-02-01

    Altered branching and aberrant expression of N-linked glycans is known to be associated with disease states such as cancer. However, the complexity of determining such variations hinders the development of specific glycomic approaches for assessing disease states. Here, we examine a combination of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) measurements, with principal component analysis (PCA) for characterizing serum N-linked glycans from 81 individuals: 28 with cirrhosis of the liver, 25 with liver cancer, and 28 apparently healthy. Supervised PCA of combined ion-mobility profiles for several, to as many as 10 different mass-to-charge ratios for glycan ions, improves the delineation of diseased states. This extends an earlier study [J. Proteome Res.2008, 7, 1109-1117] of isomers associated with a single glycan (S(1)H(5)N(4)) in which PCA analysis of the IMS profiles appeared to differentiate the liver cancer group from the other samples. Although performed on a limited number of test subjects, the combination of IMS-MS for different combinations of ions and multivariate PCA analysis shows promise for characterizing disease states.

  7. 1 year test-retest reliability of ImPACT in professional ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared; Echemendia, Ruben; Meeuwisse, Willem; Comper, Paul; Sisco, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery is widely used to assess neurocognitive outcomes following sports-related concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine the 1 year test-retest reliability of ImPACT in a multilingual sample of professional hockey players. A total of 305 professional hockey players were tested 1 year apart using ImPACT. Reliable change confidence intervals were calculated and test-retest reliability was measured using Pearson and Intraclass correlation coefficients. Results indicated that the 1-year test-retest reliabilities for the Visual Motor and Reaction Time Composites ranged from low to high (.52 to .81). In contrast, 1-year test-retest reliabilities for the Verbal and Visual Memory Composites were low (.22 to .58). The 1-year test-retest results provided mixed support for the use of Visual Motor and Reaction Time Composites in select samples; in contrast, the Verbal and Visual Memory Composites may not be sensitive to clinical change.

  8. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. 5-7 These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conju...

  9. 75 FR 35088 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Correction The document appearing on June 4, 2010, 75 FR 31816, should read as follows: The title INS Global Consortium, Inc. should read as IMS Global Learning...

  10. Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) for on- and offline analysis of atmospheric gas and aerosol species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechmer, Jordan E.; Groessl, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Junninen, Heikki; Massoli, Paola; Lambe, Andrew T.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Graf, Stephan; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Budisulistiorini, Sri H.; Zhang, Haofei; Surratt, Jason D.; Knochenmuss, Richard; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Canagaratna, Manjula R.

    2016-07-01

    Measurement techniques that provide molecular-level information are needed to elucidate the multiphase processes that produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) species in the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate the application of ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to the simultaneous characterization of the elemental composition and molecular structures of organic species in the gas and particulate phases. Molecular ions of gas-phase organic species are measured online with IMS-MS after ionization with a custom-built nitrate chemical ionization (CI) source. This CI-IMS-MS technique is used to obtain time-resolved measurements (5 min) of highly oxidized organic molecules during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) ambient field campaign in the forested SE US. The ambient IMS-MS signals are consistent with laboratory IMS-MS spectra obtained from single-component carboxylic acids and multicomponent mixtures of isoprene and monoterpene oxidation products. Mass-mobility correlations in the 2-D IMS-MS space provide a means of identifying ions with similar molecular structures within complex mass spectra and are used to separate and identify monoterpene oxidation products in the ambient data that are produced from different chemical pathways. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) constituents of fine aerosol particles that are not resolvable with standard analytical separation methods, such as liquid chromatography (LC), are shown to be separable with IMS-MS coupled to an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The capability to use ion mobility to differentiate between isomers is demonstrated for organosulfates derived from the reactive uptake of isomers of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) onto wet acidic sulfate aerosol. Controlled fragmentation of precursor ions by collisionally induced dissociation (CID) in the transfer region between the IMS and the MS is used to validate MS peak assignments, elucidate structures of oligomers, and confirm the

  11. Developing integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system in studying biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ligang

    Using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) techniques (including TOF-SIMS and MALDI IMS) to study biological systems is a relatively new concept and quickly gained popularity in recent years. Imaging mass spectrometry is a discovery technology that utilizes a focused ion beam or laser beam to desorb ions from sample surface. By detecting the desorbed ions, the chemical distributions and biological changes of a sample surface can be analyzed. These techniques offer a new analytical imaging approach to investigate biological processes at the cellular and tissue level. In this research, a novel integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system as well as IMS based biological-sample-preparation techniques and data-reduction methods are developed. We then demonstrate the power of these techniques in studying different biological systems, including monosaccharides isomers, human breast cancer cell lines, mouse embryo tissues and mouse kidney sections. Using TOF-SIMS and statistical analysis methods, seven monosaccharide isomers are fully differentiated by analyzing their characteristic spectral pattern. In addition, a deep understanding of the fragmentation pathway of these isomers under ion bombardment is gained. In an application of TOF-SIMS to the differentiation of three human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231, we show that principal component analysis (PCA) data reduction of TOF-SIMS spectra can differentiate cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and particulate) within the cell types, as well as homogenates from among the three cell lines. In a tissue-specific application, we extend the analytical capabilities of TOF-SIMS and PCA by imaging and differentiating Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mouse embryo tissues. We demonstrate reproducible differentiation of six tissue types based on the remaining small molecules after paraffin-embedding and the fragments of the cellular proteins. In a unique study of fresh frozen mouse kidney tissues, both TOF

  12. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic

  13. Determination of acetamiprid and IM-1-2 in postmortem human blood, liver, stomach contents by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Yeter, Oya; Aydın, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    An HPLC-DAD method was developed to detect and quantify a neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (ATP) and its metabolite IM-1-2 in autopsy samples of a fatal intoxication case. The postmortem blood and tissue distribution of ATP and IM-1-2 was determined for the first time. The method showed acceptable precisions and recoveries with relative standard deviations of <10% for ATP level and 1.38 % for IM-1-2. The detection and quantification limits for ATP were 0.015 μg/mL and 0.030 μg/mL for blood and were 0.035 μg/g and 0.050 μg/g for liver samples, respectively. The mean contents of ATP were 0.79 μg/g in the liver, 47.35 μg/g in the stomach contents and 2.7 μg/mL in the blood. IM-1-2 content was 17.0 μg/g in the stomach contents. ATP and IM-1-2 were not detected in the urine. The presence of ATP and IM-1-2 in the samples was confirmed by GC-MS. The method can be exploited in future forensic casework. PMID:24329162

  14. Im10A, a short conopeptide isolated from Conus imperialis and possesses two highly concentrated disulfide bridges and analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuo; Du, Tianpeng; Liu, Zhuguo; Wu, Qiaoling; Feng, Guixue; Dong, Mingxin; Zhou, Xiaowei; Jiang, Ling; Dai, Qiuyun

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we isolated, synthesized and NMR structurally characterized a novel conopeptide Im10A consisting of 11 amino acids (NTICCEGCMCY-NH2) from Conus imperialis. Unlike other conopeptides with four cysteine residues, Im10A had only two residues in loop 1 and one residue in loop 2 (CC-loop1-C-loop2-C), which formed a stable disulfide connectivity "I-IV, II- III" (framework X) with a type I β-turn. Interestingly, Im10A exhibited 50.7% analgesic activity on rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PNL) at 2h after Im10A administration. However, 10μM Im10A exhibited no apparent effect on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and it did not target DRG voltage-dependent sodium, potassium and calcium ion channels and opioid receptor. To our knowledge, Im10A had the most concentrated disulfide bridges among conopeptides with four cysteine residues. This finding provided a new motif for the future development of biomimetic compounds. PMID:27131596

  15. Structural and Electronic Transformations of Pt/C, Pd@Pt(1 ML)/C and Pd@Pt(2 ML)/C Cathode Catalysts in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells during Potential-step Operating Processes Characterized by In-situ Time-resolved XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Takao, Shinobu; Samjeské, Gabor; Nagasawa, Kensaku; Sekizawa, Oki; Kaneko, Takuma; Higashi, Kotaro; Uruga, Tomoya; Gayen, Sirshendu; Velaga, Srihari; Saniyal, Milan K.; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic structural and electronic transformations of Pt/C, Pd@Pt(1 ML)/C, Pd@Pt(2 ML)/C cathode catalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) during the potential-step operating processes between 0.4 and 1.4 VRHE (potential vs RHE) were characterized by in-situ (operando) time-resolved Pt LIII-edge quick-XAFS at 100 ms time-resolution. Potential-dependent surface structures and oxidation states of Pt, Pd@Pt(1 ML) and Pd@Pt(2 ML) nanoparticles on carbon at 0.4 and 1.4 VRHE were also analyzed by in-situ Pt LIII-edge and Pd K-edge quick-XAFS. The Pt, Pd@Pt(1 ML) and Pd@Pt(2 ML) nanoparticle surfaces were restructured and disordered at 1.4 VRHE, which were induced by strong Pt-O bonds as well as alloying effects. The rate constants for the changes of Pt valence, CN(Pt-Pt), CN(Pt-Pd) and CN(Pt-O) (CN: coordination number) in the potential-step operating processes were also determined and discussed in relation to the origin of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities of the Pt/C, Pd@Pt(1 ML)/C and Pd@Pt(2 ML)/C cathode catalysts.

  16. Low Noise Results From IMS Site Surveys: A Preliminary New High-Frequency Low Noise Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, C.; Astiz, L.; Starovoit, Y.; Tavener, N.; Perez, G.; Given, H. K.; Barrientos, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hfaiedh, M.; Stewart, R.; Estabrook, C.

    2002-12-01

    Since the establishment of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization, a vigorous seismic site survey program has been carried out to identify locations as necessary for International Monitoring System (IMS) primary and auxiliary seismic stations listed in Annex 1 to the Protocol to the CTBT. The IMS Seismic Section maintains for this purpose a small pool of seismic equipment comprised of Guralp CMG-3T and CMG-3ESP and Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers, and Reftek and Guralp acquisition systems. Seismic site surveys are carried out by conducting continuous measurements of ground motion at temporary installations for approximately five to seven days. Seismometer installation methods, which depend on instrument type and on local conditions, range from placement within small cement-floored subsurface vaults to near-surface burial. Data are sampled at 40 Hz. Seismic noise levels are evaluated through the analysis of power spectral density distributions. Eleven 10.5-minute-long representative de-trended and mean-removed segments each of daytime and night-time data are chosen randomly, but reviewed to avoid event contamination. Fast Fourier Transforms are calculated for the five windows in each of these segments generated using a 50% overlap for Hanning-tapered sections ~200 s long. Instrument responses are removed. To date, 20 site surveys for primary and auxiliary stations have been carried out by the IMS. The sites surveyed represent a variety of physical and geological environments on most continents. The lowest high frequency (>1.4 Hz) noise levels at five sites with igneous or metamorphic geologies were as much as 6 dB below the USGS New Low Noise Model (NLNM) developed by Peterson (1993). These sites were in Oman (local geology consisting of Ordovician metasediments), Egypt (Precambrian granite), Niger (early Proterozoic tonalite and granodiorite), Saudi Arabia (Precambian metasediments), and

  17. MALDI FTICR IMS of Intact Proteins: Using Mass Accuracy to Link Protein Images with Proteomics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive and selective tool used to visualize biomolecules in tissue. However, identification of detected proteins remains a difficult task. Indirect identification strategies have been limited by insufficient mass accuracy to confidently link ion images to proteomics data. Here, we demonstrate the capabilities of MALDI FTICR MS for imaging intact proteins. MALDI FTICR IMS provides an unprecedented combination of mass resolving power (~75,000 at m/z 5000) and accuracy (<5ppm) for proteins up to ~12kDa, enabling identification based on correlation with LC-MS/MS proteomics data. Analysis of rat brain tissue was performed as a proof-of-concept highlighting the capabilities of this approach by imaging and identifying a number of proteins including N-terminally acetylated thymosin β4 ( m/z 4,963.502, 0.6ppm) and ATP synthase subunit ɛ ( m/z 5,636.074, -2.3ppm). MALDI FTICR IMS was also used to differentiate a series of oxidation products of S100A8 ( m/z 10,164.03, -2.1ppm), a subunit of the heterodimer calprotectin, in kidney tissue from mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. S100A8 - M37O/C42O3 ( m/z 10228.00, -2.6ppm) was found to co-localize with bacterial microcolonies at the center of infectious foci. The ability of MALDI FTICR IMS to distinguish S100A8 modifications is critical to understanding calprotectin's roll in nutritional immunity.

  18. Fotometría de imágenes CCD insuficientemente muestreadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se enfrenta el problema de la fotometría de imágenes CCD con una escala inadecuada (fwhm menor o igual que el tamaño de un pixel) y psf fuertemente variable con la posición. Se analiza, en particular, la aplicabilidad de una táctica propuesta por Massey, consistente en eliminar las vecinas débiles (utilizando una psf rudimentaria) para luego efectuar una fotometría de apertura sobre las estrellas brillantes. Se determina, mediante experimentos numéricos, la precisión alcanzada mediante esta técnica.

  19. Daily summary for IMS high-altitude satellites, days 1-181 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the orbital positions is provided for a number of high altitude satellites capable of making magnetospheric measurements in the first half of 1977 as part of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Six artificial satellites -- Vela 5B, IMP-H, IMP-J, Solrad 11A, Solrad 11B, and Hawkeye 1 -- have been chosen along with the moon. The daily position summary of the satellites includes data tables which provide the crossing times of the bow shock and magnetopause, as well as the entry and exit times from the cusp, the high latitude tail, the midlatitude tail, and the neutral sheet region.

  20. The effects of CO2 on the negative reactant ions of IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Glenn E.

    1995-01-01

    In the presence of CO2, the negative reactant ions of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) are ion clusters of CO4(-) and CO3(-). Methyl salicylate is ionized by the CO4(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions, but not by the CO3(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions. While the CO4(-) ions are formed by direct association, the CO3(-) ions require additional energy to be formed. The additional energy is provided by either excited neutral gas molecules in a metastable state or UV (ultraviolet) radiation.

  1. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Predicted orbit plots for Vela 5B, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Predicted orbit plots for the Vela 5B satellite are presented for the time period January-December 1976. This satellite has been identified as an important possible contributor to the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) project. The predicted orbit plots are shown in three projections. The time period covered by each set of projections is 4 days 16 hours, corresponding approximately to the period of Vela 5B. The three coordinate systems used are the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic system (GSE), the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric system (GSM), and the Solar Magnetic system (SM).

  2. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  3. Layered and segmented system organization (LASSO) for highly reliable inventory monitoring systems (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Mangan, Dennis L.; Matter, John C.; Waddoups, I.; Abhold, M. E.; Chiaro, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Trilateral Initiative is preparing for International Atomic Energy Agency (LUiA) verification of excess fissile material released itom the defense programs of the United States and the Russian Federation. Following acceptance of the material using an Attribute Verification System, the IAEA will depend on an Inventory Monitoring System to maintain Continuity of Knowledge of the large inventory of thousands of items. Recovery fiom a total loss of Continuity of Knowledge in such a large storage facility would involve an extremely costly inventory re-verification This paper presents the framework for a Layered and Segmented System Organization that is the basis for a highly reliable IMS with protection-in-depth.

  4. 49 CFR 236.1015 - PTC Safety Plan content requirements and PTC System Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... method of operation and not built in accordance with the safety assurance principles set forth in... a newly constructed track or as an overlay on the existing method of operation and built in... signal or train control system, or otherwise to replace or materially modify the existing method...

  5. 49 CFR 236.1015 - PTC Safety Plan content requirements and PTC System Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 236.1005; (19) An emergency and planned maintenance temporary rerouting plan indicating how operations... supplied from other business systems needed to execute the braking algorithm, survey data needed...

  6. Mindful Parenting Assessed Further: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.; Geurtzen, Naline; van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Hartman, Esther E.; Nieuwesteeg, Anke M.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n=866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the original IM-P was that aspects of compassion and emotional awareness were separated into different factors for the self and the child, instead of combined into one factor. In a second general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n=.99), the six-factor structure was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2). The proposed 29-item version of the IM-P and its subscales were shown to have good internal consistencies, apart from the sixth factor. As expected, a high correlation was found with general mindfulness questionnaires (FFMQ and FMI). Furthermore, the IM-P correlated positively as expected with quality of life and optimism and negatively with depression and dysfunctional parenting styles. These expected indications of construct validity were found in study 2, as well as in mothers (n=112) of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (study 3) which was added to examine whether the Dutch version of the IM-P was also valid in a pediatric population. Overall, these three studies present good psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the first measure of mindful parenting. PMID:25126133

  7. Glycopeptide Site Heterogeneity and Structural Diversity Determined by Combined Lectin Affinity Chromatography/IMS/CID/MS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feifei; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Clemmer, David E

    2015-07-01

    Glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of chicken ovomucoid were enriched using a simplified lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) platform, and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as well as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS. The LAC platform effectively enriched the glycoproteome, from which a total of 117 glycopeptides containing 27 glycan forms were identified for this protein. IMS-MS analysis revealed a high degree of glycopeptide site heterogeneity. Comparison of the IMS distributions of the glycopeptides from different charge states reveals that higher charge states allow more structures to be resolved. Presumably the repulsive interactions between charged sites lead to more open configurations, which are more readily separated compared with the more compact, lower charge state forms of the same groups of species. Combining IMS with collision induced dissociation (CID) made it possible to determine the presence of isomeric glycans and to reconstruct their IMS profiles. This study illustrates a workflow involving hybrid techniques for determining glycopeptide site heterogeneity and evaluating structural diversity of glycans and glycopeptides. PMID:25840811

  8. Mindful Parenting Assessed Further: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P).

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Esther I; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Geurtzen, Naline; van Zundert, Rinka M P; van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Hartman, Esther E; Nieuwesteeg, Anke M; Duncan, Larissa G; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n=866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the original IM-P was that aspects of compassion and emotional awareness were separated into different factors for the self and the child, instead of combined into one factor. In a second general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n=.99), the six-factor structure was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2). The proposed 29-item version of the IM-P and its subscales were shown to have good internal consistencies, apart from the sixth factor. As expected, a high correlation was found with general mindfulness questionnaires (FFMQ and FMI). Furthermore, the IM-P correlated positively as expected with quality of life and optimism and negatively with depression and dysfunctional parenting styles. These expected indications of construct validity were found in study 2, as well as in mothers (n=112) of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (study 3) which was added to examine whether the Dutch version of the IM-P was also valid in a pediatric population. Overall, these three studies present good psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the first measure of mindful parenting. PMID:25126133

  9. An IMS-Based Middleware Solution for Energy-Efficient and Cost-Effective Mobile Multimedia Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellavista, Paolo; Corradi, Antonio; Foschini, Luca

    Mobile multimedia services have recently become of extreme industrial relevance due to the advances in both wireless client devices and multimedia communications. That has motivated important standardization efforts, such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) to support session control, mobility, and interoperability in all-IP next generation networks. Notwithstanding the central role of IMS in novel mobile multimedia, the potential of IMS-based service composition for the development of new classes of ready-to-use, energy-efficient, and cost-effective services is still widely unexplored. The paper proposes an original solution for the dynamic and standard-compliant redirection of incoming voice calls towards WiFi-equipped smart phones. The primary design guideline is to reduce energy consumption and service costs for the final user by automatically switching from the 3G to the WiFi infrastructure whenever possible. The proposal is fully compliant with the IMS standard and exploits the recently released IMS presence service to update device location and current communication opportunities. The reported experimental results point out that our solution, in a simple way and with full compliance with state-of-the-art industrially-accepted standards, can significantly increase battery lifetime without negative effects on call initiation delay.

  10. Glycopeptide Site Heterogeneity and Structural Diversity Determined by Combined Lectin Affinity Chromatography/IMS/CID/MS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feifei; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Clemmer, David E.

    2015-07-01

    Glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of chicken ovomucoid were enriched using a simplified lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) platform, and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as well as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS. The LAC platform effectively enriched the glycoproteome, from which a total of 117 glycopeptides containing 27 glycan forms were identified for this protein. IMS-MS analysis revealed a high degree of glycopeptide site heterogeneity. Comparison of the IMS distributions of the glycopeptides from different charge states reveals that higher charge states allow more structures to be resolved. Presumably the repulsive interactions between charged sites lead to more open configurations, which are more readily separated compared with the more compact, lower charge state forms of the same groups of species. Combining IMS with collision induced dissociation (CID) made it possible to determine the presence of isomeric glycans and to reconstruct their IMS profiles. This study illustrates a workflow involving hybrid techniques for determining glycopeptide site heterogeneity and evaluating structural diversity of glycans and glycopeptides.

  11. Creating High-Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes Using IM-CRDS and IRMS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Since the development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), the applications of water isotope analysis have been increasing. Here, we present a new protocol to create high-resolution maps of leaf water isotopes 18O and 2H. We use the Picarro induction module (IM-CRDS) combined with an isotope analyzer (L2130-i) to sample up to 25 locations in one half of each leaf. Each sampling location corresponds to four samples (6 mm outside diameter punched-holes) punched next to each other. In the induction module, an induction coil heats a metal holder containing the leaf sample. The sample will release water vapor that is then sent to the isotope analyzer. The IM-CRDS allows us to significantly reduce the sample size and therefore increase the sample density, compared to the traditional cryogenic extraction method. Using spatial analysis tools, we create high-resolution spatial maps of each isotope as well as d-excess maps. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The isotopic composition of the extracted water is compared to the average composition calculated from the maps and used for calibration. We present applications of this protocol to the analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution of foliar uptake in Colocasia esculenta under laboratory conditions.

  12. ImTK: an open source multi-center information management toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Adil; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Padh, Shilpa; Dorobantu, Mihai; Desai, Mihir; Cleary, Kevin; Mun, Seong K.

    2008-03-01

    The Information Management Toolkit (ImTK) Consortium is an open source initiative to develop robust, freely available tools related to the information management needs of basic, clinical, and translational research. An open source framework and agile programming methodology can enable distributed software development while an open architecture will encourage interoperability across different environments. The ISIS Center has conceptualized a prototype data sharing network that simulates a multi-center environment based on a federated data access model. This model includes the development of software tools to enable efficient exchange, sharing, management, and analysis of multimedia medical information such as clinical information, images, and bioinformatics data from multiple data sources. The envisioned ImTK data environment will include an open architecture and data model implementation that complies with existing standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications (DICOM), Health Level 7 (HL7), and the technical framework and workflow defined by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Information Technology Infrastructure initiative, mainly the Cross Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) specifications.

  13. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. VII. THE EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO STRUCTURE OF IM PEGASI

    SciTech Connect

    Bietenholz, M. F.; Bartel, N.; Ransom, R. R.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2012-07-01

    We present measurements of the total radio flux density as well as very long baseline interferometry images of the star, IM Pegasi, which was used as the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B. We obtained flux densities and images from 35 sessions of observations at 8.4 GHz ({lambda} = 3.6 cm) between 1997 January and 2005 July. The observations were accurately phase-referenced to several extragalactic reference sources, and we present the images in a star-centered frame, aligned by the position of the star as derived from our fits to its orbital motion, parallax, and proper motion. Both the flux density and the morphology of IM Peg are variable. For most sessions, the emission region has a single-peaked structure, but 25% of the time, we observed a two-peaked (and on one occasion perhaps a three-peaked) structure. On average, the emission region is elongated by 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mas (FWHM), with the average direction of elongation being close to that of the sky projection of the orbit normal. The average length of the emission region is approximately equal to the diameter of the primary star. No significant correlation with the orbital phase is found for either the flux density or the direction of elongation, and no preference for any particular longitude on the star is shown by the emission region.

  14. Lipozyme TL IM as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Eugenyl Acetate in Solvent-Free Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Silva, María José A; Loss, Raquel A; Laroque, Denise A; Lerin, Lindomar A; Pereira, Gabriela N; Thon, Élise; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Ninow, Jorge L; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, Débora

    2015-06-01

    The ability of commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) to catalyze the acetylation of essential clove oil with acetic anhydride in a solvent-free system was studied, and the antimicrobial activity of the ester formed was evaluated as well. Experimental design based on two variables (eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio and temperature) was employed to evaluate the experimental conditions of eugenyl acetate ester production. The maximum conversion yield (92.86 %) was obtained using Lipozyme TL IM (5 wt%, based on the total amount of substrates), with eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:5 at 70 °C. The chemical structure of the eugenyl acetate ester obtained at the optimized condition, and purified, was confirmed by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. The antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate ester was proven effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with means of 16.62 and 17.55 mm of inhibition halo. PMID:25875787

  15. 'I'm really glad this is developmental': autism and social comparisons - an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Huws, Jaci C; Jones, Robert S P

    2015-01-01

    The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: 'I'm really glad this is developmental'; (b) Degrees of autism: 'They've got it really bad'; and (c) Degrees of ability: 'I'm not really disabled-disabled'. Such comparisons were not explicitly sought at the outset of the study, and instead emerged from their conceptualisations of the autism concept. When comparing how they perceived themselves now, and how they perceived themselves in the past, the young people viewed themselves more positively in the present. In addition, when making comparisons with other people with autism, they tended to locate themselves as being in a better position than others were. The perspective of being in a more fortunate position because of heightened abilities also emerged from the comparisons made with people who did not have autism. Furthermore, similar comparisons were made when autism was compared to disability, with autism being evaluated as being more favourable than what was termed 'proper' disability. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the existent social comparison literature.

  16. Ein Entscheidungsmodell zur Weitergabe persönlicher Daten im Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiblmaier, Horst

    In den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten wandelte sich das Internet von einer Spielwiese für technikbegeisterte Computerspezialisten zu einem vielseitig einsetzbaren weltweiten Netzwerk für Privatpersonen und Unternehmen. Maßgeblichen Anteil daran besaß die rasante Entwicklung des World Wide Web (WWW), das, durch die Möglichkeit multimediale Inhalte zu vermitteln, für einen großen Teil der Bevölkerung industrialisierter Länder zu einem wesentlichen Bestandteil des täglichen Lebens wurde. Dass diese Entwicklung noch lange nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigt die derzeitige Diskussion zum Thema Web 2.0 bzw. 3.0. Waren es in den letzten Jahren die hohen Umsatzzuwächse im E-Commerce und multimedial gestaltete Webseiten in Kombination mit aufwändigen Applikationen, die für ständig steigende Nutzerzahlen im World Wide Web sorgten, so wird dieser Innovationsschub nunmehr durch eine Vielzahl von Anwendungen fortgesetzt, die sich durch die zunehmende Vernetzung der Nutzer untereinander auszeichnen.

  17. Extending Waveform Correlation Techniques to Broad Regional Monitoring Using IMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Richards, Paul; Schaff, David; Rowe, Charlotte; Mikhailova, Natalya; Young, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Waveform correlation techniques are of great interest for nuclear explosion monitoring because they provide a robust means to significantly lower detection thresholds while maintaining acceptably low false alarm rates. In previous work, using our research group's distributed computing system, we have demonstrated the ability to monitor 3 years of seismicity in central Asia using our waveform correlation detector processing continuous data from the array MKAR. In the work presented here, we extend our processing to include multiple IMS stations processed together. Using data from multiple stations both greatly increases the number of templates that can be correlated and provides a means to further lower event detection thresholds by allowing more marginal detections, if they can be corroborated by more than one station. We show results for processing 3+ years of data from multiple IMS stations with a combined set of master events numbering in the thousands. Optimal detection thresholds for each template are determined using Schaff's (2010) time reversal methodology to establish a null distribution and allow selection of a threshold for a desired false alarm rate. To establish the completeness of our catalog, we compare our output event lists against the IDC LEB as well as regional catalogs from central Asia. We present our results along with discussion of the practical aspects of engineering a robust correlation system, including automatic template library creation, multi-station integration, and computational requirements.

  18. A Helium GC/IMS for the Analysis of Extraterrestrial Volatiles in Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Humphry, Donald E.; Shao, Maxine; Takeuchi, Nori

    1995-01-01

    For exobiology experiments on board spacecraft or space probes, a wide range of chemical species often must be detected and identified. The limited amount of power and space available for flight instruments severely limits the number of instruments that can be flown on any given mission. It is important then, that these experiments utilize instrumentation with universal response, so that all species of interest can be analyzed. Instrumentation to fulfill the analytical requirements of exobiology experiments has been developed utilizing Gas Chromatography - Ion Mobility Spectrometry. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) combines columns developed specifically for the complex mixtures anticipated with highly sensitive Metastable Ionization Detectors (a type of Helium Ionization Detector). To satisfy the limitations placed on resources, the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) uses the same ultra high purity helium as the GC. This GC-MS provides the analytical capability to fulfill a wide range of exobiology flight experiment applications and has been included on a proposed Discovery Mission and proposals for both Lander and Orbiter of the European Space Agency's Rosetta Comet Mission. A data base of helium IMS spectra is now being built for these future applications.

  19. Lipozyme TL IM as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Eugenyl Acetate in Solvent-Free Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Silva, María José A; Loss, Raquel A; Laroque, Denise A; Lerin, Lindomar A; Pereira, Gabriela N; Thon, Élise; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Ninow, Jorge L; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, Débora

    2015-06-01

    The ability of commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) to catalyze the acetylation of essential clove oil with acetic anhydride in a solvent-free system was studied, and the antimicrobial activity of the ester formed was evaluated as well. Experimental design based on two variables (eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio and temperature) was employed to evaluate the experimental conditions of eugenyl acetate ester production. The maximum conversion yield (92.86 %) was obtained using Lipozyme TL IM (5 wt%, based on the total amount of substrates), with eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:5 at 70 °C. The chemical structure of the eugenyl acetate ester obtained at the optimized condition, and purified, was confirmed by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. The antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate ester was proven effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with means of 16.62 and 17.55 mm of inhibition halo.

  20. [Rapid detection of residual cyclohexanone in disposable medical devices by ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS)].

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Han, Hai-yan; Niu, Wen-qi; Wang, Hong-mei; Huang, Chao-qun; Jiang, Hai-he; Chu, Yan-nan

    2012-01-01

    In the manufacture of disposable PVC medical devices, cyclohexanone is frequently used as an adhesive reagent, which can be released into the tube airspace or stored solution and thus may cause some adverse effects on patients in therapy. In this paper, an ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS) technique has been developed to detect cyclohexanone through monitoring the gas composition within a package of infusion sets. The concentrations of cyclohexanone were prepared by means of exponential dilution method, and the experiments show that the UV-IMS has a limit of detection at 15 ppb and its measurable linear dynamics range is over three orders of magnitude. The concentrations of cyclohexanone in three brands of infusion sets packages were determined to be 16.78, 17.59 and 46.69 ppm respectively. The UV-IMS is proposed as a tool for the quality control of medical devices to monitor illegal uses of chemical solvents like cyclohexanone.

  1. The Development of Cockpit Display and Alerting Concepts for Interval Management (IM) in a Near-Term Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Shay, Richard F.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) Interval Management (IM) research team has conducted a wide spectrum of work in the recent past, ranging from development and testing of the concept, procedures, and algorithm. This document focuses on the research and evaluation of the IM pilot interfaces, cockpit displays, indications, and alerting concepts for conducting IM spacing operations. The research team incorporated knowledge of human factors research, industry standards for cockpit design, and cockpit design philosophies to develop innovative displays for conducting these spacing operations. The research team also conducted a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments with commercial pilots and air traffic controllers, in as realistic a high-density arrival operation environment as could be simulated, to evaluate the spacing guidance display features and interface requirements needed to conduct spacing operations.

  2. Fast detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) from headspace using planar solid-phase microextraction (PSPME) coupled to an IMS detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen; Young, Mimy; Canino, Jon; Smith, James; Oxley, Jimmie; Almirall, Jose R

    2012-04-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is a high explosive synthesized from easily available reactants making it accessible for illicit uses. In this study, fast detection of TATP is achieved using a novel planar solid-phase microextraction (PSPME) as a preconcentration and sampling device for headspace analysis offering improved sensitivity and reduced sampling time over the conventional fiber-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) when followed by ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) detection. Quantitation and comparison of the retention capabilities of PSPME as compared to the commercially available SPME were determined using TATP standards and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for SPME analysis and a commercial IMS with no instrumental modification for PSPME. Static and dynamic headspace extractions were used and compared for PSPME extractions, in which low milligram quantities of TATP were detected within 30 s of static mode sampling and less than 5 s in the dynamic mode sampling for PSPME-IMS. PMID:22382857

  3. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton fiber maturity is an important factor for determining the commercial value of cotton. How fiber cell wall development affects fiber maturity is not well understood. A comparison of fiber cross-sections showed that an immature fiber (im) mutant had lower fiber maturity than its near isogenic wild type, Texas marker-1 (TM-1). The availability of the im mutant and TM-1 provides a unique way to determine molecular mechanisms regulating cotton fiber maturity. Results Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the im mutant fibers grown under normal stress conditions were similar to those in wild type cotton fibers grown under severe stress conditions. The majority of these DEGs in the im mutant were related to stress responses and cellular respiration. Stress is known to reduce the activity of a classical respiration pathway responsible for energy production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Both energy productions and ROS levels in the im mutant fibers are expected to be reduced if the im mutant is associated with stress responses. In accord with the prediction, the transcriptome profiles of the im mutant showed the same alteration of transcriptional regulation that happened in energy deprived plants in which expressions of genes associated with cell growth processes were reduced whereas expressions of genes associated with recycling and transporting processes were elevated. We confirmed that ROS production in developing fibers from the im mutant was lower than that from the wild type. The lower production of ROS in the im mutant fibers might result from the elevated levels of alternative respiration induced by stress. Conclusion The low degree of fiber cell wall thickness of the im mutant fibers is associated with deregulation of the genes involved in stress responses and cellular respiration. The reduction of ROS levels and up-regulation of the genes involved in alternative respirations suggest that

  4. Reversible NO Motion in Crystalline [Fe(Porph)(1-MeIm)(NO)] Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Silvernail, Nathan J.; Pavlik, Jeffrey W.; Noll, Bruce C.; Schulz, Charles E.; Scheidt, W. Robert

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and X-ray structures of three low-spin (nitrosyl)iron(II) tetraarylporphyrinates, [Fe(TpXPP)(NO)(1-MeIm)], where X = F (in a triclinic and a monoclinic form) and OCH3 are reported. All three molecules, at 100 K, have a single orientation of NO. These structures are the first examples of ordered NO’s in [Fe(Porph)(NO)(1-MeIm)] complexes. The three new derivatives have similar structural features including a previously unnoted “bowing” of the NNO–Fe–NIm angle caused by a concerted tilting of the axial Fe–NNO and Fe–NIm bonds. Structural features such as the displacement of Fe out of the mean porphyrin plane toward NO, tilting of the Fe–NNO bond off the heme normal, and the asymmetry of the Fe–Npor bonds further strengthen and confirm observations from earlier studies. The [Fe(TpXPP)(NO)(1-MeIm)] complexes were also studied at temperatures between 125–350 K to investigate temperature-dependent variations and trends in the coordination group geometry. At varying temperatures (above 150 K), all three derivatives display a second orientation of the NO ligand. The population and depopulation of this second orientation is thermally driven, with no apparent hysteresis. Crystal packing appears to be the significant feature in defining the order/disorder of the NO ligand. The length of the bond trans to NO, Fe–NIm, was also found to be sensitive to temperature variation. The Fe–NIm bond length increases with increased temperature, whereas no other bonds change appreciably. The T-dependent Fe–NIm bond length change and cell volume changes are consistent with a “soft” Fe–NIm bond. Variable temperature measurements show that the N–O stretching frequency changes with the Fe–NIm bond length. Temperature-dependent changes in the Fe–NIm bond length and N–O stretching frequency were also found to be completely reversible with no apparent hysteresis. PMID:18173262

  5. 78 FR 22260 - Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... building. The meeting will be held at Ex-Im Bank in the Main Conference Room 326, 811 Vermont Avenue NW... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank); Notice...

  6. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank...

  7. Luminescent Copper(I) Halide Butterfly Dimers Coordinated to [Au(CH3imCH2py)2]BF4 and [Au(CH3imCH2quin)2]BF4

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, V.; Moore, A; Shearer, J; Kim, J

    2009-01-01

    The coordination chemistry of copper(I) halides to the homoleptic, N-heterocyclic carbene Au(I) complexes [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} and [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} was explored. The reaction of CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) with either [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} or [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} produces trimetallic complexes containing Cu{sub 2}X{sub 2}-butterfly copper clusters coordinated to the two imine moieties. The triangular arrangement of the metals places the gold(I) center in close proximity ({approx}2.5-2.6 {angstrom}) to the centroid of the Cu-Cu vector. The Cu-Cu separations vary as a function of bridging halide with the shortest Cu-Cu separations of {approx}2.5 {angstrom} found in the iodo-complexes and the longest separations of 2.9 {angstrom} found in the bridging chloride complexes. In all six complexes the Au-Cu separations range from {approx}2.8 to 3.0 {angstrom}. In the absence of halides, the dimetallic complex [AuCu(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, containing a long Au-Cu distance of {approx}4.72 {angstrom} is formed. Additionally, as the byproduct of the reaction of CuBr with [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} the deep-red, dimetallic compound, AuCuBr{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}, was isolated in very low yield. All of these complexes were studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and the copper containing species were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In solution the copper centers dissociate from the gold complexes, but as shown by XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy, at low temperature the Cu-Cu linkage is broken, and the individual copper(I) halides reposition themselves to opposite sides of the gold complex while remaining coordinated to one imine moiety. In the solid state all of the complexes are photoluminescent, though the nature of the excited state was not determined.

  8. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of IM7/977-3 with Micro-Sized Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G.; Jegley, D. C.; Siochi, E. J.; Wells, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based hypervelocity imapct testing was conducted on IM7/977-3 quasi-isotropic flat panels at normal incidence using micron-sized particles (i.e. less than or equal to 100 microns) of soda lime glass and olivine. Testing was performed at room temperature (RT) and 175 C with results from the 175 C test compared to those obtained at RT. Between 10 and 30 particles with velocities ranging from 5 to 13 km/s impacted each panel surface for each test temperature. Panels were ultrasonically scanned prior to and after impact testing to assess internal damage. Post-impact analysis included microscopic examination of the surface, determination of particle speed and location, and photomicroscopy for microcrack assessment. Internal damage was observed by ultrasonic inspection on panels impacted at 175 C, whereas damage for the RT impacted panels was confined to surface divets/craters as determined by microscopic analysis.

  9. Pituitary-gonadal response to acute I.M. stimulation with clomiphene citrate in normal men.

    PubMed

    Miechi, H R; Turner, D; Guitelman, A; Aparicio, N J; Schwarzstein, L

    1975-06-01

    In order to asses the effect of acute i.m. injection of clomiphene citrate (CC) on LH, FSH, and testosterone (T) secretion, five normal, fertile men received 5 mg of the drug dissolved in 2 ml 0.9% saline, while a further five were injected 10 mg of the same preparation. All tests were performed at 8 a.m. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes of the injection. Serum LH, FSH, and T values were determined by the double antibody radioimmunoassay technique. A significant rise of the LH, FSH, and T levels was obtained in both groups. Peak LH values were obtained at 30 minutes (average), whereas FSH and T peaks occurred at 60 minutes. The 180-minute values were similar to basal. The results seem to indicate that intramsucularly administered CC could be useful, as a rapid test, in evaluating the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  10. Cure effects on microcracking in IM7 fiber/Matrimid 5292{reg_sign} BMI composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wilenski, M.S.; Shin, E.; Morgan, R.J.; Drzal, L.T.

    1995-12-31

    Initial results from a study of the microcracking behavior of the Matrimid 5292{reg_sign} BMI/IM7 carbon fiber system are presented. Studies were performed to determine the composite`s Stress Free Temperature (SFT) which is seen to control the presence and extent of microcracking. The SFT was determined using asymmetric laminates [0{sub 2}/90{sub 2}]. Varied post-cure cycles were utilized and it was found that until complete cure is obtained, the SFT is a function of the highest temperature experienced by the laminate, with little effect of previous thermal history. The reactions necessary to fully cure this system are not active at temperatures below 250 C, ruling out the possibility of obtaining a fully cured composite with a low SFT through extended post-cures at lower temperatures.

  11. Miniature GC: Minicell ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for astrobiology planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or longer mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. We describe here the development of a miniature GC - Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) under development through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  12. Investigation of local registration performance of IMS Nanofabrication's Multi-Beam Mask Writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalom, Daniel; Klikovits, Jan; Geist, David; Hudek, Peter; Eder-Kapl, Stefan; Daneshpanah, Mehdi; Laske, Frank; Eyring, Stefan; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-07-01

    Reticles for manufacturing upcoming 10nm and 7nm Logic devices will become very complex, no matter whether 193nm water immersion lithography will continue as main stream production path or EUV lithography will be able to take over volume production of critical layers for the 7nm node. The economic manufacturing of future masks for 193i, EUV and imprint lithography with further increasing complexity drives the need for multi-beam mask writing as this technology can overcome the influence of complexity on write time of today's common variable shape beam writers. Local registration of the multi-beam array is a critical component which greatly differs from variable shape beam systems. In this paper we would like to present the local registration performance of the IMS Multi-Beam Mask Writer system and the metrology tools that enable the characterization optimization.

  13. Useful ion yields for Cameca IMS 3f and 6f SIMS: Limits on quantitative analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hervig, R.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Williams, Pat; Guan, Y.; Huss, G.R.; Leshin, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The useful yields (ions detected/atom sputtered) of major and trace elements in NIST 610 glass were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using Cameca IMS 3f and 6f instruments. Useful yields of positive ions at maximum transmission range from 10-4 to 0.2 and are negatively correlated with ionization potential. We quantified the decrease in useful yields when applying energy filtering or high mass resolution techniques to remove molecular interferences. The useful yields of selected negative ions (O, S, Au) in magnetite and pyrite were also determined. These data allow the analyst to determine if a particular analysis (trace element contents or isotopic ratio) can be achieved, given the amount of sample available and the conditions of the analysis. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alpha-conotoxin ImI disrupts central control of swimming in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Daniel A; Gonzalez, Ruben; Ries, David C; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2010-11-26

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) swim using a metachronal, front-to-back undulation. The behavior is generated by central pattern generators (CPGs) distributed along the animal's midbody ganglia and is coordinated by both central and peripheral mechanisms. Here we report that a component of the venom of Conus imperialis, α-conotoxin ImI, known to block nicotinic acetyl-choline receptors in other species, disrupts swimming. Leeches injected with the toxin swam in circles with exaggerated dorsoventral bends and reduced forward velocity. Fictive swimming in isolated nerve cords was even more strongly disrupted, indicating that the toxin targets the CPGs and central coordination, while peripheral coordination partially rescues the behavior in intact animals.

  15. Urea-induced unfolding of the immunity protein Im9 monitored by spFRET.

    PubMed

    Tezuka-Kawakami, Tomoko; Gell, Chris; Brockwell, David J; Radford, Sheena E; Smith, D Alastair

    2006-09-01

    We have studied the urea-induced unfolding of the E colicin immunity protein Im9 using diffusion single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Detailed examination of the proximity ratio of the native and denatured molecules over a wide range of urea concentrations suggests that the conformational properties of both species are denaturant-dependent. Whereas native molecules become gradually more expanded as urea concentration increases, denatured molecules show a dramatic dependence of the relationship between proximity ratio and denaturant concentration, consistent with substantial compaction of the denatured ensemble at low denaturant concentrations. Analysis of the widths of the proximity ratio distributions for each state suggests that whereas the native state ensemble is relatively narrow and homogeneous, the denatured state may possess heterogeneity in mildly denaturing conditions.

  16. Urea-Induced Unfolding of the Immunity Protein Im9 Monitored by spFRET

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka-Kawakami, Tomoko; Gell, Chris; Brockwell, David J.; Radford, Sheena E.; Smith, D. Alastair

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the urea-induced unfolding of the E colicin immunity protein Im9 using diffusion single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Detailed examination of the proximity ratio of the native and denatured molecules over a wide range of urea concentrations suggests that the conformational properties of both species are denaturant-dependent. Whereas native molecules become gradually more expanded as urea concentration increases, denatured molecules show a dramatic dependence of the relationship between proximity ratio and denaturant concentration, consistent with substantial compaction of the denatured ensemble at low denaturant concentrations. Analysis of the widths of the proximity ratio distributions for each state suggests that whereas the native state ensemble is relatively narrow and homogeneous, the denatured state may possess heterogeneity in mildly denaturing conditions. PMID:16798813

  17. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  18. PAPR reduction based on chaos combined with SLM technique in optical OFDM IM/DD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yaoqiang; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Tang, Jin; Liu, Yi; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to decrease the PAPR of 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16QAM) orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal. The method is to combine chaos with selected mapping (CSLM) technique so that the chaotic sequences are able to control generation of phase rotation factors. The research has utilized this method to transmit OFDM signal along 100 km long single-mode fiber in an IM/DD system to test OFDM signal performance. Our experimental results show that the receiver sensitivity is improved by about 1.4 dB when a 3.28 GB/s OFDM signal at a bit error rate of 1 × 10-3 is launched by transmission power at 2, 6, 8 and 10 dBm, respectively. Moreover, comparison with traditional SLM technique, the CSLM technique can improve the BER of the system.

  19. Regional and Global Atmospheric CO2 Measurements Using 1.57 Micron IM-CW Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Harrison, F. Wallace; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Kooi, Susan; Meadows, Byron; Fan, Tai-Fang; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate, and knowledge of its distribution and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Accurate observations of atmospheric CO2 are also crucial to improving our understanding of CO2 sources, sinks and transports. To meet these science needs, NASA is developing technologies for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, which is aimed at global CO2 observations. Meanwhile an airborne investigation of atmospheric CO2 distributions as part of the NASA Suborbital Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America (ACT-America) mission will be conducted with lidar and in situ instrumentation over the central and eastern United States during all four seasons and under a wide range of meteorological conditions. In preparing for the ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center and Exelis Inc./Harris Corp. have jointly developed and demonstrated the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar. Since 2005, a total of 14 flight campaigns have been conducted. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved, and the lidar CO2 measurements also agree well with in-situ observations. Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales have been observed during these campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200A-300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Results from recent flight campaigns are presented in this paper. The ability to achieve the science objectives of the ASCENDS mission with an IM-CW lidar is also discussed in this paper, along with the plans for the ACT-America aircraft investigation that begins in the winter of 2016.

  20. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids. PMID:27264676

  1. On the fingerprint of ssw events in infrasound recordings at IMS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Ross, Ole; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2013-04-01

    It has been recently shown that sudden stratospheric warming (ssw) events have an impact on the detection of coherent infrasonic waves at dedicated arrays (e.g., Evers & Siegmund, 2009). During ssw events the polar vortex of prevailing stratospheric westerly winds in a winter hemisphere abruptly slows down or even reverses its direction along with an increase of stratospheric temperatures up to several tens of °C. Since infrasound arrays are mostly recording signals ducted in stratospheric wave-guides, such antennas are sensitive to changes in effective sound speed profiles - temperature plus wind speed in direction of propagation. Considering continuous infrasonic waves emitted by ocean swell (microbaroms), volcanoes or even anthropogenic sources as flares, a gap or a change in the back-azimuth of these detected signals can be observed at arrays. For the compliances with the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty a global network of 60 infrasound stations is under construction as a part of the International Monitoring System (IMS); whereas 45 have already been installed. Analysis of waveform data recorded at these stations has demonstrated the capability of infrasound as a supplementary tool for remote sensing of the atmosphere. In our study we compare the re-analysis, using PMCC, of more than five years of continuous data at all available sites (see Matoza et al., 2013) with atmospheric descriptions provided by the EMCWF. We present a synoptic view of the fingerprint of ssw events in detection of coherent signals at IMS infrasound stations both on northern and southern hemisphere, covering the full latitude range from Antarctica to Greenland.

  2. On the fingerprint of ssw events in infrasound recordings at IMS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.; Pilger, C.; Ross, O.

    2013-12-01

    It has been recently shown that sudden stratospheric warming (ssw) events have an impact on the detection of coherent infrasonic waves at dedicated arrays (e.g., Evers & Siegmund, 2009). During ssw events the polar vortex of prevailing stratospheric westerly winds in a winter hemisphere abruptly slows down or even reverses its direction along with an increase of stratospheric temperatures up to several tens of °C. Since infrasound arrays are mostly recording signals ducted in stratospheric wave-guides, such antennas are sensitive to changes in effective sound speed profiles - temperature plus wind speed in direction of propagation. Considering continuous infrasonic waves emitted by ocean swell (microbaroms), volcanoes or even anthropogenic sources as flares, a gap or a change in the back-azimuth of these detected signals can be observed at arrays. For the compliances with the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty a global network of 60 infrasound stations is under construction as a part of the International Monitoring System (IMS); whereas 45 have already been installed. Analysis of waveform data recorded at these stations has demonstrated the capability of infrasound as a supplementary tool for remote sensing of the atmosphere. In our study we compare the re-analysis, using PMCC, of more than five years of continuous data at all available sites (see Matoza et al., 2013) with atmospheric descriptions provided by the EMCWF. We present a synoptic view of the fingerprint of ssw events in detection of coherent signals at IMS infrasound stations both on northern and southern hemisphere, covering the full latitude range from Antarctica to Greenland.

  3. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids.

  4. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  5. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  6. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  7. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  8. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  9. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S.EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are used for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporium. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purificaiton by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis for oocysts stained by a fluorescent monoclonal antibody and counter stai...

  10. Initial Efficacy of Project ImPACT: A Parent-Mediated Social Communication Intervention for Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Wainer, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Project ImPACT is a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD that was developed in community settings to encourage dissemination. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design was conducted across 8 preschoolers with ASD and their mothers to examine the efficacy of the model for improving parent intervention…

  11. 76 FR 4723 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2011-78 appearing on page 1460 the issue... Global Learning Consortium, Inc.'' should read ``IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.''. 3. On the same page, in the third column, in the 15th and 16th lines, ``INS Global Learning Consortium,...

  12. Identification of critical residues in the colicin E9 DNase binding region of the Im9 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, M J; Wallis, R; Leung, K Y; Williams, G; Lian, L Y; James, R; Kleanthous, C; Moore, G R

    1997-01-01

    1H-15N NMR studies, in conjunction with mutagenesis experiments, have been used to delineate the DNase-binding surface of the colicin E9 inhibitor protein Im9 (where Im stands for immunity protein). Complexes were formed between the 15 kDa unlabelled E9 DNase domain and the 9.5 kDa Im9 protein uniformly labelled with 15N. Approx. 90% of the amide resonances of the bound Im9 were assigned and spectral parameters obtained from 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra were compared with those for the free Im9 assigned previously. Many of the amide resonances were shifted on complex formation, some by more than 2 p.p.m. in the 15N dimension and more than 0.5 p.p.m. in the 1H dimension. Most of the strongly shifted amides are located on the surfaces of two of the four helices, helix II and helix III. Whereas helix II had already been identified through genetic and biochemical investigations as an important determinant of biological specificity, helix III had not previously been implicated in binding to the DNase. To test the robustness of the NMR-delineated DNase-binding site, a selection of Im9 alanine mutants were constructed and their dissociation rate constants from E9 DNase-immunity protein complexes quantified by radioactive subunit exchange kinetics. Their off-rates correlated well with the NMR perturbation analysis; for example, residues that were highly perturbed in HSQC experiments, such as residues 34 (helix II) and 54 (helix III), had a marked effect on the DNase-immunity protein dissociation rate when replaced by alanine. The NMR and mutagenesis data are consistent with a DNase-binding region on Im9 composed of invariant residues in helix III and variable residues in helix II. The relationship of this binding site model to the wide range of affinities (Kd values in the range 10(-4) to 10(-16)M) that have been measured for cognate and non-cognate colicin DNase-immunity protein interactions is discussed. PMID:9169618

  13. Biosynthesis of wyosine derivatives in tRNA(Phe) of Archaea: role of a remarkable bifunctional tRNA(Phe):m1G/imG2 methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Urbonavičius, Jaunius; Meškys, Rolandas; Grosjean, Henri

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tricyclic wyosine derivatives 3'-adjacent to anticodon is a hallmark of tRNA(Phe) in eukaryotes and archaea. In yeast, formation of wybutosine (yW) results from five enzymes acting in a strict sequential order. In archaea, the intermediate compound imG-14 (4-demethylwyosine) is a target of three different enzymes, leading to the formation of distinct wyosine derivatives (yW-86, imG, and imG2). We focus here on a peculiar methyltransferase (aTrm5a) that catalyzes two distinct reactions: N(1)-methylation of guanosine and C(7)-methylation of imG-14, whose function is to allow the production of isowyosine (imG2), an intermediate of the 7-methylwyosine (mimG) biosynthetic pathway. Based on the formation of mesomeric forms of imG-14, a rationale for such dual enzymatic activities is proposed. This bifunctional tRNA:m(1)G/imG2 methyltransferase, acting on two chemically distinct guanosine derivatives located at the same position of tRNA(Phe), is unique to certain archaea and has no homologs in eukaryotes. This enzyme here referred to as Taw22, probably played an important role in the emergence of the multistep biosynthetic pathway of wyosine derivatives in archaea and eukaryotes.

  14. Measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using closed gas loop GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Allers, M; Langejuergen, J; Gaida, A; Holz, O; Schuchardt, S; Hohlfeld, J M; Zimmermann, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, compact size and low cost ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has the potential to become a point-of-care breath analyzer. Therefore, we developed a prototype of a compact, closed gas loop IMS with gas chromatographic (GC) pre-separation and high resolving power of R  =  90. In this study, we evaluated the performance of this GC-IMS under clinical conditions in a COPD study to find correlations between VOCs (10 ppbv to 1 ppmv) and COPD. Furthermore, in order to investigate possible correlations between ultra-low concentrated breath VOCs (0.1 pptv to 1 ppbv) and COPD, a modified mass spectrometer (MS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and GC pre-separation (GC-APCI-MS) was used. The GC-IMS has been used in 58 subjects (21 smokers with moderate COPD, 12 ex-smokers with COPD, 16 healthy smokers and 9 non-smokers). GC-APCI-MS data were available for 94 subjects (21 smokers with moderate COPD, 25 ex-smokers with COPD, 25 healthy smokers and 23 non-smokers). For 44 subjects, a comparison between GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS data could be performed. Due to service intervals, subject availability and corrupt data, patient numbers were different for GC-APCI-MS and GC-IMS measurements. Using GC-IMS, three VOCs have been found showing a significant difference between healthy controls and patients with COPD. In the GC-APCI-MS data, we only observed one distinctive VOC, which has been identified as 2-pentanone. This proof-of-principle study shows the potential of our high-resolution GC-IMS in the clinical environment. Due to different linear dynamic response ranges, the data of GC-IMS and GC-APCI-MS were only comparable to a limited extent. PMID:27058460

  15. Study of seismicity in the NW Himalaya and adjoining regions using IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Shanker, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) has been used in order to investigate the seismicity of the Northwest Himalaya and its neighboring region for the time period June 1999 to March 2015 within the geographical coordinates 25-40° N latitude and 65-85° E longitude. We have used a very precisely located earthquake dataset recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) Network containing 7,583 events with body wave magnitudes from 2.5 to 6.3. The study area has been subdivided into six regions based on the Flinn-Engdahl (F-E) seismic and geographical regionalization scheme, which was used as the region classifications of the International Data Center catalog. The examined region includes NW India, Pakistan, Nepal, Xizang, Kashmir, and Hindukush. For each region, Magnitudes of completeness (Mc) and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameters (a and b values) have been estimated. The Gutenberg-Richter analysis is preceded by an overview of the seismotectonics of the study area. The obtained Mc values vary from 3.5 to 3.9. The lower value of Mc was found mainly in Xizang region whereas the higher Mc threshold is evident in Pakistan region. However, the b values vary from 1.19 to 1.48. The lowest b value is recorded in Xizang region, which is mostly related to the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) fault, whereas the highest b values are recorded in NW India and Kashmir regions, which are mostly related to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault. The REB for the selected period has been compared to the most renowned bulletin of global seismicity, namely that issued by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A study of 4,821 events recorded by USGS in the study region indicates that about 36 % of seismic events were missed and the catalog is considered as complete for events with magnitudes ≥4.0. However, both a and b values are obviously higher than those of IMS catalog. The a

  16. The importance of polarizability: comparison of models of carbon disulphide in the ionic liquids [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2].

    PubMed

    Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Quitevis, Edward L

    2016-06-28

    The local environment of CS2 and in solution in two ionic liquids ([C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated by atomistic simulation and compared with that in neat CS2. The intermolecular vibrational densities of states of CS2 are calculated and compared with experimental OHD-RIKES spectra. The fair agreement of the results from solutions but poor agreement of the results from neat CS2 suggest that while collective effects are unimportant in solutions, they have a major effect on the OHD-RIKES spectrum of neat CS2. Comparing polarizable and unpolarizable models for CS2 emphasizes the importance of polarizability in determining local structure.

  17. The primary transcriptome of the marine diazotroph Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundt, Ulrike; Kopf, Matthias; Belkin, Natalia; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-08-01

    Blooms of the dinitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium considerably contribute to new nitrogen inputs into tropical oceans. Intriguingly, only 60% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 genome sequence codes for protein, compared with ~85% in other sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. The extensive non-coding genome fraction suggests space for an unusually high number of unidentified, potentially regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). To identify the transcribed fraction of the genome, here we present a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites (TSS) at single nucleotide resolution, revealing the activity of 6,080 promoters. We demonstrate that T. erythraeum has the highest number of actively splicing group II introns and the highest percentage of TSS yielding ncRNAs of any bacterium examined to date. We identified a highly transcribed retroelement that serves as template repeat for the targeted mutation of at least 12 different genes by mutagenic homing. Our findings explain the non-coding portion of the T. erythraeum genome by the transcription of an unusually high number of non-coding transcripts in addition to the known high incidence of transposable elements. We conclude that riboregulation and RNA maturation-dependent processes constitute a major part of the Trichodesmium regulatory apparatus.

  18. Giotto IMS measurements of the production rate of hydrogen cyanide in the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Kettmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The ion composition measurements in the ionosphere of Comet Halley by the ion mass spectrometer (IMS) experiment on the Giotto spacecraft are used to estimate the relative abundance of HCN. From a comparison of the normalized number density of ions with mass-to-charge (M/q) ratio of 28 AMU/e with steady-state photochemical models, it can be determined that the production rate of HCN directly from the central nucleus is Q(HCN) is less than about 0.0002 Q(H2O) at the time of Giotto encounter. The related photochemical- model calculations also indicate that Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) at the time of Giotto encounter. The related photo-chemical model calculations also indicate that Q(HN3)/Q(H2O) equals about 0.005, in agreement with recent determination from ground-based observations. The estimated value of Q(HCN) is lower than the relative abundance of Q(HCN)/Q(H2O) of about 0.001, as derived from radio observations of the 88.6 GHz emission of the J = 1 - 0 transition of HCN. The difference may be the result of time variations of the coma composition and dynamics, as well as other model-dependent effects.

  19. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council`s capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period.

  20. Time reversed test particle calculations at Titan, based on CAPS-IMS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebesi, Zsofia; Erdos, Geza; Szego, Karoly; Young, David T.

    2013-04-01

    We used the theoretical approach of Kobel and Flückiger (1994) to construct a magnetic environment model in the vicinity of Titan - with the exception of placing the bow shock (which is not present at Titan) into infinity. The model has 4 free parameters to calibrate the shape and orientation of the field. We investigate the CAPS-IMS Singles data to calculate/estimate the location of origin of the detected cold ions at Titan, and we also use the measurements of the onboard Magnetometer to set the parameters of the model magnetic field. A 4th order Runge-Kutta method is applied to calculate the test particle trajectories in a time reversed scenario, in the curved magnetic environment. Several different ion species can be tracked by the model along their possible trajectories, as a first approach we considered three particle groups (1, 2 and 16 amu ions). In this initial study we show the results for some thoroughly discussed flybys like TA, TB and T5, but we consider more recent tailside encounters as well. Reference: Kobel, E. and E.O. Flückiger, A model of the steady state magnetic field in the magnetosheath, JGR 99, Issue A12, 23617, 1994

  1. Physical aging effects on the compressive linear viscoelastic creep of IM7/K3B composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to establish the viscoelastic behavior of 1M7/K3B composite in compression at elevated temperature. Creep compliance, strain recovery and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The IM7/K3B composite is a graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide with a T(g) of approximately 240 C. In a composite, the two matrix dominated compliance terms associated with time dependent behavior occur in the transverse and shear directions. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. Creep strain was converted to compliance and measured as a function of test time and aging time. Results included creep compliance master curves, physical aging shift factors and shift rates. The description of the unique experimental techniques required for compressive testing is also given.

  2. Double DCO+ Rings Reveal CO Ice Desorption in the Outer Disk Around IM Lup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Furuya, Kenji; Loomis, Ryan; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1.4 mm continuum, C18O 2-1, H13CO+ 3-2 and DCO+ 3-2 emission at ˜0.″5 resolution. The images of these dust and gas tracers are clearly resolved. The DCO+ line exhibits a striking pair of concentric rings of emission that peak at radii of ˜0.″6 and 2″ (˜90 and 300 AU, respectively). Based on disk chemistry model comparison, the inner DCO+ ring is associated with the balance of CO freeze-out and thermal desorption due to a radial decrease in disk temperature. The outer DCO+ ring is explained by non-thermal desorption of CO ice in the low-column-density outer disk, repopulating the disk midplane with cold CO gas. The CO gas then reacts with abundant H2D+ to form the observed DCO+ outer ring. These observations demonstrate that spatially resolved DCO+ emission can be used to trace otherwise hidden cold gas reservoirs in the outmost disk regions, opening a new window onto their chemistry and kinematics.

  3. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt

  4. Biologically-Inspired Peptide Reagents for Enhancing IMS-MS Analysis of Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Brian C.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-09-01

    The binding properties of a peptidoglycan recognition protein are translated via combinatorial chemistry into short peptides. Non-adjacent histidine, tyrosine, and arginine residues in the protein's binding cleft that associate specifically with the glycan moiety of a peptidoglycan substrate are incorporated into linear sequences creating a library of 27 candidate tripeptide reagents (three possible residues permutated across three positions). Upon electrospraying the peptide library and carbohydrate mixtures, some noncovalent complexes are observed. The binding efficiencies of the peptides vary according to their amino acid composition as well as the disaccharide linkage and carbohydrate ring-type. In addition to providing a charge-carrier for the carbohydrate, peptide reagents can also be used to differentiate carbohydrate isomers by ion mobility spectrometry. The utility of these peptide reagents as a means of enhancing ion mobility analysis of carbohydrates is illustrated by examining four glucose-containing disaccharide isomers, including a pair that is not resolved by ion mobility alone. The specificity and stoichiometry of the peptide-carbohydrate complexes are also investigated. Trihistidine demonstrates both suitable binding efficiency and successful resolution of disaccharides isomers, suggesting it may be a useful reagent in IMS analyses of carbohydrates.

  5. The Hummingbird GC-IMS: In Situ Analysis of a Cometary Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Cohen, Martin J.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Stimac, Robert M.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Comets are of enormous scientific interest for many reasons. They are primitive bodies that date back to the earliest stages of solar system formation and, because of their small size and because they have been stored in the outer reaches of the solar system, their pristine nature has been preserved better than for any other class of body. They are extremely rich in highly volatile elements, many in the form of ices, and are richer in organic matter than any other known solar system body. It is strongly suspected that in addition to their content of primordial solar nebular material, they also incorporate unprocessed matter from the interstellar medium. Impacts by comets occur onto all the planets and satellites, often with major consequences (e.g., the dinosaur extinction event at the KIT boundary), or sometimes just providing a spectacular cosmic event (e.g., the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter). A mission to analyze a cometary nucleus must be capable of detecting and identifying over 30 molecular species among several different chemical groups. The Hummingbird Mission will rendezvous with, orbit, characterize, and make multiple descents to the nucleus of a comet. Hummingbird will employ a Gas Chromatograph - Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS) as part-of a suite of sophisticated instruments for a comprehensive in situ elemental, molecular, and isotopic analysis of the comet.

  6. The primary transcriptome of the marine diazotroph Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    PubMed Central

    Pfreundt, Ulrike; Kopf, Matthias; Belkin, Natalia; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-01-01

    Blooms of the dinitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium considerably contribute to new nitrogen inputs into tropical oceans. Intriguingly, only 60% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 genome sequence codes for protein, compared with ~85% in other sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. The extensive non-coding genome fraction suggests space for an unusually high number of unidentified, potentially regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). To identify the transcribed fraction of the genome, here we present a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites (TSS) at single nucleotide resolution, revealing the activity of 6,080 promoters. We demonstrate that T. erythraeum has the highest number of actively splicing group II introns and the highest percentage of TSS yielding ncRNAs of any bacterium examined to date. We identified a highly transcribed retroelement that serves as template repeat for the targeted mutation of at least 12 different genes by mutagenic homing. Our findings explain the non-coding portion of the T. erythraeum genome by the transcription of an unusually high number of non-coding transcripts in addition to the known high incidence of transposable elements. We conclude that riboregulation and RNA maturation-dependent processes constitute a major part of the Trichodesmium regulatory apparatus. PMID:25155278

  7. Automated Fiber Placement of PEEK/IM7 Composites with Film Interleaf Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulcher, A. Bruce; Banks, William I., III; Pipes, R. Byron; Tiwari, Surendra N.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Clinton, R. G., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The incorporation of thin discrete layers of resin between plies (interleafing) has been shown to improve fatigue and impact properties of structural composite materials. Furthermore, interleafing could be used to increase the barrier properties of composites used as structural materials for cryogenic propellant storage. In this work, robotic heated-head tape placement of PEEK/IM7 composites containing a PEEK polymer film interleaf was investigated. These experiments were carried out at the NASA Langley Research Center automated fiber placement facility. Using the robotic equipment, an optimal fabrication process was developed for the composite without the interleaf. Preliminary interleaf processing trials indicated that a two-stage process was necessary; the film had to be tacked to the partially-placed laminate then fully melted in a separate operation. Screening experiments determined the relative influence of the various robotic process variables on the peel strength of the film-composite interface. Optimization studies were performed in which peel specimens were fabricated at various compaction loads and roller temperatures at each of three film melt processing rates. The resulting data were fitted with quadratic response surfaces. Additional specimens were fabricated at placement parameters predicted by the response surface models to yield high peel strength in an attempt to gage the accuracy of the predicted response and assess the repeatability of the process. The overall results indicate that quality PEEK/lM7 laminates having film interleaves can be successfully and repeatability fabricated by heated head automated fiber placement.

  8. General technical requirements (GTR) for inventory monitoring systems (IMS) for the trilateral initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Pshakin, Gennady M.; Kuleshov, I.; Shea, T.; Puckett, J. M.; Zhukov, I.; Mangan, Dennis L.; Matter, John C.; Waddoups, I.; Smathers, D.; Abhold, M. E.; Hsue, S.-T.; Chiaro, P.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the Trilateral Initiative, the three parties (The Russian Federation, the United States, and the International Atomic Energy Agency) have been engaged in discussions concerning the structure of reliable monitoring systems for storage facilities having large inventories. The intent of these monitoring systems is to provide the capability for the IAEA to maintain continuity of knowledge in a sufficiently reliable manner that should there be equipment failure, loss of continuity of knowledge would be restricted to a small population of the inventory, and thus reinventory of the stored items would be minimized These facility-specific monitoring systems, referred to as Inventory Monitoring Systems (IMS) are to provide the principal means for the M A to assure that the containers of fissile material remain accounted under the Verification Agreements which are to be concluded between the IAEA and the Russian Federation and the lAEA and the United States for the verification of weapon-origin and other fissile material specified by each State as released from its defense programs. A technical experts working group for inventory monitoring systems has been meeting since Feb- of 2000 to formulate General Technical Requirements (GTR) for Inventory Monitoring Systems for the Trilateral Initiative. Although provisional agreement has been reached by the three parties concerning the GTR, it is considered a living document that can be updated as warranted by the three parties. This paper provides a summary of the GTR as it currently exists.

  9. High strain rate mechanical properties of IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.M.; Vinson, J.R.; Hall, I.W.

    1995-12-31

    Polymer matrix composites offer excellent mechanical properties such as high specific strength and stiffness which make them attractive for many naval, aerospace and automotive structural components. Although they are candidate materials for many applications where high strain rate loading is probable, little is known of the material responses to shock loading for most composite materials. Because mechanical properties vary significantly with strain rate, the use of static properties in the analysis and design of structures which undergo dynamic loadings can on one hand lead to a very conservative overweight design, or on the other hand can lead to designs which fail prematurely and unexpectedly. The use of dynamic material properties will ensure the design of composite structures which are weight efficient and structurally sound when they are subjected to dynamic loads. In this study, a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar is used to obtain compressive mechanical properties of a unidirectional IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite. For each of the three principal directions, the yield stress, yield strain, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity, elastic strain energy function and the total strain energy to failure are presented for strain rates varying from 49 sec{sup {minus}1} to 1430 sec{sup {minus}1}. The data from 72 tests are statistically analyzed, represented by equations, and discussed in some detail.

  10. Mechanical characterization of IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy under biaxial stress: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, G.E. Jr.; Swanson, S.R.

    1987-11-13

    This is the final report on an investigation to evaluate the mechanical response of Hercules IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy, which is a high strength, high elongation fiber and a high toughness resin system used in a prepreg form. The material characterization involved testing both laminate and lamina forms under a wide range of biaxial stress states. Tubular specimens were employed that have been designed to eliminate undesirable end effects, permitting uniform stress states to be achieved. Quasi-isotropic (90/+-45/0)/sub ns/laminates and (90)/sub 16T/ lamina specimens were loaded under combinations of internal pressure, axial load, and torsion. Both stiffness and strength data were obtained under these multiaxial stress conditions. The measured laminate stiffnesses correlated well using classical laminated plate theory, and that laminate failure occurred in the two separate modes of matrix cracking and fiber failure. Like the previously examined carbon/epoxy systems, laminate failure could be predicted by using a fiber failure criterion to identify the critical plies and critical load levels. It was found that either maximum fiber stress or fiber direction strain could be used as a failure criterion on a ply level. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Ultrasonic measurements of stiffness in thermal-mechanically fatigued IM7/5260 composites

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, M.D.; Madaras, E.I. )

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, ultrasonic methods have been developed that can measure the mechanical stiffness of composites. The Lamb wave velocity is directly related to the material parameters, so an effective method exists to ascertain the stiffness of composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. In this study, a Lamb wave measurement system was used to measure the bending and out-of-plane stiffness coefficients of thermoset composite laminates undergoing thermal-mechanical loading. A series of 16 ply and 32 ply composite laminates were subjected to thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) in load frames equipped with special environmental chambers. The composite system studied was a graphite fiber-reinforced bismaleimide thermoset, IM7/5260. The samples were subjected to both high and low temperature profiles as well as high-strain and low-strain profiles. The bending and out-of-plane stiffnesses for composite samples that have undergone over 6,000 cycles of combined thermal and mechanical fatigue are reported. The Lamb wave generated elastic stiffness results have shown decreases of up to 64% at 4,706 cycles for samples subjected to TMF at high temperatures and less than a 10% decrease at over 6,000 cycles for samples subjected to TMF at low temperatures.

  12. Analytical formulation of directly modulated OOFDM signals transmitted over an IM/DD dispersive link.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Tang, J; Capmany, J

    2013-03-25

    We provide an analytical study on the propagation effects of a directly modulated OOFDM signal through a dispersive fiber and subsequent photo-detection. The analysis includes the effects of the laser operation point and the interplay between chromatic dispersion and laser chirp. The final expression allows to understand the physics behind the transmission of a multi-carrier signal in the presence of residual frequency modulation and the description of the induced intermodulation distortion gives us a detailed insight into the diferent intermodulation products which impair the recovered signal at the receiver-end side. Numerical comparisons between transmission simulations results and those provided by evaluating the expression obtained are carried out for different laser operation points. Results obtained by changing the fiber length, laser parameters and using single mode fiber with negative and positive dispersion are calculated in order to demonstrate the validity and versatility of the theory provided in this paper. Therefore, a novel analytical formulation is presented as a versatile tool for the description and study of IM/DD OOFDM systems with variable design parameters. PMID:23546148

  13. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  14. Cardiac anaphylaxis: a case of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after IM epinephrine for anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Karthik; Maniyal, Vijay K; Chandrashekaran, Rajiv; Mathew, Navin; Ganeshwala, Gaurav

    2013-07-01

    A 62-year-old male smoker with no other comorbidities presented to emergency department with systemic anaphylaxis, due to oral diclofenac for toothache. He developed acute anterior wall myocardial infarction following IM epinephrine 1 mg 1:1000. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was done, which showed a thrombus in the mid left anterior descending artery with no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease after thrombus aspiration.

  15. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  16. Quantitative detection of benzene in toluene- and xylene-rich atmospheres using high-kinetic-energy ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).

    PubMed

    Langejuergen, Jens; Allers, Maria; Oermann, Jens; Kirk, Ansgar; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    One major drawback of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the dependence of the response to a certain analyte on the concentration of water or the presence of other compounds in the sample gas. Especially for low proton affine analytes, e.g., benzene, which often exists in mixtures with other volatile organic compounds, such as toluene and xylene (BTX), a time-consuming preseparation is necessary. In this work, we investigate BTX mixtures using a compact IMS operated at decreased pressure (20 mbar) and high kinetic ion energies (HiKE-IMS). The reduced electric field in both the reaction tube and the drift tube can be independently increased up to 120 Td. Under these conditions, the water cluster distribution of reactant ions is shifted toward smaller clusters independent of the water content in the sample gas. Thus, benzene can be ionized via proton transfer from H3O(+) reactant ions. Also, a formation of benzene ions via charge transfer from NO(+) is possible. Furthermore, the time for interaction between ions and neutrals of different analytes is limited to such an extent that a simultaneous quantification of benzene, toluene, and xylene is possible from low ppbv up to several ppmv concentrations. The mobility resolution of the presented HiKE-IMS varies from R = 65 at high field (90 Td) to R = 73 at lower field (40 Td) in the drift tube, which is sufficient to separate the analyzed compounds. The detection limit for benzene is 29 ppbv (2 s of averaging) with 3700 ppmv water, 12.4 ppmv toluene, and 9 ppmv xylene present in the sample gas. Furthermore, a less-moisture-dependent benzene measurement with a detection limit of 32 ppbv with ca. 21 000 ppmv (90% relative humidity (RH) at 20 °C) water present in the sample gas is possible evaluating the signal from benzene ions formed via charge transfer.

  17. Tandem overproduction and characterisation of the nuclease domain of colicin E9 and its cognate inhibitor protein Im9.

    PubMed

    Wallis, R; Reilly, A; Barnes, K; Abell, C; Campbell, D G; Moore, G R; James, R; Kleanthous, C

    1994-03-01

    We report the overproduction of the non-specific endonuclease domain of the bacterial toxin colicin E9 and its preliminary characterisation in vitro. The enzymatic colicins (61 kDa) are normally released from producing cells in a complex with their cognate inhibitors, known as the immunity proteins (9.5 kDa). Tryptic digestion of the purified ColE9 complex was found to generate two major components, a monomer derived from the N-terminal and central regions of the toxin and a heterodimer comprising the catalytically active C-terminal domain of the colicin bound to its intact immunity protein, Im9. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, in conjunction with electrospray mass spectrometry, shows that preparations of the DNase domain isolated by this method are heterogeneous, thus making subsequent mechanistic and structural analysis difficult. This problem was circumvented by selectively overexpressing the C-terminal 15-kDa nuclease domain of colicin E9 in tandem with its cognate inhibitor in Escherichia coli. This tandem overexpression strategy allowed high-level production of a 25-kDa protein complex comprising the C-terminal DNase domain of colicin E9 tightly bound to its specific inhibitor Im9, thus masking the anticipated toxicity of the nuclease. The DNase domain was then separated from Im9 under denaturing conditions, refolded by removal of the denaturant and the renatured protein shown to possess both endonuclease and Im9 binding activity. These results describe a novel method for the overproduction of a nuclease in bacteria by co-expressing its specific inhibitor and lay the foundations for a full mechanistic, biophysical and structural characterization of the isolated DNase domain of the colicin E9 toxin. PMID:8125102

  18. A critical review of the effectiveness of I/M programs for monitoring PM emissions from heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Van Houtte, Jeroen; Niemeier, Deb

    2008-11-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) are estimated to contribute up to 36% of particulate matter (PM) emissions in urban areas. In response, many agencies have established HDV inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs designed to target and repair vehicles with excess emissions. In this review, we conduct an international comparison of legislative context and HDV I/M program characteristics across Europe, North America, and Australia. The results of this analysis show that HDV-I/M programs vary greatly in terms of the ways in which testing is organized, for example, roadside versus periodic testing, whether the fleet is self-tested, and how nonfleet and age exemptions are handled. We also show how the I/M test criteria have changed little in the last 15 years while regulations for new heavy-duty diesel engine emissions have become increasingly stringent. In the U.S., HDV engine PM emissions limits were reduced by a factor of 26 between 1997 and 2007. Most I/M programs have continued to test according to EPA (and often with state legislative confirmation) guidance procedures having cut-points established in 1992. An analysis of data from Washington State show that only a minority of post-1997 vehicles actually exceeds the detection levels of the free-acceleration smoke-opacity test procedures, with the result that malfunctions of these vehicles may not actually be detected. From our review, it is clear that even with the potential adoption of new technologies and a more systematic and efficient framework for HDV-I/M, more research must be conducted in the efficacies of periodic versus roadside testing (and location selection), the use of evaluation methods like fail rates and opacity distributions, and finally, in development of better methods for identifying excess emissions with sensors and duty cycles. PMID:19031872

  19. Study of Out-Time on the Processing and Properties of IM7/977-3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Sutter, James K.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Maryanski, Michael; Schlea, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The capability to manufacture large structures leads to weight savings and reduced risk relative to joining smaller components. However, manufacture of increasingly large composite components is pushing the out-life limits of epoxy/ carbon fiber prepreg. IM7/977-3 is an autoclave processable prepreg material, commonly used in aerospace structures. The out-life limit is reported as 30 days by the manufacturer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the material processability and composite properties of 977-3 resin and IM7/977-3 prepreg that had been aged at room temperature for up to 60 days. The neat resin was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, to characterize cure behavior of the aged material, as well as any change in activation energy. The rise in the modulus of the uncured prepreg was monitored throughout the 60 days by dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA. Composite panels made of the fresh and aged prepreg material were also characterized by DMA. The overall test results suggested that IM7/977-3 was a robust material that offered quality laminates throughout this aging process when processed by autoclave.

  20. IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units

    SciTech Connect

    Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias; Paillaud, Jean-Louis Caullet, Philippe; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Ersen, Ovidiu; Bats, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.

  1. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    PubMed

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p < .001; partial η(2) = 0.06) and age (p < .001; partial η(2) = 0.01) on test performance. Younger athletes performed more poorly than older athletes, and Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  2. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (µFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (µFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The µFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by “chemical noise” and other interfering peaks.

  3. Development of a human-specific B. thetaiotaomicron IMS/ATP assay for measuring viable human contamination in surface waters in Baja California, Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) assays utilize paramagnetic beads and target-specific antibodies to isolate target organisms. Following isolation, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is extracted from the target population and quantified. An inversely-couple...

  4. Die Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Ein Beispiel für erfolgreiche „Track-II-Diplomacy“ der Naturwissenschaftler im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    "Kein Zeitalter der Geschichte ist stärker von den Naturwissenschaften durchdrungen und abhängiger von ihnen als das 20. Jahrhundert" schreibt Eric Hobsbawn im Kapitel "Zauberer und Lehrlinge: Die Naturwissenschaften" seines Buches "Zeitalter der Extreme".

  5. Using IMS hydrophone data for detecting submarine volcanic activity: Insights from Monowai, 26°S Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony B.; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Rodgers, Mel; Paulatto, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Only little is known on active volcanism in the ocean. As eruptions are attenuated by seawater and fallout does not regularly reach the sea surface, eruption rates and mechanisms are poorly understood. Estimations on the number of active volcanoes across the modern seas range from hundreds to thousands, but only very few active sites are known. Monowai is a submarine volcanic centre in the northern Kermadec Arc, Southwest Pacific Ocean. During May 2011, it erupted over a period of five days, with explosive activity directly linked to the generation of seismoacoustic tertiary waves ('T-phases'), recorded at three broadband seismic stations in the region. We show, using windowed cross-correlation and time-difference-of-arrival techniques, that T-phases associated with this eruption are detected as far as Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean, where two bottom-moored hydrophone arrays are operated as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). We observe a high incidence of T-phase arrivals during the time of the eruption, with the angle of arrival stabilizing at the geodesic azimuth between the IMS arrays and Monowai. T-phases from the volcanic centre must therefore have propagated through the Sound Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) channel in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans and over a total geodesic range of approximately 15,800 km, one of the longest source-receiver distances of any naturally occurring underwater signal ever observed. Our findings, which are consistent with observations at regional broadband stations and two dimensional, long-range, parabolic equation modelling, highlight the exceptional capabilities of the hydroacoustic waveform component of the IMS for remotely detecting episodes of submarine volcanic activity. Using Monowai and the hydrophone arrays at Ascension Island as a natural laboratory, we investigate the long-term eruptive record of a submarine volcano from

  6. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples. PMID:26920773

  7. Organization into Higher Ordered Ring Structures Counteracts Membrane Binding of IM30, a Protein Associated with Inner Membranes in Chloroplasts and Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Jennifer; Wulf, Verena; Hennig, Raoul; Saur, Michael; Markl, Jürgen; Sönnichsen, Carsten; Schneider, Dirk

    2016-07-15

    The IM30 (inner membrane-associated protein of 30 kDa), also known as the Vipp1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1), has a crucial role in thylakoid membrane biogenesis and maintenance. Recent results suggest that the protein binds peripherally to membranes containing negatively charged lipids. However, although IM30 monomers interact and assemble into large oligomeric ring complexes with different numbers of monomers, it is still an open question whether ring formation is crucial for membrane interaction. Here we show that binding of IM30 rings to negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol membrane surfaces results in a higher ordered membrane state, both in the head group and in the inner core region of the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, by using gold nanorods covered with phosphatidylglycerol layers and single particle spectroscopy, we show that not only IM30 rings but also lower oligomeric IM30 structures interact with membranes, although with higher affinity. Thus, ring formation is not crucial for, and even counteracts, membrane interaction of IM30. PMID:27226585

  8. Thermal Effects on the Compressive Behavior of IM7/PET15 Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sandra Polesky

    2003-01-01

    The effect of changing operating temperature on the compressive response of IM7/PETI5 composite laminates is investigated within this paper. The three temperatures evaluated for this study were 129 C, 21 C, and 177 C, a spectrum from cryogenic to an elevated operating temperature. Laminate compressive strength property testing was conducted using the Wyoming Combined Load Compression fixture to generate strength data at the three operating temperatures of interest for several lay-ups. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of a [90/0]8s composite laminate subject to compressive loading is developed. The model is used to study the key attributes of the laminate that significantly influence the state of stress in the laminate. Both the resin rich layer located between lamina and the thermal residual stresses present in the laminate due to curing are included in the analysis model. For the laminate modeled, the effect of modeling temperature dependent material properties was determined to be insignificant for the operating temperatures studied. Simply using the material properties measured at the operating temperature of interest was sufficient for predicting stresses accurately in a linear analysis for the current problem. The three-dimensional analysis results revealed that the application of an applied compressive axial load in the 0-degree direction decreased the interlaminar stresses present in the laminate initially due to curing. Therefore, failure was concluded not be attributable to the interlaminar stresses in the composite laminate being studied when a compressive load is applied. The magnitude of the measured laminate compressive strength change with a change in temperature is concluded to be dominated by the change in the lamina compressive axial strength with a change in temperature.

  9. Energetic frustrations in protein folding at residue resolution: a homologous simulation study of Im9 proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yunxiang; Ming, Dengming

    2014-01-01

    Energetic frustration is becoming an important topic for understanding the mechanisms of protein folding, which is a long-standing big biological problem usually investigated by the free energy landscape theory. Despite the significant advances in probing the effects of folding frustrations on the overall features of protein folding pathways and folding intermediates, detailed characterizations of folding frustrations at an atomic or residue level are still lacking. In addition, how and to what extent folding frustrations interact with protein topology in determining folding mechanisms remains unclear. In this paper, we tried to understand energetic frustrations in the context of protein topology structures or native-contact networks by comparing the energetic frustrations of five homologous Im9 alpha-helix proteins that share very similar topology structures but have a single hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic mutual mutation. The folding simulations were performed using a coarse-grained Gō-like model, while non-native hydrophobic interactions were introduced as energetic frustrations using a Lennard-Jones potential function. Energetic frustrations were then examined at residue level based on φ-value analyses of the transition state ensemble structures and mapped back to native-contact networks. Our calculations show that energetic frustrations have highly heterogeneous influences on the folding of the four helices of the examined structures depending on the local environment of the frustration centers. Also, the closer the introduced frustration is to the center of the native-contact network, the larger the changes in the protein folding. Our findings add a new dimension to the understanding of protein folding the topology determination in that energetic frustrations works closely with native-contact networks to affect the protein folding.

  10. 2013 certified IMS infrasound stations: IS37 (Bardufoss, Norway) and IS58 (Midway, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Marty, Julien; Kramer, Alfred; Mialle, Pierrick; Robertson, James

    2014-05-01

    The Infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear?Test?Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) includes 60 infrasound stations out of which 47 are currently certified. The latest two additions to this Infrasound network, namely IS58 on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, United States of America (USA), and IS37 in Bardufoss, Norway, are presented here. Both stations were certified in 2013. IS58 is a 4 element infrasound array arranged in a triangular geometry with a central component. The triangular bases vary from 1.1 to 1.8 km. The micropressure sensors deployed at each element were Chaparral 50A microbarometers. Signals from IS58 were processed by the International Data Centre (IDC) and detection associated not only with microbaroms but also with the activity of the Kliuchevskoi volcano in the Russian Peninsula Kamchatka were built. These initial results indicate good detection capability of the IS58 station for low wind conditions. In Norway the topography allowed for a large element array, so IS37 was built with 10-elements that have average spacing of 1 km. This design allows the formation of several triangles with baseline of 1 to 2 km and also a triangular sub array with spacing of approximately 360 m. The sensors utilized in IS37 elements were MB2005 microbarometers. Initial data analysis by IDC identified distant microbarom sources with strong azimuth and frequency content variability as well as strong detections from local sources, namely the Finnfjord ferro-alloy plant in Norway and the Kiruna iron mine in Sweden.

  11. Prehospital Use of IM Ketamine for Sedation of Violent and Agitated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scheppke, Kenneth A.; Braghiroli, Joao; Shalaby, Mostafa; Chait, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violent and agitated patients pose a serious challenge for emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. Rapid control of these patients is paramount to successful prehospital evaluation and also for the safety of both the patient and crew. Sedation is often required for these patients, but the ideal choice of medication is not clear. The objective is to demonstrate that ketamine, given as a single intramuscular injection for violent and agitated patients, including those with suspected excited delirium syndrome (ExDS), is both safe and effective during the prehospital phase of care, and allows for the rapid sedation and control of this difficult patient population. Methods We reviewed paramedic run sheets from five different catchment areas in suburban Florida communities. We identified 52 patients as having been given intramuscular ketamine 4mg/kg IM, following a specific protocol devised by the EMS medical director of these jurisdictions, to treat agitated and violent patients, including a subset of which would be expected to suffer from ExDS. Twenty-six of 52 patients were also given parenteral midazolam after medical control was obtained to prevent emergence reactions associated with ketamine. Results Review of records demonstrated that almost all patients (50/52) were rapidly sedated and in all but three patients no negative side effects were noted during the prehospital care. All patients were subsequently transported to the hospital before ketamine effects wore off. Conclusion Ketamine may be safely and effectively used by trained paramedics following a specific protocol. The drug provides excellent efficacy and few clinically significant side effects in the prehospital phase of care, making it an attractive choice in those situations requiring rapid and safe sedation especially without intravenous access. PMID:25493111

  12. Towards an enhanced picture of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Vergoz, J.; Ceranna, L.

    2010-12-01

    Previous detection capability studies were based on empirical-yield scaling relations, seasonal description of stratospheric winds (climatological HWM), and median station noise models (e.g. Clauter and Blandford, 1997; Stevens et al., 2002; D. Green, 2008). The most commonly used yield-scaling relation is derived from high explosive dataset (Whitaker, 2003). Limitations of this approach have been found by comparisons with reference events where problems arise either due to a fixed stratospheric wind speed or by an over-estimate of a known yield (Ceranna et al., 2008; Gitterman et al., 2009). More realistic predictions can be achieved using both improved atmospheric specifications and real station noise characterization, and attenuation relations derived from operational propagation tools. The detection capability of the IMS network is assessed using near-real time atmospheric updates and background noise calculations at various times of day for each month. This information is useful in determining global network detection capability and quantifies its spatial and temporal variability (hourly, daily, seasonal and yearly). Improved yield scaling relations are generated using intensively wide angle parabolic equation methods as they provide detailed propagation information with reasonable computation time. A reduced number of parameters describing the source (source altitudes between 0 and 30 km, frequencies between 0.01 and 4 Hz) and the atmosphere (including naturally occurring gravity waves, altitude and strength of the stratospheric wind jet) which have significant impact on infrasound propagation have been identified in order to compute a massive synthetic data set. Comprehensive ground-truth databases provide a statistical approach for evaluating the potential of infrasound monitoring. In order to evaluate this approach, accidental and calibration explosions are analysed and used here as benchmark for validating the calculated threshold maps. Such studies would

  13. Could the IMS Infrasound Stations Support a Global Network of Small Aperture Seismic Arrays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Gibbons, Steven; Kværna, Tormod; Mykkeltveit, Svein

    2015-04-01

    The infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System are arrays consisting of up to 15 sites and with apertures of up to 3 km. The arrays are distributed remarkably uniformly over the globe and provide excellent coverage of South America, Africa, and Antarctica. This is to say that there are many infrasound arrays in regions many thousands of kilometers from the closest seismic array. Several infrasound arrays are in the immediate vicinity of existing 3-component seismic stations and these provide us with examples of how typical seismic signals look at these locations. We can make idealized estimates of the predicted performance of seismic arrays, consisting of seismometers at each site of the infrasound arrays, by duplicating the signals from the 3-C stations at all sites of the array. However, the true performance of seismic arrays at these sites will depend both upon Signal-to-Noise Ratios of seismic signals and the coherence of both signal and noise between sensors. These properties can only be determined experimentally. Recording seismic data of sufficient quality at many of these arrays may require borehole deployments since the microbarometers in the infrasound arrays are often situated in vaults placed in soft sediments. The geometries of all the current IMS infrasound arrays are examined and compared and we demonstrate that, from a purely geometrical perspective, essentially all the array configurations would provide seismic arrays with acceptable slowness resolution for both regional and teleseismic phase arrivals. Seismic arrays co-located with the infrasound arrays in many regions would likely enhance significantly the seismic monitoring capability in parts of the world where only 3-component stations are currently available. Co-locating seismic and infrasound sensors would facilitate the development of seismic arrays that share the infrastructure of the infrasound arrays, reducing the development and operational costs. Hosting countries might

  14. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA03, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access

  15. Determination of an ensemble of structures representing the intermediate state of the bacterial immunity protein Im7

    PubMed Central

    Gsponer, Joerg; Hopearuoho, Harri; Whittaker, Sara B.-M.; Spence, Graham R.; Moore, Geoffrey R.; Paci, Emanuele; Radford, Sheena E.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed structural characterization of the intermediate state populated during the folding and unfolding of the bacterial immunity protein Im7. We achieve this result by incorporating a variety of experimental data available for this species in molecular dynamics simulations. First, we define the structure of the exchange-competent intermediate state of Im7 by using equilibrium hydrogen-exchange protection factors. Second, we use this ensemble to predict Φ-values and compare the results with the experimentally determined Φ-values of the kinetic refolding intermediate. Third, we predict chemical-shift measurements and compare them with the measured chemical shifts of a mutational variant of Im7 for which the kinetic folding intermediate is the most stable state populated at equilibrium. Remarkably, we found that the properties of the latter two species are predicted with high accuracy from the exchange-competent intermediate that we determined, suggesting that these three states are characterized by a similar architecture in which helices I, II, and IV are aligned in a native-like, but reorganized, manner. Furthermore, the structural ensemble that we obtained enabled us to rationalize the results of tryptophan fluorescence experiments in the WT protein and a series of mutational variants. The results show that the integration of diverse sets of experimental data at relatively low structural resolution is a powerful approach that can provide insights into the structural organization of this conformationally heterogeneous three-helix intermediate with unprecedented detail and highlight the importance of both native and non-native interactions in stabilizing its structure. PMID:16371468

  16. Determination of an ensemble of structures representing the intermediate state of the bacterial immunity protein Im7.

    PubMed

    Gsponer, Joerg; Hopearuoho, Harri; Whittaker, Sara B-M; Spence, Graham R; Moore, Geoffrey R; Paci, Emanuele; Radford, Sheena E; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed structural characterization of the intermediate state populated during the folding and unfolding of the bacterial immunity protein Im7. We achieve this result by incorporating a variety of experimental data available for this species in molecular dynamics simulations. First, we define the structure of the exchange-competent intermediate state of Im7 by using equilibrium hydrogen-exchange protection factors. Second, we use this ensemble to predict Phi-values and compare the results with the experimentally determined Phi-values of the kinetic refolding intermediate. Third, we predict chemical-shift measurements and compare them with the measured chemical shifts of a mutational variant of Im7 for which the kinetic folding intermediate is the most stable state populated at equilibrium. Remarkably, we found that the properties of the latter two species are predicted with high accuracy from the exchange-competent intermediate that we determined, suggesting that these three states are characterized by a similar architecture in which helices I, II, and IV are aligned in a native-like, but reorganized, manner. Furthermore, the structural ensemble that we obtained enabled us to rationalize the results of tryptophan fluorescence experiments in the WT protein and a series of mutational variants. The results show that the integration of diverse sets of experimental data at relatively low structural resolution is a powerful approach that can provide insights into the structural organization of this conformationally heterogeneous three-helix intermediate with unprecedented detail and highlight the importance of both native and non-native interactions in stabilizing its structure.

  17. Differential effect of baseline CTA Collaterals on Clinical Outcome in patients enrolled in the IMS-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bijoy K.; Qazi, Emmad; Nambiar, Vivek; Foster, Lydia D.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Liebeskind, David; Jovin, Tudor G.; Goyal, Mayank; Hill, Michael D.; Tomsick, Thomas A.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Demchuk, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In the IMS III trial, we sought to demonstrate evidence of a differential treatment effect of endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke compared to intravenous tPA, according to baseline collateral status measured using CT angiography. Methods Of 656 patients enrolled in IMS III, 306 had baseline CTA. Of these, 185 patients had M1 MCA ± intracranial ICA occlusion where baseline collateral status could be measured. Collateral status was assessed by consensus using 3 different ordinal scales and categorized as good, intermediate and poor. Multivariable modeling was used to assess the effect of collateral status and treatment type on clinical outcome (mRS 0–2, mRS 0–1 and the ordinal mRS scale). Results Of 185 patients, 126 randomized to endovascular therapy (87.6% recanalized, 41.3% 90-day mRS 0–2) and 59 to IV tPA only (60.5% recanalized, 30.5% 90-day mRS 0–2). In multivariable modeling, collateral status was a significant predictor of all clinical outcomes (p<0.05). Maximal benefit with endovascular treatment across all clinical outcomes was seen in patients with intermediate collaterals, some benefit in patients with good collaterals and none in patients with poor collaterals) although small sample size limited the power of the analysis to show a statistically significant interaction between collateral status and treatment type (p>0.05). Conclusion Using data from a large RCT (IMS III), we show that baseline CTA collaterals are a robust determinant of final clinical outcome and could be used to select patients for endovascular therapy. Clinical Trials Registration Information https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00359424 NCT00359424 PMID:25791716

  18. Stable and unstable accretion in the classical T Tauri stars IM Lup and RU Lup as observed by MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, Michal; Ogloza, Waldemar; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Cameron, Chris; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2016-03-01

    Results of the time variability monitoring of the two classical T Tauri stars, RU Lup and IM Lup, are presented. Three photometric data sets were utilized: (1) simultaneous (same field) MOST satellite observations over four weeks in each of the years 2012 and 2013, (2) multicolour observations at the South African Astronomical Observatory in April-May of 2013, (3) archival V-filter All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data for nine seasons, 2001-2009. They were augmented by an analysis of high-resolution, public-domain VLT-UT2 Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectra from the years 2000 to 2012. From the MOST observations, we infer that irregular light variations of RU Lup are caused by stochastic variability of hotspots induced by unstable accretion. In contrast, the MOST light curves of IM Lup are fairly regular and modulated with a period of about 7.19-7.58 d, which is in accord with ASAS observations showing a well-defined 7.247 ± 0.026 d periodicity. We propose that this is the rotational period of IM Lup and is due to the changing visibility of two antipodal hotspots created near the stellar magnetic poles during the stable process of accretion. Re-analysis of RU Lup high-resolution spectra with the broadening function approach reveals signs of a large polar coldspot, which is fairly stable over 13 years. As the star rotates, the spot-induced depression of intensity in the broadening function profiles changes cyclically with period 3.710 58 d, which was previously found by the spectral cross-correlation method.

  19. Brief Communication: 2014 velocity and flux for five major Greenland outlet glaciers using ImGRAFT and Landsat-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerli, A.; Karlsson, N. B.; Grinsted, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents average velocity fields, mass flux estimates and central flowline profiles for five major Greenland outlet glaciers; Jakobshavn Isbræ, Nioghalvfjerdsbræ, Kangerdlugssuaq, Helheim and Petermann glaciers, spanning the period (August) 2013-(September) 2014. The results are produced by the feature tracking toolbox, ImGRAFT using Landsat-8, panchromatic data. The resulting velocity fields agree with the findings of existing studies. Furthermore, our results show an unprecedented speed of over 50 m day-1 at Jakobshavn Isbræ as it continues to retreat. All the processed data will be freely available for download at http://imgraft.glaciology.net.

  20. Angular Velocity's Neural Network Observer of the Electric Drive of TVR - IM Type Implemented in Software Environment LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, L.; Bolovin, E.; Payuk, L.

    2016-06-01

    One of the common ways to manage a smooth starting and stopping of asynchronous motors are soft-start system. For this provision is necessary to use a closed speed asynchronous electric drive of tiristor voltage regulator - induction motor (TVR-IM) type. Using real sensors significantly increases the cost of installation and also introduces a number of inconveniences in the operation of the actuator. Observer has clear advantages that are created on artificial neural network. Creating a neural network observer in program graphic programming LabVIEW will allow to evaluate the speed of rotation of the asynchronous electric.

  1. [Pages from the history of the Department of Forensic Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University].

    PubMed

    Leonova, E N; Romanenko, G Kh; Sidorovich, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    The history of the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University is highlighted based on the results of the studies of the relevant literature data and archival materials. The authors lay special emphasis on the organization of the teaching process and research at different stages of the development of the Department, scientific and forensic medical activities of its leading specialists, materials obtained in the course of research, and the contribution to the development of forensic medicine made by outstanding scientists.

  2. Efficient desymmetrization of 4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol by Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Marcela G; Briggs, Raissa H C; Aguiar, Lucia C S; Freire, Denise M G; Simas, Alessandro B C

    2014-03-11

    The enantioselective enzymatic desymmetrization of 4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol, a myo-inositol derivative, was effectively catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TL-IM). The product 1D-1-O-acetyl-4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol, a useful precursor to inositol phosphates, was obtained in excellent yield and enantiomeric excess. Through the investigation of the effects of solvent, biocatalyst load, and temperature, a more economical procedure resulted. The feasibility of biocatalyst reuse was also shown.

  3. Zwischen Web 2.0, virtuellen Welten und Game-based Learning - Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Hans

    Web 2.0, virtuelle Welten und Game-based Learning werden als Allheilmittel moderner Wissensvermittlung an Hochschulen genannt. Dieser Artikel beschreibt nach einer Einführung in die Thematik Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld anhand ausgewählter Web 2.0-Dienste, der virtuellen Welt Second Life, eines an der TUM entwickelten Frameworks für Gamebased Learning Applikationen und eines Lernspiels. Diese werden anhand von konkreten Lehr- und Lernszenarien vorgestellt und anhand der bisherigen Erfahrungen in diesem Bereich kritisch beleuchtet.

  4. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  5. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-06-16

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics.

  6. ESI-IMS-MS: A method for rapid analysis of protein aggregation and its inhibition by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Young, Lydia M; Saunders, Janet C; Mahood, Rachel A; Revill, Charlotte H; Foster, Richard J; Ashcroft, Alison E; Radford, Sheena E

    2016-02-15

    Electrospray ionisation-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS) is a powerful method for the study of conformational changes in protein complexes, including oligomeric species populated during protein self-aggregation into amyloid fibrils. Information on the mass, stability, cross-sectional area and ligand binding capability of each transiently populated intermediate, present in the heterogeneous mixture of assembling species, can be determined individually in a single experiment in real-time. Determining the structural characterisation of oligomeric species and alterations in self-assembly pathways observed in the presence of small molecule inhibitors is of great importance, given the urgent demand for effective therapeutics. Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of ESI-IMS-MS to identify small molecule modulators of amyloid assembly and to determine the mechanism by which they interact (positive, negative, non-specific binding, or colloidal) in a high-throughput format. Here, we demonstrate these advances using self-assembly of Aβ40 as an example, and reveal two new inhibitors of Aβ40 fibrillation.

  7. Detection of malignant pleural mesothelioma in exhaled breath by multicapillary column/ion mobility spectrometry (MCC/IMS).

    PubMed

    Lamote, Kevin; Vynck, Matthijs; Van Cleemput, Joris; Thas, Olivier; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Meerbeeck, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is predominantly caused by previous asbestos exposure. Diagnosis often happens in advanced stages restricting any therapeutic perspectives. Early stage detection via breath analysis was explored using multicapillary column/ion mobility spectrometry (MCC/IMS) to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath of MPM patients in comparison to former occupational asbestos-exposed and non-exposed controls. Breath and background samples of 23 MPM patients, 22 asymptomatic former asbestos (AEx) workers and 21 healthy non-asbestos exposed persons were taken for analysis. After background correction, we performed a logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression to select the most important VOCs, followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MPM patients were discriminated from both controls with 87% sensitivity, 70% specificity and respective positive and negative predictive values of 61% and 91%. The overall accuracy was 76% and the area under the ROC-curve was 0.81. AEx individuals could be discriminated from MPM patients with 87% sensitivity, 86% specificity and respective positive and negative predictive values of 87% and 86%. The overall accuracy was 87% with an area under the ROC-curve of 0.86. Breath analysis by MCC/IMS allows MPM patients to be discriminated from controls and holds promise for further investigation as a screening tool for former asbestos-exposed persons at risk of developing MPM. PMID:27669062

  8. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. VI. THE ORBIT OF IM PEGASI AND THE LOCATION OF THE SOURCE OF RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, R. R.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    We present a physical interpretation for the locations of the sources of radio emission in IM Pegasi (IM Peg, HR 8703), the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B. This emission is seen in each of our 35 epochs of 8.4 GHz very long baseline interferometry observations taken from 1997 to 2005. We found that the mean position of the radio emission is at or near the projected center of the primary to within about 27% of its radius, identifying this active star as the radio emitter. The positions of the radio brightness peaks are scattered across the disk of the primary and slightly beyond, preferentially along an axis with position angle, P.A. = -38 Degree-Sign {+-} 8 Degree-Sign , which is closely aligned with the sky projections of the orbit normal (P.A. = -49.{sup 0}5 {+-} 8.{sup 0}6) and the expected spin axis of the primary. Comparison with simulations suggests that brightness peaks are 3.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.7} times more likely to occur (per unit surface area) near the pole regions of the primary (latitude, |{lambda}| {>=} 70 Degree-Sign ) than near the equator (|{lambda}| {<=} 20 Degree-Sign ), and to also occur close to the surface with {approx}2/3 of them at altitudes not higher than 25% of the radius of the primary.

  9. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics. PMID:27306514

  10. Processing and Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Matrix Composites. Part 2; Processing Robustness of IM7/PETI Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    1996-01-01

    The processability of a phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) resin matrix composite was investigated. Unidirectional prepregs were made by coating an N-methylpyrrolidone solution of the amide acid oligomer onto unsized IM7. Two batches of prepregs were used: one was made by NASA in-house, and the other was from an industrial source. The composite processing robustness was investigated with respect to the effect of B-staging conditions, the prepreg shelf life, and the optimal processing window. Rheological measurements indicated that PETI's processability was only slightly affected over a wide range of B-staging temperatures (from 250 C to 300 C). The open hole compression (OHC) strength values were statistically indistinguishable among specimens consolidated using various B-staging conditions. Prepreg rheology and OHC strengths were also found not to be affected by prolonged (i.e., up to 60 days) ambient storage. An optimal processing window was established using response surface methodology. It was found that IM7/PETI composite is more sensitive to the consolidation temperature than to the consolidation pressure. A good consolidation was achievable at 371 C/100 Psi, which yielded an OHC strength of 62 Ksi at room temperature. However, processability declined dramatically at temperatures below 350 C.

  11. Determination of Interlaminar Toughness of IM7/977-2 Composites at Temperature Extremes and Different Thicknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Pavlick, M. M.; Oliver, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Composite materials are being used in the aerospace industry as a means of reducing vehicle weight. In particular, polymer matrix composites (PMC) are good candidates due to their high strength-to-weight and high stiffness-to-weight ratios. Future reusable space launch vehicles and space exploration structures will need advanced light weight composites in order to minimize vehicle weight while demonstrating robustness and durability, guaranteeing high factors of safety. In particular, the implementation of composite cryogenic propellant fuel tanks (cryotanks) for future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) could greatly reduce the vehicle's weight versus identically sized cryotanks constructed of metallic materials. One candidate composite material for future cryotank designs is IM7/977-2, which is a graphite/epoxy system. A successful candidate must demonstrate reasonable structural properties over a wide range of temperatures. Since the matrix material is normally the weak link in the composite, tests that emphasize matrix-dominated behavior need to be conducted. Therefore, the objective of this work is to determine the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of "unidirectional" 8-ply and 16-ply IM7/977-2 through experimental testing. Tests were performed at -196 degrees Celsius (-320 degrees Fahrenheit), 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit), 93 degrees Celsius (200 degrees Fahrenheit) and 160 degrees C (320 degrees Fahrenheit). Low temperature testing was completed while the specimen was submerged in a liquid nitrogen bath. High temperature testing was completed in a temperature-controlled oven.

  12. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics. PMID:27306514

  13. A new method based on electrospray ionisation ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for simultaneous determination of caffeine and theophylline.

    PubMed

    Jafari, M T; Rezaei, B; Javaheri, M

    2011-06-15

    In this work for the first time, simultaneous analysis of caffeine and theophylline was done by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) only, without a powerful separation technique (e.g., HPLC). Ion mobility spectrometry with low cost, inexpensive maintenance and very fast analysis makes an attractive technique for the simultaneous determination of the caffeine and theophylline in foodstuff samples and biological matrices. In this study, the extraction protocol using molecular imprinted polymer-solid phase extraction (MIP-SPE) was successfully used to directly extract caffeine and theophylline from real samples. The results obtained provided the detection limits of 0.2 and 0.3μgmL(-1) for caffeine and theophylline, respectively. The linear dynamic range of about two orders of magnitude was obtained for these compounds. Also, the proposed method was used to analyse various real samples of green tea and spiked human plasma, and the obtained results confirmed the capability of ESI-IMS for simultaneous detection of caffeine and theophylline.

  14. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Array Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    nuclear tests but, due to signal incoherence, failed to contribute to the automatic event detections. It is demonstrated that the smoothed incoherent slowness estimates for the MJAR Pn phases for both tests indicate unambiguously the correct type of phase and a backazimuth estimate within 5 degrees of the great-circle backazimuth. The detection part of the algorithm is applicable to all IMS arrays, and spectrogram-based processing may offer a reduction in the false alarm rate for high frequency signals. Significantly, the local maxima of the scalar functions derived from the transformed spectrogram beams provide good estimates of the signal onset time. High frequency energy is of greater significance for lower event magnitudes and in, for example, the cavity decoupling detection evasion scenario. There is a need to characterize propagation paths with low attenuation of high frequency energy and situations in which parameter estimation on array stations fails.

  15. Reproducible Synthesis and High Porosity of mer-Zn(Im)2 (ZIF-10): Exploitation of an Apparent Double-Eight Ring Template.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Joseph R; Yang, Haiyang; Kane, Christopher M; Ley, Amanda N; Holman, K Travis

    2016-09-21

    Reproducible synthesis of the elusive merlinoite (mer) topology of zinc imidazolate (mer-Zn(Im)2, or ZIF-10) has been achieved by employing a simple macrocyclic solute-MeMeCH2-as a kinetic template. The corresponding phase-pure material, mer-MeMeCH2@Zn16(Im)32, is confirmed to be porous and exhibits one of the highest experimental surface areas (1893 m(2)/g, BET) yet reported for any ZIF. The X-ray single crystal structure of mer-MeMeCH2@Zn16(Im)32·xsolvent reveals the role of the macrocyle as an 8-fold hydrogen bond acceptor in templating the requisite double-eight rings (d8r) of the mer framework.

  16. Integrating on-board diagnostic-system capabilities into the inspection and repair functions of I/M programs. Technical report. [Inspection/Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    At any point in time, a certain percentage of motor vehicles on the road are emitting in excess of their design standards due to repairable causes. Motor vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs employ a short screening test to identify high emitters and a retest after repairs to confirm their effectiveness in reducing emissions. It is the initial screening test and the retest after repairs that differentiate I/M from a public information campaign about motor vehicle maintenance or from a program to train automotive mechanics. This report describes the capability of the newer motor vehicles to perform self-diagnosis, and how these capabilities could be integrated into both the inspection function and the repair function. Specific recommendations to the I/M programs are also included.

  17. Effectiveness of onsite wastewater reuse system in reducing bacterial contaminants measured with human-specific IMS/ATP and qPCR.

    PubMed

    Agidi, Senyo; Vedachalam, Sridhar; Mancl, Karen; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-30

    Water shortages and the drive to recycle is increasing interest in reuse of reclaimed wastewater. Timely and cost-effective ways to detect fecal pollutants prior to reuse increases confidence of residents and neighbors concerned about reuse of reclaimed wastewater. The on-site wastewater treatment and reuse systems (OWTRS) used in this study include a septic tank, peat bioreactor, ClO(2) disinfection and land spray irrigation system. Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., were tested with immunomagnetic separation/ATP bioluminescence (IMS/ATP), qPCR and culture-based methods. The results displayed a 2-log reduction in fecal bacteria in the peat bioreactor and a 5-log reduction following chloride dioxide disinfection. The fecal bacteria levels measured by IMS/ATP correlated with qPCR results: HuBac 16S (R(2) = 0.903), Bf-group 16S (R(2) = 0.956), gyrB (R(2) = 0.673), and Ent 23S (R(2) = 0.724). This is the first study in which the newly developed human-specific IMS/ATP and previously developed IMS/ATP were applied for determining OWTRS efficiency. Results of the study revealed that IMS/ATP is a timely and cost-effective way to detect fecal contaminants, and results were validated with qPCR and culture based methods. The new IMS/ATP can also be applied broadly in the detection of human-originated fecal contamination.

  18. 49 CFR 236.1011 - PTC Implementation Plan content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rolling stock by December 31, 2015; (iii) All documents and information required by § 236.1006; and (iv... and the installation schedule to complete wayside equipment installation by December 31, 2015; (8... equipped during the period of primary implementation ending December 31, 2015. (4) As used in...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1011 - PTC Implementation Plan content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rolling stock by December 31, 2015; (iii) All documents and information required by § 236.1006; and (iv... and the installation schedule to complete wayside equipment installation by December 31, 2015; (8... equipped during the period of primary implementation ending December 31, 2015. (4) As used in...

  20. A database and tool, IM Browser, for exploring and integrating emerging gene and protein interaction data for Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Svetlana; Liu, Guozhen; Guest, Stephen; Parrish, Jodi R; Fotouhi, Farshad; Finley, Russell L

    2006-01-01

    Background Biological processes are mediated by networks of interacting genes and proteins. Efforts to map and understand these networks are resulting in the proliferation of interaction data derived from both experimental and computational techniques for a number of organisms. The volume of this data combined with the variety of specific forms it can take has created a need for comprehensive databases that include all of the available data sets, and for exploration tools to facilitate data integration and analysis. One powerful paradigm for the navigation and analysis of interaction data is an interaction graph or map that represents proteins or genes as nodes linked by interactions. Several programs have been developed for graphical representation and analysis of interaction data, yet there remains a need for alternative programs that can provide casual users with rapid easy access to many existing and emerging data sets. Description Here we describe a comprehensive database of Drosophila gene and protein interactions collected from a variety of sources, including low and high throughput screens, genetic interactions, and computational predictions. We also present a program for exploring multiple interaction data sets and for combining data from different sources. The program, referred to as the Interaction Map (IM) Browser, is a web-based application for searching and visualizing interaction data stored in a relational database system. Use of the application requires no downloads and minimal user configuration or training, thereby enabling rapid initial access to interaction data. IM Browser was designed to readily accommodate and integrate new types of interaction data as it becomes available. Moreover, all information associated with interaction measurements or predictions and the genes or proteins involved are accessible to the user. This allows combined searches and analyses based on either common or technique-specific attributes. The data can be visualized

  1. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and

  2. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes.

  3. The effects of physical aging at elevated temperatures on the viscoelastic creep on IM7/K3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Physical aging at elevated temperature of the advanced composite IM7/K3B was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short term isothermal, creep/recovery with the creep segments performed at constant load. The matrix dominated transverse tensile and in-plane shear behavior were measured at temperatures ranging from 200 to 230 C. Through the use of time based shifting procedures, the aging shift factors, shift rates and momentary master curve parameters were found at each temperature. These material parameters were used as input to a predictive methodology, which was based upon effective time theory and linear viscoelasticity combined with classical lamination theory. Long term creep compliance test data was compared to predictions to verify the method. The model was then used to predict the long term creep behavior for several general laminates.

  4. Errores fotométricos debido al uso del filtro anular de mediana en imágenes CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada, M.; Noel, N.

    El filtro anular de mediana tiene la importante propiedad de tener una escala claramente definida, lo que permite remover de una imagen CCD todos los objetos con tamaños menores a esta escala, independientemente de su morfología particular, y reemplazarlos por el correspondiente ``background" local. Este filtro es de gran utilidad para remover gradientes de fondo, ``fringing" y halos de objetos extendidos mediante el simple procedimiento de restar a la imagen original una imagen filtrada, repitiendo el proceso las veces que sea necesario. En este trabajo se presentan resultados sobre los errores que introduce este filtro en la fotometría de objetos con diferente relación S/N y su aplicación a imágenes con gradientes de fondo y ``fringing".

  5. Experimental Verification of a Progressive Damage Model for IM7/5260 Laminates Subjected to Tension-Tension Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The durability and damage tolerance of laminated composites are critical design considerations for airframe composite structures. Therefore, the ability to model damage initiation and growth and predict the life of laminated composites is necessary to achieve structurally efficient and economical designs. The purpose of this research is to experimentally verify the application of a continuum damage model to predict progressive damage development in a toughened material system. Damage due to monotonic and tension-tension fatigue was documented for IM7/5260 graphite/bismaleimide laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables to predict stiffness loss in unnotched laminates. A damage dependent finite element code predicted the stiffness loss for notched laminates with good agreement to experimental data. It was concluded that the continuum damage model can adequately predict matrix damage progression in notched and unnotched laminates as a function of loading history and laminate stacking sequence.

  6. IM-GEO: Impact of R and D on cost of geothermal power: Documentation of Model Version 2. 09

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.; Entingh, D.; Livesay, B.J.

    1988-02-01

    IM-GEO is an analysis used to estimate the impact of technology improvements on the relative cost of hydrothermal power. The analysis is available in a tutorial program for use on personal computers. It is designed for use by R and D program managers to evaluate R and D options. Only the potential impact of technologies is considered with all economic factors being held constant. This analysis has one unique feature. The economic impact of reducing risk by improving reservoir characterization is included using a strategy currently employed by financial institutions. This report describes the basis of the calculations, documents the code, and describes the operational procedures. Application of the code to study potential cost reductions due to R and D success will be done by R and D managers to evaluate and direct their own programs.

  7. Design and performance investigation of LDPC-coded upstream transmission systems in IM/DD OFDM-PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoxue; Guo, Lei; Wu, Jingjing; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-12-01

    In Intensity-Modulation Direct-Detection (IM/DD) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks (OFDM-PONs), aside from Subcarrier-to-Subcarrier Intermixing Interferences (SSII) induced by square-law detection, the same laser frequency for data sending from Optical Network Units (ONUs) results in ONU-to-ONU Beating Interferences (OOBI) at the receiver. To mitigate those interferences, we design a Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC)-coded and spectrum-efficient upstream transmission system. A theoretical channel model is also derived, in order to analyze the detrimental factors influencing system performances. Simulation results demonstrate that the receiver sensitivity is improved 3.4 dB and 2.5 dB under QPSK and 8QAM, respectively, after 100 km Standard Single-Mode Fiber (SSMF) transmission. Furthermore, the spectrum efficiency can be improved by about 50%.

  8. Measurements of the compressive behavior of AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.R.; Colvin, G.E. Jr.; Haslam, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The compressive strength of carbon/epoxy materials is of importance in design, and is typically somewhat lower than the strength in tension. The measurement of compressive strength has been subject to some uncertainty, as different experimental techniques can give somewhat different results. A new specimen for the determination of compressive strength has been developed, based on compression of a 38 mm (1.5 in) diameter tube. The tube has been designed to prevent overall structural buckling and also to minimize end effects. This and a larger tubular specimen have been utilized to determine the compressive strength of AS4/3501-6 and IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy prepregs. The results are compared with previous tests, indicating that the results are relatively independent of the test specimen. The comparison also supports a criterion for laminate failure prediction reported previously. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes. PMID:25934125

  10. Recanalization and Angiographic Reperfusion Are Both Associated with a Favorable Clinical Outcome in the IMS III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Marie L.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Tomsick, Thomas A.; Liebeskind, David S.; Vagal, Achala; Broderick, Joseph P.; Khatri, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Background Prompt revascularization is the main goal of acute ischemic stroke treatment. We examined which revascularization scale - reperfusion (modified Treatment in Cerebral Infarctions, mTICI) or recanalization (Arterial Occlusive Lesion, AOL) - better predicted the clinical outcome in ischemic stroke participants treated with endovascular therapy (EVT). Additionally, we determined the optimal thresholds for the predictive accuracy of each scale. Methods We included participants from the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III trial with complete occlusion in the internal carotid artery terminus or proximal middle cerebral artery (M1 or M2) who completed EVT within 7 h of symptom onset. The abilities of the AOL and mTICI scales to predict a favorable outcome (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2 at 3 months) were compared by receiver operating characteristic analyses. The maximal sensitivity and specificity for each revascularization scale were established. Results Among 240 participants who met the study inclusion criteria, 79 (33%) achieved a favorable outcome. Higher scores of mTICI and AOL increased the likelihood of a favorable outcome (2.7% with mTICI 0 vs. 83.3% with mTICI 3, and 3.0% with AOL 0 vs. 43% with AOL 3). The accuracy of mTICI reperfusion and AOL recanalization for a favorable outcome prediction was similar, with optimal thresholds of mTICI 2b/3 and AOL 3, respectively. Conclusion Reperfusion (mTICI) and recanalization (AOL) predicted a favorable clinical outcome with comparable accuracy in ischemic stroke participants treated with EVT. Optimal revascularization goals to maximize clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2) consisted of complete recanalization (AOL 3) and reperfusion of at least 50% of the arterial tree of the symptomatic artery (mTICI 2b/3) in the IMS III trial setting. PMID:27781039

  11. ABSOLUTE DIMENSIONS OF THE G7+K7 ECLIPSING BINARY STAR IM VIRGINIS: DISCREPANCIES WITH STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Juan Carlos; Marschall, Laurence A.; Brehm, William

    2009-12-10

    We report extensive spectroscopic and differential photometric BVRI observations of the active, detached, 1.309-day double-lined eclipsing binary IM Vir, composed of a G7-type primary and a K7 secondary. With these observations, we derive accurate absolute masses and radii of M {sub 1} = 0.981 +- 0.012 M {sub sun}, M {sub 2} = 0.6644 +- 0.0048 M {sub sun}, R {sub 1} = 1.061 +- 0.016 R {sub sun}, and R {sub 2} = 0.681 +- 0.013 R {sub sun} for the primary and secondary, with relative errors under 2%. The effective temperatures are 5570 +- 100 K and 4250 +- 130 K, respectively. The significant difference in mass makes this a favorable case for comparison with stellar evolution theory. We find that both stars are larger than the models predict, by 3.7% for the primary and 7.5% for the secondary, as well as cooler than expected, by 100 K and 150 K, respectively. These discrepancies are in line with previously reported differences in low-mass stars, and are believed to be caused by chromospheric activity, which is not accounted for in current models. The effect is not confined to low-mass stars: the rapidly rotating primary of IM Vir joins the growing list of objects of near-solar mass (but still with convective envelopes) that show similar anomalies. The comparison with the models suggests an age of 2.4 Gyr for the system, and a metallicity of [Fe/H] approx-0.3 that is consistent with other indications, but requires confirmation.

  12. How Robust Are “Isolation with Migration” Analyses to Violations of the IM Model? A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Strasburg, Jared L.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2010-01-01

    Methods developed over the past decade have made it possible to estimate molecular demographic parameters such as effective population size, divergence time, and gene flow with unprecedented accuracy and precision. However, they make simplifying assumptions about certain aspects of the species’ histories and the nature of the genetic data, and it is not clear how robust they are to violations of these assumptions. Here, we use simulated data sets to examine the effects of a number of violations of the “Isolation with Migration” (IM) model, including intralocus recombination, population structure, gene flow from an unsampled species, linkage among loci, and divergent selection, on demographic parameter estimates made using the program IMA. We also examine the effect of having data that fit a nucleotide substitution model other than the two relatively simple models available in IMA. We find that IMA estimates are generally quite robust to small to moderate violations of the IM model assumptions, comparable with what is often encountered in real-world scenarios. In particular, population structure within species, a condition encountered to some degree in virtually all species, has little effect on parameter estimates even for fairly high levels of structure. Likewise, most parameter estimates are robust to significant levels of recombination when data sets are pared down to apparently nonrecombining blocks, although substantial bias is introduced to several estimates when the entire data set with recombination is included. In contrast, a poor fit to the nucleotide substitution model can result in an increased error rate, in some cases due to a predictable bias and in other cases due to an increase in variance in parameter estimates among data sets simulated under the same conditions. PMID:19793831

  13. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) is involved in the anti-cancer mechanism of dovitinib in human multiple myeloma IM-9 cells.

    PubMed

    Chon, Hae Jung; Lee, Yura; Bae, Kyoung Jun; Byun, Byung Jin; Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jiyeon

    2016-07-01

    Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) is a member of the germinal center kinase family. TNIK was first identified as a kinase that is involved in regulating cytoskeletal organization in many types of cells, and it was recently proposed as a novel therapeutic target in several types of human cancers. Although previous studies suggest that TNIK plays a pivotal role in cancer cell survival and prognosis, its function in hematological cancer cell survival has not been investigated. Here we investigated the relationship between TNIK function and cell viability in multiple myeloma IM-9 cells using TNIK small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection and dovitinib treatment. Treatment of IM-9 cells with TNIK siRNA and dovitinib treatment reduced cell proliferation. The ATP competing kinase assay and western blot analysis showed that dovitinib strongly inhibited both the interaction of TNIK with ATP (K i, 13 nM) and the activation of Wnt signaling effectors such as β-catenin and TCF4. Dovitinib also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in IM-9 cells without significant cytotoxicity in PBMCs. Our results provide new evidence that TNIK may be involved in the proliferation of multiple myeloma IM-9 cells and in the anti-cancer activity of dovitinib via inhibition of the endogenous Wnt signaling pathway.

  14. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  15. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  16. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  17. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  18. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  19. Mission I'm Possible: Effects of a Community-Based Project on the Basic Literacy Skills of At-Risk Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Wan Har; Moore, Dennis W.; Nonis, Karen P.; Tang, Hui Nee; Koh, Patricia; Wee, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This study used a nonequivalent group design to evaluate the impact of an emergent literacy intervention on preschool children identified with early reading difficulties. Thirty-five children were compared with 39 typically developing classroom peers on various reading measures in a community-based project--"Mission I'm Possible" (MIP),…

  20. A Preliminary Report on a New Measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and Its Psychological Correlates among Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…

  1. Less Words, More Action: Using On-the-Fly Videos and Screenshots in Your Library's IM/Chat and Email Reference Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekyere, Kwabena

    2010-01-01

    Email and chat/IM reference services have become a convenient and easily accessible option for the online community and libraries, particularly with increasing amounts of library resources now available electronically. This article gives an overview of Jing, which can be used to produce videos and screenshots on-the-fly, and demonstrates how to…

  2. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  3. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  4. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  5. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  6. Multiband Photometry of the Chromospherically Active & Spotted Binary System IM Peg—the Guide Star for the Gravity Probe B Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert; Guinan, Edward F.; Messina, Sergio; Lanza, Antonino F.; Wasatonic, Richard; McCook, George P.

    2010-06-01

    We report on the starspot properties of IM Pegasi—the guide star of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite. GP-B's mission is to measure two predicted consequences of general relativity—the frame-dragging and geodetic effects—via its extremely precise onboard gyroscopes. However, IM Peg is a chomospherically active binary system with a luminous K2 III primary star showing rotationally modulated (Prot ≈ 24.5 days) light variations from starspots. The starspots can potentially cause problems as GP-B can erroneously interpret a change in starspot coverage (and corresponding shifts in the light center) as the star's movement. This apparent shift can also be exacerbated by possible changes in the light center (photocenter) of the binary system arising from changes in the light balance with the fainter ~1 Msolar (main-sequence early G-type star) component. Since 2000, we have carried out multiband high-precision photoelectric photometry of IM Peg to determine its activity and starspot coverage. Our photometry uses Strömgren uvby intermediate-band filters, VRI filters, and TiO (720/750 nm) narrowband filter sets. Measurements were made relative to nearby comparison and check stars using 0.8 m and 0.25 m telescopes. Analysis of TiO and multiband continuum photometry constrains the starspot areas, temperatures, and surface distributions. The photometry has been modeled using the maximum entropy and Tikhonov regularizations to determine the properties of starspots and to evaluate the effects of changing starspot areas and distributions on the light center of the binary. Our results indicate that IM Peg's activity should not affect the GP-B mission. We also present a study of IM Peg's long-term starspot cycle, which shows evidence of being 20 yr long. Lastly, we have determined the intrinsic (unspotted) brightness of the star to be V mag = 5.62 ± 0.03.

  7. Cholinergic signalling-regulated KV7.5 currents are expressed in colonic ICC-IM but not ICC-MP.

    PubMed

    Wright, George W J; Parsons, Sean P; Loera-Valencia, Raúl; Wang, Xuan-Yu; Barajas-López, Carlos; Huizinga, Jan D

    2014-09-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the enteric nervous system orchestrate the various rhythmic motor patterns of the colon. Excitation of ICC may evoke stimulus-dependent pacemaker activity and will therefore have a profound effect on colonic motility. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of K(+) channels in the regulation of ICC excitability. We employed the cell-attached patch clamp technique to assess single channel activity from mouse colon ICC, immunohistochemistry to determine ICC K(+) channel expression and single cell RT-PCR to identify K(+) channel RNA. Single channel activity revealed voltage-sensitive K(+) channels, which were blocked by the KV7 blocker XE991 (n = 8), which also evoked inward maxi channel activity. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation with carbachol inhibited K(+) channel activity (n = 8). The single channel conductance was 3.4 ± 0.1 pS (n = 8), but with high extracellular K(+), it was 18.1 ± 0.6 pS (n = 22). Single cell RT-PCR revealed Ano1-positive ICC that were positive for KV7.5. Double immunohistochemical staining of colons for c-Kit and KV7.5 in situ revealed that intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM), but not ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP), were positive for KV7.5. It also revealed dense cholinergic innervation of ICC-IM. ICC-IM and ICC-MP networks were found to be connected. We propose that the pacemaker network in the colon consists of both ICC-MP and ICC-IM and that one way of exciting this network is via cholinergic KV7.5 channel inhibition in ICC-IM.

  8. Integral method (IM) as a quantitative and objective method to supplement the GMFCS classification of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Alicja; Bober, Tadeusz; Kobel-Buys, Krystyna; Stempień, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Gait analysis is an objective tool for the clinical assessment of locomotor activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Correct diagnosis and properly planned rehabilitation are necessary for enhanced motor functions in persons suffering from cerebral palsy. Orthoses, orthopedic operations, medications and physiotherapy are the most common treatments. However, there is still a lack of objective methods for assessing motor behavior and monitoring the progress of recovery. The aim of the study was to use the ground reaction force patterns generated during walking to create the Integral Method (IM), which could become an objective tool that could supplement the functional classification of CP children based on the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). A total of 15 healthy children and 34 children with CP who walk independently participated in the study. A Kistler force plate and GRFintegral software were used. Of the 34 measurements based on the IM for CP children, 17 matched the level assigned by the GMFCS, 2 children were assigned a higher level, and 15 were assigned a lower level. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the IM and the GMFCS was moderate (r = 0.61, p ≤ 0.01). Asymmetry was found in 11 cases. The IM supplements the GMFCS and is an objective and quantitative assessment of motor abilities. The method allows for the detection of asymmetry, diagnosis of the improvement of gait pattern and assessment of foot support technique. With the appropriate software, the IM provides pediatricians, neurologists, orthopedists, surgeons and physiotherapists with a simple and fast way to assess gait.

  9. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer

  10. I37NO: an IMS infrasound array in northern Norway for optimal monitoring of infrasound on global and regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Gibbons, Steven; Fyen, Jan; Roth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The IMS infrasound array I37NO near Bardufoss in northern Norway became operational in October 2013 and was certified on December 19, 2013. The 10-element array has an aperture of approximately 1.5 km and is deployed in low-lying woodland about 2.5 degrees north of the Arctic Circle. Its location in the European Arctic means that the array fills an important gap in the global IMS infrasound monitoring network. In addition, I37NO extends significantly the network of infrasound stations in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia: operated by NORSAR, the Swedish Institute for Space Physics, and the Kola Regional Seismological Center in Apatity. The geometry is based on the highly successful classical design for regional seismic arrays with sensors arranged in two approximately concentric rings surrounding a central site. A 4-site subarray with an aperture of approximately 450 meters, comprising the central element and the inner ring of 3 sites, provides an excellent array response function and detection capability for relatively high frequency (2-4 Hz) signals. Such signals are usually generated by events at distances within 1000 km and often lack energy in the lower frequency bands for which the larger aperture arrays provide signal coherence. These so-called regional signals are of increasing importance in civil applications and the need to characterize the infrasonic wavefield over these distances is increasingly important in the remote monitoring of natural hazards. I37NO will provide good characterization of Ground Truth industrial and military explosions in the region which are well-constrained by seismic data. The full array aperture provides excellent backazimuth and slowness resolution for lower frequency signals and it is anticipated that I37NO will contribute significantly to the detection and association of signals on a global scale. Already within the first few months of operation, we have examples of high-quality recordings from meteors, accidental

  11. Implementation of a Fiber Raman Amplifier for CW-IM Measurements of Atmospheric Oxygen at 1.26 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, J. T.; Nagel, J.; Temyanko, V.; Zaccheo, S.; Browell, E. V.; Kooi, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Starting in February 2009 ITT, along with our partners at TIPD, AER and NASA LaRC, has been working to develop a fiber Raman amplifier at a wavelength near 1.26 microns, and evaluate its performance for measuring atmospheric O2 remotely. Two prototype amplifiers have been built and integrated into an existing continuous wave (CW) intensity modulated (IM) engineering development unit (EDU), developed at ITT for the measurement of CO2, in order to demonstrate the CW-IM measurement of atmospheric O2. The CO2 and O2 measurements are being evaluated for application to the active sensing of CO2 emissions over nights days and seasons (ASCENDS) mission described in the 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey. The O2 measurement takes advantage of the fact that O2 is a well mixed gas to allow the determination of the CO2 dry air mixing ratio, which is the required product for the ASCENDS mission. The Raman amplifier development has been focused on optimizing fiber designs to limit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), which is a nonlinear process typically limiting this type of amplifier from generating high power narrow linewidth outputs. This work has centered around two approaches, varying the fiber core diameter to broaden the Brillouin gain curve and designing transverse fiber doping profiles which serve to separate the acoustic and optical wave overlap responsible for SBS. The most recent amplifier is producing 1.5 Watts of average power while maintaining the narrow linewidth of the seed laser (~3 MHz). The latest amplifier has been integrated with the CO2 EDU and initial ground testing was performed at the ITT ground test facility in New Haven, Indiana. The transmitter has subsequently been integrated into a NASA DC-8 rack and is currently being flown on the NASA DC-8. We discuss results from these ground and flight measurements in addition to the discussion of the amplifier design and our plans for scaling the design to space. This document is not subject

  12. GT0 Explosion Sources for IMS Infrasound Calibration: Charge Design and Yield Estimation from Near-source Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Three large-scale on-surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) at the Sayarim Military Range, Negev desert, Israel: about 82 tons of strong high explosives in August 2009, and two explosions of about 10 and 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources, monitored by extensive observations, for calibration of International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In all shots, the explosives were assembled like a pyramid/hemisphere on dry desert alluvium, with a complicated explosion design, different from the ideal homogenous hemisphere used in similar experiments in the past. Strong boosters and an upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide more energy radiated to the atmosphere. Under these conditions the evaluation of the actual explosion yield, an important source parameter, is crucial for the GT0 calibration experiment. Audio-visual, air-shock and acoustic records were utilized for interpretation of observed unique blast effects, and for determination of blast wave parameters suited for yield estimation and the associated relationships. High-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. The yield estimators, based on empirical scaled relations for well-known basic air-blast parameters—the peak pressure, impulse and positive phase duration, as well as on the crater dimensions and seismic magnitudes, were analyzed. A novel empirical scaled relationship for the little-known secondary shock delay was developed, consistent for broad ranges of ANFO charges and distances, which facilitates using this stable and reliable air-blast parameter as a new potential

  13. From Ions to Bits - Developing the IT infrastructure around the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR SIMS lab at GFZ Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, A.; Klump, J.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) is an highly sensitive technique for analyzing the surfaces of solids and thin film samples, but has the major drawback that such instruments are both rare and expensive. The Virtual SIMS project aims to design, develop and operate the IT infrastructure around the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR SIMS at GFZ Potsdam. The system will cover the whole spectrum of the procedures in the lab - from the online application for measurement time, to the remote access to the instrument and finally the maintenance of the data for publishing and future re-use. A virtual lab infrastructure around the IMS 1280 will enable remote access to the instrument and make measurement time available to the broadest possible user community. Envisioned is that the IT infrastructure would consist of the following: web portal, data repository, sample repository, project management software, communication arrangements between the lab staff and distant researcher and remote access to the instruments. The web portal will handle online applications for the measurement time. The data from the experiments, the monitoring sensor logs and the lab logbook entries are to be stored and archived. Researchers will be able to access their data remotely in real time, thus imposing a user rights management strucuture. Also planned is that all samples and the standards will be assigned a unique International GeoSample Number (IGSN) and that the images of the samples will be stored and made accessible in addition to any additional documents which might be uploaded by the researcher. The project management application will schedule the application process, the measurements times, notifications and alerts. A video conference capability is forseen for communication between the Potsdam staff and the remote researcher. The remote access to the instruments requires a sophisticated client-server solution. This highly sensitive instrument has to be controlled in real-time with latencies

  14. Performance of the primary seismic array stations of the IMS network for the year 2015 Part II): An Analyst's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonathan, Ezekiel; Kebede, Fekadu

    2016-04-01

    Verification of the CTBT is partly dependent on the ability of the automatic system to detect and present correct attributes for all phases that are detected at the stations. This helps in building of more accurate automatic event solutions and thus reducing the work load and time for interactive analysis whilst increasing the quality of bulletins issued out to member states so that they can decide if there are any treaty violations. During interactive analysis automatic event solutions are refined and/or re-estimated by checking the correctness of the associated phase identity, phase arrival time, azimuth and slowness using raw waveform data. This refinement procedure leads analysts to rename, associate, disassociate and manually add seismic arrivals. The final event solution is accepted or rejected based on the existing rules, guidelines and procedures. In addition, new event solutions are built using unassociated signal detections and the raw waveform data during scanning. In this study differences between seismic phases associated to automatically produced SEL3 bulletin and the Late Event Bulletin (LEB) obtained through interactive analysis are investigated using data from all primary seismic array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) network during the year 2015. The performance of the network is evaluated from an analyst's perspective by looking at the number of phases that are renamed, manually added, associated, and disassociated by analysts during interactive analysis. The observed differences do shed some light on analysts workload as well as the performance of the primary seismic array of the IMS network. For example, the results indicate that for the Waramunga array station in Australia (WRA) out of a total of 41175 detections associated to saved events in 2015, 13305 (32.3%) of them were renamed during interactive analysis and 7667 were automatic detections that were associated to events by analysts. 1174 detections were manually added

  15. Combined effects of CO2 and light on the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sven A; Levitan, Orly; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Prásil, Ondrej; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Rost, Björn

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies on the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum (IMS101) showed that increasing CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) enhances N(2) fixation and growth. Significant uncertainties remain as to the degree of the sensitivity to pCO(2), its modification by other environmental factors, and underlying processes causing these responses. To address these questions, we examined the responses of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under a matrix of low and high levels of pCO(2) (150 and 900 microatm) and irradiance (50 and 200 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Growth rates as well as cellular carbon and nitrogen contents increased with increasing pCO(2) and light levels in the cultures. The pCO(2)-dependent stimulation in organic carbon and nitrogen production was highest under low light. High pCO(2) stimulated rates of N(2) fixation and prolonged the duration, while high light affected maximum rates only. Gross photosynthesis increased with light but did not change with pCO(2). HCO(3)(-) was identified as the predominant carbon source taken up in all treatments. Inorganic carbon uptake increased with light, but only gross CO(2) uptake was enhanced under high pCO(2). A comparison between carbon fluxes in vivo and those derived from (13)C fractionation indicates high internal carbon cycling, especially in the low-pCO(2) treatment under high light. Light-dependent oxygen uptake was only detected under low pCO(2) combined with high light or when low-light-acclimated cells were exposed to high light, indicating that the Mehler reaction functions also as a photoprotective mechanism in Trichodesmium. Our data confirm the pronounced pCO(2) effect on N(2) fixation and growth in Trichodesmium and further show a strong modulation of these effects by light intensity. We attribute these responses to changes in the allocation of photosynthetic energy between carbon acquisition and the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen under elevated pCO(2). These findings are supported by a

  16. Capability assessment and comparison of the Nikon 2i, Nikon 3i, and IMS-2000 registration measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert K.

    1991-03-01

    A critical product property in the photomask industry is registration. Registration is a measure of how close features placed on the mask actually are relative to where it is desired for them to be located. Of course photomask customers, the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturers, want all features placed exactly where indicated by the circuit design. Consequently, the recent history in the photomask industry has been for specifications on registration to increasingly tighten. Today +/- .25 micrometers specifications are commonplace, and many customers are pushing for specifications of half this tolerance as they move into the production of chips of steadily increasing sophistication (eg. 4 and 16 meg devices). As registration specifications increasingly narrow, a serious question facing the photomask industry and their customers is not only whether the presently available lithography tools can conform to the tighter specs, but whether such specs are pushing or beyond present ability to measure registration. The present industry standard for assessing registration is the Ninon 2i; however, there ate two systems which are presently commercially available which claim to be superior to the 2i. One is Ninon's own successor system the Ninon 3i, and the other is the IMS-2000 made by Leitz. This paper discusses the findings of a study conducted by Du Pont Photomask to assess the relative accuracy and repeatability of each of these systems, and evaluates this information against the present trends in industry specifications.

  17. Processing and properties of fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composites: I. IM7/LARC(TM)-PETI-7 polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    1995-01-01

    A phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomer formed from the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, an 75:25 molar ratio of 4,4'-oxydianiline and meta-phenylenediamine and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride as the endcapper at a theoretical number average molecular weight (Mn) of approximately 3,700 g/mol was evaluated as a composite resin matrix. A glass transition temperature (Tg) of 315 deg C was reached after 250 deg C/1 hr annealing of the matrix resin. Unidirectional prepreg was made by coating an N-methylpyrrolidinone solution of the amide acid oligomer onto unsized IM7 graphite fibers. The thermal and rheological properties and the solvent/volatile depletion rates of the amide acid/NMP system were determined. This information was used to successfully design a molding cycle for composite fabrication. Composites molded under 800 Psi at 371 C consistently yielded good consolidation as measured by C-scan and optical photomicrography. The composite's short beam shear strength (SBS), longitudinal and transverse flexural strengths and moduli were measured at various temperatures. These composites exhibited excellent room temperature (RT) longitudinal flexural strength and modulus and RT SBS strength retention at 177 C.

  18. Level of education and multiple sclerosis risk after adjustment for known risk factors: The EnvIMS study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnevik, Kjetil; Riise, Trond; Cortese, Marianna; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Magalhaes, Sandra; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Wolfson, Christina; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several recent studies have found a higher risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) among people with a low level of education. This has been suggested to reflect an effect of smoking and lower vitamin D status in the social class associated with lower levels of education. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between level of education and MS risk adjusting for the known risk factors smoking, infectious mononucleosis, indicators of vitamin D levels and body size. Methods: Within the case-control study on Environmental Factors In MS (EnvIMS), 953 MS patients and 1717 healthy controls from Norway reported educational level and history of exposure to putative environmental risk factors. Results: Higher level of education were associated with decreased MS risk (p trend = 0.001) with an OR of 0.53 (95% CI 0.41–0.68) when comparing those with the highest and lowest level of education. This association was only moderately reduced after adjusting for known risk factors (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44–0.83). The estimates remained similar when cases with disease onset before age 28 were excluded. Conclusion: These findings suggest that factors related to lower socioeconomic status other than established risk factors are associated with MS risk. PMID:26014605

  19. A novel power-efficient scheme asymmetrically and symmetrically clipping optical (ASCO)-OFDM for IM/DD optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Bar-Ness, Yeheskel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. By using this novel scheme of an OFDM optical system, not only odd subcarriers but also even subcarriers can be modulated to transmit a clipping optical signal. A conventional asymmetrically clipping optical (ACO)-OFDM is applied to modulate odd subcarriers while even subcarriers are modulated by a novel technique called a symmetrically clipping optical (SCO)-OFDM. Although both the asymmetrically clipping noise caused by ACO-OFDM and the symmetrically clipping noise caused by SCO-OFDM fall onto the even subcarriers, the former interference can be estimated and removed at the receiver. Thus, SCO-OFDM symbols carried on the even subcarriers can be recovered by subtracting the estimated ACO-OFDM clipping noise from the received signal. Then the SCO-OFDM clipping noise can be removed by subtraction due to its special transmission format. Note that no DC bias added on all subcarriers makes this novel scheme achieve better performance in terms of both power efficiency and symbol error rate (SER).

  20. Comparison of Intralaminar and Interlaminar Mode-I Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional IM7/8552 Graphite/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Ratcliffe, James

    2012-01-01

    The intralaminar and interlaminar mode-I fracture-toughness of a unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite/epoxy composite were measured using compact tension (CT) and double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens, respectively. Two starter crack geometries were considered for both the CT and DCB specimen configurations. In the first case, starter cracks were produced by 12.5 micron thick, Teflon film inserts. In the second case, considerably sharper starter cracks were produced by fatigue precracking. For each specimen configuration, use of the Teflon film starter cracks resulted in initially unstable crack growth and artificially high initiation fracture-toughness values. Conversely, specimens with fatigue precracks exhibited stable growth onset and lower initiation fracture toughness. For CT and DCB specimens with fatigue precracks, the intralaminar and interlaminar initiation fracture toughnesses were approximately equal. However, during propagation, the CT specimens exhibited more extensive fiber bridging, and rapidly increasing R-curve behavior as compared to the DCB specimens. Observations of initiation and propagation of intralaminar and interlaminar fracture, and the measurements of fracture toughness, were supported by fractographic analysis using scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Effects of Aging-Time Reference on the Long Term Behavior of the IM7/K3B Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the time-based shift reference on the long term behavior of the graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide composite IM7/K3B at elevated temperature. Creep compliance and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(sub g). Two matrix dominated loading modes, shear and transverse, were investigated in tension and compression. The momentary sequenced creep/aging curves were collapsed through a horizontal (time) shift using the shortest, middle and longest aging time curve as the reference curve. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. The use of effective time expressions in a laminated plate model allowed for the prediction of long term creep compliance. The effect of using different reference curves with time/aging-time superposition was most sensitive to the physical aging shift rate at lower test temperatures. Depending on the loading mode, the reference curve used can result in a more accurate long term prediction, especially at lower test temperatures.

  2. Testing the interactive computer method (IM) for producing K indices with the data of the Hurbanovo and Budkov magnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, Fridrich; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, Miloš; Bochníček, Josef; Váczyová, Magdaléna

    2016-09-01

    It is generally accepted that the geomagnetic K indices derived by experienced observers are of great value. The interactive method (IM) based on the traditional hand-scaling methodology is tested in this study. The tests are performed utilising the data from the Hurbanovo and Budkov magnetic observatories. These data include both digital records of the geomagnetic field and hand-scaled K indices that had been derived by experienced observers. The authentic K indices from Hurbanovo cover the year 1997 and the same kind of data from Budkov covers the years 1994-1999. In addition to these data, hand-scaled K indices are used which were derived by the experienced observer from printed digital magnetograms for both of the observatories for the years 2000-2003. The results of this study indicate that for high values of K indices (the values being at least 5) the tested method follows the traditional hand-scaling better than the widely used computer methods FMI and AS. On the other hand, for the K indices less than 5 the tested method turns out to be the worst when compared with the FMI and AS methods. For very low geomagnetic activity (K-index values equal to 0) the performance of the tested method is comparable to the two computer methods.

  3. Joint CO2 state and flux estimation with the 4D-Var system EURAD-IM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpt, Johannes; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 inversion studies seek to improve CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes with the usage of adjoint transport models and CO2 concentration measurements. Terrestrial CO2 fluxes -anthropogenic emissions, photosynthesis, and respiration- bear large spatial and temporal variability and are highly uncertain. Additionally to the high uncertainty of the three CO2 fluxes itself, regional inversion studies suffer from uncertainty of the boundary layer height and atmospheric transport especially during night, leading to uncertainty of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios during sunrise. This study assesses the potential of the 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) method to estimate CO2 fluxes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations jointly at each grid cell on a regional scale. Identical twin experiments are executed with the nested EURopean Air pollution Dispersion-Inverse Model (EURAD-IM) with 5 km resolution in Central Europe with synthetic half hourly measurements from eleven concentration towers. The assimilation window is chosen to start from sunrise for 12 hours. We find that joint estimation of CO2 fluxes and initial states requires a more careful balance of the background error covariance matrices but enables a more detailed analysis of atmospheric CO2 and the surface-atmosphere fluxes.

  4. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database: a high-quality information system for comparative immunogenetics and immunology.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2002-10-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database (http://imgt.cines.fr), is a high quality integrated information system specializing in Immunoglobulins (IG), T cell Receptors (TR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, created in 1989, by LIGM, at the Université Montpellier II, CNRS, Montpellier, France. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data, which include nucleotide and protein sequences, oligonucleotide primers, gene maps, genetic polymorphisms, specificities, 2D and 3D structures. IMGT includes several databases (IMGT/LIGM-DB, IMGT/HLA-DB, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB), Web resources ('IMGT Marie-Paule page') which comprise IMGT Scientific Chart, IMGT Repertoire, IMGT Bloc-notes, IMGT Education, IMGT Aide-mémoire and IMGT Index, and interactive tools (IMGT/V-QUEST, IMGT/JunctionAnalysis). These expertly annotated data on the genome, proteome, genetics and structure of the IG, TR and MHC are of high value for comparative genome evolution studies of the adaptative immune response.

  5. The Dependence of the Change in the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polyimide IM7-K3B on Microcracking due to Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Melissa C.

    1995-01-01

    Composite IM7-K3B was subjected to a simulated high speed aircraft thermal environment to determine the effects of microcracking on the change in CTE. IM7-K3B is a graphite fiber reinforced polyimide laminate, manufactured by Dupont. The lay-up for the material was (0.90((Sub 3)(Sub s))). The specimens were placed in a laser-interferometric dilatometer to obtain thermal expansion measurements and were then repeatedly cycled between -65 F and 350 F up to 1000 cycles. After cycling they were scanned for microcracks at a magnification of 400x. The material was expected not to crack and to have a near zero CTE. Some microcracking did occur in all specimens and extensive microcracking occurred in one specimen. Further testing is required to determine how closely the CTE and microcracking are related.

  6. Increasing conclusiveness of clinical breath analysis by improved baseline correction of multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) data.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Ewa; Tinnevelt, Gerjen H; Brodrick, Emma; Williams, Mark; Davies, Antony N; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2016-08-01

    Current challenges of clinical breath analysis include large data size and non-clinically relevant variations observed in exhaled breath measurements, which should be urgently addressed with competent scientific data tools. In this study, three different baseline correction methods are evaluated within a previously developed data size reduction strategy for multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) datasets. Introduced for the first time in breath data analysis, the Top-hat method is presented as the optimum baseline correction method. A refined data size reduction strategy is employed in the analysis of a large breathomic dataset on a healthy and respiratory disease population. New insights into MCC-IMS spectra differences associated with respiratory diseases are provided, demonstrating the additional value of the refined data analysis strategy in clinical breath analysis.

  7. Increasing conclusiveness of clinical breath analysis by improved baseline correction of multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) data.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Ewa; Tinnevelt, Gerjen H; Brodrick, Emma; Williams, Mark; Davies, Antony N; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2016-08-01

    Current challenges of clinical breath analysis include large data size and non-clinically relevant variations observed in exhaled breath measurements, which should be urgently addressed with competent scientific data tools. In this study, three different baseline correction methods are evaluated within a previously developed data size reduction strategy for multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) datasets. Introduced for the first time in breath data analysis, the Top-hat method is presented as the optimum baseline correction method. A refined data size reduction strategy is employed in the analysis of a large breathomic dataset on a healthy and respiratory disease population. New insights into MCC-IMS spectra differences associated with respiratory diseases are provided, demonstrating the additional value of the refined data analysis strategy in clinical breath analysis. PMID:26879424

  8. 78 FR 73859 - Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank); Notice of Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank); Notice of Open Meeting SUMMARY: The... the United States to Congress. Time and Place: Wednesday, December 18, 2013 from 9:30 a.m.-1:30 p.m. A... attend, a photo ID must be presented at the guard's desk as part of the clearance process into...

  9. Differential block of nicotinic synapses on B versus C neurones in sympathetic ganglia of frog by α-conotoxins MII and ImI

    PubMed Central

    Tavazoie, Sohail F; Tavazoie, Masoud F; McIntosh, J Michael; Olivera, Baldomero M; Yoshikami, Doju

    1997-01-01

    The effects of two new acetylcholine receptor antagonists, α-conotoxin MII and α-conotoxin ImI, on nicotinic synaptic transmission in the 10th paravertebral sympathetic ganglion of the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined. The preganglionic nerve was electrically stimulated (at low frequency, ⩽1 min−1, to avoid use-dependent changes) while compound action potentials of B and C neurones were monitored from the postganglionic nerve.α-Conotoxins MII and ImI, at low micromolar concentrations, reversibly blocked both B and C waves. α-Conotoxin MII blocked the C wave more effectively than the B wave, whereas the potency of α-conotoxin ImI was opposite that of MII. The observation that nicotinic antagonists can differentially block synaptic transmission of B versus C neurones with opposite selectivities strongly suggests that these neurones possess distinct nicotinic receptors.In addition to fast and slow B waves described by others, C waves with two temporally distinguishable components were present in our recordings. Each α-conotoxin affected fast and slow B waves similarly. Likewise, toxins did not discriminate between the two components of C waves. This suggests that all neurones within each major class (B or C) may have the same nicotinic receptors.Synthetic forms of α-conotoxins MII and ImI were used in the present study. Their ease of synthesis and their specificities should make these toxins useful probes to investigate the various subtypes of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:9134208

  10. Establishing a Dynamic Database of Blue and Fin Whale Locations from Recordings at the IMS CTBTO hydro-acoustic network. The Baleakanta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, R. J.; Kuzma, H.

    2013-12-01

    Falling as they do into the frequency range of continuously recording hydrophones (15-100Hz), blue and fin whale songs are a significant source of noise on the hydro-acoustic monitoring array of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). One researcher's noise, however, can be a very interesting signal in another field of study. The aim of the Baleakanta Project (www.baleakanta.org) is to flag and catalogue these songs, using the azimuth and slowness of the signal measured at multiple hydrophones to solve for the approximate location of singing whales. Applying techniques borrowed from human speaker identification, it may even be possible to recognize the songs of particular individuals. The result will be a dynamic database of whale locations and songs with known individuals noted. This database will be of great value to marine biologists studying cetaceans, as there is no existing dataset which spans the globe over many years (more than 15 years of data have been collected by the IMS). Current whale song datasets from other sources are limited to detections made on small, temporary listening devices. The IMS song catalogue will make it possible to study at least some aspects of the global migration patterns of whales, changes in their songs over time, and the habits of individuals. It is believed that about 10 blue whale 'cultures' exist with distinct vocal patterns; the IMS song catalogue will test that number. Results and a subset of the database (delayed in time to mitigate worries over whaling and harassment of the animals) will be released over the web. A traveling museum exhibit is planned which will not only educate the public about whale songs, but will also make the CTBTO and its achievements more widely known. As a testament to the public's enduring fascination with whales, initial funding for this project has been crowd-sourced through an internet campaign.

  11. Analysis of recordings from underwater controlled sources in the Pacific Ocean received by the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tomoaki; Zampolli, Mario; Haralabus, Georgios; Heaney, Kevin; Prior, Mark; Isse, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Controlled impulsive scientific underwater sound sources in the Northwestern Pacific were observed at two IMS hydroacoustic stations in the Pacific Ocean. Although these experiments were conducted with the aim of studying the physical properties of the plate boundaries inside the Earth, they are also suitable for the investigation of long range underwater acoustic detections. In spite of the fact that the energy of these controlled impulsive scientific sources is significantly smaller than that of nuclear explosions, the signals were obtained by IMS hydrophone stations thousands of kilometres away and also by distant ocean bottom instruments operated by various Institutes, such as the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. These experiments provide calibrated (yield, time, location) long-range acoustic transmissions, which enable one to examine the physics of long-range acoustic propagation and to verify the capabilities of the CTBTO IMS network to detect even small explosions.The two IMS stations used are H03 (Juan Fernandez Island, Chile) off the coast of Chile in the Southeastern Pacific and H11 (Wake Island, USA) in the Western Pacific. Both stations consist of two triplets of hydrophones in the SOFAR channel, which monitor the oceans for signs of nuclear explosions. H03 detected low-yield explosions above flat terrain at distances of 15,000 km across the Pacific as well as explosions above the landward slope off the coast of Japan at distances above 16,000 km across the Pacific. These records showed that source signatures, such as short duration and bubble pulses, were preserved over the long propagation distances. It was found that the observed maximum amplitudes from each source exhibit order of magnitude variations even when the yield and detonation depth are the same. The experimental data and transmission loss simulations suggest that bathymetric features around the sources and between the sources and the receivers are the main causes for

  12. A preliminary report on a new measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its psychological correlates among Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S; Steger, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans' greater success than other racial minority groups associated with their stronger work ethics, perseverance, and drives to succeed. The Model Minority Myth of Unrestricted Mobility referred to the myth of Asian Americans' greater success than other racial minority groups associated with their stronger belief in fairness of treatment and lack of perceived racism or barriers at school or work. The 2-subscale structure of the IM-4 was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, with support of discriminant, convergent, and incremental validity, as well as internal reliability and stability over 2 weeks. The IM-4 is a new measure that taps into a uniquely racialized experience of Asian Americans with research and clinical implications.

  13. A PAPR reduction technique using Hadamard transform combined with clipping and filtering based on DCT/IDCT for IM/DD optical OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangone, Fall; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Chen, Lin

    2014-08-01

    In Intensity Modulator/Direct Detection (IM/DD) optical OFDM systems, the high peak-to-power average ratio (PAPR) will cause signal impairments through the nonlinearity of modulator and fiber. In this paper, a joint PAPR reduction technique based on Hadamard transformation and clipping and filtering using DCT/IDCT transform has been proposed for mitigating the impairments in IM/DD optical OFDM system. We then experimentally evaluated the effect of PAPR reduction on the bit error rate (BER) performance and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. At a bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivity of the proposed 2.5 Gb/s IM/DD optical OFDM system after 100-km standard single-mode fiber transmission has been improved by 0.8 dB, 1.3 dB and 3.1 dB for a launch power of 6.4 dBm, 8 dBm and 10 dBm respectively when compared with the classical system.

  14. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed. PMID:26658477

  15. Fragenkatalog zur Begrundung und Beurteilung von Einfuhrungskurskonzeptionen im Rahmen der Germanistik (Question-Catalog on the Establishment and Evaluation of Introductory-Course-Conceptions in the Area of Germanic Studies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linguistik und Didaktik, 1973

    1973-01-01

    From a session of the Arbeitskreis fur Hochschuldidaktik im Germanistenverband (Workshop for College Teaching in German Departments), Loccum, West Germany, July 3-6, 1972; compiled by the Initiativgruppe Studienreform Hamburg (Proposals Committee for Curriculum Reform in Hamburg). (DD)

  16. The Guiding Light: Vri/uvby & Tio Photometry Of The Chromospherically Active & Spotted Binary System Im Peg - The Guide-star For The Gravity Probe-b Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert; Guinan, E.; Messina, S.; Wasatonic, R.; McCook, G.

    2007-12-01

    We report on the starspot and chromospheric properties of IM Pegasi - the guide star of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite. GP-B's mission is to measure two predicted consequences of General Relativity - frame-dragging and geodetic effects, via its extremely precise onboard gyroscopes. IM Peg was selected as the mission's guide star as it is not only bright enough to be seen with GP-B's onboard optical telescope but it is also a bright radio source. Thus, ground-based radio telescope observations can easily and accurately correct for IM Peg's motions in space. However, IM Peg is a chomospherically active binary system with a luminous K2 III primary star showing rotationally modulated (Prot 24.5 days) light variations from starspots. The starspots can cause problems as GP-B can erroneously interpret a change in starspot coverage (and corresponding shifts in the light center) as the star's movement. This apparent shift can also be exacerbated by possible changes in the light-center of the binary system arising from changes in the light balance with the fainter dK component. Since 2000 we have carried out multi-band high-precision photoelectric photometry of IM Peg to determine its activity and starspot coverage. Our photometry uses Strömgren uvby filters, VRCIC filters and TiO (719/755 nm ) narrow-band filter sets. Measurements were made relative to neaby comparsion & check stars using a robotic 0.8-m telescope (located in AZ) and 0.25-m telescope (located in PA). The TiO- and multi-band continuum photometry constrains the starspot areas, temperatures and distributions. The photometry is being modeled to determine the effects of changing starspot areas and distributions on the light center of the binary. The results of our analysis and possible impacts on the GP-B Mission will be discussed. This research is supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST- 0507536 and AST- 0507542 which we gratefully acknowledge.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of targeting the Nrf2 pathway by triterpenoids (CDDO-Im and CDDO-Me) for protection from LPS-induced inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Thimmulappa, Rajesh K; Fuchs, Ralph J; Malhotra, Deepti; Scollick, Catherine; Traore, Kassim; Bream, Jay H; Trush, Michael A; Liby, Karen T; Sporn, Michael B; Kensler, Thomas W; Biswal, Shyam

    2007-11-01

    Sepsis is characterized by an inappropriate host immune-inflammatory response and sustained oxidative damage. Nrf2, a bZIP oxidant-responsive transcription factor, regulates a battery of cytoprotective genes including antioxidants and maintains cellular redox homeostasis. Mouse studies have demonstrated a critical role of Nrf2 in improving survival during sepsis. This preclinical ex vivo study using neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a surrogate cells evaluates the efficacy of CDDO-Im and CDDO-Me [imidazole and methyl ester derivative of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO)] to activate the Nrf2 pathway and protect from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in humans. CDDO-Im treatment significantly induced Nrf2-dependent antioxidative genes (HO-1, GCLC, GCLM, and NQO1) in PBMCs isolated from six normal subjects. CDDO-Im increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 protein. Pretreatment of PBMC by CDDO-Im significantly attenuated LPS-induced cytokine expression. Similar increases in levels of antioxidant genes and suppression of LPS-induced cytokine expression was observed after CDDO-Me pretreatment. CDDO-Im also greatly inhibited LPS, fMLP, TNF-alpha, and TPA-induced ROS generation in neutrophils. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that activation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative pathway by CDDO-Im or CDDO-Me protects against the LPS-induced inflammatory response and suggest that they can be potential therapeutic candidates for intervening sepsis syndrome.

  18. A Comparison of IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin; Harrison, Fenton; Obland, Michael; Ismail, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  19. A Comparison of Potential IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Ismail, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  20. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system: a standardized approach for immunogenetics and immunoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2005-09-20

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system http://imgt.cines.fr, was created in 1989 by the Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire (LIGM) (Université Montpellier II and CNRS) at Montpellier, France. IMGT is a high quality integrated knowledge resource specialized in immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, and related proteins of the immune system (RPI) of any species which belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and to the MHC superfamily (MhcSF). IMGT consists of five databases, ten on-line tools and more than 8,000 HTML pages of Web resources. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data from genome, genetics, proteome and three-dimensional structures. The accuracy and the consistency of IMGT data are based on IMGT-ONTOLOGY, a semantic specification of terms to be used in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. IMGT-ONTOLOGY comprises six main concepts: IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, DESCRIPTION, NUMEROTATION, ORIENTATION and OBTENTION. Based on these concepts, the controlled vocabulary and the annotation rules necessary for the immunogenetics data identification, classification, description and numbering and for the management of IMGT knowledge are defined in the IMGT Scientific chart. IMGT is the international reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics for medical research (repertoire analysis of the IG antibody sites and of the TR recognition sites in autoimmune and infectious diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas, myelomas), veterinary research (IG and TR repertoires in farm and wild life species), genome diversity and genome evolution studies of the adaptive immune responses, biotechnology related to antibody engineering (single chain Fragment variable (scFv), phage displays, combinatorial libraries, chimeric, humanized and human antibodies), diagnostics (detection and follow up of residual diseases) and therapeutical approaches (grafts

  1. 1; '" ~i.im~

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... t ~ .. I:~ ~, r1 " )íJ .( l\\ ,# f ~ .; , r 1I1§~.OGlP.~.mi .. !II .. 0 . .... t- !!,. i:qrzrr -19~,i;!;¡ $ i'' is il Il '\\ii II ~ w "' =~ &2L;;&Æ__ II .. i: Ci.)ill.ii.iill~~~1I ~ . . .. ...

  2. Hello IM, Goodbye TTY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lori; Peters, Tom

    2006-01-01

    According to the National Association of the Deaf, there are approximately 28 million deaf and hearing-impaired people in the U.S.--roughly 10 percent of the total population. This hearing-impaired population may be even more isolated than the visually impaired community. Although technology is making it easier for libraries to provide effective…

  3. Presence Service in IMS

    PubMed Central

    Petras, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the presence service, which is located in the IP multimedia subsystem. This service allows making many applications for different groups of people. The paper describes differences between a network without the service and with the service. The biggest change is an increased number of transmitted messages. The presence uses some part of the IP multimedia subsystem control layer, which is shown in communication between the user and the server. The paper deals with the number of generated messages depending on the behaviour of the users. This is described by a mathematical model using discrete Markov chains. PMID:23970836

  4. Ultraviolet resonance Raman studies reveal the environment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues in the native and partially folded states of the E colicin-binding immunity protein Im7.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mendieta, Iñigo R; Spence, Graham R; Gell, Christopher; Radford, Sheena E; Smith, D Alastair

    2005-03-01

    Understanding the nature of partially folded proteins is a challenging task that is best accomplished when several techniques are applied in combination. Here we present ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy studies of the E colicin-binding immunity proteins, Im7* and Im9*, together with a series of variants of Im7* that are designed to trap a partially folded state at equilibrium. We show that the environments of the tryptophan and tyrosine residues in native wild-type Im7* and Im9* are indistinguishable, in contrast with models for their structures based on X-ray and NMR methods. In addition, we show that there is a general increase in the hydrophobicity in the environment of Trp75 in all of the variants compared with wild-type Im7*. These data suggest that a significant rearrangement of the tryptophan pocket occurs in the variants, which, together with an overall decrease in solvent accessibility of Trp75 as judged by time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements and fluorescence quenching experiments, rationalize the unusual fluorescence properties of the variants reported previously. The data highlight the power of UVRR in analyzing the structural properties of different conformational states of the same protein and reveal new information about the structural rearrangements occurring during Im7* folding, not possible using other spectroscopic methods alone. Finally, we describe a previously unreported dependence of the tryptophan Fermi doublet on excitation wavelength in the ultraviolet region revealed by these protein spectra. We corroborated this observation using tryptophan-containing model compounds and conclude that the conventional interpretation of this UVRR feature at these wavelengths is unreliable.

  5. Formation of higher chloride complexes of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) in water-stable room-temperature ionic liquid [BuMeIm][Tf2N].

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, Sergey I; Moisy, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    A UV/vis/near-IR spectroscopic study shows that in [BuMeIm][(CF3SO2)2N] hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquid solutions, [BuMeIm]2[AnCl6] complexes, where BuMeIm+ is 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium and An(IV) is Np(IV) or Pu(IV), have an octahedral An(IV) environment similar to that observed in solid complexes. Water has no influence on the absorption spectra of AnCl6(2-) complexes, indicating their stability to hydrolysis in ionic liquid. Adding [BuMeIm]Cl modifies the UV/vis/near-IR absorption spectra of An(IV) in the ionic liquid and causes solids to precipitate. The solid-state reflectance spectra of the precipitates reveal considerable differences from the corresponding An(IV) hexachloro complexes. A voltammetric study indicates that AnCl6(2-) complexes are electrochemically inert in [BuMeIm][(CF3SO2)2N] at the glassy carbon working electrode. By contrast, quasi-reversible electrochemical reduction An(IV)/An(III) and An(IV) oxidation are observed in ionic liquids in the presence of [BuMeIm]Cl. The oxidation wave of noncoordinated chloride ions interferes with the An(IV) oxidation waves. The spectroscopic and voltammetric data clearly indicate the formation of nonoctahedral actinide(IV) chloride complexes with a Cl-/An(IV) ratio exceeding 6/1 in [BuMeIm][(CF3SO2)2N] in excess chloride ions.

  6. Integrated Annotation and Analysis of In Situ Hybridization Images Using the ImAnno System: Application to the Ear and Sensory Organs of the Fetal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth. PMID:25706271

  7. Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

    El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 σ y ~3 σ por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

  8. Aqueous phase oligomerization of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and acids investigated using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Pascal; Tlili, Sabrine; Ravier, Sylvain; Quivet, Etienne; Monod, Anne

    2016-04-01

    One of the current essential issues to unravel our ability to forecast future climate change and air quality, implies a better understanding of natural processes leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, and in particular the formation and fate of oligomers. The difficulty in characterizing macromolecules is to discern between large oxygenated molecules from series of oligomers containing repeated small monomers of diverse structures. In the present study, taking advantage from previously established radical vinyl oligomerization of methyl vinylketone (MVK) in the aqueous phase, where relatively simple oligomers containing up to 14 monomers were observed, we have investigated the same reactivity on several other unsaturated water soluble organic compounds (UWSOCs) and on a few mixtures of these precursor compounds. The technique used to characterize the formed oligomers was a traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a hybrid quadrupole - time of flight mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) fitted with an electrospray source and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The technique allows for an additional separation, especially for large ions, containing long carbon chains. We have shown the efficiency of the IMS-mass spectrometry technique to detect oligomers derived from MVK photooxidation in the aqueous phase. The results were then compared to other oligomers, derived from ten other individual biogenic UWSOCs. The technique allowed distinguishing between different oligomers arising from different precursors. It also clearly showed that compounds bearing a non-conjugated unsaturation did not provide oligomerization. Finally, it was shown that the IMS-mass spectrometry technique, applied to mixtures of unsaturated conjugated precursors, exhibited the ability of these precursors to co-oligomerize, i.e. forming only one complex oligomer system bearing monomers of different structures. The results are discussed in terms of atmospheric

  9. Singular vector-based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the large-dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has proven effective for targeted observations in numerical weather prediction, is implemented in the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) chemical transport model, yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0 has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. For the sake of brevity, we concentrate our attention on the following chemical compounds, O3, NO, NO2, HCHO, CO, HONO, and OH, and focus on their influence on selected O3 profiles. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determines the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimization with growing

  10. A comparative study of APLI and APCI in IMS at atmospheric pressure to reveal and explain peak broadening effects by the use of APLI.

    PubMed

    Ihlenborg, Marvin; Raupers, Björn; Gunzer, Frank; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2015-11-21

    The details of the ionization mechanism in atmospheric pressure are still not completely known. In order to obtain further insight into the occurring processes in atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) a comparative study of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APLI is presented in this paper. This study is carried out using similar experimental condition at atmospheric pressure employing a commercial ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Two different peak broadening mechanisms can then be assigned, one related to a range of different species generated and detected, and furthermore for the first time a power broadening effect on the signals can be identified.

  11. Characterization of IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy in compression and shear: Final report for the period October 1987 to September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.R.; Colvin, G.E. Jr.

    1988-09-27

    This is a final report on a project entitled ''Characterization of IM7/8551-7 Carbon/Epoxy in Compression and Shear,'' for the period October 1987 to September 1988. The intent of this program is to determine the failure properties of carbon/epoxy laminates under multiaxial stress loadings, with particular emphasis on loadings involving compressive stresses. The work accomplished to date is summarized here, in the form of two published papers and a summary of other work. Appendix C contains a summary of the development of the multiaxial compression test fixture. 11 figs.

  12. Detection of aqueous phase chemical warfare agent degradation products by negative mode ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry [IM(tof)MS].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Wes E; Harden, Charles S; Hong, Feng; Klopsch, Steve J; Hill, Herbert H; McHugh, Vincent M

    2006-02-01

    The use of negative ion monitoring mode with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer [IM(tof)MS] to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products from aqueous phase samples has been determined. Aqueous phase sampling used a traditional electrospray ionization (ESI) source for sample introduction and ionization. Certified reference materials (CRM) of CWA degradation products for the detection of Schedule 1, 2, or 3 toxic chemicals or their precursors as defined by the chemical warfare convention (CWC) treaty verification were used in this study. A mixture of six G-series nerve related CWA degradation products (EMPA, IMPA, EHEP, IHEP, CHMPA, and PMPA) and their related collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions (MPA and EPA) were found in each case to be clearly resolved and detected using the IM(tof)MS instrument in negative ion monitoring mode. Corresponding ions, masses, drift times, K(o) values, and signal intensities for each of the CWA degradation products are reported. PMID:16413205

  13. SDS-PAGE analysis of Aβ oligomers is disserving research into Alzheimer´s disease: appealing for ESI-IM-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol-Pina, Rosa; Vilaprinyó-Pascual, Sílvia; Mazzucato, Roberta; Arcella, Annalisa; Vilaseca, Marta; Orozco, Modesto; Carulla, Natàlia

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) oligomer forms and structures is crucial to the advancement in the field of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Here we report a critical evaluation of two methods used for this purpose, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), extensively used in the field, and ion mobility coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), an emerging technique with great potential for oligomer characterization. To evaluate their performance, we first obtained pure cross-linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 oligomers of well-defined order. Analysis of these samples by SDS-PAGE revealed that SDS affects the oligomerization state of Aβ42 oligomers, thus providing flawed information on their order and distribution. In contrast, ESI-IM-MS provided accurate information, while also reported on the chemical nature and on the structure of the oligomers. Our findings have important implications as they challenge scientific paradigms in the AD field built upon SDS-PAGE characterization of Aβ oligomer samples.

  14. A monoclonal antibody (PL/IM 430) to human platelet intracellular membranes which inhibits the uptake of Ca2+ without affecting the Ca2+ +Mg2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Wilkinson, J M; Crawford, N

    1988-03-01

    To probe the structure-function relationships of proteins present in the endoplasmic reticulum-like intracellular membranes of human blood platelets a panel of monoclonal antibodies have been raised, using as immunogen highly purified platelet intracellular membrane vesicles isolated by continuous flow electrophoresis [Menashi, Weintroub & Crawford (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 4095-4101]. Four of these antibodies recognize a single 100 kDa polypeptide in the platelet membrane by immunoblotting. One antibody PL/IM 430 (of IgG1 subclass) inhibited (approximately 70%) the energy-dependent uptake of Ca2+ into the vesicles without affecting the Ca2+ +Mg2+-ATPase activity or the protein phosphorylation previously shown to proceed concomitantly with Ca2+ sequestration [Hack, Croset & Crawford (1986) Biochem. J. 233, 661-668]. The inhibition is independent of ATP concentration over a range 0-2 mM-ATP but shows dose-dependency for external [Ca2+] with maximum inhibition of Ca2+ translocation at concentrations of Ca2+ greater than 500 nM. This capacity of the antibody PL/IM 430 functionally to dislocate components of the intracellular membrane Ca2+ pump complex may have value in structural studies.

  15. Introduction of antibody (PL/IM 430) to a 100 kDa protein into permeabilised platelets inhibits intracellular sequestration of Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Authi, K S; Crawford, N

    1988-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody (PL/IM 430), previously found to inhibit the uptake of Ca2+ into highly purified platelet intracellular membrane vesicles (Hack, N., Wilkinson, J.M. and Crawford, N. 1988, Biochem. J. 250, 355-361) has been introduced into saponin-permeabilised platelets. At a saponin concentration (20-25 micrograms/ml) commensurate with total LDH release, sequestration of Ca2+ into intracellular non-mitochondrial stores is inhibited by the antibody (approximately 50% inhibition at 20 micrograms/ml IgG). At higher saponin concentrations when intracellular binding of 125I-labelled mAb is maximum, inhibition of Ca2+ sequestration approaches 70%. The inhibition is specific, control studies with non-platelet directed mouse IgG and mAbs which immunoblot platelet antigens other than the 100 kDa protein did not affect the Ca2+ sequestration. No effect of the antibody were observed against IP3-induced release of prestored Ca2+, either in permeabilised platelets or with isolated intracellular membrane vesicles. The mAb PL/IM 430 appears to bind only to the Ca2+ translocating channel protein associated with the intracellular membrane (Ca2+ + Mg2+) ATPase and not to Ca2+ channels responsive to IP3.

  16. A detailed investigation of the effects of molecules and defocusing in the high resolution mass spectrogram of Cassini Plasma Suites Ion Mass Spectrometer (CAPS IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappirio, M.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D. J.; Brown, S.; Simpson, D. G.; Young, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    CAPS IMS was designed to generate both a low and high resolution time of flight (TOF) mass spectra, with the low resolution spectra having a better count rate then the high resolution. The high resolution spectra is made possible by using a liner electric field (LEF) within the spectrometer to reflect those ions that retain a positive charge after passing through the carbon foils which generate the start signal. Because the LEF causes the ions to react like a mass on a spring the TOF of one cycle can be largely independent of energy. However in order to distinguish between atoms which come from molecules from those which are atomic in nature, the LEF was purposely defocused by making the electric field slightly stronger by the entrance to the TOF region then the far end. This causes low energy particles of any given species to have a shorter TOF than higher energy particles. By re-examining the original flight calibration data and analysis of additional data taken recently with the prototype model we are able to define the response of the IMS LEF to molecular species. This will allows us to develop our understanding of how to use the LEF spectra to determine relative abundances of molecular species such as O, OH, H2O and H3O within the magnetosphere of Saturn.

  17. Vacuum collection of gunpowder residues from clothing worn by shooting suspects, and their analysis by GC/TEA, IMS, and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Arie; Eldar, Baruch; Glattstein, Baruch; Koffman, Avi; Tamiri, Tsippy; Muller, Dan

    2003-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to collect gunpowder (propellant) residues from shooters' clothing by vacuum and to analyze them by gas chromatography/thermal energy analyzer (GC/TEA), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The residues were collected on fiberglass and Teflon filters using the portable vacuum sampler, all supplied with the IMS instrument. Several solvents were examined for the extraction of the propellant components from the filters. The extracts were centrifuged and/or filtered, concentrated by evaporation, and analyzed without any additional clean-up procedure. Based on the results of the study, an operational method for analysis of gunpowder residues was introduced into casework without changing the present operational technique for gunshot (primer) residue (GSR) analysis on clothing implemented by the Israel Police. In the modified method, the clothing is first sampled by double-side adhesive-coated aluminum stubs (the tape-lift method) for GSR analysis (the existing method), followed by vacuum collection for propellant residue examination. The issue of interpretation of the analytical results is discussed.

  18. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes.

  19. SDS-PAGE analysis of Aβ oligomers is disserving research into Alzheimer´s disease: appealing for ESI-IM-MS

    PubMed Central

    Pujol-Pina, Rosa; Vilaprinyó-Pascual, Sílvia; Mazzucato, Roberta; Arcella, Annalisa; Vilaseca, Marta; Orozco, Modesto; Carulla, Natàlia

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) oligomer forms and structures is crucial to the advancement in the field of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Here we report a critical evaluation of two methods used for this purpose, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), extensively used in the field, and ion mobility coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), an emerging technique with great potential for oligomer characterization. To evaluate their performance, we first obtained pure cross-linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 oligomers of well-defined order. Analysis of these samples by SDS-PAGE revealed that SDS affects the oligomerization state of Aβ42 oligomers, thus providing flawed information on their order and distribution. In contrast, ESI-IM-MS provided accurate information, while also reported on the chemical nature and on the structure of the oligomers. Our findings have important implications as they challenge scientific paradigms in the AD field built upon SDS-PAGE characterization of Aβ oligomer samples. PMID:26450154

  20. Brennraumdruckregelung von Dieselmotoren mit homogener Kompressionszündung (HCCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, Martin

    In den letzten Jahren ist die Zahl der neu zugelassenen Dieselfahrzeuge stark gestiegen. Diese Entwicklung ist zum einen darauf zurückzuführen, dass der Dieselmotor im Vergleich zum Ottomotor einen besseren thermischen Wirkungsgrad aufweist. Einhergehend damit ist der Kraftstoffverbrauch und somit der CO2-Ausstoß im Gegensatz zum Ottomotor deutlich geringer. Zum anderen hat der Dieselmotor im Bereich Fahrspaß und -komfort durch Einzug der Direkteinspritzung basierend auf Common-Rail-Systemen und durch effiziente Abgasturbolader mit variabler Turbinengeometrie (VTG) deutlich an Akzeptanz gewonnen.