Science.gov

Sample records for pubchem bioassay resource

  1. An overview of the PubChem BioAssay resource.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Bolton, Evan; Dracheva, Svetlana; Karapetyan, Karen; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Suzek, Tugba O; Wang, Jiyao; Xiao, Jewen; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    The PubChem BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological activities of small molecules and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). It archives experimental descriptions of assays and biological test results and makes the information freely accessible to the public. A PubChem BioAssay data entry includes an assay description, a summary and detailed test results. Each assay record is linked to the molecular target, whenever possible, and is cross-referenced to other National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database records. 'Related BioAssays' are identified by examining the assay target relationship and activity profile of commonly tested compounds. A key goal of PubChem BioAssay is to make the biological activity information easily accessible through the NCBI information retrieval system-Entrez, and various web-based PubChem services. An integrated suite of data analysis tools are available to optimize the utility of the chemical structure and biological activity information within PubChem, enabling researchers to aggregate, compare and analyze biological test results contributed by multiple organizations. In this work, we describe the PubChem BioAssay database, including data model, bioassay deposition and utilities that PubChem provides for searching, downloading and analyzing the biological activity information contained therein.

  2. PubChem BioAssay: 2017 update

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.; Cheng, Tiejun; Wang, Jiyao; Gindulyte, Asta; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Thiessen, Paul A.; He, Siqian; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    PubChem's BioAssay database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) has served as a public repository for small-molecule and RNAi screening data since 2004 providing open access of its data content to the community. PubChem accepts data submission from worldwide researchers at academia, industry and government agencies. PubChem also collaborates with other chemical biology database stakeholders with data exchange. With over a decade's development effort, it becomes an important information resource supporting drug discovery and chemical biology research. To facilitate data discovery, PubChem is integrated with all other databases at NCBI. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay database describing several recent development including added sources of research data, redesigned BioAssay record page, new BioAssay classification browser and new features in the Upload system facilitating data sharing. PMID:27899599

  3. PubChem BioAssay: 2014 update

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Suzek, Tugba; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jiyao; He, Siqian; Cheng, Tiejun; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Gindulyte, Asta; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    PubChem’s BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for archiving biological tests of small molecules generated through high-throughput screening experiments, medicinal chemistry studies, chemical biology research and drug discovery programs. In addition, the BioAssay database contains data from high-throughput RNA interference screening aimed at identifying critical genes responsible for a biological process or disease condition. The mission of PubChem is to serve the community by providing free and easy access to all deposited data. To this end, PubChem BioAssay is integrated into the National Center for Biotechnology Information retrieval system, making them searchable by Entrez queries and cross-linked to other biomedical information archived at National Center for Biotechnology Information. Moreover, PubChem BioAssay provides web-based and programmatic tools allowing users to search, access and analyze bioassay test results and metadata. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay resource, such as information content growth, new developments supporting data integration and search, and the recently deployed PubChem Upload to streamline chemical structure and bioassay submissions. PMID:24198245

  4. Scrubchem: Building Bioactivity Datasets from Pubchem Bioassay Data (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PubChem Bioassay database is a non-curated public repository with data from 64 sources, including: ChEMBL, BindingDb, DrugBank, EPA Tox21, NIH Molecular Libraries Screening Program, and various other academic, government, and industrial contributors. Methods for extracting th...

  5. PubChem as a public resource for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingliang; Cheng, Tiejun; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-12-01

    PubChem is a public repository of small molecules and their biological properties. Currently, it contains more than 25 million unique chemical structures and 90 million bioactivity outcomes associated with several thousand macromolecular targets. To address the potential utility of this public resource for drug discovery, we systematically summarized the protein targets in PubChem by function, 3D structure and biological pathway. Moreover, we analyzed the potency, selectivity and promiscuity of the bioactive compounds identified for these biological targets, including the chemical probes generated by the NIH Molecular Libraries Program. As a public resource, PubChem lowers the barrier for researchers to advance the development of chemical tools for modulating biological processes and drug candidates for disease treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Java API for working with PubChem datasets.

    PubMed

    Southern, Mark R; Griffin, Patrick R

    2011-03-01

    PubChem is a public repository of chemical structures and associated biological activities. The PubChem BioAssay database contains assay descriptions, conditions and readouts and biological screening results that have been submitted by the biomedical research community. The PubChem web site and Power User Gateway (PUG) web service allow users to interact with the data and raw files are available via FTP. These resources are helpful to many but there can also be great benefit by using a software API to manipulate the data. Here, we describe a Java API with entity objects mapped to the PubChem Schema and with wrapper functions for calling the NCBI eUtilities and PubChem PUG web services. PubChem BioAssays and associated chemical compounds can then be queried and manipulated in a local relational database. Features include chemical structure searching and generation and display of curve fits from stored dose-response experiments, something that is not yet available within PubChem itself. The aim is to provide researchers with a fast, consistent, queryable local resource from which to manipulate PubChem BioAssays in a database agnostic manner. It is not intended as an end user tool but to provide a platform for further automation and tools development. http://code.google.com/p/pubchemdb.

  7. An efficient algorithm coupled with synthetic minority over-sampling technique to classify imbalanced PubChem BioAssay data.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H

    2014-01-02

    It is common that imbalanced datasets are often generated from high-throughput screening (HTS). For a given dataset without taking into account the imbalanced nature, most classification methods tend to produce high predictive accuracy for the majority class, but significantly poor performance for the minority class. In this work, an efficient algorithm, GLMBoost, coupled with Synthetic Minority Over-sampling TEchnique (SMOTE) is developed and utilized to overcome the problem for several imbalanced datasets from PubChem BioAssay. By applying the proposed combinatorial method, those data of rare samples (active compounds), for which usually poor results are generated, can be detected apparently with high balanced accuracy (Gmean). As a comparison with GLMBoost, Random Forest (RF) combined with SMOTE is also adopted to classify the same datasets. Our results show that the former (GLMBoost+SMOTE) not only exhibits higher performance as measured by the percentage of correct classification for the rare samples (Sensitivity) and Gmean, but also demonstrates greater computational efficiency than the latter (RF+SMOTE). Therefore, we hope that the proposed combinatorial algorithm based on GLMBoost and SMOTE could be extensively used to tackle the imbalanced classification problem.

  8. Scrubchem: Building Bioactivity Datasets from Pubchem ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The PubChem Bioassay database is a non-curated public repository with data from 64 sources, including: ChEMBL, BindingDb, DrugBank, EPA Tox21, NIH Molecular Libraries Screening Program, and various other academic, government, and industrial contributors. Methods for extracting this public data into quality datasets, useable for analytical research, presents several big-data challenges for which we have designed manageable solutions. According to our preliminary work, there are approximately 549 million bioactivity values and related meta-data within PubChem that can be mapped to over 10,000 biological targets. However, this data is not ready for use in data-driven research, mainly due to lack of structured annotations.We used a pragmatic approach that provides increasing access to bioactivity values in the PubChem Bioassay database. This included restructuring of individual PubChem Bioassay files into a relational database (ScrubChem). ScrubChem contains all primary PubChem Bioassay data that was: reparsed; error-corrected (when applicable); enriched with additional data links from other NCBI databases; and improved by adding key biological and assay annotations derived from logic-based language processing rules. The utility of ScrubChem and the curation process were illustrated using an example bioactivity dataset for the androgen receptor protein. This initial work serves as a trial ground for establishing the technical framework for accessing, integrating, cu

  9. Exploiting PubChem for Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances. Areas covered in this review This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling. What the reader will gain These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed. Take home message Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design. PMID:21691435

  10. PubChem structure-activity relationship (SAR) clusters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Han, Lianyi; Yu, Bo; Hähnke, Volker D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Developing structure-activity relationships (SARs) of molecules is an important approach in facilitating hit exploration in the early stage of drug discovery. Although information on millions of compounds and their bioactivities is freely available to the public, it is very challenging to infer a meaningful and novel SAR from that information. Research discussed in the present paper employed a bioactivity-centered clustering approach to group 843,845 non-inactive compounds stored in PubChem according to both structural similarity and bioactivity similarity, with the aim of mining bioactivity data in PubChem for useful SAR information. The compounds were clustered in three bioactivity similarity contexts: (1) non-inactive in a given bioassay, (2) non-inactive against a given protein, and (3) non-inactive against proteins involved in a given pathway. In each context, these small molecules were clustered according to their two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) structural similarities. The resulting 18 million clusters, named "PubChem SAR clusters", were delivered in such a way that each cluster contains a group of small molecules similar to each other in both structure and bioactivity. The PubChem SAR clusters, pre-computed using publicly available bioactivity information, make it possible to quickly navigate and narrow down the compounds of interest. Each SAR cluster can be a useful resource in developing a meaningful SAR or enable one to design or expand compound libraries from the cluster. It can also help to predict the potential therapeutic effects and pharmacological actions of less-known compounds from those of well-known compounds (i.e., drugs) in the same cluster.

  11. PubChem applications in drug discovery: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tiejun; Pan, Yongmei; Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis of PubChem applications is presented by reviewing 1132 research articles. The massive volume of chemical structure and bioactivity data in PubChem and its online services have been used globally in various fields including chemical biology, medicinal chemistry and informatics research. PubChem supports drug discovery in many aspects such as lead identification and optimization, compound-target profiling, polypharmacology studies and unknown chemical identity elucidation. PubChem has also become a valuable resource for developing secondary databases, informatics tools and web services. The growing PubChem resource with its public availability offers support and great opportunities for the interrogation of pharmacological mechanisms and the genetic basis of diseases, which are vital for drug innovation and repurposing.

  12. PubChem applications in drug discovery: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tiejun; Pan, Yongmei; Hao, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis of PubChem applications is presented by reviewing 1132 research articles. The massive volume of chemical structure and bioactivity data in PubChem and its online services has been used globally in various fields including chemical biology, medicinal chemistry and informatics research. PubChem supports drug discovery in many aspects such as lead identification and optimization, compound–target profiling, polypharmacology studies and unknown chemical identity elucidation. PubChem has also become a valuable resource for developing secondary databases, informatics tools and web services. The growing PubChem resource with its public availability offers support and great opportunities for the interrogation of pharmacological mechanisms and the genetic basis of diseases, which are vital for drug innovation and repurposing. PMID:25168772

  13. PubChem: a public information system for analyzing bioactivities of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Jewen; Suzek, Tugba O; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jiyao; Bryant, Stephen H

    2009-07-01

    PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological properties of small molecules hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem BioAssay database currently contains biological test results for more than 700 000 compounds. The goal of PubChem is to make this information easily accessible to biomedical researchers. In this work, we present a set of web servers to facilitate and optimize the utility of biological activity information within PubChem. These web-based services provide tools for rapid data retrieval, integration and comparison of biological screening results, exploratory structure-activity analysis, and target selectivity examination. This article reviews these bioactivity analysis tools and discusses their uses. Most of the tools described in this work can be directly accessed at http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assay/. URLs for accessing other tools described in this work are specified individually.

  14. PubChem atom environments.

    PubMed

    Hähnke, Volker D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Atom environments and fragments find wide-spread use in chemical information and cheminformatics. They are the basis of prediction models, an integral part in similarity searching, and employed in structure search techniques. Most of these methods were developed and evaluated on the relatively small sets of chemical structures available at the time. An analysis of fragment distributions representative of most known chemical structures was published in the 1970s using the Chemical Abstracts Service data system. More recently, advances in automated synthesis of chemicals allow millions of chemicals to be synthesized by a single organization. In addition, open chemical databases are readily available containing tens of millions of chemical structures from a multitude of data sources, including chemical vendors, patents, and the scientific literature, making it possible for scientists to readily access most known chemical structures. With this availability of information, one can now address interesting questions, such as: what chemical fragments are known today? How do these fragments compare to earlier studies? How unique are chemical fragments found in chemical structures? For our analysis, after hydrogen suppression, atoms were characterized by atomic number, formal charge, implicit hydrogen count, explicit degree (number of neighbors), valence (bond order sum), and aromaticity. Bonds were differentiated as single, double, triple or aromatic bonds. Atom environments were created in a circular manner focused on a central atom with radii from 0 (atom types) up to 3 (representative of ECFP_6 fragments). In total, combining atom types and atom environments that include up to three spheres of nearest neighbors, our investigation identified 28,462,319 unique fragments in the 46 million structures found in the PubChem Compound database as of January 2013. We could identify several factors inflating the number of environments involving transition metals, with many

  15. Getting the most out of PubChem for virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-09-01

    With the emergence of the 'big data' era, the biomedical research community has great interest in exploiting publicly available chemical information for drug discovery. PubChem is an example of public databases that provide a large amount of chemical information free of charge. This article provides an overview of how PubChem's data, tools, and services can be used for virtual screening and reviews recent publications that discuss important aspects of exploiting PubChem for drug discovery. PubChem offers comprehensive chemical information useful for drug discovery. It also provides multiple programmatic access routes, which are essential to build automated virtual screening pipelines that exploit PubChem data. In addition, PubChemRDF allows users to download PubChem data and load them into a local computing facility, facilitating data integration between PubChem and other resources. PubChem resources have been used in many studies for developing bioactivity and toxicity prediction models, discovering polypharmacologic (multi-target) ligands, and identifying new macromolecule targets of compounds (for drug-repurposing or off-target side effect prediction). These studies demonstrate the usefulness of PubChem as a key resource for computer-aided drug discovery and related area.

  16. The PubChem chemical structure sketcher

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    PubChem is an important public, Web-based information source for chemical and bioactivity information. In order to provide convenient structure search methods on compounds stored in this database, one mandatory component is a Web-based drawing tool for interactive sketching of chemical query structures. Web-enabled chemical structure sketchers are not new, being in existence for years; however, solutions available rely on complex technology like Java applets or platform-dependent plug-ins. Due to general policy and support incident rate considerations, Java-based or platform-specific sketchers cannot be deployed as a part of public NCBI Web services. Our solution: a chemical structure sketching tool based exclusively on CGI server processing, client-side JavaScript functions, and image sequence streaming. The PubChem structure editor does not require the presence of any specific runtime support libraries or browser configurations on the client. It is completely platform-independent and verified to work on all major Web browsers, including older ones without support for Web2.0 JavaScript objects. PMID:20298522

  17. The PubChem chemical structure sketcher.

    PubMed

    Ihlenfeldt, Wolf D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2009-12-17

    PubChem is an important public, Web-based information source for chemical and bioactivity information. In order to provide convenient structure search methods on compounds stored in this database, one mandatory component is a Web-based drawing tool for interactive sketching of chemical query structures. Web-enabled chemical structure sketchers are not new, being in existence for years; however, solutions available rely on complex technology like Java applets or platform-dependent plug-ins. Due to general policy and support incident rate considerations, Java-based or platform-specific sketchers cannot be deployed as a part of public NCBI Web services. Our solution: a chemical structure sketching tool based exclusively on CGI server processing, client-side JavaScript functions, and image sequence streaming. The PubChem structure editor does not require the presence of any specific runtime support libraries or browser configurations on the client. It is completely platform-independent and verified to work on all major Web browsers, including older ones without support for Web2.0 JavaScript objects.

  18. Web search and data mining of natural products and their bioactivities in PubChem.

    PubMed

    Ming, Hao; Tiejun, Cheng; Yanli, Wang; Stephen, Bryant H

    2013-10-01

    Natural products, as major resources for drug discovery historically, are gaining more attentions recently due to the advancement in genomic sequencing and other technologies, which makes them attractive and amenable to drug candidate screening. Collecting and mining the bioactivity information of natural products are extremely important for accelerating drug development process by reducing cost. Lately, a number of publicly accessible databases have been established to facilitate the access to the chemical biology data for small molecules including natural products. Thus, it is imperative for scientists in related fields to exploit these resources in order to expedite their researches on natural products as drug leads/candidates for disease treatment. PubChem, as a public database, contains large amounts of natural products associated with bioactivity data. In this review, we introduce the information system provided at PubChem, and systematically describe the applications for a set of PubChem web services for rapid data retrieval, analysis, and downloading of natural products. We hope this work can serve as a starting point for the researchers to perform data mining on natural products using PubChem.

  19. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Riddell, A E; Filipy, R; Bertelli, L; Little, T; Guilmette, R

    2007-01-01

    Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry and depend, ultimately, for their scientific validation on comparisons with human bioassay data. Three significant plutonium/americium bioassay databases, known to the authors, are described: (1) Sellafield, (2) Los Alamos and (3) the United States Transuranium Registry. A case is made for a uniform standard for database format, and the XML standard is discussed.

  20. PUG-SOAP and PUG-REST: web services for programmatic access to chemical information in PubChem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-07-01

    PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, developed and maintained by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem contains more than 180 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures and 225 million bioactivity assay results, covering more than 9000 unique protein target sequences. As an information resource for the chemical biology research community, it routinely receives more than 1 million requests per day from an estimated more than 1 million unique users per month. Programmatic access to this vast amount of data is provided by several different systems, including the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Entrez Utilities (E-Utilities or E-Utils) and the PubChem Power User Gateway (PUG)-a common gateway interface (CGI) that exchanges data through eXtended Markup Language (XML). Further simplifying programmatic access, PubChem provides two additional general purpose web services: PUG-SOAP, which uses the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and PUG-REST, which is a Representational State Transfer (REST)-style interface. These interfaces can be harnessed in combination to access the data contained in PubChem, which is integrated with the more than thirty databases available within the NCBI Entrez system.

  1. Effects of multiple conformers per compound upon 3-D similarity search and bioassay data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To improve the utility of PubChem, a public repository containing biological activities of small molecules, the PubChem3D project adds computationally-derived three-dimensional (3-D) descriptions to the small-molecule records contained in the PubChem Compound database and provides various search and analysis tools that exploit 3-D molecular similarity. Therefore, the efficient use of PubChem3D resources requires an understanding of the statistical and biological meaning of computed 3-D molecular similarity scores between molecules. Results The present study investigated effects of employing multiple conformers per compound upon the 3-D similarity scores between ten thousand randomly selected biologically-tested compounds (10-K set) and between non-inactive compounds in a given biological assay (156-K set). When the “best-conformer-pair” approach, in which a 3-D similarity score between two compounds is represented by the greatest similarity score among all possible conformer pairs arising from a compound pair, was employed with ten diverse conformers per compound, the average 3-D similarity scores for the 10-K set increased by 0.11, 0.09, 0.15, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.18 for STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt, respectively, relative to the corresponding averages computed using a single conformer per compound. Interestingly, the best-conformer-pair approach also increased the average 3-D similarity scores for the non-inactive–non-inactive (NN) pairs for a given assay, by comparable amounts to those for the random compound pairs, although some assays showed a pronounced increase in the per-assay NN-pair 3-D similarity scores, compared to the average increase for the random compound pairs. Conclusion These results suggest that the use of ten diverse conformers per compound in PubChem bioassay data analysis using 3-D molecular similarity is not expected to increase the separation of non-inactive from random and inactive

  2. Data mining a small molecule drug screening representative subset from NIH PubChem.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-03-01

    PubChem is a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiatives. It is a compound repository created to facilitate information exchange and data sharing among the NIH Roadmap-funded Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) and the scientific community. However, PubChem has more than 10 million records of compound information. It will be challenging to conduct a drug screening of the whole database of millions of compounds. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a data mining cheminformatics approach in order to construct a representative and structure-diverse sublibrary from the large PubChem database. In this study, a new chemical diverse representative subset, rePubChem, was selected by whole-molecule chemistry-space matrix calculation using the cell-based partition algorithm. The representative subset was generated and was then subjected to evaluations by compound property analyses based on 1D and 2D molecular descriptors. The new subset was also examined and assessed for self-similarity analysis based on 2D molecular fingerprints in comparing with the source compound library. The new subset has a much smaller library size (540K compounds) with minimum similarity and redundancy without loss of the structural diversity and basic molecular properties of its parent library (5.3 million compounds). The new representative subset library generated could be a valuable structure-diverse compound resource for in silico virtual screening and in vitro HTS drug screening. In addition, the established subset generation method of using the combined cell-based chemistry-space partition metrics with pairwised 2D fingerprint-based similarity search approaches will also be important to a broad scientific community interested in acquiring structurally diverse compounds for efficient drug screening, building representative virtual combinatorial chemistry libraries for syntheses, and data mining large compound databases like the PubChem library in general.

  3. Chloramphenicol bioassay.

    PubMed

    Bannatyne, R M; Cheung, R

    1979-07-01

    An accurate plate diffusion bioassay for chloramphenicol is described, in which the fast-replicating Beneckea natriegens and 1.5% salt agar are used. Zones of inhibition were well defined after 3 h, and the limit of sensitivity of the method was around 2 mug/ml. The concurrent presence of gentamicin did not influence the assay. The assay is simple to carry out and duplicate assays can be performed with as little as 100 mug of capillary blood.

  4. Ticarcillin bioassay.

    PubMed

    Bannatyne, R M; Cheung, R

    1981-10-01

    An accurate, plate diffusion bioassay for ticarcillin, utilizing the fast-replicating Beneckea natriegens and 4% salt agar, is described in this report. Zones of inhibition were well defined after 3 h, and the limit of sensitivity was around 5.0 mug/ml. The assay is simple to carry out, and duplicate assays can be performed on as little as 40 mul of serum.

  5. Ultrafast PubChem searching combined with improved filtering rules for elemental composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Lommen, Arjen

    2014-06-03

    A new and improved software tool for elemental composition annotation of molecular ions detected in mass spectrometry, based on improved filtering rules followed by ultrafast querying in publicly available compound databases, is provided. Pubchem is used as a general source of 1.3 million unique chemical formulas. A plant metabolomics database containing ca. 100,000 formulas is used as a source of naturally occurring compounds. Four modes with different sets of rules for heuristic filtering of candidate formulas coming from elemental composition analysis are incorporated and tested on both databases. The elemental composition analysis is then coupled to ultrafast PubChem searching based on a mass-indexed intermediate system. The performance of the filters is compared and discussed. When reactive compounds are assumed not to be present, 99.95% of the 1.3 million PubChem formulas is correctly found, while ca. 30% less formulas per mass are given compared to previously published rules. For the ca. 100,000 plant metabolomics based formulas, 100% fit the improved rules.

  6. Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Toxicity bioassays: Water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Profiling animal toxicants by automatically mining public bioassay data: a big data approach for computational toxicology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Zhu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    In vitro bioassays have been developed and are currently being evaluated as potential alternatives to traditional animal toxicity models. Already, the progress of high throughput screening techniques has resulted in an enormous amount of publicly available bioassay data having been generated for a large collection of compounds. When a compound is tested using a collection of various bioassays, all the testing results can be considered as providing a unique bio-profile for this compound, which records the responses induced when the compound interacts with different cellular systems or biological targets. Profiling compounds of environmental or pharmaceutical interest using useful toxicity bioassay data is a promising method to study complex animal toxicity. In this study, we developed an automatic virtual profiling tool to evaluate potential animal toxicants. First, we automatically acquired all PubChem bioassay data for a set of 4,841 compounds with publicly available rat acute toxicity results. Next, we developed a scoring system to evaluate the relevance between these extracted bioassays and animal acute toxicity. Finally, the top ranked bioassays were selected to profile the compounds of interest. The resulting response profiles proved to be useful to prioritize untested compounds for their animal toxicity potentials and form a potential in vitro toxicity testing panel. The protocol developed in this study could be combined with structure-activity approaches and used to explore additional publicly available bioassay datasets for modeling a broader range of animal toxicities.

  9. Benchmarking Ligand-Based Virtual High-Throughput Screening with the PubChem Database

    PubMed Central

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Lowe, Edward W.; Mueller, Ralf; Mendenhall, Jeffrey L.; Teixeira, Pedro L.; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing availability of High-Throughput Screening (HTS) data in the public domain, such as the PubChem database, methods for ligand-based computer-aided drug discovery (LB-CADD) have the potential to accelerate and reduce the cost of probe development and drug discovery efforts in academia. We assemble nine data sets from realistic HTS campaigns representing major families of drug target proteins for benchmarking LB-CADD methods. Each data set is public domain through PubChem and carefully collated through confirmation screens validating active compounds. These data sets provide the foundation for benchmarking a new cheminformatics framework BCL::ChemInfo, which is freely available for non-commercial use. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models are built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Decision Trees (DTs), and Kohonen networks (KNs). Problem-specific descriptor optimization protocols are assessed including Sequential Feature Forward Selection (SFFS) and various information content measures. Measures of predictive power and confidence are evaluated through cross-validation, and a consensus prediction scheme is tested that combines orthogonal machine learning algorithms into a single predictor. Enrichments ranging from 15 to 101 for a TPR cutoff of 25% are observed. PMID:23299552

  10. Distributed chemical computing using ChemStar: an open source java remote method invocation architecture applied to large scale molecular data from PubChem.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, M; Krishnan, S; Pandey, Anil Kumar; Bender, Andreas; Tropsha, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    We present the application of a Java remote method invocation (RMI) based open source architecture to distributed chemical computing. This architecture was previously employed for distributed data harvesting of chemical information from the Internet via the Google application programming interface (API; ChemXtreme). Due to its open source character and its flexibility, the underlying server/client framework can be quickly adopted to virtually every computational task that can be parallelized. Here, we present the server/client communication framework as well as an application to distributed computing of chemical properties on a large scale (currently the size of PubChem; about 18 million compounds), using both the Marvin toolkit as well as the open source JOELib package. As an application, for this set of compounds, the agreement of log P and TPSA between the packages was compared. Outliers were found to be mostly non-druglike compounds and differences could usually be explained by differences in the underlying algorithms. ChemStar is the first open source distributed chemical computing environment built on Java RMI, which is also easily adaptable to user demands due to its "plug-in architecture". The complete source codes as well as calculated properties along with links to PubChem resources are available on the Internet via a graphical user interface at http://moltable.ncl.res.in/chemstar/.

  11. Structuring Chemical Space: Similarity-Based Characterization of the PubChem Database.

    PubMed

    Cincilla, Giovanni; Thormann, Michael; Pons, Miquel

    2010-01-12

    The ensemble of conceivable molecules is referred to as the Chemical Space. In this article we describe a hierarchical version of the Affinity Propagation (AP) clustering algorithm and apply it to analyze the LINGO-based similarity matrix of a 500 000-molecule subset of the PubChem database, which contains more than 19 million compounds. The combination of two highly efficient methods, namely the AP clustering algorithm and LINGO-based molecular similarity calculations, allows the unbiased analysis of large databases. Hierarchical clustering generates a numerical diagonalization of the similarity matrix. The target-independent, intrinsic structure of the database , derived without any previous information on the physical or biological properties of the compounds, maps together molecules experimentally shown to bind the same biological target or to have similar physical properties.

  12. Water Powered Bioassay System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    capillary micropump 27 Figure 30: Slow dripping/separation of a droplet from a capillary 4.1.5 Micro Osmotic Pumping Nano Droplet...stored and delivered fluidic pressure and, with a combination of pumps and valves, formed the basic micro fluidic processing unit. The addition of...System, Microvalve, Micro -Accumulator, Micro Dialysis Needle, Bioassay System, Water Activated, Micro Osmotic Pump 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  13. AFOEHL Bioassay Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    analysis, ANOVA, or non-parametric methods depending on the data collected. b. Claderoceran ( Ceriodaphnia dubia) Survival and Reproduction Test (Weber...different stimuli. BIOASSAY: An experimentally-based approach to determine if a living organism is impacted by some stimulus. CERIODAPHNIA : A very small... reproduction , activity, or any other measurable parameter. LC50 (Lethal Concentration, 50%): The concentration of a stimulus in water that will kill 50% of the

  14. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources Hearing or speech impairment - resources Heart disease - resources Hemophilia - resources Herpes - resources Incest - resources Incontinence - ...

  15. Bioassay for assessing marine contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lapota, D.; Copeland, H.; Mastny, G.; Rosenberger, D.; Duckworth, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Qwiklite bioassay, developed by the laboratory at NCCOSC, is used as a biological tool to gauge the extent of environmental contamination. Some species of marine phytoplankton produce bioluminescence. The Qwiklite bioassay determines acute response and chronic effects of a wide variety of toxicants upon bioluminescent dinotlagellates by measuring their light output after exposure.

  16. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  17. BioAssay Ontology (BAO): a semantic description of bioassays and high-throughput screening results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the main strategies to identify novel entry points for the development of small molecule chemical probes and drugs and is now commonly accessible to public sector research. Large amounts of data generated in HTS campaigns are submitted to public repositories such as PubChem, which is growing at an exponential rate. The diversity and quantity of available HTS assays and screening results pose enormous challenges to organizing, standardizing, integrating, and analyzing the datasets and thus to maximize the scientific and ultimately the public health impact of the huge investments made to implement public sector HTS capabilities. Novel approaches to organize, standardize and access HTS data are required to address these challenges. Results We developed the first ontology to describe HTS experiments and screening results using expressive description logic. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO) serves as a foundation for the standardization of HTS assays and data and as a semantic knowledge model. In this paper we show important examples of formalizing HTS domain knowledge and we point out the advantages of this approach. The ontology is available online at the NCBO bioportal http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/44531. Conclusions After a large manual curation effort, we loaded BAO-mapped data triples into a RDF database store and used a reasoner in several case studies to demonstrate the benefits of formalized domain knowledge representation in BAO. The examples illustrate semantic querying capabilities where BAO enables the retrieval of inferred search results that are relevant to a given query, but are not explicitly defined. BAO thus opens new functionality for annotating, querying, and analyzing HTS datasets and the potential for discovering new knowledge by means of inference. PMID:21702939

  18. Functional bioassays utilizing zooplankton: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McNaught, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Functional zooplankton bioassays based on ingestion, reproduction and respiration are described, with methods for a new ingestion bioassay included. All bioassays are compared using three indices, including the variability of controls, the range of experimental responses, and a listing of contaminants causing inhibition/stimulation of response. The ingestion bioassay showed the greatest range of response, and was sensitive to pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. It was also commonly characterized by a hormesis response. The reproduction bioassay showed the lowest variability, illustrated a reduced range of response, and was sensitive to nutrients and heavy metals. In one study, the respiration bioassay was sensitive only to PCBs.

  19. Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. June 1986-February 1990 (A bibliography from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for June 1986-February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity-bioassay studies of water-pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic animals and plants. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fishes and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (This updated bibliography contains 145 citations, 51 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  1. Bioassays on Illinois Waterway Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    promelas (the fathead min- now) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna...NUMBER OF PAGES Acute Cadmium Daphnia magna Pimephales promelas 110 Ammonia Chronic Elutriate Sediment 16. PRICE CODE Bioassay Cladoceran Fathead minnow 17...11 Acute (48-hr) Bioassays with Daphnia magna ... ........... .. 11 Acute (48-hr) Bioassays with Pimephales

  2. Animal carcinogenicity studies: 3. Alternatives to the bioassay.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew; Bailey, Jarrod; Balcombe, Jonathan

    2006-02-01

    Conventional animal carcinogenicity tests take around three years to design, conduct and interpret. Consequently, only a tiny fraction of the thousands of industrial chemicals currently in use have been tested for carcinogenicity. Despite the costs of hundreds of millions of dollars and millions of skilled personnel hours, as well as millions of animal lives, several investigations have revealed that animal carcinogenicity data lack human specificity (i.e. the ability to identify human non-carcinogens), which severely limits the human predictivity of the bioassay. This is due to the scientific inadequacies of many carcinogenicity bioassays, and numerous serious biological obstacles, which render profoundly difficult any attempts to accurately extrapolate animal data in order to predict carcinogenic hazards to humans. Proposed modifications to the conventional bioassays have included the elimination of mice as a second species, and the use of genetically-altered or neonatal mice, decreased study durations, initiation-promotion models, the greater incorporation of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic assessments, structure-activity relationship (computerised) systems, in vitro assays, cDNA microarrays for detecting changes in gene expression, limited human clinical trials, and epidemiological research. The potential advantages of non-animal assays when compared to bioassays include the superior human specificity of the results, substantially reduced time-frames, and greatly reduced demands on financial, personnel and animal resources. Inexplicably, however, the regulatory agencies have been frustratingly slow to adopt alternative protocols. In order to decrease the enormous cost of cancer to society, a substantial redirection of resources away from excessively slow and resource-intensive rodent bioassays, into the further development and implementation of non-animal assays, is both strongly justified and urgently required.

  3. Bioassays and Inactivation of Prions.

    PubMed

    Giles, Kurt; Woerman, Amanda L; Berry, David B; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2017-08-01

    The experimental study of prions requires a model for their propagation. However, because prions lack nucleic acids, the simple techniques used to replicate bacteria and viruses are not applicable. For much of the history of prion research, time-consuming bioassays in animals were the only option for measuring infectivity. Although cell models and other in vitro tools for the propagation of prions have been developed, they all suffer limitations, and animal bioassays remain the gold standard for measuring infectivity. A wealth of recent data argues that both β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins form prions that cause Alzheimer's disease, and α-synuclein forms prions that cause multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease. Cell and animal models that recapitulate some of the key features of cell-to-cell spreading and distinct strains of prions can now be measured. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. DSSTOX NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM BIOASSAY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NTPBSI: National Toxicology Program Bioassay On-line Database Structure-Index Locator File. Database contains the results collected on approxiately 300 toxicity studies from shorter duration test and from genetic toxicity studies, both in vitro and in vivo tests. Database contains the results collected on approxiately 300 toxicity studies from shorter duration test and from genetic toxicity studies, both in vitro and in vivo tests.

  5. The importance of behavioural bioassays in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard E; Bolivar, Sarah

    2017-05-26

    The behavioural bioassay is fundamental to research in behavioural neuroscience. A described by Tinbergen, behaviour is measured to answer questions about development, mechanisms, adaptation and evolution. Chemical assays, bioassays, and behavioural bioassays have been developed for detecting and quantifying substances such as neurotransmitters, hormones, and toxins and for measuring behaviour. This paper begins with an overview of these methods and then focuses on how behavioural bioassays are developed. Ethograms and qualitative descriptions of behaviour units are discussed. Sampling and recording rules are then considered, along with quantitative descriptions of the behaviours being observed. The paper concludes with examples of behavioural bioassays used for detecting various internal and external stimuli, along with considerations such as the complexity of the stimuli and the problem of measuring "psychological" states such as anxiety, from behaviour. Suggestions are made for improving the validity and reliability of behavioural bioassays in neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Mao, Xun; Gurung, Anant; Baloda, Meenu; Lin, Yuehe; He, Yuqing

    2010-08-31

    This book chapter summarizes the recent advance in nanomaterials for electrochemical biosensors and bioassays. Biofunctionalization of nanomaterials for biosensors fabrication and their biomedical applications are discussed.

  7. Virtual screening and repositioning of inconclusive molecules of beta-lactamase Bioassays-A data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Gad, Akshata; Manuel, Andrew Titus; K R, Jinuraj; John, Lijo; R, Sajeev; V G, Shanmuga Priya; U C, Abdul Jaleel

    2017-07-29

    This study focuses on the best possible way forward in utilizing inconclusive molecules of PubChem bioassays AID 1332, AID 434987 and AID 434955, which are related to beta-lactamase inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The inadequacy in the experimental methods that were observed during the invitro screening resulted in an inconclusive dataset. This could be due to certain moieties present within the molecules. In order to reconsider such molecules, insilico methods can be suggested in place of invitro methods For instance, datamining and medicinal chemistry methods: have been adopted to prioritise the inconclusive dataset into active or inactive molecules. These include the Random Forest algorithm for dataminning, Lilly MedChem rules for virtually screening out the promiscuity, and Self Organizing Maps (SOM) for clustering the active molecules and enlisting them for repositioning through the use of artificial neural networks. These repositioned molecules could then be prioritized for downstream drug discovery analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoparticle-Based Biosensors and Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-10-11

    In this book chapter, we review the recent advances in nanoparticles based bioassay. The nanoparticles include quantum dots, silica nanoparticles and apoferritin nanoparticles. The new nanoparticles-based labels hold great promise for multiplex protein and DNA detection and for enhancing the sensitivity of other bioassays.

  9. Bioassays Based on Molecular Nanomechanics

    DOE PAGES

    Majumdar, Arun

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that when specific biomolecular interactions are confined to one surface of a microcantilever beam, changes in intermolecular nanomechanical forces provide sufficient differential torque to bend the cantilever beam. This has been used to detect single base pair mismatches during DNA hybridization, as well as prostate specific antigen (PSA) at concentrations and conditions that are clinically relevant for prostate cancer diagnosis. Since cantilever motion originates from free energy change induced by specific biomolecular binding, this technique is now offering a common platform for label-free quantitative analysis of protein-protein binding, DNA hybridization DNA-protein interactions, and in general receptor-ligandmore » interactions. Current work is focused on developing “universal microarrays” of microcantilever beams for high-throughput multiplexed bioassays.« less

  10. in Silico analysis of Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase (PPK) as a novel antimicrobial drug target and its high throughput virtual screening against PubChem library.

    PubMed

    Saha, Saurav Bhaskar; Verma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in bacteria is a global health challenge that needs urgent attention. The 2011 outbreak caused by Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe has exposed the inability of present antibiotic arsenal to tackle the problem of antimicrobial infections. It has further posed a tremendous burden on entire pharmaceutical industry to find novel drugs and/or drug targets. Polyphosphate kinase (PPK) in bacteria plays a crucial role in helping latter to adapt to stringent conditions of low nutritional availability thus making it a good target for antibacterials. In spite of this critical role, to best of our knowledge no in-silico work has been carried out to develop PPK as an antibiotic target. In the present study, virtual screening of PPK was carried out against all the 3D compounds with pharmacological action present in PubChem database. Our screening results were further refined by interaction maps to eliminate the false positive data respectively. From our results, compound number 5281927 (PubChem ID) has been found to have significant affinity towards affinity towards PPK active ATP-binding site indicating its therapeutic relevance.

  11. A bioaccumulation bioassay for freshwater sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Noguchi, George E.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Edsall, Carol C.; Shoesmith, John A.; Bowker, James D.

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for determining the bioavailability of contaminants from freshwater sediments. The bioassay consists of 10-d exposures to whole sediments under flow-through conditions. After testing five species, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the earthworm (Lubricus terrestris) were recommended for use in the test. When the availability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg and Zn from Great Lakes sediments was examined in laboratory exposures, only the PCBs were accumulated. A field validation study demonstrated that the magnitude of accumulation in laboratory exposures was similar to that in organisms caged in the field. A protocol is recommended for using the test as a standardized bioaccumulation bioassay.

  12. Two-generation saccharin bioassays.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, D L

    1983-01-01

    The controversy regarding the safety of saccharin for human consumption started shortly after its discovery over 100 years ago and has yet to subside appreciably. The consumption of saccharin, particularly in North America, began to escalate when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration set new standards of identity which allowed foods containing artificial sweeteners to be promoted as "nonnutritive" or "noncaloric" sweeteners for use by the general public. In 1969, when cyclamates were banned, at least 10 single-generation feeding studies were undertaken with saccharin to more accurately assess the potential toxicological consequences resulting from the anticipated increase in its consumption. None of these studies resulted in any overt regulatory action. Subsequently, the introduction of the two-generation chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity bioassay added a new tool to the toxicologist's arsenal. Three two-generation studies using saccharin have since been conducted. The results from these studies clearly show that when rats were exposed to diets containing 5 or 7.5% sodium saccharin from the time of conception to death, an increased frequency of urinary bladder cancers was found, predominantly in the males. While some study results suggested that impurities in commercial saccharin or the presence of urinary tract calculi may have been responsible for the observed bladder tumors, it now appears that these possibilities are highly unlikely. The mechanism by which saccharin elicited the bladder tumors using the two-generation experiment has not been ascertained. PMID:6347682

  13. Two-generation saccharin bioassays.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D L

    1983-04-01

    The controversy regarding the safety of saccharin for human consumption started shortly after its discovery over 100 years ago and has yet to subside appreciably. The consumption of saccharin, particularly in North America, began to escalate when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration set new standards of identity which allowed foods containing artificial sweeteners to be promoted as "nonnutritive" or "noncaloric" sweeteners for use by the general public. In 1969, when cyclamates were banned, at least 10 single-generation feeding studies were undertaken with saccharin to more accurately assess the potential toxicological consequences resulting from the anticipated increase in its consumption. None of these studies resulted in any overt regulatory action. Subsequently, the introduction of the two-generation chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity bioassay added a new tool to the toxicologist's arsenal. Three two-generation studies using saccharin have since been conducted. The results from these studies clearly show that when rats were exposed to diets containing 5 or 7.5% sodium saccharin from the time of conception to death, an increased frequency of urinary bladder cancers was found, predominantly in the males. While some study results suggested that impurities in commercial saccharin or the presence of urinary tract calculi may have been responsible for the observed bladder tumors, it now appears that these possibilities are highly unlikely. The mechanism by which saccharin elicited the bladder tumors using the two-generation experiment has not been ascertained.

  14. SATURATION UNITS FOR USE IN AQUATIC BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed for preparing liquid; liquid and glass wool column saturators for generating chemical stock solutions for conducting aquatic bioassays. Stock solutions for over 80 organic chemicals were prepared using these saturation units. The primary purpose of toxican...

  15. Bioassay criteria for environmental restoration workers

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) work at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site posed questions concerning when to perform bioassay monitoring of workers for potential intakes of radioactivity. Application of criteria originally developed for use inside radionuclide processing facilities to ER work resulted in overly restrictive bioassay requirements. ER work typically involves site characterization or, excavating large quantities of potentially contaminated soil, rather than working with concentrated quantities of radioactivity as in a processing facility. An improved approach, tailored to ER work, provided soil contamination concentrations above which worker bioassay would be required. Soil concentrations were derived assuming acute or chronic intakes of 2% of an Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), or a potential committed effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem, and conservative dust loading of air from the work. When planning ER work, the anticipated soil concentration and corresponding need for bioassay could be estimated from work-site historical records. Once site work commenced, soil sampling and work-place surveys could be used to determine bioassay needs. This approach substantially reduced the required number of bioassay samples with corresponding reductions in analytical costs, schedules, and more flexible work-force management. (Work supported by the US Department of Energy under contract DOE-AC06-76RLO 1830.)

  16. A Colorimetric Bioassay for Perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinnickel, M. L.; Smith, S.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Recognition of perchlorate (ClO4-) as a widespread contaminant across the United States and its potential adverse affects towards human health has motivated the EPA to place ClO4- on its contaminant candidate list for drinking water supplies. While a federal MCL has not yet been set, a recommended public health goal of 1 ppb (μg.L-1) was established by the US EPA in 2002. To date, methods of detection require use of sensitive ion chromatographic equipment that are expensive, time consuming, and require highly trained personnel for use. Our studies are focused on the development of a highly sensitive, simple, and robust colorimetric bioassay based on the primary enzyme involved in microbial ClO4- reduction, the perchlorate reductase (Pcr). A previously published assay used reduced methyl viologen (MV, the dye is reduced with sodium hydrosulfite) as an electron donor to demonstrate Pcr activity. The assay directly correlates the amount of MV oxidized with the amount of ClO4- reduced by assuming a transfer of four electrons. To test this assumption, we compared actual concentrations of MV oxidized to ClO4- reduced in this assay. ClO4- concentrations were determined using a Dionex ICS-500 ion chromatography system, while MV concentrations were determined using a standard curve generated at 578 nm. Comparisons between the two revealed that twelve molecules of MV were oxidized for each molecule of ClO4- reduced. The oxidation of these additional eight MV molecules is explained by the interaction of the dye with chlorite (the product of the Pcr reaction) and other contaminants that could be present in the enzyme prep. This unsettling result indicated this assay would be problematic for the detection of ClO4- in soil, which has many chemicals that could react with MV. To improve upon this assay, we have tried to reduce ClO4- using less reactive dyes and reductants. The reductants ascorbic acid, NADH, and dithiothreitol drive Pcr catalyzed ClO4- reduction, however, they

  17. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  18. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  19. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  20. Expectations for transgenic rodent cancer bioassay models.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J

    2001-01-01

    The results of the present study have advanced dramatically the database on transgenic mouse abbreviated carcinogenicity bioassay models. As such, it will provide a secure foundation for future evaluations of these assays and for their eventual validation as models for the prediction of possible human carcinogens. Based upon the results derived from the present study, it is suggested that 5 areas require discussion as a prelude to the further evaluation of existing models and the future evaluation of new models. First, there is the need to agree a standard list of calibration chemicals to be studied and to derive agreement on optimal bioassay group sizes, statistical methods, and exposure periods. Second, general agreement must be reached regarding the classes/types of known rodent carcinogens so that it is acceptable for the new models to find negative, by implication, those rodent carcinogens considered not to pose a carcinogenic hazard to humans. Third, current understanding of mechanisms of carcinogenesis should be integrated into the evaluation of new bioassay models. Fourth, any changes made to the standard rodent carcinogenicity bioassay protocol will require compromises being made, and these should be commonly owned between interested parties in order to reduce the number of regional/agency-specific carcinogenicity testing schemes. Fifth, a mechanism needs to be developed by which assays can be adopted or rejected for use in the routine bioassay of chemicals. In the absence of such initiatives the increasing number of new bioassay models will come to exist along side of the standard 2-species bioassay, and this may potentially lead to confusion regarding the true future role of these assays.

  1. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  2. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UO3 PLANT BIOASSAY

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2010-07-12

    Alternative urine bioassay programs are described for application with decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Hanford UO3 Plant. The alternatives are based on quarterly or monthly urine bioassay for recycled uranium, assuming multiple acute inhalation intakes of recycled uranium occurring over a year. The inhalations are assumed to be 5µm AMAD particles of 80% absorption type F and 20% absorption type M. Screening levels, expressed as daily uranium mass excretion rates in urine, and the actions associated with these levels are provided for both quarterly and monthly sampling frequencies.

  3. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Tang, Janet Y M; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, arylhydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  4. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I.; Leusch, Frederic D.L.; Tang, Janet Y.M.; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M.; Snyder, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  5. Behavioral bioassays and their uses in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, Todd M; Lampert, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The swimming behaviors of Tetrahymena can be used in sensitive behavioral bioassays for estimating the effects of drugs, mutations, and other conditions on the physiological state of the cell. These assays can be used in both forward and reverse genetic approaches to help understand cellular functions from genotype to phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Facile silicification of plastic surface for bioassays.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seonki; Park, Ki Soo; Weissleder, Ralph; Castro, Cesar M; Lee, Hakho

    2017-02-09

    We herein report a biomimetic technique to modify plastic substrates for bioassays. The method first places a polydopamine adhesion layer to plastic surface, and then grows conformal silica coating. As proof of principle, we coated plastic microbeads to construct a disposable filter for point-of-care nucleic acid extraction.

  7. Micro-organism distribution sampling for bioassays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Purpose of sampling distribution is to characterize sample-to-sample variation so statistical tests may be applied, to estimate error due to sampling (confidence limits) and to evaluate observed differences between samples. Distribution could be used for bioassays taken in hospitals, breweries, food-processing plants, and pharmaceutical plants.

  8. Development of new bioassay protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, K.M.; Merrill, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The chapter explains the philosophy and usefulness of a phased approach in assessing potential environmental hazards of stationary source emissions, and gives examples of the experience and success of the approach to date. Recognition of the problems associated with the environmental release of wastes has resulted in environmental legislation, including the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts and their various amendments, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The U.S. EPA has developed an environmental-assessment program for obtaining such information for waste streams. The wastes from industrial and energy-conversion processes constitute a major source of exposure for humans and other organisms. Large quantities of such wastes are released annually to the environment in gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. Exposure by organisms is by direct inhalation, ingestion, or absorption through food-web transfer.

  9. Review and evaluation of the NCI/NTP carcinogenesis bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Hottendorf, G.H.; Pachter, I.J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the carcinogenesis bioassay results obtained by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) indicates that approximately one-half of the bioassays directed by both institutions were positive for carcinogenicity. The more recent 85 bioassays completed by NTP reveal a higher proportion of studies interpreted as demonstrating no evidence of carcinogenicity than represented in the initial 198 bioassays conducted by NCI. Of the 100 NCI bioassays that were not positive for carcinogenicity 3 (3%) were classified in the category of ''no evidence for carcinogenicity in two animal species.'' Of the 43 NTP bioassays that were not positive for carcinogenicity 36 (84%) were placed in the category of ''no carcinogenic effects.'' The reason for this shift from a 33:1 positive to negative ratio in the NCI bioassays to an approximately 1:1 ratio in the NTP bioassays appears to be a difference in interpretation of the adequacy of the testing. Uniform criteria for concluding that a bioassay is negative must be developed and the results of all existing and future carcinogenesis bioassays must be interpreted with these exclusive criteria. Other bioassay problems are explored, including the incomplete validation of the carcinogenesis bioassay protocol by confirmatory results with positive and negative reference agents, the apparent lack of bioavailability data for some orally administered negative compounds, the continued use of mouse hepatic neoplasia as a single discriminating parameter, the variability in the inter- and intrastudy incidence of spontaneous tumors, and the continued reliance on the maximum tolerated dose.

  10. Brine Shrimp Bioassays: A Useful Technique in Biological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Stanley A.; Maness, Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    A technique to measure the potency of leaf compounds against herbivores with the use of a bioassay is described. Bioassays are useful in classes where students have career plans like medicine in which bioassays can be used as tools for screening plants for possible medicinal potency.

  11. Brine Shrimp Bioassays: A Useful Technique in Biological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Stanley A.; Maness, Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    A technique to measure the potency of leaf compounds against herbivores with the use of a bioassay is described. Bioassays are useful in classes where students have career plans like medicine in which bioassays can be used as tools for screening plants for possible medicinal potency.

  12. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Year-round pollen producion can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality.

  13. Bioassays--procedures and results. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Maciorowski, A.F.; Little, L.W.; Raynor, L.F.; Sims, R.C.; Sims, J.L.

    1982-06-01

    Bioassay procedures to describe, evaluate, and predict potential hazards of toxic materials to organisms, ecosystems, and health-related aspects of polluted waters is the topic of this literature review with 325 references.The goal of synthesizing these diverse theoretical, methodological, and procedure entities into an integrated multidisciplinary approach is to evaluate environmental hazards of toxic substances. Specific pollutants toxic to aquatic organisms are reviewed including chlorine, ionizing radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, detergents and metals. (KRM)

  14. A Nisin Bioassay Based on Bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Wahlström, G.; Saris, P. E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain that can sense the bacteriocin nisin and transduce the signal into bioluminescence was constructed. By using this strain, a bioassay based on bioluminescence was developed for quantification of nisin, for detection of nisin in milk, and for identification of nisin-producing strains. As little as 0.0125 ng of nisin per ml was detected within 3 h by this bioluminescence assay. This detection limit was lower than in previously described methods. PMID:10427078

  15. Environmental Quality Research: Fish and Aufwuchs Bioassay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    toxicity of the rocket fuel, hydrazine, to the estuarine fish species, three- spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and aufwuchs. 2. Gas...The 96-hr LC 50 of hydrazine to three- spine sticklebacks was 3.4 mg/i (nominal initial concentration) using 24 hr solution renewal, but the estimated...lack of proper nutrients. A static bioassay of the effect of hydrazine on the 3- spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has been completed in the bay

  16. The great bioassay hoax, and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.H.; Champ, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent literature reveals large variations in results of bioassays, such as those proposed for solid waste testing. Sources of variation are categorized, and an estimate is made of the range in test results attributable to each source category. The age of the test organism is potentially the largest source of variation, and has effects up to five orders of magnitude on the outcome of bioassays. Other sources of variation have effects of several orders of magnitude, and nearly all sources have at least one-order-of-magnitude effect. It is concluded that bioassays cannot be used to predict the impact of contaminants introduced to an ecosystem or population, and therefore serve poorly as a tool in pollution management. Three criteria are proposed for judging the utility of any pollution evaluation technique. These are: the ability to incorporate good scientific practice in any application: the relationship of the measured response to the natural field response; and the relationship of the measured response to important ecosystem processes. Multi-species tests in micro- and mesocosms usually satisfy these criteria better than single-species tests, and may also be used to help develop simpler tests that satisfy these criteria. The focus of impact evaluation must be on growth, reproduction, and survival and parameters that can be related readily to them. Lastly, pollution management schemes have always recognized that human interests are the sole standard of which ecosystem effects are ''harmful,'' and which are not.

  17. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  18. In-situ bioassays using caged bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    It is important to make the distinction between chemical measurements to assess bioaccumulation potential versus biological measurements to assess potential bioeffects because bioaccumulation is not a bioeffect. Caging provides a unique opportunity to make synoptic measurements of each and facilitates making these measurements over space and time. Measuring bioaccumulation in resident and transplanted bivalves has probably been the most frequently used form of an in-situ bioassay because bivalves concentrate chemicals in their tissues. They are also easy to collect, cage, and measure. The authors have refined bivalve bioassay methods by minimizing the size range of test animals, making repetitive measurements of the same individuals, and standardizing test protocols for a variety of applications. They are now attempting to standardize criteria for accepting and interpreting data in the same way that laboratory bioassays have been standardized. Growth measurements can serve two purposes in this assessment strategy: (1) An integrated biological response endpoint that is easily quantifiable and with significance to the population, and (2) A means of calibrating bioaccumulation by assessing the relative health and physiological state of tissues that have accumulated the chemicals. In general, the authors have found the highest bioconcentration factors associated with the highest growth rates, the highest concentrations ({micro}g/g) of chemicals in juvenile mussels, and the highest chemical content ({micro}g/animal) in adult mussels. Without accounting for possible dilution of chemical concentrations by tissue growth or magnification through degrowth, contaminant concentrations can be misleading. Examples are provided for the Sudbury River in Massachusetts (Elliptio complanata), San Diego Bay (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and the Harbor Island Superfund Site in Puget Sound (Mytilus trossulus).

  19. Bioassay of diarylanilide yellow for possible carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A bioassay of technical-grade diarylanilide yellow for possible carcinogenicity was conducted using Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Diarylanilide yellow was administered in the feed, at either of two concentrations, to groups of 50 male and 50 female animals of each species. The high and low dietary concentrations used in the chronic study for the male and female rats and mice were 5.0 and 2.5 percent, respectively, of the chemical in the feed. After a 78-week treatment period, observation of the rats continued for an additional 28 weeks and observation of the mice continued for an additional 19 weeks for high dose males and low and high dose females and 18 weeks for low dose males. For each species, 50 animals of each sex were placed on test as controls, and fed only the basal diet. The high concentration administered to both species in this study was the maximum recommended in the Guidelines for Carcinogen Bioassay in Small Rodents. These guidelines indicate that a chronic dietary level of 5 percent, or 50,000 ppm, should not be exceeded even when no signs of toxicity are observed during subchronic testing, except under special circumstances (e.g., when the compound is a major component of the human diet). No toxic effects were reported during subchronic testing and diarylanilide yellow did not qualify for exception; therefore, the highest permissible concentration (5 percent) was utilized in the chronic bioassay. The dietary concentrations of diarylanilide yellow administered during the chronic bioassay had no significant effect on survival or body weight gain in either species. Except for yellow staining and some isolated neoplasms, the only adverse clinical sign or pathologic lesion observed in treated rats or mice was basophilic cytoplasm changes in hepatocytes of treated rats. In both species the survival in all groups was adequate for statistical analysis of late-appearing tumors. No treatment-related increase in the incidence of neoplasms or

  20. A Multichannel Bioluminescence Determination Platform for Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Naganawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    The present protocol introduces a multichannel bioluminescence determination platform allowing a high sample throughput determination of weak bioluminescence with reduced standard deviations. The platform is designed to carry a multichannel conveyer, an optical filter, and a mirror cap. The platform enables us to near-simultaneously determine ligands in multiple samples without the replacement of the sample tubes. Furthermore, the optical filters beneath the multichannel conveyer are designed to easily discriminate colors during assays. This optical system provides excellent time- and labor-efficiency to users during bioassays.

  1. Aspartame bioassay findings portend human cancer hazards.

    PubMed

    Huff, James; LaDou, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should reevaluate its position on aspartame as being safe under all conditions. Animal bioassay results predict human cancer risks, and a recent animal study confirms that there is a potential aspartame risk to humans. Aspartame is produced and packaged in China for domestic use and global distribution. Japan, France, and the United States are also major producers. No study of long-term adverse occupational health effects on aspartame workers have been conducted. The FDA should consider sponsoring a prospective epidemiologic study of aspartame workers.

  2. Sediment acute toxicity testing utilizing short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of two new bioassays for acute toxicity assessments of sediments. A bacterial bioassay based on inhibition of alpha-glucosidase biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis and a 48-hour lethality bioassay employing the benthic cladoceran, Chydorus sphaericus. were evaluated by direct comparisons with standard bioassays, using sediment samples collected from various sites in Florida. This study showed that the bioassay based on inhibition of alpha-glucosidase biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis was useful in the acute toxicity screening of sediment elutriates. In regards to Escambia County, Florida samples, the assay was comparable with the Microtox assay and was especially sensitive for samples containing metals. To determine an appropriate procedure for assessing hydrophobic contaminants of sediments in the B. licheniformis bioassay, two extracting procedures were compared. Based on the responses in the Microtox bioassay, shaking sediment samples in methylene chloride produced extracts that were significantly higher in toxicity than extracts obtained by sonication for eight of the ten sediment samples tested. Comparisons of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as exchange solvents revealed that there was generally no significant difference between these solvents in terms of toxicity in the Microtox assay. Solvent extracts prepared by shaking and exchanged into methanol showed lower toxicity in the B. licheniformis bioassay than in the Microtox assay. Observed sediment toxicity in both bioassays was expressed in terms of the equivalent dry weight concentration of sediment causing 50% inhibition of the assay organism.

  3. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems.

    PubMed Central

    Feder, W A

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. Tube growth rates in the presence of a range of ozone dosages, of pollen populations exhibiting differing ozone sensitivity can be measured and different growth rates can be correlated with ozone dosages. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Petunia and tobacco pollen are especially useful because they store well at ordinary freezer temperatures and do not require special preparation prior to storage. Modified Brewbacker's growth medium is suitable for growth of both these pollen types. Four useful cultivars are Bel W-3, ozone-sensitive and Bel B, ozone-tolerant tobacco, and White Bountiful, ozone-sensitive and Blue Lagoon, ozone-tolerant petunia. Observations can be made directly by using a TV scanner, or by time lapse or interval photography. Year-round pollen production can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:7460876

  4. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  5. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  6. Signal Amplification of Bioassay Using Zinc Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Chad L.

    An emerging trend in the analytical detection sciences is the employment of nanomaterials for bioassay signal transduction to identify analytes critical to public health. These nanomaterials have been specifically investigated for applications which require identification of trace levels of cells, proteins, or other molecules that can have broad ranging impacts to human health in fields such as clinical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food and drink control, and the prevention of bioterrorism. Oftentimes these nanoparticle-based signal transduction or amplification approaches offer distinct advantages over conventional methods such as increased sensitivity, rapidity, or stability. The biological application of nanoparticles however, does suffer from drawbacks that have limited more widespread adoption of these techniques. Some of these drawbacks are, high cost and toxicity, arduous synthesis methods, functionalization and bioconjugation challenges, and laboratory disposal and environmental hazard issues, all of which have impeded the progression of this technology in some way or another. This work aims at developing novel techniques that offer solutions to a number of these hurdles through the development of new nanoparticle-based signal transduction approaches and the description of a previously undescribed nanomaterial. Zinc-based nanomaterials offer the opportunity to overcome some of the limitations that are encountered when other nanomaterials are employed for bioassay signal transduction. On the other hand, the biological application of zinc nanomaterials has been difficult because in general their fluorescence is in the blue range and the reported quantum yields are usually too low for highly sensitive applications. The advantages of using zinc nanomaterials for biological applications, such as reduced toxicity, simple synthesis, low cost, and straightforward functionalization strategies contribute to the research interest in their application as

  7. A bioassay for the measurement of insecticide concentration.

    PubMed

    Grant, R J

    2001-10-01

    A bioassay was developed to measure insecticide residues using fruit flies (Drosophila melongaster). After adding a known volume of sampling solution, the time at which 50% of the flies were dead (LT(50)) was recorded and cross-referenced to the appropriate calibration curve. Using known standards, comparable results were obtained using the bioassay and GC-MS. The bioassay allows concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids as low as 1 pg L(-1) to be measured with a variance of < 5%. The bioassay can be used reliably over a wide range of temperatures and it is tolerant to a range of pH and surface tensions of the test solution. The whole bioassay is compact, physically robust, and simple to use; hence, it could be of use in the field as a quick preliminary assessment of water contamination.

  8. Cell-based bioassays in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itle, Laura J.; Zguris, Jeanna C.; Pishko, Michael V.

    2004-12-01

    The development of cell-based bioassays for high throughput drug screening or the sensing of biotoxins is contingent on the development of whole cell sensors for specific changes in intracellular conditions and the integration of those systems into sample delivery devices. Here we show the feasibility of using a 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1, acetoxymethyl ester, acetate, a fluorescent dye capable of responding to changes in intracellular pH, as a detection method for the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide. We used photolithography to entrap cells with this dye within poly(ethylene) glyocol diacrylate hydrogels in microfluidic channels. After 18 hours of exposure to lipopolysaccharide, we were able to see visible changes in the fluorescent pattern. This work shows the feasibility of using whole cell based biosensors within microfluidic networks to detect cellular changes in response to exogenous agents.

  9. Plasmonically amplified fluorescence bioassay with microarray format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogalic, S.; Hageneder, S.; Ctortecka, C.; Bauch, M.; Khan, I.; Preininger, Claudia; Sauer, U.; Dostalek, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal in bioassays with microarray detection format is reported. A crossed relief diffraction grating was designed to couple an excitation laser beam to surface plasmons at the wavelength overlapping with the absorption and emission bands of fluorophore Dy647 that was used as a label. The surface of periodically corrugated sensor chip was coated with surface plasmon-supporting gold layer and a thin SU8 polymer film carrying epoxy groups. These groups were employed for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies at arrays of spots. The plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal on the developed microarray chip was tested by using interleukin 8 sandwich immunoassay. The readout was performed ex situ after drying the chip by using a commercial scanner with high numerical aperture collecting lens. Obtained results reveal the enhancement of fluorescence signal by a factor of 5 when compared to a regular glass chip.

  10. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C.; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400–800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72–24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25568813

  11. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-12-02

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400-800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72-24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally.

  12. Evaluating the efficacy of biological and conventional insecticides with the new 'MCD bottle' bioassay.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Waite, Jessica L; Thomas, Matthew B

    2014-12-16

    Control of mosquitoes requires the ability to evaluate new insecticides and to monitor resistance to existing insecticides. Monitoring tools should be flexible and low cost so that they can be deployed in remote, resource poor areas. Ideally, a bioassay should be able to simulate transient contact between mosquitoes and insecticides, and it should allow for excito-repellency and avoidance behaviour in mosquitoes. Presented here is a new bioassay, which has been designed to meet these criteria. This bioassay was developed as part of the Mosquito Contamination Device (MCD) project and, therefore, is referred to as the MCD bottle bioassay. Presented here are two experiments that serve as a proof-of-concept for the MCD bottle bioassay. The experiments used four insecticide products, ranging from fast-acting, permethrin-treated, long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) that are already widely used for malaria vector control, to the slower acting entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, that is currently being evaluated as a prospective biological insecticide. The first experiment used the MCD bottle to test the effect of four different insecticides on Anopheles stephensi with a range of exposure times (1 minute, 3 minutes, 1 hour). The second experiment is a direct comparison of the MCD bottle and World Health Organization (WHO) cone bioassay that tests a subset of the insecticides (a piece of LLIN and a piece of netting coated with B. bassiana spores) and a further reduced exposure time (5 seconds) against both An. stephensi and Anopheles gambiae. Immediate knockdown and mortality after 24 hours were assessed using logistic regression and daily survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Across both experiments, fungus performed much more consistently than the chemical insecticides but measuring the effect of fungus required monitoring of mosquito mortality over several days to a week. Qualitatively, the MCD bottle and WHO cone performed comparably

  13. Metal oxide surfaces for enhanced colorimetric response in bioassays.

    PubMed

    Bonyi, Enock; Kukoyi, Zeenat; Daodu, Oluseyi; Boone-Kukoyi, Zainab; Coskun, Sahin; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Aslan, Kadir

    2017-06-01

    Physical stability of metal nanoparticle films on planar surfaces can be increased by employing surface modification techniques and/or type of metal nanoparticles. Subsequently, the enzymatic response of colorimetric bioassays can be increased for improved dynamic range for the detection of biomolecules. Using a model bioassay b-BSA, three planar platforms (1) poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with silver thin films (STFs), (2) silver nanowires (Ag NWs) on paper and (3) indium tin oxide (ITO) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were evaluated to investigate the extent of increase in the colorimetric signal. Bioassays for b-BSA and Ki-67 antigen (a real-life bioassay) in buffer were performed using microwave heating (total assay time is 25-30min) and at room temperature (a control experiment, total assay time is 3h). Model bioassays showed that STFs were removed from the surface during washing steps and the extent of ITO remained unchanged. The lowest level of detection (LLOD) for b-BSA bioassays were: 10(-10)M for 10nm STFs on PMMA and Ag NWs on paper and 10(-11)M for ITO. Bioassays for Ki-67 antigen yielded a LLOD of <10(-9)M on ITO platforms, while STFs platforms were deemed unusable due to significant loss of STFs from the surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioassays as one of the Green Chemistry tools for assessing environmental quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Wieczerzak, M; Namieśnik, J; Kudłak, B

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, mankind has contributed to irreversible environmental changes, but due to the modern science of recent decades, scientists are able to assess the scale of this impact. The introduction of laws and standards to ensure environmental cleanliness requires comprehensive environmental monitoring, which should also meet the requirements of Green Chemistry. The broad spectrum of Green Chemistry principle applications should also include all of the techniques and methods of pollutant analysis and environmental monitoring. The classical methods of chemical analyses do not always match the twelve principles of Green Chemistry, and they are often expensive and employ toxic and environmentally unfriendly solvents in large quantities. These solvents can generate hazardous and toxic waste while consuming large volumes of resources. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable techniques that would not only meet the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry, but they could also complement and sometimes provide an alternative to conventional classical analytical methods. These alternatives may be found in bioassays. Commercially available certified bioassays often come in the form of ready-to-use toxkits, and they are easy to use and relatively inexpensive in comparison with certain conventional analytical methods. The aim of this study is to provide evidence that bioassays can be a complementary alternative to classical methods of analysis and can fulfil Green Analytical Chemistry criteria. The test organisms discussed in this work include single-celled organisms, such as cell lines, fungi (yeast), and bacteria, and multicellular organisms, such as invertebrate and vertebrate animals and plants.

  15. Information for establishing bioassay measurements and evaluations of tritium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, A.

    1983-06-01

    This report summarizes information and references used in developing regulatory guidance on programs for the bioassay of tritium as well as information useful in planning and conducting tritium bioassay programs and evaluating bioassay data. A review of literature on tritium radiobiology is included to provide a ready source of information useful for estimating internal doses of tritium and risks for the various tritium compounds and forms, including elemental (gaseous) tritium. Simplified and conservative dose conversion factors are derived and tabulated for easy reference in program planning, safety evaluations, and compliance determinations.

  16. Bioassay of tetrachlorvinphos for possible carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A bioassay of technical-grade tetrachlorvinphos for possible carcinogenicity was conducted by administering the test chemical in feed to Osborne-Mendel rats and B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50 rats of each sex were administered tetrachlorvinphos at one of two doses for 80 weeks, then observed for 31 additional weeks. Time-weighted average doses were either 4,250 or 8,500 ppm. Matched controls consisted of groups of 10 untreated rats of each sex; pooled controls, used for statistical evaluation, consisted of the matched controls combined with 45 untreated male and 45 untreated female rats from similar bioassays of four other test chemicals. All surviving rats were killed at 111 weeks. Groups of 50 mice of each sex were administered tetrachlorvinphos at one of two doses, either 8,000 or 16,000 ppm, for 80 weeks, then observed for 12 additional weeks. Matched controls consisted of groups of 10 untreated mice of each sex; pooled controls, used for statistical evaluation, consisted of the matched controls combined with 40 untreated male and 40 untreated female mice from similar bioassays of four other test chemicals. All surviving mice were killed at 90-92 weeks. The mean body weights of the treated rats and mice were generally lower than those of the matched controls; however, the mortality rate was affected adversely by tetrachlorvinphos only in the male rats. Survival of all groups of rats and mice was adequate for meaningful statistical analyses of the incidence of tumors, except for a matched-control group of female rats for which the survival was abnormally low. In rats, C-cell adenoma of the thyroid showed a significant dose-related trend in the females, using pooled controls (controls 1/46, low-dose 2/50, high-dose 7/46, P=0.013), and by direct comparison, an increased incidence in the high-dose group (P=0.027). High incidences of C-cell hyperplasia in treated males and females further indicated a chemical-related effect on proliferative lesions of the thyroid

  17. Bioassay-Directed Fractionation of Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are being developed as alternatives to petroleum-derived products, but published research is contradictory regarding the mutagenic activity of such emissions relative to those from petroleum diesel. We performed bioassay-directed fractionation and analyzed the polycyclic...

  18. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  19. Bioassay-Directed Fractionation of Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are being developed as alternatives to petroleum-derived products, but published research is contradictory regarding the mutagenic activity of such emissions relative to those from petroleum diesel. We performed bioassay-directed fractionation and analyzed the polycyclic...

  20. Correction of Spray Concentration and Bioassay Cage Penetration Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    analysis were deployed. Mosquito mortality was monitored using Townzen type bioassay cages (Townzen and Natvig 1973) (16 cm diam 3 4 cm depth; with T-310...into holding cups and mortality counts were made 24 h after treatment. Mosquitoes were considered dead if unresponsive to gentle prodding. Overall insect...Bioassay Cage Penetration Data Author(s): Bradley K. Fritz , W. Clint Hoffmann , Keith Haas , and Jane Bonds Source: Journal of the American Mosquito

  1. A novel bioassay to monitor fungicide sensitivity in Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Ngando, Josué E; Rieux, Adrien; Nguidjo, Oscar; Pignolet, Luc; Dubois, Cécile; Mehl, Andreas; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Carlier, Jean; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD) is the most important disease of bananas for export. The successful control of BLSD requires an intensive use of systemic fungicides, leading to the build-up of resistance and failure of control. Early detection of fungicide resistance is crucial to drive rational chemical strategies. Present methods relying on ascospore germination bioassays have several drawbacks that could be overcome using conidia. Generally, a single genotype is present on the conidial population derived from one lesion. Conidial germination tests with thiabendazole (5 mg L(-1)) enable a clear detection of strains resistant to methyl benzimidazole carbamates. Germination bioassays on azoxystrobin (10 mg L(-1)) enable the detection of most QoI-resistant strains, but their proportion might be underestimated with cut-off limits of germ tube length (L > 120 µm) or growth inhibition (GI < 50%). The level of fungicide resistance differs at different canopy levels of a banana tree, which should be considered for sampling. The ascospore germination bioassay provided more variable estimations of the level of resistance by comparison with the new conidial germination bioassay. Germination bioassays performed with conidia obtained from young lesions overcome most drawbacks encountered with ascospore germination bioassays and could be considered as a new reference method for fungicide resistance monitoring in this species. Different steps are proposed, from sampling to microscopic examinations, for the implementation of this technique. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparison of laboratory batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays.

    PubMed

    Clément, Bernard J P; Delhaye, Hélène L; Triffault-Bouchet, Gaëlle G

    2014-10-01

    Since 1997, we have been developing a protocol for ecotoxicological bioassays in 2-L laboratory microcosms and have applied it to the study of various pollutants and ecotoxicological risk assessment scenarios in the area of urban facilities and transport infrastructures. The effects on five different organisms (micro-algae, duckweeds, daphnids, amphipods, chironomids) are assessed using biological responses such as growth, emergence (chironomids), reproduction (daphnids) and survival, with a duration of exposure of 3 weeks. This bioassay has mainly been used as a batch bioassay, i.e., the water was not renewed during the test. A flow-through microcosm bioassay has been developed recently, with the assumption that conditions for the biota should be improved, variability reduced, and the range of exposure patterns enlarged (e.g., the possibility of maintaining constant exposure in the water column). This paper compares the results obtained in batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays, using cadmium as a model toxicant. As expected, the stabilization of physico-chemical parameters, increased organism fitness and reduced variability were observed in the flow-through microcosm bioassay.

  3. Acarine attractants: Chemoreception, bioassay, chemistry and control

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Ann L.; Roe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Acari are of significant economic importance in crop production and human and animal health. Acaricides are essential for the control of these pests, but at the same time, the number of available pesticides is limited, especially for applications in animal production. The Acari consist of two major groups, the mites that demonstrate a wide variety of life strategies, i.e., herbivory, predation and ectoparasitism, and ticks which have evolved obligatory hematophagy. The major sites of chemoreception in the acarines are the chelicerae, palps and tarsi on the forelegs. A unifying name, the “foretarsal sensory organ” (FSO), is proposed for the first time in this review for the sensory site on the forelegs of all acarines. The FSO has multiple sensory functions including olfaction, gustation, and heat detection. Preliminary transcriptomic data in ticks suggest that chemoreception in the FSO is achieved by a different mechanism from insects. There are a variety of laboratory and field bioassay methods that have been developed for the identification and characterization of attractants but minimal techniques for electrophysiology studies. Over the past three to four decades, significant progress has been made in the chemistry and analysis of function for acarine attractants in mites and ticks. In mites, attractants include aggregation, immature female, female sex and alarm pheromones; in ticks, the attraction–aggregation–attachment, assembly and sex pheromones; in mites and ticks host kairomones and plant allomones; and in mites, fungal allomones. There are still large gaps in our knowledge of chemical communication in the acarines compared to insects, especially relative to acarine pheromones, and more so for mites than ticks. However, the use of lure-and-kill and lure-enhanced biocontrol strategies has been investigated for tick and mite control, respectively, with significant environmental advantages which warrant further study. PMID:27265828

  4. Acarine attractants: Chemoreception, bioassay, chemistry and control.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Roe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Acari are of significant economic importance in crop production and human and animal health. Acaricides are essential for the control of these pests, but at the same time, the number of available pesticides is limited, especially for applications in animal production. The Acari consist of two major groups, the mites that demonstrate a wide variety of life strategies, i.e., herbivory, predation and ectoparasitism, and ticks which have evolved obligatory hematophagy. The major sites of chemoreception in the acarines are the chelicerae, palps and tarsi on the forelegs. A unifying name, the "foretarsal sensory organ" (FSO), is proposed for the first time in this review for the sensory site on the forelegs of all acarines. The FSO has multiple sensory functions including olfaction, gustation, and heat detection. Preliminary transcriptomic data in ticks suggest that chemoreception in the FSO is achieved by a different mechanism from insects. There are a variety of laboratory and field bioassay methods that have been developed for the identification and characterization of attractants but minimal techniques for electrophysiology studies. Over the past three to four decades, significant progress has been made in the chemistry and analysis of function for acarine attractants in mites and ticks. In mites, attractants include aggregation, immature female, female sex and alarm pheromones; in ticks, the attraction-aggregation-attachment, assembly and sex pheromones; in mites and ticks host kairomones and plant allomones; and in mites, fungal allomones. There are still large gaps in our knowledge of chemical communication in the acarines compared to insects, especially relative to acarine pheromones, and more so for mites than ticks. However, the use of lure-and-kill and lure-enhanced biocontrol strategies has been investigated for tick and mite control, respectively, with significant environmental advantages which warrant further study.

  5. Biomarkers and bioassays for detecting dioxin-like compounds in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Mark E

    2002-04-22

    The presence of toxic chemical contaminants in some marine organisms, including those consumed by humans, is well known. Monitoring the levels of such contaminants and their geographic and temporal variability is important for assessing and maintaining the safety of seafood and the health of the marine environment. Chemical analyses are sensitive and specific, but can be expensive and provide little information on the actual or potential biological activity of the contaminants. Biologically-based assays can be used to indicate the presence and potential effects of contaminants in marine animals, and therefore, have potential for routine monitoring of the marine environment. Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as chlorinated dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls comprise a major group of marine contaminants. The most toxic HAHs (dioxin-like compounds) act through an intracellular receptor protein, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which is present in humans and many, but not all, marine animals. A toxic equivalency approach based on an understanding of this mechanism provides an integrated measure of the biological potency or activity of HAH mixtures. Biomarkers measured in marine animals indicate their exposure to these chemicals in vivo. Similarly, in vitro biomarker responses measured in cell culture bioassays can be used to assess the concentration of 'dioxin equivalents' in extracts of environmental matrices. Here, I have reviewed the types and relative sensitivities of mechanistically-based, in vitro bioassays for dioxin-like compounds, including assays of receptor-binding, DNA-binding and transcriptional activation of native (CYP1A) or reporter (luciferase) genes. Examples of their use in environmental monitoring are provided. Cell culture bioassays are rapid and inexpensive, and thus have great potential for routine monitoring of marine resources, including seafood. Several such assays exist, or are being developed, for a variety of marine

  6. A rapid resazurin bioassay for assessing the toxicity of fungicides.

    PubMed

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair

    2009-03-01

    Fungicides are widely used in agriculture, and released in large amounts to the environment. Methods used for antifungal susceptibility testing are cumbersome and time-consuming. As a result, very little attention has been paid to including fungal tests in the routine screening of pesticides and there are no reports in the literature of fungicide focussed effects directed analysis (EDA). In addition very little is known on the toxicity of fungicides to environmentally significant fungi. Here we report a rapid microplate-based resorufin fluorescence inhibition bioassay and compare it with a 24h microplate-based yeast growth inhibition bioassay using eight fungicides. The growth inhibition bioassay was sensitive, giving IC50 and IC90 values comparable to previously reported IC50 or MICs of these fungicides for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. The resorufin fluorescence inhibition bioassay was both faster and more sensitive than the growth inhibition bioassay. Inhibitory concentrations obtained just after 30min of incubation with amphotericin B (AMB) and captan were at least a hundred fold lower than IC50s in the literature for fungi. The fluorescence bioassay showed only a small response to pyrazophos and thiabendazole but these only inhibited growth at high concentrations so this may reflect low sensitivity of S. cerevisiae to these particular fungicides. This bioassay can detect toxic effects of a range of fungicides from different chemical classes with different modes of action. It will be valuable for screening chemical libraries for fungicides and as a biomarker for detecting the effects of fungicides to non-target fungi.

  7. Soil bioassays and the {sup 129}I problem

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    Iodine-129 is a very long-lived radionuclide associated with spent nuclear fuel. Because {sup 129}I has a 10{sup 7}-year half-life, is very mobile in the environment and is a biologically essential element, it is the most limiting radionuclide affecting disposal of spent fuel. Traditionally, the potential impacts of {sup 129}I have been estimated for human receptors, with the implicit assumption that all other organisms are less at risk. Risk is the operative word, the objective for protection of humans is to protect individuals, whereas the objective for other biota is usually to protect populations. Here, {sup 129}I poses an interesting problem: the half-life is so long it is barely radioactive. Thus, the chemical toxicity may be more limiting than the radiological impact. A series of soil bioassays were employed, including a life-cycle plant (Brassica rapa) bioassay, a modified earthworm survival bioassay, a microarthropod colonization/survival bioassay, and a series of more common soil and aquatic bioassays. Chemical toxicity was indicated at soil concentrations as low as 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. At these levels, radiological impact on non-human biota would not be expected, and therefore the chemical toxicity effects are more critical. However, human food-chain model estimates show these levels, as pure {sup 129}I, would be unacceptable for human radiological exposure, so that for {sup 129}I, protection of the human environment should also be protective of non-human biota.

  8. Detection of Metal and Organometallic Compounds with Bioluminescent Bacterial Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Durand, M J; Hua, A; Jouanneau, S; Cregut, M; Thouand, G

    2015-10-17

    Chemical detection of metal and organometallic compounds is very specific and sensitive, but these techniques are time consuming and expensive. Although these techniques provide information about the concentrations of compounds, they fail to inform us about the toxicity of a sample. Because the toxic effects of metals and organometallic compounds are influenced by a multitude of environmental factors, such as pH, the presence of chelating agents, speciation, and organic matter, bioassays have been developed for ecotoxicological studies. Among these bioassays, recombinant luminescent bacteria have been developed over the past 20 years, and many of them are specific for the detection of metals and metalloids. These bioassays are simple to use, are inexpensive, and provide information on the bioavailable fraction of metals and organometals. Thus, they are an essential complementary tool for providing information beyond chemical analysis. In this chapter, we propose to investigate the detection of metals and organometallic compounds with bioluminescent bacterial bioassays and the applications of these bioassays to environmental samples. Graphical Abstract.

  9. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  10. Carbon-14 Bioassay for Decommissioning of Hanford Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Watson, David J.

    2012-05-01

    The old production reactors at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site used large graphite piles as the moderator. As part of long-term decommissioning plans, the potential need for 14C radiobioassay of workers was identified. Technical issues associated with 14C bioassay and worker monitoring were investigated, including anticipated graphite characterization, potential intake scenarios, and the bioassay capabilities that may be required to support the decommissioning of the graphite piles. A combination of urine and feces sampling would likely be required for the absorption type S 14C anticipated to be encountered. However the concentrations in the graphite piles appear to be sufficiently low that dosimetrically significant intakes of 14C are not credible, thus rendering moot the need for such bioassay.

  11. Carbon-14 bioassay for decommissioning of Hanford reactors.

    PubMed

    Carbaugh, Eugene H; Watson, David J

    2012-05-01

    The production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site used large graphite piles as the moderator. As part of long-term decommissioning plans, the potential need for ¹⁴C radiobioassay of workers was identified. Technical issues associated with ¹⁴C bioassay and worker monitoring were investigated, including anticipated graphite characterization, potential intake scenarios, and the bioassay capabilities that may be required to support the decommissioning of the graphite piles. A combination of urine and feces sampling would likely be required for the absorption type S ¹⁴C anticipated to be encountered. However, the concentrations in the graphite piles appear to be sufficiently low that dosimetrically significant intakes of ¹⁴C are not credible, thus rendering moot the need for such bioassay.

  12. Biological assay challenges from compound solubility: strategies for bioassay optimization.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Kerns, Edward H

    2006-05-01

    Compound solubility in buffers and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has emerged as an important issue. Many discovery compounds have low solubility but are potentially valuable as leads. Unfortunately, low solubility affects bioassays by causing underestimated activity, reduced HTS-hit rates, variable data, inaccurate SAR, discrepancies between enzyme and cell assays and inaccurate in vitro ADME-Tox testing. Strategies for optimizing bioassays include: considering solubility in HTS-library design; early screening for solubility; improving storage and handling of DMSO stocks; optimizing dilution protocols; and ensuring that low-solubility compounds are fully solubilized in bioassays. These approaches allow for adequate assessments of valuable pharmacophores for which solubility can be chemically optimized at a later date.

  13. Internal dosimetry performing dose assessments via bioassay measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.M.

    1993-05-11

    The Internal Dosimetry Department at the Y-12 Plant maintains a state-of-the-art bioassay program managed under the guidance and regulations of the Department of Energy. The two major bioassay techniques currently used at Y-12 are the in vitro (urinalysis) and in vivo (lung counting) programs. Fecal analysis (as part of the in vitro program) is another alternative; however, since both urine and fecal analysis provide essentially the same capabilities for detecting exposures to uranium, the urinalysis is the main choice primarily for aesthetic reasons. The bioassay frequency is based on meeting NCRP 87 objectives which are to monitor the accumulation of radioactive material in exposed individuals, and to ensure that significant depositions are detected.

  14. Do we really need in-situ bioassays?

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In-situ bioassays are needed to validate the results from laboratory testing and to understand biological interactions. Standard laboratory protocols provide reproducible test results, and the precision of those tests can be mathematically defined. Significant correlations between toxic substances and levels of response (bioaccumulation and bioeffects) have also been demonstrated with natural field populations and suggest that the laboratory results can accurately predict field responses. An equal number of studies have shown a lack of correlation between laboratory bioassay results and responses of natural field populations. The best way to validate laboratory results is with manipulative field testing; i.e., in-situ bioassays with caged organisms. Bioaccumulation in transplanted bivalves has probably been the most frequently used form of an in-situ bioassay. The authors have refined those methods to include synoptic measurements of bioaccumulation and growth. Growth provides an easily-measured bioeffects endpoint and a means of calibrating bioaccumulation. Emphasis has been on minimizing the size range of test animals, repetitive measurements of individuals and standardization of test protocols for a variety of applications. They are now attempting to standardize criteria for accepting and interpreting data in the same way that laboratory bioassays have been standardized. Others have developed methods for in-situ bioassays using eggs, larvae, unicellular organisms, crustaceans, benthic invertebrates, bivalves, and fish. In the final analysis, the in-situ approach could be considered as an exposure system where any clinical measurements are possible. The most powerful approach would be to use the same species in laboratory and field experiments with the same endpoints.

  15. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  16. A statistical treatment of bioassay pour fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David

    A bioassay is a method for estimating the number of bacterial spores on a spacecraft surface for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with planetary protection (PP) requirements (Ref. 1). The details of the process may be seen in the appropriate PP document (e.g., for NASA, Ref. 2). In general, the surface is mechanically sampled with a damp sterile swab or wipe. The completion of the process is colony formation in a growth medium in a plate (Petri dish); the colonies are counted. Consider a set of samples from randomly selected, known areas of one spacecraft surface, for simplicity. One may calculate the mean and standard deviation of the bioburden density, which is the ratio of counts to area sampled. The standard deviation represents an estimate of the variation from place to place of the true bioburden density commingled with the precision of the individual sample counts. The accuracy of individual sample results depends on the equipment used, the collection method, and the culturing method. One aspect that greatly influences the result is the pour fraction, which is the quantity of fluid added to the plates divided by the total fluid used in extracting spores from the sampling equipment. In an analysis of a single sample’s counts due to the pour fraction, one seeks to answer the question: What is the probability that if a certain number of spores are counted with a known pour fraction, that there are an additional number of spores in the part of the rinse not poured. This is given for specific values by the binomial distribution density, where detection (of culturable spores) is success and the probability of success is the pour fraction. A special summation over the binomial distribution, equivalent to adding for all possible values of the true total number of spores, is performed. This distribution when normalized will almost yield the desired quantity. It is the probability that the additional number of spores does not exceed a certain value. Of course

  17. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  18. Plants as bioassay systems for monitoring atmospheric pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Feder, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Plant species act as natural bioindicators of atmospheric pollutants. Plants can be used as bioassay systems for monitoring atmospheric pollutants. Plant injury symptoms, altered growth and reproductive pattern, changes in yield and/or productivity, and changes in species distribution can be used singly or in combination as monitoring devices. The results must be accepted as semiquantitative, but within that constraint, air quality can be sufficiently well defined to enable the setting of air quality standards. Genetic variability of higher plant species has yielded cultivars which display a range of tolerance to gaseous and particulate atmospheric pollutants. Asexual propagation of these cultivars provides pollutant-sensitive and pollutant-tolerant plant material which can be grown on selected sites for observation. Gymnosperm and Angiosperm species as well as species of lichens and mosses have been used to establish field monitoring networks in Europe, Canada, and the United States. White pine, shade tobacco, mosses, and lichens have proven particularly useful as bioassay tools. Pollen from pollutant-sensitive and pollutant-tolerant plant cultivars has also been used as a sensitive laboratory bioassay tool for studying air quality. Epiphytic mosses are particularly efficient as monitors of particulate pollutants, especially heavy metals, some of which may act as chemical mutagens. The cost, complexity, and lack of reliability of instrumented systems for air quality monitoring make imperative the need to develop successful plant bioassay systems for monitoring air quality. PMID:738233

  19. Sensitive bioassay for detection of biologically active ricin in food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare highlights the need to develop fast and effective methods to detect biologically active ricin. The current “gold standard” for ricin detection is an in vivo mouse bioassay; however, this method is not practical to test on a large number of...

  20. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-03-15

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  1. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF RISK MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often, the performance of risk management techniques is evaluated by measuring the concentrations of the chemials of concern before and after risk management effoprts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of risk man...

  2. Calibration of laboratory bioassays with results from microcosms and ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Franco, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of an organic contaminant (as synthetic coal-derived crude oil) were measured in outdoor ponds and indoor pond-derived microcosms and compared with results of laboratory bioassays. Ponds and microcosms were treated with the oil continuously for eight weeks. Concentrations of phenolic compounds spanned the range of acute and chronic toxicity concentrations determined in single-species bioassays. Effects were similar in microcosms and ponds, implying that microcosms are suitable models for field studies for some purposes. Significant changes in community metabolism and zooplankton populations occurred in microcosms and ponds exposed to less than 0.05 mg/L phenols, near the 28-day lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Daphnia magna. Ponds and microcosms were seriously damaged at concentrations near acute bioassay mean lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) values. Indirect effects in the ecosystems occurred at all treatment levels, and included changes in water quality, replacement of sensitive taxa by more tolerant competitors, and changes in abundance of some species because of increases or decreases in their predators or grazers. The safe exposure level determined from the ecosystem experiments was accurately predicted by an application factor of 0.03 in conjunction with the most sensitive acute bioassay result (the D. magna 48-h LC/sub 50/). Less conservative extrapolation methods overestimated the safe concentration of this material in these ecosystems. 32 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Calibration of laboratory bioassays with results from microcosms and ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Franco, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Effects of an organic contaminant (a synthetic coal-derived crude oil) were measured in outdoor ponds and indoor pond-derived microcosms and compared with results of laboratory bioassays. Ponds and microcosms were treated with the oil continuously for 8 weeks. Concentrations of phenolic compounds (the major water-soluble constituents of the oil) spanned the range of acute and chronic toxicity concentrations determined in single-species bioassays. Effects were similar in microcosms and ponds, implying that microcosms are suitable models for field studies for some purposes. Significant changes in community metabolism and zooplankton populations occurred in microcosms and ponds exposed to less than 0.05 mg/litre phenols, near the 28-day Lowest Observed Effect Concentration for Daphnia magna. Ponds and microcosms were seriously damaged at concentrations near acute bioassay LC50 values. Indirect effects in the ecosystems occurred at all treatment levels, and included changes in water quality, replacement of sensitive taxa by more tolerant competitors, and changes in abundance of some species because of increases or decreases in their predators or grazers. The safe exposure level determined from the ecosystem experiments were accurately predicted by an application factor of 0.03 in conjunction with the most sensitive acute bioassay result (the D. magna 48-h LC50). Less conservative extrapolation methods overestimated the safe concentration of this material in these ecosystems. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  4. US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K. F.; Ward, R. C.; Maddox, L. B.

    1993-01-01

    The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker's rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual's external exposure.

  5. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  6. 1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW IN ROOM 125, BIOASSAY LABORATORY, SHOWN IS THE FIRST STEP IN A SIX-STEP PROCESS TO ANALYZE URINE SAMPLES FOR PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM CONTAMINATION. IN THIS STEP, NITRIC ACID IS ADDED TO SAMPLE, AND THE SAMPLE IS BOILED DOWN TO A WHITE POWDER. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms.

  8. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  9. Statistical considerations in the analysis of data from replicated bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple-dose bioassay is generally the preferred method for characterizing virulence of insect pathogens. Linear regression of probit mortality on log dose enables estimation of LD50/LC50 and slope, the latter having substantial effect on LD90/95s (doses of considerable interest in pest management)...

  10. Concomitant information in bioassay and semi-parametric estimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter T; Lee, Christine H

    2005-05-15

    This paper presents a flexible modern approach to handling concomitant information for estimating the relative potency parameter in quantitative bioassays. This is accomplished in a semi-parametric framework where the concomitant variable is included non-parametrically. Estimation is then performed using smoothing splines where the point and interval estimators of the relative potency parameter exhibits desirable asymptotic properties.

  11. Using bioassays for testing seawater quality in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kungolos, A; Samaras, P; Koutseris, E

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was the assessment of seawater quality in Thermaikos Gulf, Pagassitikos Gulf and Skiathos island in Northern Aegean Sea by the use of bioassays. Two bioassays using marine organisms as indicators of seawater quality were applied in this study; the invertebrate Artemia franciscana and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution, as physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms. According to the result of this study, improvement in coastal water quality of Thermaikos Gulf was observed between September 1997 and April-May 2000. However, coastal water quality of Pagassitikos Gulf varied during the test period; it was generally good during April-May 2000, while in October 1999 it was generally poor. Between the two bioassays that have been applied in this study, the Microtox test, where the marine bacterium V. fischeri was used as a test organism, was more sensitive in detecting toxicity in seawater.

  12. Bioassays for evaluation of medical products derived from bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Sesardic, Thea

    2012-06-01

    Bioassays play central role in evaluation of biological products and those derived from bacterial toxins often rely exclusively on in vivo models for assurance of safety and potency. This chapter reviews existing regulatory approved methods designed to provide information on potency and safety of complex biological medicines with an insight into strategies considered for alternative procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological bioassay using Bacillus pumilus to detect tetracycline in milk.

    PubMed

    Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando Guillermo; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro

    2015-05-01

    The tetracyclines (TCs) are widely used in the treatment of several diseases of cattle and their residues may be present in milk. To control these residues it is necessary to have available inexpensive screening methods, user-friendly and capable of analysing a high number of samples. The purpose of this study was to design a bioassay of microbiological inhibition in microtiter plates with spores of Bacillus pumilus to detect TCs at concentrations corresponding to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). Several complementary experiments were performed to design the bioassay. In the first study, we determined the concentration of spores that produce a change in the bioassay's relative absorbance in a short time period. Subsequently, we assessed the concentration of chloramphenicol required to decrease the detection limit (DL) of TCs at MRLs levels. Thereafter, specificity, DL and cross-specificity of the bioassay were estimated. The most appropriate microbiological inhibition assay had a B. pumilus concentration of 1.6 × 10(9) spores/ml, fortified with 2500 μg chloramphenicol/l (CAP) in Mueller Hinton culture medium using brilliant black and toluidine blue as redox indicator. This bioassay detected 117 μg chlortetracycline/l, 142 μg oxytetracycline/l and 105 μg tetracycline/l by means of a change in the indicator's colour in a period of 5 h. The method showed good specificity (97.9%) which decreased slightly (93.3%) in milk samples with high somatic cell counts (>250,000 cells/ml). Furthermore, other antimicrobials studied (except neomycin) must be present in milk at high concentrations (from >5 to >100 MRLs) to produce positive results in this assay, indicating a low cross specificity.

  14. Genotoxicity of leachates from a landfill using three bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G L; Rodriguez, D M

    1999-05-19

    In the city of Queretaro, around 500 tons of solid wastes are produced everyday and are deposited in a landfill. This is the result of social and economic activities of human beings or from their normal physiological functions. As a result of rain, leachates are produced, which, if not handled and treated correctly, may pollute the underground water. Among the bioassays developed for the detection of mutagenicity in environmental pollutants, plant systems have been proven to be sensitive, cheap, and effective. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of genotoxic agents in the leachates of the landfill of the city using three bioassays: Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN), Tradescantia stamen hair mutations (Trad-SHM) and Allium root anaphase aberrations (AL-RAA) and make a comparison of the results in the three assays. Leachates were sampled during both the dry and rainy seasons. Plant cuttings of Tradescantia or the roots of Allium were treated by submerging them in the leachates. Three replicates of each sample were analyzed in each of the three bioassays. As expected the samples of leachates collected during the dry season showed a higher genotoxicity than those collected during the rainy season. In conclusion, there are substances present in the leachates capable of inducing genotoxicity in the plant assays. On the other hand, the plant assays showed different degrees of sensitivity: the more sensitive was the Trad-MCN bioassay and the less sensitive the Trad-SHM assay. Therefore, when analyzing environmental pollutants it is recommended to use a battery of bioassays.

  15. Modeling Exposure in the Tox21 in Vitro Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian C; Henneberger, Luise; König, Maria; Bittermann, Kai; Linden, Lukas; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Escher, Beate I

    2017-05-15

    High-throughput in vitro bioassays are becoming increasingly important in the risk characterization of anthropogenic chemicals. Large databases gather nominal effect concentrations (Cnom) for diverse modes of action. However, the biologically effective concentration can substantially deviate due to differences in chemical partitioning. In this study, we modeled freely dissolved (Cfree), cellular (Ccell), and membrane concentrations (Cmem) in the Tox21 GeneBLAzer bioassays for a set of neutral and ionogenic organic chemicals covering a large physicochemical space. Cells and medium constituents were experimentally characterized for their lipid and protein content, and partition constants were either collected from the literature or predicted by mechanistic models. The chemicals exhibited multifaceted partitioning to proteins and lipids with distribution ratios spanning over 8 orders of magnitude. Modeled Cfree deviated over 5 orders of magnitude from Cnom and can be compared to in vivo effect data, environmental concentrations, and the unbound fraction in plasma, which is needed for the in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. Ccell was relatively constant for chemicals with membrane lipid-water distribution ratios of 1000 or higher and proportional to Cnom. Representing a sum parameter for exposure that integrates the entire dose from intracellular partitioning, Ccell is particularly suitable for the effect characterization of chemicals with multiple target sites and the calculation of their relative effect potencies. Effective membrane concentrations indicated that the specific effects of very hydrophobic chemicals in multiple bioassays are occurring at concentrations close to baseline toxicity. The equilibrium partitioning model including all relevant system parameters and a generic bioassay setup is attached as an excel workbook to this paper and can readily be applied to diverse in vitro bioassays.

  16. Morton Arboretum Bioassays. Earthworm Bioassay Procedures to Evaluate the Extent of Aerially Dispersed Lead and Cadmium in an Urban Arboretum,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-27

    motorway. BorPb and Cd were bioavailable to earthworms (Elsenia foetida ) and both metals were more concentrated in surface soils than at depths of 1 meter...the earthworm (Elsenia foetida ) were conducted under controlled conditions ’je"f- , L- Following the bioassay, the tissue and substrate samples were

  17. A two-step experimental design for a sediment bioassay using growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca for the test end point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kubitz, Jody A.; Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.

    1996-01-01

    We designed a sediment bioassay using 25% growth inhibition of Hyalella azteca as the end point.Hyalella azteca exhibits size-specific fecundity, so growth is a surrogate of reproductive production. We investigated density effects on growth to address whether crowding could affect test interpretation; amphipods in 14,000/m2 exposures were 16 to 20% smaller than those at 7,000/m2. Using power analysis, we found that 20 to 25 samples are required to determine significance when α = 0.10 and 1 − β = 0.90. To minimize the need for laboratory resources, we designed a two-step (screening and confirmatory) bioassay, which we tested with field-collected sediments. The screening bioassay compared 11 sediments to a reference. Three sediments were “toxic” (significant growth inhibition when 1 − β = 0.66 and n = 5), five sediments were “nontoxic” (>90% of reference), and three sediments were “possibly toxic” (growth inhibition was insignificant). In the confirmatory bioassay, three possibly toxic and two nontoxic samples were reevaluated. Two were toxic (1 − β = 0.91 and n = 20), and the remaining four samples were nontoxic. In summary, five sediments were toxic and six sediments were nontoxic. The two-step analysis used minimal laboratory resources but maximized statistical power, where needed, to discriminate growth effects.

  18. A two-step experimental design for a sediment bioassay using growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca for the test end point

    SciTech Connect

    Kubitz, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Besser, J.M. |

    1996-10-01

    The authors designed a sediment bioassay using 25% growth inhibition of Hyalella azteca as the end point. Hyalella azteca exhibits size-specific fecundity, so growth is a surrogate of reproductive production. They investigated density effects on growth to address whether crowding could affect test interpretation; amphipods in 14,000/m{sup 2} exposures were 16 to 20% smaller than those at 7,000/m{sup 2}. Using power analysis, the authors found that 20 to 25 samples are required to determine significance when {alpha} = 0.10 and 1 {minus} {beta} = 0.90. To minimize the need for laboratory resources, they designed a two-step bioassay, which they tested with field-collected sediments. The screening bioassay compared 11 sediments to a reference. Three sediments were toxic, five sediments were nontoxic, and three sediments were possibly toxic. In the confirmatory bioassay, three possibly toxic and two nontoxic samples were reevaluated. Two were toxic, and the remaining four samples were nontoxic. In summary, five sediments were toxic and six sediments were nontoxic. The two-step analysis used minimal laboratory resources but maximized statistical power, where needed, to discriminate growth effects.

  19. The redundancy of mouse carcinogenicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Schach von Wittenau, M; Estes, P C

    1983-01-01

    Testing of chemicals for carcinogenic potential usually involves studies in rats and mice. The approaches followed in recent years often were limited to assessing tumor incidences and rarely viewed such information from the perspective of other kinds of toxicity. This practice supports the notion that certain chemicals possess the inherent characteristic of carcinogenic activity, which once identified in one species must be regarded as potential oncogenic hazard to all, including man. As long as public policy is based upon that premise, the classification of chemicals depends upon the worst results obtained in any species. It is not obvious why substances must be tested in both rats and mice when confirmatory or contradictory responses have little impact. Recent experience was examined to build a basis for an alternate approach. Review of oncogenicity information obtained for 273 chemicals fed to rats and mice shows that both species responded similarly to the majority of the substances tested. This "redundancy" probably would be higher had modern protocols been used. In view of the high cost in scientific resources of chronic studies, tests in only one rodent would be more cost effective. Reasons are presented for favoring the rat as the species to be used. Some of the savings thus achieved should be expended to improve the design of the experiments to yield toxicology data more comprehensive than mere tumor counts, so that the proper perspective can be obtained on the results.

  20. BioAssay Research Database (BARD): chemical biology and probe-development enabled by structured metadata and result types.

    PubMed

    Howe, E A; de Souza, A; Lahr, D L; Chatwin, S; Montgomery, P; Alexander, B R; Nguyen, D-T; Cruz, Y; Stonich, D A; Walzer, G; Rose, J T; Picard, S C; Liu, Z; Rose, J N; Xiang, X; Asiedu, J; Durkin, D; Levine, J; Yang, J J; Schürer, S C; Braisted, J C; Southall, N; Southern, M R; Chung, T D Y; Brudz, S; Tanega, C; Schreiber, S L; Bittker, J A; Guha, R; Clemons, P A

    2015-01-01

    BARD, the BioAssay Research Database (https://bard.nih.gov/) is a public database and suite of tools developed to provide access to bioassay data produced by the NIH Molecular Libraries Program (MLP). Data from 631 MLP projects were migrated to a new structured vocabulary designed to capture bioassay data in a formalized manner, with particular emphasis placed on the description of assay protocols. New data can be submitted to BARD with a user-friendly set of tools that assist in the creation of appropriately formatted datasets and assay definitions. Data published through the BARD application program interface (API) can be accessed by researchers using web-based query tools or a desktop client. Third-party developers wishing to create new tools can use the API to produce stand-alone tools or new plug-ins that can be integrated into BARD. The entire BARD suite of tools therefore supports three classes of researcher: those who wish to publish data, those who wish to mine data for testable hypotheses, and those in the developer community who wish to build tools that leverage this carefully curated chemical biology resource. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. BioAssay Research Database (BARD): chemical biology and probe-development enabled by structured metadata and result types

    PubMed Central

    Howe, E.A.; de Souza, A.; Lahr, D.L.; Chatwin, S.; Montgomery, P.; Alexander, B.R.; Nguyen, D.-T.; Cruz, Y.; Stonich, D.A.; Walzer, G.; Rose, J.T.; Picard, S.C.; Liu, Z.; Rose, J.N.; Xiang, X.; Asiedu, J.; Durkin, D.; Levine, J.; Yang, J.J.; Schürer, S.C.; Braisted, J.C.; Southall, N.; Southern, M.R.; Chung, T.D.Y.; Brudz, S.; Tanega, C.; Schreiber, S.L.; Bittker, J.A.; Guha, R.; Clemons, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    BARD, the BioAssay Research Database (https://bard.nih.gov/) is a public database and suite of tools developed to provide access to bioassay data produced by the NIH Molecular Libraries Program (MLP). Data from 631 MLP projects were migrated to a new structured vocabulary designed to capture bioassay data in a formalized manner, with particular emphasis placed on the description of assay protocols. New data can be submitted to BARD with a user-friendly set of tools that assist in the creation of appropriately formatted datasets and assay definitions. Data published through the BARD application program interface (API) can be accessed by researchers using web-based query tools or a desktop client. Third-party developers wishing to create new tools can use the API to produce stand-alone tools or new plug-ins that can be integrated into BARD. The entire BARD suite of tools therefore supports three classes of researcher: those who wish to publish data, those who wish to mine data for testable hypotheses, and those in the developer community who wish to build tools that leverage this carefully curated chemical biology resource. PMID:25477388

  2. Medium-term bioassays as alternative carcinogenicity test.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Imaida, K; Tamano, S; Hagiwara, A; Shirai, T

    1998-07-01

    A medium-term liver bioassay system for rapid detection of carcinogenic agents using male F344 rats has been developed, in order to bridge the gap between long-term carcinogenicity tests and short-term screening assays. The system is fundamentally based on the two-stage hypothesis of carcinogenesis: initiation with diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg bw, i.p.) is followed by test chemical administration during the second, in combination with 2/3 partial hepatectomy. It requires only 8 weeks for animal experimental treatment and a further few weeks for quantitative analysis of immunohistochemically-demonstrated glutathione S-transferase placental form positive hepatic foci. A total of 291 chemicals/substances have already been analyzed in this laboratory and the efficacy of the system for hepatocarcinogens has thereby been well established. This bioassay is particularly useful for dose-response and chemical mixture studies, usually requiring large-scale experiments and also for evaluation of chemopreventive agents. Another bioassay, a medium-term multiorgan bioassay system, using 5 different chemical carcinogens, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), N-methylnitrosourea (MNU), N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN), has also been established for rapid detection of not only hepatocarcinogens, but also other organ-target carcinogens. Rats were initially treated with a single i.p. administration of 100 mg/kg DEN, 4 i.p. administrations of 20 mg/kg MNU, 4 s.c. doses of 40 mg/kg DMH for 2 weeks and then 0.1% DHPN for 2 weeks. Test chemicals are administered after the carcinogens exposure. Animals were sacrificed at the end of week 36, and major organs were examined histologically. Carcinogenic activities of test chemicals were compared between the test chemical treated group and carcinogen exposures group (control group). It is increasingly becoming regarded that these bioassays are useful methods and are

  3. Assessment of space environmental factors by cytotoxicity bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Arenz, Andrea; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2007-02-01

    Cellular bioassays for detection of cyto- and genotoxicity are useful in the risk assessment of space environmental factors. Such bioassay systems have the potential complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA/ESA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological endpoints under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. In this ground based study, the usefulness of this approach in comparison to standard techniques (colony forming ability test, MTT test) is shown.

  4. Considerations for Bioassay Monitoring of Mixtures of Radionuclides

    DOE PAGES

    Klumpp, John; Waters, Tom; Bertelli, Luiz

    2017-10-01

    Complying with regulations for bioassay monitoring of radionuclide intakes is significantly more complex for mixtures than it is for pure radionuclides. Different constituents will naturally have different dose coefficients, be detectable at significantly different levels, and may require very different amounts of effort to bioassay. The ability to use certain constituents as surrogates for others will depend on how well characterized the mixture is, as well as whether the employee is also working with other radionuclides. This is further compounded by the fact that the composition of a mixture (or even of a pure radionuclide) is likely to change overmore » time. Internal dosimetrists must decide how best to monitor employees who work with radionuclide mixtures. In particular, they must decide which constituents should be monitored routinely, which constituents only need to be monitored in the case of an intake, and how to estimate doses based on intakes of monitored and unmonitored constituents.« less

  5. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  6. Rat vas deferens: a specific bioassay for endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, S; Magnan, J; Regoli, D

    1978-01-01

    The electrically-evoked contractions of the rat vas deferens were selectively inhibited by beta-endorphin, the preparation being much less sensitive to enkephalins and narcotic analgesic drugs. However, introduction of D-Ala in position 2 of [Leu]-enkephalin enhanced the activity of the opioid peptide to the order of that of beta-endorphin. It is concluded that the rat vas deferens preparation constitutes a specific bioassay for endogenous opioid peptides and related compounds. PMID:719230

  7. Novel bioassay using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracycline in milk.

    PubMed

    Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando G; Molina, Pilar; Althaus, Rafael L

    2016-01-01

    Tetracyclines are used for the prevention and control of dairy cattle diseases. Residues of these drugs can be excreted into milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a microbiological method using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and tetracycline) in milk. In order to approximate the limits of detection of the bioassay to the Maximum Residue Limit (100μg/l) for milk tetracycline, different concentrations of chloramphenicol (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000μg/l) were tested. The detection limits calculated were similar to the Maximum Residue Limits when a bioassay using B. megaterium ATCC 9885 spores (2.8×10(8)spores/ml) and chloramphenicol (2000μg/l) was utilized. This bioassay detects 105μg/l of chlortetracycline, 100μg/l of oxytetracycline and 134μg/l of tetracycline in 5h. Therefore, this method is suitable to be incorporated into a microbiological multi-residue system for the identification of tetracyclines in milk. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved bioassay for detecting autoinducer of Rhodovulum sulfidophilum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Umekage, S.

    2015-02-01

    Quorum sensing is a bacterial gene regulation system that enables prompt environmental adaptation in response to cell density. Quorum sensing is driven by an extracellularly secreted chemical signal called autoinducer. Gram-negative bacteria produce one or several types of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as autoinducers. Our previous study suggests that the gram-negative marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum produces AHL in the early stationary phase and plays a role in maintaining the bacterial cell aggregates called "floc". We performed conventional bioassay to identify AHL production by using Chromobacterium violaceum VIR07, which produces violet pigment (violacein) in response to AHL with side chains ranging from C10 to C18 in length. However, we were not able to observe the violacein with good reproducibility, suggesting that inhibitory chemical compounds co-existed in the AHL extract. Therefore, we improved the extraction method; the ethyl acetate-extracted AHLs were fractionated by using reverse phase TLC. By using the re-extracted AHLs for the bioassay, we observed an obvious production of violacein. This result clearly indicates that R. sulfidophilum produces AHLs with side chains ranging from C10 to C18 in length and suggests the utility of improved bioassay for AHL detection.

  9. Concordance between rats and mice in bioassays for carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D A; Gold, L S; Lin, T H

    1996-06-01

    According to current policy, chemicals are evaluated for possible cancer risk to humans at low dose by testing in bioassays in which high doses of the chemical are given to rodents. Thus, risk is extrapolated from high dose in rodents to low dose in humans. The accuracy of these extrapolations is generally unverifiable because data on humans are limited. However, it is feasible to examine the accuracy of extrapolations from mice to rats. If mice and rats are similar with respect to carcinogenesis, this provides some evidence in favor of interspecies extrapolations; conversely, if mice and rats are different, this casts doubt on the validity of extrapolations from mice to humans. One measure of interspecies agreement is concordance, the percentage of chemicals that are classified the same way as to carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Observed concordance in National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program bioassays is about 75%, which may seem on the low side because mice and rats are closely related species tested under the same experimental conditions. However, observed concordance could underestimate true concordance due to measurement error in the bioassays-a possibility demonstrated by Piegorsch et al. (Risk Anal. 12, 115-121, 1992). Expanding on this work, we show that the bias in observed concordance can be either positive or negative: an observed concordance of 75% can arise if the true concordance is anything between 20 and 100%. In particular, observed concordance can seriously overestimate true concordance.

  10. Potential sources of artefact in the co-axial bioassay.

    PubMed

    Gunn, L K; Piper, P J

    1991-10-22

    The apparent release of relaxant activity from airway epithelium (epithelium-derived relaxing factor, EpDRF) has been examined in a co-axial bioassay system. The endothelium-denuded rat aorta, placed inside either the epithelium-intact guinea-pig trachea or rabbit bronchus relaxed in response to acetylcholine. In a modification of the standard preparation, the airway was slit longitudinally and immobilised inside a silicone rubber tube. Under these conditions, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was abolished. Under the conditions of the co-axial bioassay, the oxygen tension in the lumen of either airway tube was lower than that of the bathing fluid. Upon addition of acetylcholine at concentrations which caused relaxation in the co-axial bioassay, the oxygen tension inside the epithelium-intact, but not the epithelium-denuded guinea-pig trachea was depressed to levels which would have affected the contractile response of a rat aorta. We suggest that the assay of relaxant activity from airways using co-axial preparations may be complicated by changes in volume and oxygen tension in the lumen of the donor airway and discuss how such problems might be avoided.

  11. Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2015-01-01

    A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (Tc) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at Tc was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 μg mL−1, and Tc was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R2 = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii. PMID:26405525

  12. Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2015-09-01

    A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (T c) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at T c was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 μg mL(-1), and T c was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R (2) = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii.

  13. Liquid versus solid phase bioassays for dredged material toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Fernández, N; Forja, J M; DelValls, T A

    2007-05-01

    Since 1994 the results of the analyses of key chemical compounds (trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and the comparison with the corresponding sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) are used in decision-making for dredged material management in Spain. Nonetheless in the last decades a tiered testing approach is promoted for assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of dredged sediments and their potential biological effects in the environment. Bioassays have been used for sediment toxicity assessment in Spain but few or no experiences are reported on harbour sediments. We studied the incidence of toxicity in the 7 d bioassay using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and the 48 h bioassay using sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos over a series of experiments employing 22 different elutriates. The relative performance of this exposure phase was not comparable to data on the 10-d acute toxicity test using the burrowing amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina, carried out on the whole sediments. These results evidence the importance of the exposure route and the test selected in decision-making, as the toxicity registered for the undiluted elutriates was largely due to the different solubility of sediment-bound contaminants. This work and other studies indicate that for many sediments, a complete battery of test is recommended together with physico-chemical analyses to decide whether dredged sediments are suitable for open water disposal or not.

  14. A Bioassay System Using Bioelectric Signals from Small Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terawaki, Mitsuru; Soh, Zu; Hirano, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    Although the quality of tap water is generally examined using chemical assay, this method cannot be used for examination in real time. Against such a background, the technique of fish bioassay has attracted attention as an approach that enables constant monitoring of aquatic contamination. The respiratory rhythms of fish are considered an efficient indicator for the ongoing assessment of water quality, since they are sensitive to chemicals and can be indirectly measured from bioelectric signals generated by breathing. In order to judge aquatic contamination accurately, it is necessary to measure bioelectric signals from fish swimming freely as well as to stably discriminate measured signals, which vary between individuals. However, no bioassay system meeting the above requirements has yet been established. This paper proposes a bioassay system using bioelectric signals generated from small fish in free-swimming conditions. The system records signals using multiple electrodes to cover the extensive measurement range required in a free-swimming environment, and automatically discriminates changes in water quality from signal frequency components. This discrimination is achieved through an ensemble classification method using probability neural networks to solve the problem of differences between individual fish. The paper also reports on the results of related validation experiments, which showed that the proposed system was able to stably discriminate between water conditions before and after bleach exposure.

  15. In Vitro Biologic Activities of the Antimicrobials Triclocarban, Its Analogs, and Triclosan in Bioassay Screens: Receptor-Based Bioassay Screens

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Jiangang; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Sanmarti, Enio; Denison, Michael S.; Lasley, Bill; Pessah, Isaac N.; Kültz, Dietmar; Chang, Daniel P.Y.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the biological and toxicologic effects of the antimicrobials triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) in personal care products. Few studies have evaluated their biological activities in mammalian cells to assess their potential for adverse effects. Objectives In this study, we assessed the activity of TCC, its analogs, and TCS in in vitro nuclear-receptor–responsive and calcium signaling bioassays. Materials and methods We determined the biological activities of the compounds in in vitro, cell-based, and nuclear-receptor–responsive bioassays for receptors for aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), and ryanodine (RyR1). Results Some carbanilide compounds, including TCC (1–10 μM), enhanced estradiol (E2)-dependent or testosterone-dependent activation of ER- and AR-responsive gene expression up to 2.5-fold but exhibited little or no agonistic activity alone. Some carbanilides and TCS exhibited weak agonistic and/or antagonistic activity in the AhR-responsive bioassay. TCS exhibited antagonistic activity in both ER- and AR-responsive bioassays. TCS (0.1–10 μM) significantly enhanced the binding of [3H]ryanodine to RyR1 and caused elevation of resting cytosolic [Ca2+] in primary skeletal myotubes, but carbanilides had no effect. Conclusions Carbanilides, including TCC, enhanced hormone-dependent induction of ER- and AR-dependent gene expression but had little agonist activity, suggesting a new mechanism of action of endocrine-disrupting compounds. TCS, structurally similar to noncoplanar ortho-substituted poly-chlorinated biphenyls, exhibited weak AhR activity but interacted with RyR1 and stimulated Ca2+ mobilization. These observations have potential implications for human and animal health. Further investigations are needed into the biological and toxicologic effects of TCC, its analogs, and TCS. PMID:18795164

  16. Toxicity of copper-spiked sediments to Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae): Comparison of the 28-day reproductive bioassay with an early-life-stage bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, M.; Pasteris, A.; Bonomi, G. . Dipt. di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale); Reynoldson, T.B. . National Water Research Inst.)

    1999-06-01

    Two sediment bioassay methods using Tubifex tubifex (Mueller, 1774) as the test species were compared. The first was an adult reproduction test, the second an early-life-stage survival test. The duration of both bioassays is 28 d and the amount of work required was similar; they may be useful alternatives to each other in different circumstances (e.g., the early life stage bioassay could be carried out with smaller volumes of sediment). The two bioassays were performed simultaneously on copper-spiked sediments. Sediments from two freshwater and two terrestrial sites were used; five separate, nonsimultaneous experiments were performed, one for each sediment or soil and a further experiment with soil with a good supplement. In the adult bioassay, there were large differences in the production of cocoons, eggs, and young among the control treatments of the five experiments. There were also major differences in the NOEC and LOEC for copper between the tested substrates. The early life stage bioassay appears to be less sensitive to copper toxicity than the adult reproductive bioassay since NOECs and LOECs are higher for early survival than for the most sensitive endpoints of the adult bioassay in three experiments out of five.

  17. Microwave-accelerated bioassay technique for rapid and quantitative detection of biological and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Syed, Maleeha F; Aslan, Kadir

    2016-01-15

    Quantitative detection of molecules of interest from biological and environmental samples in a rapid manner, particularly with a relevant concentration range, is imperative to the timely assessment of human diseases and environmental issues. In this work, we employed the microwave-accelerated bioassay (MAB) technique, which is based on the combined use of circular bioassay platforms and microwave heating, for rapid and quantitative detection of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Shiga like toxin (STX 1). The proof-of-principle use of the MAB technique with the circular bioassay platforms for the rapid detection of GFAP in buffer based on colorimetric and fluorescence readouts was demonstrated with a 900W kitchen microwave. We also employed the MAB technique with a new microwave system (called the iCrystal system) for the detection of GFAP from mice with brain injuries and STX 1 from a city water stream. Control bioassays included the commercially available gold standard bioassay kits run at room temperature. Our results show that the lower limit of detection (LLOD) of the colorimetric and fluorescence based bioassays for GFAP was decreased by ~1000 times using the MAB technique and our circular bioassay platforms as compared to the commercially available bioassay kits. The overall bioassay time for GFAP and STX 1 was reduced from 4h using commercially available bioassay kits to 10min using the MAB technique.

  18. Microwave-Accelerated Bioassay Technique for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Biological and Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Syed, Maleeha F.; Aslan, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative detection of molecules of interest from biological and environmental samples in a rapid manner, particularly with a relevant concentration range, is imperative to the timely assessment of human diseases and environmental issues. In this work, we employed the microwave-accelerated bioassay (MAB) technique, which is based on the combined use of circular bioassay platforms and microwave heating, for rapid and quantitative detection of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Shiga like toxin (STX 1). The proof-of-principle use of the MAB technique with the circular bioassay platforms for the rapid detection of GFAP in buffer based on colorimetric and fluorescence readouts was demonstrated with a 900 W kitchen microwave. We also employed the MAB technique with a new microwave system (called the iCrystal system) for the detection of GFAP from mice with brain injuries and STX 1 from a city water stream. Control bioassays included the commercially available gold standard bioassay kits run at room temperature. Our results show that the lower limit of detection (LLOD) of the colorimetric and fluorescence based bioassays for GFAP was decreased by ~1,000 times using the MAB technique and our circular bioassay platforms as compared to the commercially available bioassay kits. The overall bioassay time for GFAP and STX 1 was reduced from 4 hours using commercially available bioassay kits to 10 minutes using the MAB technique. PMID:26356762

  19. [Determination of Escherichia coli Shiga-like toxins by means of the MTT bioassay].

    PubMed

    Hörmansdorfer, S; Gareis, M; Bauer, J; Mayr, A

    1995-09-01

    Tissue culture cells' metabolism and viability are measured by the mitochondrial reduction rate of a yellow tetrazolium salt (MTT) to blue formazan crystals in the MTT-bioassay. Thus the MTT-bioassay is a standardizable and reproducible bioassay for measuring cytotoxicity or cytostimulation. It is shown that the MTT-bioassay is also very suitable for determining bacterial cytotoxins using Escherichia coli's Shiga-like toxins as example. 177 strains of E. coli, isolated from carcasses and organs of cattle, are classified biochemically and tested for cytotoxin production by means of the MTT-bioassay. One of these strains is recognized as producer of Shiga-like toxin 2. 4 Enterohemolysin-producing strains of E. coli are cultivated from a feces sample of a diarrhoeic nubian ibex and identified as Shiga-like toxin 1 producers by help of the MTT-bioassay.

  20. Bioassay of 4'-(chloroacetyl)-acetanilide for possible carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    A bioassay for the possible carcinogenicity of 4'-(chloroacetyl)-acetanilide was conducted using Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. 4'-(Chloroacetyl)-acetanilide was administered in the feed, at either of two concentrations, to groups of 50 male and 50 female animals of each species. Twenty animals of each sex and species were placed on test as controls. The high and low dietary concentrations of 4'-(chloroacetyl)-acetanilide were, respectively, 2,000 and 1,000 ppm for rats and 10,000 and 5,000 ppm for mice. The compound was administered for 87 weeks of a 102-week period in rats and for 90 weeks of a 105-week period in mice. Mice were killed at the end of the last week of compound administration, while rats were observed for 1 week after compound administration ceased. There were no significant positive associations between the concentration of 4'-(chloroacetyl)-acetanilide administered and mortality in rats or mice of either sex. Adequate numbers of animals in all groups survived sufficiently long to be at risk from late-developing tumors. Dose-related mean body weight depression was observed for males and females of both species, indicating that the concentrations of 4'-(chloroacetyl)-acetanilide administered to the animals in this bioassay may have approximated the maximum tolerated concentrations. None of the statistical tests for any site in rats of either sex or in male mice indicated a significant positive association between compound administration and tumor incidence. Although there was a significant positive association between the concentration of the compound administered and the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas in female mice, the Fischer exact comparisons were not significant. Under the conditions of this bioassay, 4'-(chloroacetyl)-acetanilide was not carcinogenic when administered in the diet to Fischer 344 rats or B6C3F1 mice of either sex.

  1. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2012-10-25

    From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow's milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III) or Cd (II) whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II) and Zn (II) were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II) concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  2. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III) or Cd (II) whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II) and Zn (II) were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II) concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products. PMID:23098077

  3. Aspirator Gun for High-Throughput Mosquito Bioassays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    surveillance of Aedes aegypti in San Juan, Puerto Rico. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 10:119–124. Dietrick EJ. 1961. An improved backpack motor fan for suction...Bioassays Author(s): Robert L. Aldridge, W. Wayne Wynn, Seth C. Britch, and Kenneth J. Linthicum Source: Journal of the American Mosquito Control ...Association, 28(1):65-68. 2012. Published By: The American Mosquito Control Association DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2987/11-6195.1 URL: http://www.bioone.org

  4. Use of image analyzer technique to validate bivalve embryo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Uiniou, F.; Goraguer, H.; Quiniou, L.

    1995-12-31

    Bivalve bioassays are based on visual observation of normal and abnormal D larvae. This qualitative and morphological criteria is long and time-consuming. Moreover, this work needs to be performed by the same person to avoid the human discrepancy. This study shows how the image analyzer technique, based only on measurements, without shape recognition, allows the assessment of the dose-response effect of a toxic compound regardless of scientific evaluation. Furthermore, by this technique, geometrical features of the larvae permit the observation, at very low concentrations, of a hormetic effect visually undetectable.

  5. Electroantennographic Bioassay as a Screening Tool for Host Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Beck, John J.; Light, Douglas M.; Gee, Wai S.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles play an important role in plant-insect interactions. Herbivorous insects use plant volatiles, known as kairomones, to locate their host plant.1,2 When a host plant is an important agronomic commodity feeding damage by insect pests can inflict serious economic losses to growers. Accordingly, kairomones can be used as attractants to lure or confuse these insects and, thus, offer an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides for insect control.3 Unfortunately, plants can emit a vast number volatiles with varying compositions and ratios of emissions dependent upon the phenology of the commodity or the time of day. This makes identification of biologically active components or blends of volatile components an arduous process. To help identify the bioactive components of host plant volatile emissions we employ the laboratory-based screening bioassay electroantennography (EAG). EAG is an effective tool to evaluate and record electrophysiologically the olfactory responses of an insect via their antennal receptors. The EAG screening process can help reduce the number of volatiles tested to identify promising bioactive components. However, EAG bioassays only provide information about activation of receptors. It does not provide information about the type of insect behavior the compound elicits; which could be as an attractant, repellent or other type of behavioral response. Volatiles eliciting a significant response by EAG, relative to an appropriate positive control, are typically taken on to further testing of behavioral responses of the insect pest. The experimental design presented will detail the methodology employed to screen almond-based host plant volatiles4,5 by measurement of the electrophysiological antennal responses of an adult insect pest navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) to single components and simple blends of components via EAG bioassay. The method utilizes two excised antennae placed across a "fork" electrode holder. The

  6. An emergency bioassay method for (210)Po in urine.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Dai, Xiongxin

    2015-09-01

    A rapid method was developed to efficiently measure (210)Po in urine samples in an emergency situation. Polonium-210 in small urine samples (10 mL) was spontaneously deposited on a stainless steel disc in 1 M HCl at room temperature for 4 h in a polyethylene bottle. The metallic disc was then counted for 4 h by alpha spectrometry. The developed method allowed the preparation of large sample batch in a short time. The method meets the requirements for an emergency bioassay procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of the proposed new ICRP lung model to bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; James, A.C.; Hill, R.L.

    1992-05-01

    The new lung model being proposed by ICRP for use in radiation protection dosimetry requires the calculation of doses to separate regions of the respiratory tract, multiplying these doses by factors proportional to the risk per unit dose to each region, and summing over all regions of the lung to give a ``weighted`` lung dose. This paper compares the doses that would be calculated form bioassay measurements using the new model with those calculated using the current model, which essentially uses total lung burden to estimate lung dose.

  8. Application of the proposed new ICRP lung model to bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; James, A.C.; Hill, R.L.

    1992-05-01

    The new lung model being proposed by ICRP for use in radiation protection dosimetry requires the calculation of doses to separate regions of the respiratory tract, multiplying these doses by factors proportional to the risk per unit dose to each region, and summing over all regions of the lung to give a weighted'' lung dose. This paper compares the doses that would be calculated form bioassay measurements using the new model with those calculated using the current model, which essentially uses total lung burden to estimate lung dose.

  9. A new bioassay reveals mollusc-specific toxicity in molluscivorous Conus venoms.

    PubMed

    Fainzilber, M; Zlotkin, E

    1992-04-01

    Contraction of the foot pedal of a limpet snail is described as a new and quantifiable bioassay for mollusc paralysis. This bioassay was used for screening the venoms of seven different species of Conus snails. Comparison of the results of the limpet assay with those obtained from fish and blowflies shows a correlation between the feeding specificities and venom toxicities of these Conidae. The limpet bioassay should be useful for identification and monitoring of the purification of new toxins active on molluscan systems.

  10. [Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

    2003-03-01

    Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish.

  11. Microfluidic bioassay to characterize parasitic nematode phenotype and anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baozhen; Deutmeyer, Alex; Carr, John; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J; Pandey, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    With increasing resistance to anti-parasitic drugs, it has become more important to detect and recognize phenotypes of resistant isolates. Molecular methods of detecting resistant isolates are limited at present. Here, we introduce a microfluidic bioassay to measure phenotype using parameters of nematode locomotion. We illustrate the technique on larvae of an animal parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum. Parameters of sinusoidal motion such as propagation velocity, wavelength, wave amplitude, and oscillation frequency depended on the levamisole-sensitivity of the isolate of parasitic nematode. The levamisole-sensitive isolate (SENS) had a mean wave amplitude of 135 μm, which was larger than 123 μm of the levamisole-resistant isolate (LEVR). SENS had a mean wavelength of 373 μm, which was less than 393 μm of LEVR. The mean propagation velocity of SENS, 149 μm s-1, was similar to LEVR, 143 μm s-1. The propagation velocity of the isolates was inhibited by levamisole in a concentration-dependent manner above 0.5 μm. The EC50 for SENS was 3 μm and the EC50 for LEVR was 10 μm. This microfluidic technology advances present-day nematode migration assays and provides a better quantification and increased drug sensitivity. It is anticipated that the bioassay will facilitate study of resistance to other anthelmintic drugs that affect locomotion.

  12. Selecting a battery of bioassays for ecotoxicological characterization of wastes.

    PubMed

    Pandard, Pascal; Devillers, James; Charissou, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Véronique; Jourdain, Marie-José; Férard, Jean-François; Grand, Cécile; Bispo, Antonio

    2006-06-15

    This study was conducted in France within the context of waste classification (Hazardous Waste Council Directive 91/689/EEC), and focused on "ecotoxic" property (H14). In 1998, an experimental test strategy was developed to assess ecotoxicological properties of wastes using a battery of six standardized bioassays. This combined direct and indirect approaches integrating two solid-phase tests: emergence and growth inhibition of Lactuca sativa (14 days), mortality of Eisenia fetida (14 days) and four standardized tests performed on water extracts from wastes: growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (3 days), inhibition of mobility of Daphnia magna (48 h), inhibition of reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 days), inhibition of light emission of Vibrio fischeri (30 min). This study aimed to set up preliminary conclusions on relevancy of this experimental test strategy, based on data obtained since 1998. Results were analyzed from the combined use of Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Nonlinear Mapping. These multivariate analyses clearly showed that it was possible to reduce this number of tests without changing the typology of the wastes. A battery of bioassays including one solid phase test and two tests performed on water extracts (L. sativa, V. fischeri and C. dubia) was found as an optimal solution for characterizing the toxicity of the studied wastes. This optimal battery represents a good basis for determining the H14 property.

  13. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  14. Microfluidic bioassay to characterize parasitic nematode phenotype and anthelmintic resistance

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, BAOZHEN; DEUTMEYER, ALEX; CARR, JOHN; ROBERTSON, ALAN P.; MARTIN, RICHARD J.; PANDEY, SANTOSH

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY With increasing resistance to anti-parasitic drugs, it has become more important to detect and recognize phenotypes of resistant isolates. Molecular methods of detecting resistant isolates are limited at present. Here, we introduce a microfluidic bioassay to measure phenotype using parameters of nematode locomotion. We illustrate the technique on larvae of an animal parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum. Parameters of sinusoidal motion such as propagation velocity, wavelength, wave amplitude, and oscillation frequency depended on the levamisole-sensitivity of the isolate of parasitic nematode. The levamisole-sensitive isolate (SENS) had a mean wave amplitude of 135 μm, which was larger than 123 μm of the levamisole-resistant isolate (LEVR). SENS had a mean wavelength of 373 μm, which was less than 393 μm of LEVR. The mean propagation velocity of SENS, 149 μm s−1, was similar to LEVR, 143 μm s−1. The propagation velocity of the isolates was inhibited by levamisole in a concentration-dependent manner above 0.5 μM. The EC50 for SENS was 3 μM and the EC50 for LEVR was 10 μM. This microfluidic technology advances present-day nematode migration assays and provides a better quantification and increased drug sensitivity. It is anticipated that the bioassay will facilitate study of resistance to other anthelmintic drugs that affect locomotion. PMID:20663251

  15. In vitro bioassays of non-steroidal phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, L; Garey, J; Adlercreutz, H; Gurpide, E

    1993-05-01

    Some of the isoflavonoids present in human diet as well as in urine are expected to exert biologic effects as they have been reported to bind to estrogen receptors and to be estrogenic in other species. This report describes the in vitro assessment of estrogenic effects of isoflavonoids using human endometrial cells and tissue. The relative estrogenic potencies (EC50 values) of estradiol, 3 dietary isoflavonoids (coumestrol, genistein and daidzein) and one of their metabolites (equol), were estimated by using a recently developed multiwell plate in vitro bioassay based on the estrogen-specific enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (AlkP) activity in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells of the Ishikawa-Var I line. The maximal AlkP activity elicited by the isoflavonoids tested was as high as that achieved with estradiol and their effects were suppressed by the antiestrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 164,384. These results indicate that estradiol and the isoflavonoids exert their effects on AlkP by similar interactions with the estrogen receptor, with potencies depending on binding affinities. The estrogenic effect of equol was confirmed by another in vitro bioassay, based on the estrogen-stimulated enhancement of prostaglandin F2 alpha output by fragments of human secretory endometrium.

  16. A sensitive new bioassay for erythroid colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Feldman, L; Davis, K L; Feeley, D M; Sytkowski, A J

    1993-12-01

    Erythroid colony-stimulating factor (E-CSF) is a B cell-derived membrane protein that specifically affects the growth and development of human and murine committed erythroid progenitors. We report the development of a sensitive new bioassay for E-CSF, based on the ability of the growth factor to stimulate 3H-thymidine incorporation into cloned Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells. The assay has among its advantages the ability to measure growth factor activity on a purified target cell population in the absence of endogenous growth factor-producing accessory cells. In addition, this assay measures E-CSF's proliferative effect on erythroid progenitors in the absence of erythropoietin (Epo) after 72 to 96 hours. In contrast, the standard bone marrow fibrin clot assay traditionally used to measure E-CSF requires the addition of Epo to promote the development of hemoglobinized erythroid colonies that are quantified after 7 days (for murine cells) to 12 days (for human cells). With the use of this new Rauscher cell bioassay, we have identified an E-CSF-producing human cell line and, further, have measured E-CSF activity derived from nonhuman splenic B lymphocytes.

  17. Bioassay of formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis for use in forestry: panel discussion of the role of the bioassay in standardizing formulations of B. thuringiensis

    Treesearch

    H. T. Dulmage; C. C. Beegle; N. R. Dubois

    1985-01-01

    The panel discussed various aspects of Bacillus thuringiensis formulations and fermentations and concluded that the only means at present of standardizing these formulations or discovering more potent strains of the Bacillus is through carefully controlled bioassays.

  18. Predicting toxicity in marine sediment in Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) using Sediment Quality Guidelines and a battery bioassay.

    PubMed

    Annicchiarico, Cristina; Biandolino, Francesca; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Prato, Ermelinda

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess coastal marine pollution in the Mar Piccolo and Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) by combining chemical and toxicological data in order to compare and integrate both approaches. Pollutants levels, traditionally, have limited ability to predict adverse effects on living resources. Moreover, in order to provide information on the ecological impact of sediment contamination on aquatic biota Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and sediment toxicity bioassays were carefully recommended. In this study ERL (effect range low)/ERM (effect range medium value) and TEL (threshold effect level)/PEL (probable effect level) guidelines have been used. Bioassays were performed with two species of amphipods Gammarus aequicauda and Corophium insidiosum, one species of isopod Idotea baltica and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis larvae. The TEL/PEL analysis suggested that, especially for stations 1 and 2, sediments in Mar Piccolo should contain acutely toxic concentrations of metals. In particular Hg content, in station 1, was about 17 times PEL value. 96 h LC(50) and 48 h EC(50) values were estimated for cadmium, copper and mercury in these species using the static acute toxicity test. M. galloprovincialis larvae was more sensitive than other species to all the reference toxicants tested (EC(50) determined for cadmium copper and mercury were of 0.59, 0.11 and 0.01 mg/l respectively). Significant differences in sensitivity of species tested to all reference toxicants (ANOVA p < 0.001) were recorded. Bioassays with these species allowed to estimated sediment toxicity from the different studied sites. On the basis of results obtained a good agreement was reported between chemical data and response of the biological endpoints tested.

  19. Benthic invertebrate bioassays with toxic sediment and pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, John P.; Rosiu, Cornell J.; Graney, Robert L.; Henry, Mary G.

    1990-01-01

    The relative sensitivities of bioassays to determine the toxicity of sediments were investigated and three methods of making the sample dilutions required to generate dose-response relationships were compared. The assays studied were: (a) Microtox®, a 15-min assay ofPhotobacterium phosphoreum bioluminescence inhibition by pore water; (b) 48-h Daphnia magnalethality test in pore water; (c) 10-d subchronic assay of lethality to and reduction of weight gain by Chironomus tentans performed in either whole sediment or pore water; (d) 168-h acute lethality assay of Hexagenia limbata in either whole sediment or pore water. The three methods of diluting sediments were: (a) extracting pore water from the toxic location and dilution with pore water from the control station; (b) diluting whole sediment from the toxic location with control whole sediment from a reference location, then extracting pore water; and (c) diluting toxic, whole sediment with whole sediment from a reference location, then using the whole sediment in bioassays. Based on lethality, H. limbata was the most sensitive organism to the toxicity of Detroit River sediment. Lethality of D. magna in pore water was similar to that of H. limbata in whole sediment and can be used to predict effects of whole sediment toxicity to H. limbata. The concentration required to cause a 50% reduction in C. tentans growth (10-d EC50) was approximately that which caused 50% lethality of D. magna (48-h LC50) and was similar to the toxicity that restricts benthic invertebrate colonization of contaminated sediments. While the three dilution techniques gave similar results with some assays, they gave very different results in other assays. The dose-response relationships determined by the three dilution techniques would be expected to vary with sediment, toxicant and bioassay type, and the dose-response relationship derived from each technique needs to be interpreted accordingly.

  20. Culture and Toxicity Tests Using Los Angeles District Bioassay Animals, Acanthomysis and Neanthes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    and results of reference toxi - cant bioassay studies using two Los Angeles District bioassay organisms. The work was conducted during the period of...PCB’s) on Survival and Reproduction of Daphnia , Gan naru.s, and Tanytarsus," Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Vol 103, No. 4, pp 722

  1. A Bioassay for Determining Resistance Levels in Tarnished Plant Bug Populations to Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A laboratory bioassay was developed and used to test field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), for resistance development to the neonicitinoid insecticides imidacloprid (Trimax®) and thiamethoxam (Centric®). The bioassay determined LC50 values by feeding...

  2. Improved high-throughput bioassay for Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As we gain more information through functional genomic studies of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), we need a high throughput bioassay system to screen potential biopesticides. R. dominica is an internal feeder during immature stages and presents unique challenges with traditional bioassay methods. Our pri...

  3. Comparison of two mosquito bioassay methods for the estimate of minimum effective dose in repellents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is expected that laboratory-based repellent bioassays should reliably evaluate the efficacy of compounds that deter mosquito feeding behavior. The variety of repellent bioassays available allows for flexibility in design, but makes it difficult to compare any two methods, including in vitro and i...

  4. Immunochemical technologies for replacement of rodent bioassays in sensitive detection of toxins in foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid sensitive assays for biothreat toxins that can be used to detect intentionally contaminated foods are now typically performed via bioassay in live mice. While bioassay provides essential data on bioavailability, animal models are technically, fiscally, and ethically challenging. Through carefu...

  5. Resistance monitoring of Heliothis virescens to pyramided cotton varieties with a hydrateable, artificial cotton leaf bioassay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proof of concept was demonstrated for a practical, off the shelf bioassay to monitor for tobacco budworm resistance to pyramided Bt cotton using plant eluants. The bioassay was based on a previously described feeding disruption test using hydrateable artificial diet containing a blue indicator dye, ...

  6. bioassayR: Cross-Target Analysis of Small Molecule Bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Backman, Tyler William H; Girke, Thomas

    2016-07-25

    Despite a large and rapidly growing body of small molecule bioactivity screens available in the public domain, systematic leverage of the data to assess target druggability and compound selectivity has been confounded by a lack of suitable cross-target analysis software. We have developed bioassayR, a computational tool that enables simultaneous analysis of thousands of bioassay experiments performed over a diverse set of compounds and biological targets. Unique features include support for large-scale cross-target analyses of both public and custom bioassays, generation of high throughput screening fingerprints (HTSFPs), and an optional preloaded database that provides access to a substantial portion of publicly available bioactivity data. bioassayR is implemented as an open-source R/Bioconductor package available from https://bioconductor.org/packages/bioassayR/ .

  7. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of motor vehicle emissions in short-term bioassays.

    PubMed

    Lewtas, J

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete combustion of fuel in motor vehicles results in the emission of submicron carbonaceous particles which, after cooling and dilution, contain varying quantities of extractable organic constituents. These organics are mutagenic in bacteria. Confirmatory bioassays in mammalian cells provide the capability of detecting chromosomal and DNA damage in addition to gene mutations. In order to evaluate the mutagenicity of these organics in mammalian cells, extractable organics from particle emissions from several diesel and gasoline vehicles were compared in a battery of microbial, mammalian cell and in vivo bioassays. The mammalian cell mutagenicity bioassays were selected to detect gene mutations, DNA damage, and chromosomal effects. Carcinogenesis bioassays conducted included short-term assays for oncogenic transformation and skin tumorigenesis. The results in different assay systems are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. Good quantitative correlations were observed between several mutagenesis and carcinogenesis bioassays for this series of diesel and gasoline emissions.

  8. Harvester ant bioassay for assessing hazardous chemical waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.; Carlile, D.W.; Rogers, L.E.

    1984-12-01

    A technique was developed for using harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owhyeei, in terrestrial bioassays. Procedures were developed for maintaining stock populations, handling ants, and exposing ants to toxic materials. Relative toxicities were determined by exposing ants to 10 different materials. These materials included three insecticides, Endrin, Aldrin, and Dieldrin; one herbicide, 2,4-D; three oil-like compounds, wood preservative, drilling fluid, and slop oil; and three heavy metals, copper, zinc, and cadmium. Ants were exposed in petri dishes containing soil amended with a particular toxicant. Under these test conditions, ants showed no sensitivity to the metals or 2,4-D. Ants were sensitive to the insecticides and oils in repeated tests, and relative toxicity remained consistent throughout. Aldrin was the most toxic material, followed by Dieldrin, Endrin, wood preservative, drilling fluid, and slop oil. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiatherosclerotic phytochemicals from Artocarpus altilis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Deng, Tongle; Lin, Lin; Pan, Yuanjiang; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2006-12-01

    The cytoprotective effects of various solvent extracts of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg were evaluated. The cytoprotective effects were determined in human U937 cells incubated with oxidized LDL (OxLDL) using the 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1, 3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1) assay. The results demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract showed cytoprotective activities. To identify the main cytoprotective components, a bioassay guided isolation of the ethyl acetate extract afforded b-sitosterol (1) and six flavonoids (2-7). Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Of these compounds, compound 6 was obtained from A. altilis for the first time. The cytoprotective effect offers good prospects for the medicinal applications of A. altilis.

  10. Characterization of currently marketed heparin products: adverse event relevant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Cynthia D; Montpas, Nicolas; Adam, Albert; Keire, David A

    2012-01-01

    The polyanion oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) was identified as a contaminant in heparin products and was associated with severe hypotensive responses and other symptoms in patients receiving the drug. The OSCS associated adverse reactions were attributed to activation of the contact system via the plasma mediator, activated factor XII (FXIIa), which triggers kallikrein (KK) activity. Unlike heparin alone, OSCS, is able to activate FXII in plasma and stably bind to FXIIa enhancing plasma KK activity and the induction of vasoactive mediators such as bradykinin (BK), C3a and C5a. Similarly OSCS can interfere with heparin neutralization by the polycationic drug protamine. Here, we assess heparin (heparin sodium, dalteparin, tinzaparin or enoxaparin)-protamine complex formation and plasma based bioassays of KK, BK and C5a in a 96-well plate format. We establish the normal range of variation in the optimized bioassays across multiple lots from 9 manufacturers. In addition, because other oversulfated (OS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) besides OSCS could also serve as possible economically motivated adulterants (EMAs) to heparin, we characterize OS-dermatan sulfate (OSDS), OS-heparan sulfate (OSHS) and their native forms in the same assays. For the protamine test, OS-GAGs could be distinguished from heparin. For the KK assay, OSCS and OSDS were most potent followed by OSHS, and all had similar efficacies. Finally, OSDS had a greater efficacy in the C5a and BK assays followed by OSCS then OSHS. These data established the normal range of response of heparin products in these assays and the alteration in the responses in the presence of possible EMAs.

  11. Comprehensive integration of homogeneous bioassays via centrifugo-pneumatic cascading.

    PubMed

    Godino, Neus; Gorkin, Robert; Linares, Ana V; Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-02-21

    This work for the first time presents the full integration and automation concept for a range of bioassays leveraged by cascading a centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme to sequentially move several liquids through shared channel segments for multi-step sample preparation into the detection zone. This novel centrifugo-pneumatic liquid handling significantly simplifies system manufacture by obviating the need for complex surface functionalization procedures or hybrid material integration, as it is common in conventional valving methods such as capillary burst valves or sacrificial valves. Based on the centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme, this work presents a toolkit of operational elements implementing liquid loading/transfer, metering, mixing and sedimentation in a microstructured polymer disc. As a proof of concept for the broad class of homogeneous bioassays, the full integration and automation of a colorimetric nitrate/nitrite test for the detection of clinically relevant nitric oxide (NO) in whole blood is implemented. First, 40 μL of plasma is extracted from a 100 μL sample of human blood, incubated for one hour with the enzymatic mixture (60 μL), and finally reacted with 100 μL of colorimetric (Greiss) reagents. Following just a single loading phase at the beginning of the process, all of these steps are automated through the centrifugo-pneumatic cascade with a high level of flow control and synchronization. Our system shows good correlation with controls up to 50 μM of nitrate, which adequately covers the healthy human range (4 to 45.3 μM).

  12. Susceptibility of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to fipronil and imidacloprid using adult and larval bioassays.

    PubMed

    Rust, M K; Vetter, R; Denholm, I; Blagburn, B; Williamson, M S; Kopp, S; Coleman, G; Hostetler, J; Davis, W; Mencke, N; Rees, R; Foit, S; Tetzner, K

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the susceptibility offleas to insecticides has typically been conducted by exposing adults on treated surfaces. Other methods such as topical applications of insecticides to adults and larval bioassays on treated rearing media have been developed. Unfortunately, baseline responses of susceptible strains of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouchè), except for imidacloprid, have not been determined for all on-animal therapies and new classes of chemistry now being used. However, the relationship between adult and larval bioassays of fleas has not been previously investigated. The adult and larval bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid were compared for both field-collected isolates and laboratory strains. Adult topical bioassays of fipronil and imidacloprid to laboratory strains and field-collected isolates demonstrated that LD50s of fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 nanograms per flea and 0.02 to 0.18 nanograms per flea, respectively. Resistance ratios for fipronil and imidacloprid ranged from 0.11 to 2.21. Based on the larval bioassay published for imidacloprid, a larval bioassay was established for fipronil and reported in this article. The ranges of the LC50s of fipronil and imidacloprid in the larval rearing media were 0.07-0.16 and 0.11-0.21 ppm, respectively. Resistance ratios for adult and larval bioassays ranged from 0.11 to 2.2 and 0.58 to 1.75, respectively. Both adult and larval bioassays provided similar patterns for fipronil and imidacloprid. Although the adult bioassays permitted a more precise dosage applied, the larval bioassays allowed for testing isolates without the need to maintain on synthetic or natural hosts.

  13. Chronic and Initiation/Promotion Skin Bioassays of Petroleum Refinery Streams.

    PubMed Central

    Skisak, C; Furedi-Machacek, EM; Schmitt, SS; Swanson, MS; Vernot, EH

    1994-01-01

    Nine refinery streams were tested in both chronic and initiation/promotion (I/P) skin bioassays. In the chronic bioassay, groups of 50 C3H/HeJ mice received twice weekly applications of 50 microl of test article for at least 2 years. In the initiation phase of the I/P bioassay, groups of CD-1 mice received an initiating dose of 50 microl of test article for 5 consecutive days, followed by promotion with 50 microl of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (0.01% w/v in acetone) for 25 weeks. In the promotion phase of the I/P bioassay, CD-1 mice were initiated with 50 microl of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (0.1% w/v in acetone) or acetone, followed by promotion with 50 microl of test article twice weekly for 25 weeks. The most volatile of the streams, sweetened naphtha, and the least volatile, vacuum residuum, were noncarcinogenic in both assays. Middle distillates, with a boiling range of 150 degrees-370 degreesC, demonstrated carcinogenic activity in the chronic bioassay and acted as promoters but not initiators in the I/P bioassay. Untreated mineral oil streams displayed initiating activity and were carcinogenic in the chronic bioassay, presumably due to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of requisite size and structure. A highly solvent-refined mineral oil stream lacked initiating activity. These results indicate that the I/P bioassay, which takes 6 months to complete, may be a good qualitative predictor of the results of a chronic bioassay, at least for petroleum streams. Furthermore, the I/P bioassay can provide insight into possible mechanisms of tumor development. Images p82-a PMID:9719673

  14. Using lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in in vitro laboratory bioassays of repellents: dimensions, duration, and variability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The in vitro bioassay is an important tool in repellent discovery and development, with a variety of bioassays used in recent years. Several factors, such as the dimensions and configuration of test surfaces and duration of tick exposure, can influence the outcome of bioassays. We tested two tick re...

  15. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-15

    Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mouse-specific carcinogens: an assessment of hazard and significance for validation of short-term carcinogenicity bioassays in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Battershill, J M; Fielder, R J

    1998-04-01

    -06-2), Dieldrin (60-57-7), Diethylhexyladipate (103-23-1), and Probenicid (57-66-9); five mouse-specific carcinogens with equivocal evidence of mutagenicity were identified; (2,4-diaminophenol.2HCl (137-09-7), Dipyrone (68-89-3), Ozone (10028-15-6), Vinylidene chloride (75-35-4), and Zearalenone (17924-92-4)), and three mouse-specific carcinogens with inadequate mutagenicity data (Benzaldehyde (100-52-7), Piperonyl sulphoxide (120-62-7), Ripazepam (26308-28-1)). 3. It is suggested that the two genotoxic mouse carcinogens would have been considered as potential carcinogens in the absence of a mouse bioassay. Of the five non-genotoxic mouse-specific carcinogens; three induced tumours in mouse liver only and are considered as being of low potential hazard to human health. The remaining two chemicals would have been missed in the absence of a mouse bioassay (2-aminobiphenyl (2185-92-4) and captan (133-06-2)) and thus are good candidates for evaluation in the short term bioassays in transgenic mice currently being validated. 4. The hardest group of mouse-specific carcinogens to evaluate are those for which there is equivocal or inadequate mutagenicity data. The difficulty in evaluating these particular chemicals emphasises the need for adequate mutagenicity data in addition to adequate carcinogenicity data in order to assess potential hazards to human health. Hazard assessments and a consideration of the potential role for short-term bioassays in transgenic mice for the eight chemicals in this subgroup are presented. 5. A number of general conclusions have been derived from this review. Firstly, there are insufficient published genotoxicity data to allow a full assessment fo mutagenic potential for 57/76 of the potential mouse-specific carcinogens identified from the CPD. This is surprising given the clear value of such data in interpreting bioassay results and the much greater resources required for carcinogenicity bioassays. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  17. Timing readout in paper device for quantitative point-of-use hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Fan, Jinlong; Nie, Jinfang; Le, Shangwang; Zhu, Wenyuan; Gao, Dong; Yang, Jiani; Zhang, Songbai; Li, Jianping

    2015-11-15

    This work describes a quantitative point-of-use hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based assay that integrates a simple timing detection motif with low-cost, portable microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The timing readout is based on the selective DNAzyme-mediated wettability change of paper from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity. Its utility is well demonstrated with sensitive, specific detection of K(+) ion as a model analyte in artificial samples as well as real human serum samples. This new method only requires a ubiquitous cheap timer (or a cell phone with a timing function) to provide quantitative results. It could offer new opportunities for the development of more peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme-based bioassays that are simple, affordable, portable, and operable by minimally-trained users for broad point-of-use applications especially in resource-poor settings.

  18. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  19. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays.

    SciTech Connect

    Anstey, Mitchell R.; Fruetel, Julia A.; Foster, Michael E.; Hayden, Carl C.; Buckley, Heather L.; Arnold, John

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves "Click" chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  20. Detection of Organic Compounds with Whole-Cell Bioluminescent Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan; Smartt, Abby; Ripp, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Natural and manmade organic chemicals are widely deposited across a diverse range of ecosystems including air, surface water, groundwater, wastewater, soil, sediment, and marine environments. Some organic compounds, despite their industrial values, are toxic to living organisms and pose significant health risks to humans and wildlife. Detection and monitoring of these organic pollutants in environmental matrices therefore is of great interest and need for remediation and health risk assessment. Although these detections have traditionally been performed using analytical chemical approaches that offer highly sensitive and specific identification of target compounds, these methods require specialized equipment and trained operators, and fail to describe potential bioavailable effects on living organisms. Alternatively, the integration of bioluminescent systems into whole-cell bioreporters presents a new capacity for organic compound detection. These bioreporters are constructed by incorporating reporter genes into catabolic or signaling pathways that are present within living cells and emit a bioluminescent signal that can be detected upon exposure to target chemicals. Although relatively less specific compared to analytical methods, bioluminescent bioassays are more cost-effective, more rapid, can be scaled to higher throughput, and can be designed to report not only the presence but also the bioavailability of target substances. This chapter reviews available bacterial and eukaryotic whole-cell bioreporters for sensing organic pollutants and their applications in a variety of sample matrices. PMID:25084996

  1. Bioassays for the evaluation of landfill leachate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David John Lawrence; Tyrrel, Sean Ferguson; Smith, Richard; Farrow, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the application of bioassays for assessing the toxicity hazard posed by landfill leachate discharged to an aquatic environment. Landfill leachate is a complex mixture of chemicals; thus it is difficult to assess the risk posed to aquatic wildlife using standard chemical identification techniques, such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). From this review it is clear that toxicity testing, using species that represent the different trophic levels, is a superior way to predict the risk posed by discharge than chemical analysis. Previous studies assessed leachate toxicity using bacteria, algae, plants, invertebrates, fish, and genotoxicity. Studies showed that leachate exhibits a wide range of toxicities to the species tested. Ammonia, alkalinity, heavy metals, and recalcitrant organics were identified to be the cause of adverse responses from the test organisms. Concentrations of these chemicals were found to depend upon the types of waste landfilled. As part of this review, Slooff analysis was applied to published results to calculate the sensitivity of test species. It was concluded that Lemna minor and Thamnocephalus platyurus were the most sensitive tests and, Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) was the least sensitive test available. Little is known about the sensitivity of each species to the different types of waste that might have been landfilled. A battery of tests needed for a more accurate assessment of landfill leachate is proposed. Some of the more common tests have been replaced by more sensitive tests that produce more relevant results for the industry and regulators.

  2. Using enzyme bioassays as a rapid screen for metal toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choate, LaDonna M.; Ross, P.E.; Blumenstein, E. P.; Ranville, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Mine tailings piles and abandoned mine soils are often contaminated by a suite of toxic metals, which were released in the mining process. Traditionally, toxicity of such areas has been determined by numerous chemical methods including the Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) and traditional toxicity tests using organisms such as the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia. Such tests can be expensive and time-consuming. Enzymatic bioassays may provide an easier, less costly, and more time-effective toxicity screening procedure for mine tailings and abandoned mine soil leachates. This study evaluated the commercially available MetPLATE™ enzymatic toxicity assay test kit. The MetPLATE™ assay uses a modified strain of Escherichia coli bacteria as the test organism. Toxicity is defined by the activity of β-galactosidase enzyme which is monitored colorometrically with a 96-well spectrophotometer. The study used water samples collected from North Fork Clear Creek, a mining influenced water (MIW) located in Colorado. A great benefit to using the MetPLATE™ assay over the TCLP is that it shows actual toxicity of a sample by taking into account the bioavailability of the toxicants rather than simply measuring the metal concentration present. Benefits of the MetPLATE™ assay over the use of C. dubia include greatly reduced time for the testing process (∼2 hours), a more continuous variable due to a greater number of organisms present in each sample (100,000+), and the elimination of need to maintain a culture of organisms at all times.

  3. Development and characteristics of an adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae.

    PubMed

    Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gachon, Claire M M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2012-01-01

    Species of filamentous brown algae in the family Ectocarpaceae are significant members of fouling communities. However, there are few systematic studies on the influence of surface physico-chemical properties on their adhesion. In the present paper the development of a novel, laboratory-based adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae, at an appropriate scale for the screening of sets of experimental samples in well-replicated and controlled experiments is described. The assays are based on the colonization of surfaces from a starting inoculum consisting of multicellular filaments obtained by blending the cultured alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum. The adhesion strength of the biomass after 14 days growth was assessed by applying a hydrodynamic shear stress. Results from adhesion tests on a set of standard surfaces showed that E. crouaniorum adhered more weakly to the amphiphilic Intersleek® 900 than to the more hydrophobic Intersleek® 700 and Silastic® T2 coatings. Adhesion to hydrophilic glass was also weak. Similar results were obtained for other cultivated species of Ectocarpus but differed from those obtained with the related ectocarpoid species Hincksia secunda. The response of the ectocarpoid algae to the surfaces was also compared to that for the green alga, Ulva.

  4. Analyzing bioassay data using Bayesian methods--a primer.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Inkret, W C; Schillaci, M E; Martz, H F; Little, T T

    2000-06-01

    The classical statistics approach used in health physics for the interpretation of measurements is deficient in that it does not take into account "needle in a haystack" effects, that is, correct identification of events that are rare in a population. This is often the case in health physics measurements, and the false positive fraction (the fraction of results measuring positive that are actually zero) is often very large using the prescriptions of classical statistics. Bayesian statistics provides a methodology to minimize the number of incorrect decisions (wrong calls): false positives and false negatives. We present the basic method and a heuristic discussion. Examples are given using numerically generated and real bioassay data for tritium. Various analytical models are used to fit the prior probability distribution in order to test the sensitivity to choice of model. Parametric studies show that for typical situations involving rare events the normalized Bayesian decision level k(alpha) = Lc/sigma0, where sigma0 is the measurement uncertainty for zero true amount, is in the range of 3 to 5 depending on the true positive rate. Four times sigma0 rather than approximately two times sigma0, as in classical statistics, would seem a better choice for the decision level in these situations.

  5. Gradient Plate Bioassay for Tyrothricin and its Application to Dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Janet C.

    1963-01-01

    A bioassay for tyrothricin, based on a procedure used by Szybalski in bacterial resistance studies, was developed. Replacement of the tube dilution assay with this procedure represented economy in time and equipment, with a resultant increase in productivity. The procedure involved preparation of special agar plates which provided graded concentrations of tyrothricin along a horizontal axis. A culture dish was inclined, and a base layer of agar, without antibiotic, was poured to cover the bottom of the dish and allowed to harden. A second layer of agar, containing 1 ppm of tyrothricin, was poured and allowed to harden with the dish in a level position. Diffusion of the antibiotic from the top layer into the bottom layer yielded a concentration gradient. A third thin layer of agar seeded with Streptococcus faecalis was poured on the surface. After incubation, a bacterial growth front, representing the minimal effective concentration (MEC), developed. The MEC is expressed as distance (in millimeters) from the edge of the plate. Unknowns were directly related to a standard preparation for calculation of tyrothricin concentration. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14075054

  6. A bioassay to estimate root penetration by nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L

    1991-10-01

    An in vitro bioassay with a 96-well microtiter plate was used to study the effect of lectins on burrowing nematode penetration of citrus roots. In each well, one 4-mm root segment, excised from the zone of elongation of rough lemon roots, was buried in 0.88 g dry sand. Addition of a Radopholus citrophilus suspension containing ca. 300 nematodes in 50 mu1 test solution completely moistened the sand in each well. The technique assured uniform treatment concentration throughout the medium. Within 16-24 hours, burrowing nematodes penetrated citrus root pieces, primarily through the cut ends. The lectins (100 mug/ml) Concanavalin A (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LOT) stimulated an increase in penetration of citrus root segments by Radopholus citrophilus. Concentrations as low as 12.5 mug/ml Con A, LOT, and WGA stimulated burrowing nematode penetration of citrus roots. Heat denaturation of the lectins reversed their effect on penetration; however, incubation of nematodes in lectin (25 mug/ml) with 25 mM competitive sugars did not. The reason for enhanced penetration associated with lectins is unclear.

  7. Analyzing bioassay data using Bayesian methods -- A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1997-10-16

    The classical statistics approach used in health physics for the interpretation of measurements is deficient in that it does not allow for the consideration of needle in a haystack effects, where events that are rare in a population are being detected. In fact, this is often the case in health physics measurements, and the false positive fraction is often very large using the prescriptions of classical statistics. Bayesian statistics provides an objective methodology to ensure acceptably small false positive fractions. The authors present the basic methodology and a heuristic discussion. Examples are given using numerically generated and real bioassay data (Tritium). Various analytical models are used to fit the prior probability distribution, in order to test the sensitivity to choice of model. Parametric studies show that the normalized Bayesian decision level k{sub {alpha}}-L{sub c}/{sigma}{sub 0}, where {sigma}{sub 0} is the measurement uncertainty for zero true amount, is usually in the range from 3 to 5 depending on the true positive rate. Four times {sigma}{sub 0} rather than approximately two times {sigma}{sub 0}, as in classical statistics, would often seem a better choice for the decision level.

  8. SPECIFICITY OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MYCOBACTIN BIOASSAY BY ARTHROBACTER TERREGENS

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Alan D.; Morrison, Norman E.; Hanks, John H.

    1964-01-01

    Antoine, Alan D. (Johns Hopkins University-Leonard Wood Memorial Leprosy Research Laboratory, Baltimore, Md.), Norman E. Morrison, and John H. Hanks. Specificity of improved methods for mycobactin bioassay by Arthrobacter terregens. J. Bacteriol. 88:1672–1677. 1964.—Arthrobacter terregens was used to assay mycobactin, a growth factor for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Improved techniques permit the assay of mycobactin within 3 to 4 days by agarplate or liquid-medium methods. For the agarplate method, Arthrobacter terregens gave linear increases in zonal growth at mycobactin concentrations of 0.07 to 0.30 μg per spot; for the liquid-medium method, linear increases in turbidimetric growth occurred at 0.05 to 0.27 μg/ml. Specificity studies show that the mycobactin hydrolytic products, cobactin and mycobactic acid, function as growth stimulators, but the high concentrations required would produce only minimal interference in mycobactin assays. Furthermore, the response to mycobactic acid is characterized by a delayed response of 3 days. Various synthetic hydroxylamine-containing compounds and metalchelating agents cannot replace the biological activity of mycobactin. Diacetylmycobactin is 7.4 times more effective than mycobactin as a growth stimulator. PMID:14240956

  9. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.C.; Huebner, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    The baseline risk assessment often plays an integral role in various decision-making processes at Superfund sites. The present study reports on risk characterizations prepared for seven complex mixtures using biological and chemical analysis. Three of the samples (A, B, and C) were complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted from coal tar; while four samples extracted from munitions-contaminated soil contained primarily nitroaromatic hydrocarbons. The chemical-based risk assessment ranked sample C as least toxic, while the risk associated with samples A and B was approximately equal. The microbial bioassay was in general agreement for the coal tar samples. The weighted activity of the coal tar extracts in Salmonella was 4,960 for sample C, and 162,000 and 206,000 for samples A and B, respectively. The bacterial mutagenicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene contaminated soils exhibited an indirect correlation with chemical-based risk assessment. The aqueous extract of sample 004 induced 1,292 net revertants in Salmonella, while the estimated risk to ingestion and dermal adsorption was 2E-9. The data indicate that the chemical-based risk assessment accurately predicted the genotoxicity of the PAHs, while the accuracy of the risk assessment for munitions contaminated soils was limited due to the presence of metabolites of TNT degradation. The biological tests used in this research provide a valuable compliment to chemical analysis for characterizing the genotoxic risk of complex mixtures.

  10. Sensitive bioassay for detection of biologically active ricin in food.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    The potential use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare highlights the need to develop fast and effective methods to detect biologically active ricin. The current "gold standard" for ricin detection is an in vivo mouse bioassay; however, this method is not practical to test on a large number of samples and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. In this work, we generated adenoviral vectors that express the green fluorescent protein gene and used the relative fluorescence units intensity inhibition by transduced cells for quantitative measurement of biologically active ricin. The detection limit of the assay was 200 pg/ml, which is over 500,000 times greater than the adult human lethal oral dose. The inhibition of fluorescence intensity between ricin treatment and control was higher in 72-h posttransduction Vero cells than 24-h human embryonic kidney cells. Therefore, to detect biologically active ricin in food matrices that might influence the assay, we used 72-h posttransduction Vero cells. This simple assay could be used for large-scale screening to detect biologically active ricin in food without added substrates or use of cell fixation methods.

  11. Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-12-01

    Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

  12. Acetoclastic methanogenic activity measurement by a titration bioassay.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, Alberto; Castellazzi, Luca; Speece, Richard E

    2002-01-05

    A titration bioassay, designed to accurately determine the activity of acetoclastic methanogens, is described that also allows evaluation of inhibition due to potential toxicants on the active biomass. The instrument is made of a pH-stat connected to an anaerobic batch reactor. Acetate is blended and mixed with anaerobic sludge in the reactor where a 1:1 N2 and CO2 mixture is sparged at the beginning of each test. As the acetoclastic methanogens consume acetate, the pH increase, and the titration unit adds acetic acid and keeps the pH constant. The rate of titrant addition is directly proportional to the methanogenic activity. A very useful feature of the system is its potential to operate for long periods (days) at constant pH and substrate (acetate) concentration. The theoretical background and principle of operation are described as well as some of the practical problems encountered with the use of the instrument. Estimation of kinetic constants for an anaerobic culture according to the Michaelis-Menten model is presented. Examples of inhibition by inorganics (NaCl) and chlorinated solvents (chloroform) are also given.

  13. Target organs in chronic bioassays of 533 chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, L S; Slone, T H; Manley, N B; Bernstein, L

    1991-01-01

    A compendium of carcinogenesis bioassay results organized by target organ is presented for 533 chemicals that are carcinogenic in at least one species. This compendium is based primarily on experiments in rats or mice; results in hamsters, nonhuman primates, and dogs are also reported. The compendium can be used to identify chemicals that induce tumors at particular sites, and to determine whether target sites are the same for chemicals positive in more than one species. The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), which includes results of 3969 experiments, is used in the analysis. The published CPDB includes details on each test, and literature references. Chemical carcinogens are reported for 35 different target organs in rats or mice. More than 80% of the carcinogens in each of these species are positive in at least one of the 8 most frequent target sites: liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, vascular system, kidney, hematopoietic system, and urinary bladder. An analysis is presented of how well one can predict the carcinogenic response in mice from results in rats, or vice versa. Among chemicals tested in both species, 76% of rat carcinogens are positive in mice, and 71% of mouse carcinogens are positive in rats. Prediction is less accurate to the same target site: 52% of rat carcinogens are positive in the same site in mice, and 48% of mouse carcinogens are positive in the same site in rats. The liver is the most frequent site in common between rats and mice. PMID:1773795

  14. Comparative susceptibility of bemisia tabaci to imidacloprid in field- and laboratory-based bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B is a resistance-prone pest of protected and open agriculture. Systemic uptake bioassays used in resistance monitoring programs have provided important information on susceptibility to neonicotinoid insecticides, but have remained decoupled from field performance. Simultaneou...

  15. IN SITU BIOASSAY CHAMBER FOR ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe the construction of a simple, inexpensive bioassay chamber for testing sediment toxicity (survival and growth) and bioaccumulation under field conditions using the midge Chironomus tentans and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. The test chamber is ...

  16. Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...

  17. Biomonitoring of cyanotoxins in two tropical reservoirs by cladoceran toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    da S Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio; Soares, Maria Carolina S; de Freitas Magalhães, Valeria; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluates the potential for the use of cladocerans in biomonitoring of cyanobacterial toxins. Two zooplankton species (Daphnia gessneri and Moina micrura) were cultivated in the laboratory for use in acute (48 h) and chronic (10 days) bioassays. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs and diluted in mineral water at four concentrations. Survivorship in the acute bioassays was used to calculate LC50, and survivorship and fecundity in chronic bioassays were used to calculate the intrinsic population growth rate (r) and the EC50. Analysis of phytoplankton in the water samples from one reservoir revealed that cyanobacteria were the dominant group, represented by the genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Microcystis. Results of bioassays showed adverse effects including death, paralysis, and reduced population growth rate, generally proportional to the reservoir water concentration. These effects may be related to the presence of cyanobacteria toxins (microcystins or saxitoxins) in the water.

  18. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Martínez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-08-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected.

  19. IN SITU BIOASSAY CHAMBER FOR ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe the construction of a simple, inexpensive bioassay chamber for testing sediment toxicity (survival and growth) and bioaccumulation under field conditions using the midge Chironomus tentans and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. The test chamber is ...

  20. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF EDC RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Superfund risk management research, the performance of risk management techniques is typically evaluated by measuring "the concentrations of the chemicals of concern before and after risk management efforts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust und...

  1. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF EDC RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Superfund risk management research, the performance of risk management techniques is typically evaluated by measuring "the concentrations of the chemicals of concern before and after risk management efforts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust und...

  2. Harmonia Axyridis Adults Avoid Catnip and Grapefruit-derived Terpenoids in Laboratory Bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We observed the avoidance behavior of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), when adults were exposed to volatiles derived from catnip oil and grapefruit seed. In replicated laboratory bioassays, beetles avoided contact with volatiles emanating f...

  3. Annotated Bibliography of Bioassays Related to Sediment Toxicity Testing in Washington State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    REVIEWS GENERAL Anderson, B. S ., J. W. Hunt, M. Martin, S . L. Turpen and F. H. Palmer. 1988. Marine bioassay project, third report. Protocol development ...Office of Research and Development , U. S . Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR. 60 pp. This is an acute bioassay manual designed by an EPA...test species are: 1. Purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus 2. Green sea urchin, S . droebachiensis 3. Sand dollai, Dendraster excentricus

  4. Development of Carcinogenesis Bioassay Models: Response of Small Fish Species to Various Classes of Carcinogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-14

    carcinogenesis tests with the halogenated hydrocarbon l,l,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCE), (2) the heavy metal cadmium, and (3) the aromatic amine 2...Poecilia reticulata) 2 A. Introduction B. Materials and Methods C. Results D. Discussion III. Carcinogenesis bioassay with the heavy metal cadmium on...bioassays of the halogenated hydrocarbon 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (TeCE) against the medaka and guppy, the heavy metal cadmium against the medaka

  5. Application of root bioassays to detect nutrient deficiencies in fast-growing trees and agroforestry crops

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, A.F.; Dighton, J.; Jones, H.E.

    1992-12-31

    A new method for the detection of nutrient deficiencies is outlined and recommended as an alternative to conventional soil and foliar analyses. Bioassays are conducted to measure the uptake and supply of the macronutrients. Examples are quoted of the successful use of this technique with Eucalyptus and Sitka spruce. The bioassays have been shown to give equally good results with a range of tree and ground crops.

  6. A simple, rapid bioassay for detecting effects of pollutants on bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, N.J.; Seidler, R.J.; Knittel, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    A screening bioassay needs to be rapid, and sensitive. The bioassay is described which is accurate, inexpensive, and which utilizes bacteria as the toxicity predictor. The basis of the test involves measuring the kinetics of dissolved oxygen depletion by a mixed microbial population following exposure to a pollutant and allows results to be obtained in as little as 40 min. Pollutants tested were cadmium, copper, nickel, sulfate, diuron, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, tricholoracetic acid, dimethylformamide, and diazinon. (JMT)

  7. A Standardized Lepidopteran Bioassay to Investigate the Bioactivity of Insecticidal Proteins Produced in Transgenic Crops.

    PubMed

    Graser, Gerson; Walters, Frederick S

    2016-01-01

    Insecticidal bioassays are the only reliable method to investigate the biological activity of an insecticidal protein and therefore provide an essential toolkit for the characterization and potency determination of these proteins. Here we present a standardized method for a lepidopteran larval bioassay, which is optimized to specifically estimate activity of insecticidal proteins produced in transgenic plants. The treatment can be either applied to the surface of the artificial diet, or blended into the diet.

  8. Identification of sources of plant resistance to Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by three bioassays.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, S L; Shapiro, J P; Bowman, K D

    1999-08-01

    Host plant resistance to the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) was assessed for 3 citrus rootstock cultivars, 5 promising hybrid rootstocks, and 3 citroid fruit trees using 3 bioassay methods: a pot bioassay with 1-yr seedlings; a new, 21-cm plastic cell bioassay with 5-mo seedlings; and a diet incorporation bioassay. The plastic cell bioassay is a more rapid screening method and is capable of evaluating a larger number of entries in a shorter period compared with current methods. The 3 bioassays yielded similar results. Larval growth was inhibited by 2 of the remote citroid fruit trees, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel and Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retzius) Correa, compared with growth on commercial rootstock cultivars. Specifically, larvae allowed to feed on roots of M. koenigii or G. pentaphylla gained less weight compared with larvae fed on the commercial rootstock cultivar 'Swingle' [Citrus paradisi Macfayden x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafinesque-Schmaltz]. The resistance of G. pentaphylla confirms previous reports. M. koenigii is a new source of resistance to D. abbreviatus.

  9. User-friendly 3D bioassays with cell-containing hydrogel modules: narrowing the gap between microfluidic bioassays and clinical end-users' needs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do-Hyun; Bae, Chae Yun; Kwon, Seyong; Park, Je-Kyun

    2015-06-07

    Cell-containing hydrogel modules as cell-hydrogel microunits for creating a physiologically relevant 3D in vivo-like microenvironment with multiple cell types and unique extracellular matrix (ECM) compositions facilitate long-term cell maintenance and bioassays. To date, there have been many important advances in microfluidic bioassays, which incorporate hydrogel scaffolds into surface-accessible microchambers, driven by the strong demand for the application of spatiotemporally defined biochemical stimuli to construct in vivo-like conditions and perform real-time imaging of cell-matrix interactions. In keeping with the trend of fostering collaborations among biologists, clinicians, and microfluidic engineers, it is essential to create a simpler approach for coupling cell-containing hydrogel modules and an automated bioassay platform in a user-friendly format. In this article, we review recent progress in hydrogel-incorporated microfluidics for long-term cell maintenance and discuss some of the simpler and user-friendly 3D bioassay techniques combined with cell-containing hydrogel modules that can be applied to mutually beneficial collaborations with non-engineers. We anticipate that this modular and user-friendly format interfaced with existing laboratory infrastructure will help address several clinical questions in ways that extend well beyond the current 2D cell-culture systems.

  10. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: Fish mortality in field bioassays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Sickle, J.; Baker, J.P.; Simonin, H.A.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Kretser, W.A.; Sharpe, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    In situ bioassays were performed as part of the Episodic Response Project, to evaluate the effects of episodic stream acidification on mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and forage fish species. We report the results of 122 bioassays in 13 streams of the three study regions: the Adirondack mountains of New York, the Catskill mountains of New York, and the Northern Appalachian Plateau of Pennsylvania. Bioassays during acidic episodes had significantly higher mortality than did bioassays conducted under nonacidic conditions, but there was little difference in mortality rates in bioassays experiencing acidic episodes and those experiencing acidic conditions throughout the test period. Multiple logistic regression models were used to relate bioassay mortality rates to summary statistics of time-varying stream chemistry (inorganic monomeric aluminum, calcium, pH, and dissolved organic carbon) estimated for the 20-d bioassay periods. The large suite of candidate regressors also included biological, regional, and seasonal factors, as well as several statistics summarizing various features of aluminum exposure duration and magnitude. Regressor variable selection and model assessment were complicated by multicol-linearity and overdispersion. For the target fish species, brook trout, bioassay mortality was most closely related to time-weighted median inorganic aluminum. Median Ca and minimum pH offered additional explanatory power, as did stream-specific aluminum responses. Due to high multicollinearity, the relative importance of different aluminum exposure duration and magnitude variables was difficult to assess, but these variables taken together added no significant explanatory power to models already containing median aluminum. Between 59 and 79% of the variation in brook trout mortality was explained by models employing between one and five regressors. Simpler models were developed for smaller sets of bioassays that tested slimy and mottled sculpin

  11. Benchmarking organic micropollutants in wastewater, recycled water and drinking water with in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Allinson, Mayumi; Altenburger, Rolf; Bain, Peter A; Balaguer, Patrick; Busch, Wibke; Crago, Jordan; Denslow, Nancy D; Dopp, Elke; Hilscherova, Klara; Humpage, Andrew R; Kumar, Anu; Grimaldi, Marina; Jayasinghe, B Sumith; Jarosova, Barbora; Jia, Ai; Makarov, Sergei; Maruya, Keith A; Medvedev, Alex; Mehinto, Alvine C; Mendez, Jamie E; Poulsen, Anita; Prochazka, Erik; Richard, Jessica; Schifferli, Andrea; Schlenk, Daniel; Scholz, Stefan; Shiraishi, Fujio; Snyder, Shane; Su, Guanyong; Tang, Janet Y M; van der Burg, Bart; van der Linden, Sander C; Werner, Inge; Westerheide, Sandy D; Wong, Chris K C; Yang, Min; Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Zhang, Xiaowei; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of organic micropollutants and their transformation products occur in water. Although often present at low concentrations, individual compounds contribute to mixture effects. Cell-based bioassays that target health-relevant biological endpoints may therefore complement chemical analysis for water quality assessment. The objective of this study was to evaluate cell-based bioassays for their suitability to benchmark water quality and to assess efficacy of water treatment processes. The selected bioassays cover relevant steps in the toxicity pathways including induction of xenobiotic metabolism, specific and reactive modes of toxic action, activation of adaptive stress response pathways and system responses. Twenty laboratories applied 103 unique in vitro bioassays to a common set of 10 water samples collected in Australia, including wastewater treatment plant effluent, two types of recycled water (reverse osmosis and ozonation/activated carbon filtration), stormwater, surface water, and drinking water. Sixty-five bioassays (63%) showed positive results in at least one sample, typically in wastewater treatment plant effluent, and only five (5%) were positive in the control (ultrapure water). Each water type had a characteristic bioanalytical profile with particular groups of toxicity pathways either consistently responsive or not responsive across test systems. The most responsive health-relevant endpoints were related to xenobiotic metabolism (pregnane X and aryl hydrocarbon receptors), hormone-mediated modes of action (mainly related to the estrogen, glucocorticoid, and antiandrogen activities), reactive modes of action (genotoxicity) and adaptive stress response pathway (oxidative stress response). This study has demonstrated that selected cell-based bioassays are suitable to benchmark water quality and it is recommended to use a purpose-tailored panel of bioassays for routine monitoring.

  12. The Limits of Two-Year Bioassay Exposure Regimens for Identifying Chemical Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F.; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. Objectives In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Discussion Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses—aspartame, cadmium, and toluene—suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Conclusions Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives. PMID:19057693

  13. Developing Enhanced Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Models: Integrating External Bio-Assay Data in QSAR Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyi; Kim, Marlene T.; Sedykh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Experimental Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability models for drug molecules are expensive and time-consuming. As alternative methods, several traditional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have been developed previously. In this study, we aimed to improve the predictivity of traditional QSAR BBB permeability models by employing relevant public bio-assay data in the modeling process. Methods We compiled a BBB permeability database consisting of 439 unique compounds from various resources. The database was split into a modeling set of 341 compounds and a validation set of 98 compounds. Consensus QSAR modeling workflow was employed on the modeling set to develop various QSAR models. A five-fold cross-validation approach was used to validate the developed models, and the resulting models were used to predict the external validation set compounds. Furthermore, we used previously published membrane transporter models to generate relevant transporter profiles for target compounds. The transporter profiles were used as additional biological descriptors to develop hybrid QSAR BBB models. Results The consensus QSAR models have R2=0.638 for fivefold cross-validation and R2=0.504 for external validation. The consensus model developed by pooling chemical and transporter descriptors showed better predictivity (R2=0.646 for five-fold cross-validation and R2=0.526 for external validation). Moreover, several external bio-assays that correlate with BBB permeability were identified using our automatic profiling tool. Conclusions The BBB permeability models developed in this study can be useful for early evaluation of new compounds (e.g., new drug candidates). The combination of chemical and biological descriptors shows a promising direction to improve the current traditional QSAR models. PMID:25862462

  14. Assessing arsenic bioavailability through the use of bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesel, E.; Nadimpalli, M.; Hull, M.; Schreiber, M. E.; Vikesland, P.

    2009-12-01

    Various methods have been used to characterize the bioavailability of a contaminant, including chemical extractions from soils, toxicity tests, bioaccumulation measurements, estimation from soil properties, in vitro/in vivo tests, and microbial biossays. Unfortunately, these tests are all unique (i.e. they measure bioavailability through different mechanisms) and it is difficult to compare measurements collected using one method to those collected from another. Additionally, there are fundamental aspects of bioavailability research that require further study. In particular, changes in bioavailability over time are not well understood, as well as what the geochemical controls are on changes in bioavailability. In addition, there are no studies aimed at the integration of bioavailability measurements and potential geochemical controls. This research project seeks to find a standard set of assays and sensors that can be used to assess arsenic bioavailability at any field site, as well as to use these tools and techniques to better understand changes in, and controls on, arsenic bioavailability. The bioassays to be utilized in this research are a bioluminescent E. coli assay and a Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) assay. Preliminary experiments to determine the suitability of the E. coli and C. fluminea assays have been completed. The E. coli assay can be utilized to analyze As(III) and As(V) with a linear standard curve between 5 and 200 ppb for As(III) and 100 ppb and 5 ppm for As(V); no bioluminescent response above background was elicited in the presence of Roxarsone, an organoarsenical. The C. fluminea assay is capable of bioaccumulating As(III), As(V), Roxarsone, and MSMA, with As(III) being the most readily accumulated, followed by As(V), Roxarsone and MSMA, respectively. Additional research will include assessing bioavailability of various arsenic species adsorbed to natural colloidal materials (i.e. clays, iron oxides, NOM) to the E. coli and C. fluminea assays

  15. Structuring a risk-based bioassay program for uranium usage in university laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Johnne Talia

    Bioassay programs are integral in a radiation safety program. They are used as a method of determining whether individuals working with radioactive material have been exposed and have received a resulting dose. For radionuclides that are not found in nature, determining an exposure is straightforward. However, for a naturally occurring radionuclide like uranium, it is not as straightforward to determine whether a dose is the result of an occupational exposure. The purpose of this project is to address this issue within the University of Nevada, Las Vegas's (UNLV) bioassay program. This project consisted of two components that studied the effectiveness of a bioassay program in determining the dose for an acute inhalation of uranium. The first component of the plan addresses the creation of excretion curves, utilizing MATLAB that would allow UNLV to be able to determine at what time an inhalation dose can be attributed to. The excretion curves were based on the ICRP 30 lung model, as well as the Annual Limit Intake (ALI) values located in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR20 which is based on ICRP 30 (International Commission on Radiological Protection). The excretion curves would allow UNLV to be able to conduct in-house investigations of inhalation doses without solely depending on outside investigations and sources. The second component of the project focused on the creation of a risk based bioassay program to be utilized by UNLV that would take into account bioassay frequency that depended on the individual. Determining the risk based bioassay program required the use of baseline variance in order to minimize the investigation of false positives among those individuals who undergo bioassays for uranium work. The proposed program was compared against an evaluation limit of 10 mrem per quarter, an investigational limit of 125 mrem per quarter, and the federal/state requirement of 1.25 rem per quarter. It was determined that a bioassay program whose bioassay

  16. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Insecticides in Laboratory and Greenhouse Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, John C; Prabhaker, Nilima; Reed, Darcy A; Perring, Thomas M; Castle, Steven J; Huang, Ta-I

    2015-04-01

    Field-collected nymphs and adults of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Penatatomidae) from three locations were evaluated for susceptibility to insecticides representing 10 classes of insecticide chemistry. Although relative susceptibilities differed between leaf-spray and leaf-dip Petri dish bioassays, consistently low LC50 values were determined for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. Fenpropathrin and methomyl had intermediate values. Susceptibility to dinotefuran varied depending on the bioassay, possibly owing to leaf substrates used in the two bioassays. In soil systemic bioassays, the LC50 value of dinotefuran was significantly greater than that of two other neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and the anthranilic diamide, cyantraniliprole. Mortality and feeding damage of B. hilaris and plant growth on insecticide-treated plants in greenhouse trials were consistent with the laboratory bioassays; the best results were seen with bifenthrin, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos. Mortality to the neonicotinoids was not evident; however, feeding damage and plant growth responses on dinotefuran-treated plants damage were similar to the noninfested control. This highlights the apparent antifeedant properties of dinotefuran that may have prevented adults from injuring broccoli plants after exposure to foliar spray residues. Data presented serve as baseline susceptibilities that can be used to monitor for resistance development in field populations of B. hilaris.

  17. Selecting a sensitive battery of bioassays to detect toxic effects of metals in effluents.

    PubMed

    de Paiva Magalhães, Danielly; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; Fernandes Baptista, Darcilio; Forsin Buss, Daniel

    2014-09-07

    The use of bioassay batteries is necessary to evaluate toxic effects at various biological levels. The selection of bioassays without prior testing and determination of the most sensitive/suitable groups for each impact may allow the discharge of effluents that pose a threat to the environment. The present study tested and selected a battery of sensitive ecotoxicological bioassays for detecting toxic effects of metals. The sensitivities of six organisms were evaluated (algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, Cladocera Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia, and fish Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio) after exposure to 10 individual metal species deemed toxic to the aquatic environment (Ag(+), Cd(2+), Cu(+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Cr(6+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+)) and to real (steel-mill) and laboratory simulated effluents. In the bioassays, fish were the least sensitive; D. rerio showed no sensitivity to any of the effluents tested. P. subcapitata was a good bioindicator of Cr(3+) toxicity, and D. similis was the most sensitive organism to Hg(2+); but the toxic effect of effluents with higher levels of Hg(2+) was better detected by C. dubia. The most sensitive battery of bioassays to detect low concentrations of dissolved metals in effluents was the 72-h chronic test with C. vulgaris and the 48-h acute test with C. dubia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The usefulness of a sediment bioassay with the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus in tributyltin monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Laranjeiro, Filipe; Pérez, Sara; Navarro, Patricia; Carrero, José Antonio; Beiras, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Despite the use of tributyltin (TBT) had been banned worldwide in 2008 there is still evidence of its deleterious presence in environment. We evaluate the usefulness of a 28days sediment bioassay with Nassarius reticulatus females to monitor TBT pollution, using imposex as endpoint. In addition, butyltins were determined in sediments and tissues, and, whenever posible, imposex was assessed in native N. reticulatus at the same sites where sediments were sampled. In the bioassay, a significant increase in imposex parameters was obtained with three sediments (Vi2, Vi3, and Vi4). No correlation was found between this and TBT concentrations in sediment although good correlations were obtained for TBT in tissues, putting in evidence TBT bioavailability in sediment. A significant decrease in imposex from 2008 to 2013 in native snails was only observed at sites that did not cause any effect in the bioassay. In contrast, imposex levels in 2013 were kept as high as 2008 in one of the sites where a significant imposex increase in the bioassay was observed. The bioassay proves thus to be a practical and ecological relevant tool, as: (i) it can be conducted in sites with no native populations of snails, (ii) it provides early identification of polluted sites, anticipating future imposex levels or early identification of recovering, and (iii) it yields information on the bioavailable fraction of the TBT in the sediment. Therefore, this tool can be of extreme usefulness under the scope of recent European legislative frameworks.

  19. Evaluation and validation issues in the development of transgenic mouse carcinogenicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Tennant, R W

    1998-04-01

    Transgenic mouse models have emerged as plausible alternatives to long-term bioassays for carcinogenicity. Three transgenic lines evaluated to date have shown a clear capability to discriminate between carcinogens and noncarcinogens, using long-term bioassay results as the standard. The data also suggest that the transgenic lines will not fully duplicate long-term bioassay results. It is proposed that these models do not respond to chemicals that have induced highly restricted species or strain-specific tumor responses in mice or rats. Rather, the value of the transgenic models is predicated on a preferential response to transspecies carcinogens (i.e., those positive in both rats and mice, often including tumors in the same tissues). Thus, although results in transgenic models may not be completely concordant with long-term bioassays, the data can be used effectively in chemical and drug safety assessments. Further, it is proposed that validation of the models is readily achievable via ongoing studies. Validation of any alternative model is best achieved by sufficient mechanistic understanding of the model to reasonably predict the outcome of bioassays conducted in the models and use all available information on the drug or chemical. This goal can now be met with the transgenic mouse lines.

  20. Evaluation of acute bioassays for assessing toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Barlow, L.A.; Bent, S.; Elseewi, A.A.; Cliath, M.; Resketo, M.; Doyle, C.

    1986-03-01

    Proposed State of California regulations use fish toxicity information as one criterion in municipal or industrial waste hazard evaluation. Static 96-hr bioassays were performed using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis), and glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) exposed to soil experimentally contaminated with up to 500 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitor fluid added at a concentration of 500 mg liter-1. Other bioassays were conducted with a 6-day mixing period prior to the bioassay or with acetone added to solubilize the PCBs. No mortality attributable to PCB toxicity was observed in definitive bioassays using the two fish and one invertebrate species. PCB levels leached from soil containing 500 ppm Aroclor 1242 ranged from less than 0.6 to 3.4 ppb in freshwater tests to 3.5 ppb in seawater bioassays. Using these data as the basis for waste classification, soils contaminated with up to 500 ppb PCBs during capacitor spills would be designated nonhazardous. PCBs are known to be environmentally persistent and to bioaccumulate. Acute toxicity tests, therefore, do not adequately evaluate the general toxicity of PCB-contaminated soils. Hazardous waste regulations for hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs should instead be based upon chronic toxicity data and should also consider bioaccumulation potential.

  1. Evaluation of acute bioassays for assessing toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E; Barlow, L A; Bent, S; Elseewi, A A; Cliath, M; Resketo, M; Doyle, C

    1986-03-01

    Proposed State of California regulations use fish toxicity information as one criterion in municipal or industrial waste hazard evaluation. Static 96-hr bioassays were performed using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis), and glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) exposed to soil experimentally contaminated with up to 500 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitor fluid added at a concentration of 500 mg liter-1. Other bioassays were conducted with a 6-day mixing period prior to the bioassay or with acetone added to solubilize the PCBs. No mortality attributable to PCB toxicity was observed in definitive bioassays using the two fish and one invertebrate species. PCB levels leached from soil containing 500 ppm Aroclor 1242 ranged from less than 0.6 to 3.4 ppb in freshwater tests to 3.5 ppb in seawater bioassays. Using these data as the basis for waste classification, soils contaminated with up to 500 ppb PCBs during capacitor spills would be designated nonhazardous. PCBs are known to be environmentally persistent and to bioaccumulate. Acute toxicity tests, therefore, do not adequately evaluate the general toxicity of PCB-contaminated soils. Hazardous waste regulations for hydrophobic compounds such as PCBs should instead be based upon chronic toxicity data and should also consider bioaccumulation potential.

  2. Studies on the bioassayable growth hormone-like activity of plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Vodian, M. A.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence supporting the existence of bioassayable growth hormone-like activity in blood plasma distinct from the growth hormone measurable by radioimmunoassay and from somatomedin is presented. Tibial assays of the growth-hormone-like activity of injected, concentrated normal human and rat plasma in hypophysectomized rats reveal 200- and 50-fold activity excesses, respectively, with respect to the amount of growth hormone detected by radioimmunoassay. The origin of this bioassayable plasma hormone has been localized to the region of the pituitary, the origin of growth hormone, a distribution not followed by somatomedin C. Purification of the bioassayable agent indicates that is has a molecular weight of between 60,000 and 80,000, in contrast to that of growth hormone (20,000), and that the bioassayable activity is distinct from that of somatomedin C. Growth hormone-like activity detected in Cohn fraction IV as well as plasma activity, are found to be collectable on Dowex 50 resin, in contrast to somatomedin C and nonsuppressible insulin-like activity. The formation of bioassayable growth hormone-activity agents from radioimmunoassayable growth hormone and directly in the pituitary is suggested.

  3. Use of bioassays to assess hazard of food contact material extracts: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Severin, Isabelle; Souton, Emilie; Dahbi, Laurence; Chagnon, Marie Christine

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the use of in vitro bioassays for the hazard assessment of food contact materials (FCM) as a relevant strategy, in complement to analytical methods. FCM may transfer constituents to foods, not always detected by analytical chemistry, resulting in low but measurable human exposures. Testing FCM extracts with bioassays represents the biological response of a combination of substances, able to be released from the finished materials. Furthermore, this approach is particularly useful regarding the current risk assessment challenges with unpredicted/unidentified non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) that can be leached from the FCM in the food. Bioassays applied to assess hazard of different FCM types are described for, to date, the toxicological endpoints able to be expressed at low levels; cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and endocrine disruption potential. The bioassay strengths and relative key points needed to correctly use and improve the performance of bioassays for an additional FCM risk assessment is developed. This review compiles studies showing that combining both chemical and toxicological analyses presents a very promising and pragmatic tool for identifying new undesirable NIAS (not predicted) which can represent a great part of the migrating substances and/or "cocktail effect". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of five in vitro bioassays to measure estrogenic activity in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; de Jager, Christiaan; Levi, Yves; Lim, Richard; Puijker, Leo; Sacher, Frank; Tremblay, Louis A; Wilson, Vickie S; Chapman, Heather F

    2010-05-15

    Bioassays are well established in the pharmaceutical industry and single compound analysis, but there is still uncertainty about their usefulness in environmental monitoring. We compared the responses of five bioassays designed to measure estrogenic activity (the yeast estrogen screen, ER-CALUX, MELN, T47D-KBluc, and E-SCREEN assays) and chemical analysis on extracts from four different water sources (groundwater, raw sewage, treated sewage, and river water). All five bioassays displayed similar trends and there was good agreement with analytical chemistry results. The data from the ER-CALUX and E-SCREEN bioassays were robust and predictable, and well-correlated with predictions from chemical analysis. The T47D-KBluc appeared likewise promising, but with a more limited sample size it was less compelling. The YES assay was less sensitive than the other assays by an order of magnitude, which resulted in a larger number of nondetects. The MELN assay was less predictable, although the possibility that this was due to laboratory-specific difficulties cannot be discounted. With standardized bioassay data analysis and consistency of operating protocols, bioanalytical tools are a promising advance in the development of a tiered approach to environmental water quality monitoring.

  5. Characterization of chemical waste site contamination and its extent using bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Callahan, C.A.; Cline, J.F.; Greene, J.C.; McShane, M.C.; Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from our laboratory studies using known chemicals, and to investigate kriging (a relatively new statistical mapping technique) and bioassays as methods to define the areal extent of chemical contamination. The algal assay generally was most sensitive to samples of pure chemicals, soil elutriates and water from eight sites with known chemical contamination. Bioassays of nine samples of unknown chemical composition from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) site showed that a lettuce seed soil contact phytoassay was most sensitive. In general, our bioassays can be used to broadly identify toxic components of contaminated soil. Nearly pure compounds of insecticides and herbicides were less toxic in the sensitive bioassays than were the counterpart commercial formulations. This finding indicates that chemical analysis alone may fail to correctly rate the severity of environmental toxicity. Finally, we used the lettuce seed phytoassay and kriging techniques in a field study at RMA to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping contamination to aid in cleanup decisions. 25 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

  6. Evaluation of standard and state of the art analytical technology-bioassays.

    PubMed

    Indelicato, S R; Bradshaw, S L; Chapman, J W; Weiner, S H

    2005-01-01

    The development of biological assays for assessing potency is a critical component for monitoring the quality of therapeutic biologicals. Traditional cell-based bioassays, which are the most widely used, are typically based on a terminal cellular response such as cell proliferation or inhibition. While these assays can be very user-friendly, results often take days and sensitivity is sometimes not sufficient for the needs of the development programme. Recent improvements in analytical technology have led to new approaches in bioassay development. Many of these assays exploit cell signalling pathways far upstream from a terminal cellular response. Bioassays based on a cell signal are much more rapid, sensitive, and indicate stability better than their predecessors. Many of these newer assays are "hybrid" assays which combine the receptor signalling of traditional bioassays with the sensitivity of detection found in immunoassays. One such method, the Kinase Receptor Activation Assay (KIRA), works through the detection of receptor phosphorylation following analyte stimulation. Validations of newer technology assays, such as KIRA, require an individualized strategy due to their unique attributes. A thorough assessment of robustness should be paramount in the validation of these assays. Several examples of new technology platforms for bioassays are also discussed.

  7. Fiber resources

    Treesearch

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  8. [Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin bioassay using cultured normal human thyroid cells].

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Yamauchi, K; Tanaka, H; Mori, Y; Takatsuki, K; Yamamoto, M; Matsui, N; Tomita, A

    1985-08-20

    their TSI activity. Moreover, 5 of 12 patients treated continuously for more than 1 year were TSI negative (less than 3.3 bTSH microUeq/ml), and except for one case, all had TSI values below 8 bTSH microUeq/ml (a value found in only 25% of untreated patients). This in vitro bioassay for TSI is simple and sensitive. It detects the presence of TSI in virtually 90% of untreated patients with Graves' disease. TSI activity showed a clear decrease during the course of antithyroid drug therapy.

  9. Bioassay, isolation and studies on the mechanism of action of neurite extension factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kligman, D.

    1984-01-01

    The identification and purification of molecules active in promoting neurite outgrowth requires a sensitive reproducible bioassay. A quantitative bioassay was utilized to purify a neurite extension factor (NEF) based on counting the number of phase bright neurons with processes at least equal to one cell body diameter after 20 hrs. in culture is defined, serum free medium. Using a combination of heat treatment DEAE cellulose chromatography and gel filtration, an acidic protein of M sub r = 75,000 was highly purified. Upon reduction, it yields subunits of M sub r = 37,000. Purified fractions are active half maximally at 100 ng/ml in inducing neurite outgrowth in this bioassay. Currently, monoclonal antibodies to NEF are being produced. Female Balb C mice were immunized with the antigen and fusions with mouse myeloma cells will be performed to yield hybridoma cells.

  10. Bioassay, isolation and studies on the mechanism of action of neurite extension factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kligman, D.

    1984-01-01

    The identification and purification of molecules active in promoting neurite outgrowth requires a sensitive reproducible bioassay. A quantitative bioassay was utilized to purify a neurite extension factor (NEF) based on counting the number of phase bright neurons with processes at least equal to one cell body diameter after 20 hrs. in culture is defined, serum free medium. Using a combination of heat treatment DEAE cellulose chromatography and gel filtration, an acidic protein of M sub r = 75,000 was highly purified. Upon reduction, it yields subunits of M sub r = 37,000. Purified fractions are active half maximally at 100 ng/ml in inducing neurite outgrowth in this bioassay. Currently, monoclonal antibodies to NEF are being produced. Female Balb C mice were immunized with the antigen and fusions with mouse myeloma cells will be performed to yield hybridoma cells.

  11. Experimental and computational characterization of biological liquid crystals: a review of single-molecule bioassays.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kilho; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Jinsung; Yoon, Gwonchan; Soo Sohn, Young; Park, Shinsuk; Yoon, Dae Sung; Na, Sungsoo; Kwon, Taeyun

    2009-09-10

    Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  12. Optimal fractionation and bioassay plans for isolation of synergistic chemicals: The subtractive-combination method.

    PubMed

    Byers, J A

    1992-09-01

    Studies of chemical ecology of an organism are founded on the isolation and identification of a semiochemical, often comprised of two or more synergistic compounds (each Synergist alone has little activity, but presented together they are bioactive). Chromatographie fractionation and bioassay methods of binary splitting, additive combination, and subtractive combination are compared for efficiency in isolating synergists. Formulas are derived for the latter two methods that calculate the expected number of bioassay tests required for isolation of from two to five synergists from biological extracts with any number of compounds, depending on the number of initial (major) Chromatographic fractions. A computer program based on the formulas demonstrates the superiority of the subtractive-combination method. Simulations with the program were used to determine the optimal number of initial fractions for the additive- and subtractive-combination methods when isolating two to five synergists from extracts of from 25 to 1200 compounds. Methods of bioassay, isolation, identification, and field testing of semiochemicals are discussed.

  13. Toxicity screening of diclofenac, propranolol, sertraline and simvastatin using Danio rerio and Paracentrotus lividus embryo bioassays.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sílvia; Torres, Tiago; Martins, Rosário; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-04-01

    Early life-stage bioassays have been used as an alternative to short-term adult toxicity tests since they are cost-effective. A single couple can produce hundreds or thousands of embryos and hence can be used as a simple high-throughput approach in toxicity studies. In the present study, zebrafish and sea urchin embryo bioassays were used to test the toxicity of four pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic classes: diclofenac, propranolol, simvastatin and sertraline. Simvastatin was the most toxic tested compound for zebrafish embryo, followed by diclofenac. Sertraline was the most toxic drug to sea urchin embryos, inducing development abnormalities at the ng/L range. Overall, our results highlight the potential of sea urchin embryo bioassay as a promising and sensitive approach for the high-throughput methods to test the toxicity of new chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, and identify several drugs that should go through more detailed toxicity assays.

  14. [Evaluation efficiency of different bioassay methods on allelopathic potential of Oryza sativa].

    PubMed

    Shen, Lihua; Liang, Yiyuan; He, Huaqin; He, Jun; Liang, Kangjing; Lin, Wenxiong

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, three bioassay methods, i.e., relay seeding in agar (RSA), relay seeding in silica (RSS) and seeding in rice root-exudation (SRE), were used to test the allelopathic potential of 8 rice cultivars on the target weed barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli). The results indicated that RSA was the ideal method for the bioassay, showing the highest efficiency in the evaluation of allelopathic potential. RSS and SRE had a lower efficiency than RSA, but these two methods showed the same tendency in evaluating the allelopathic potential of rice. RSA, the considered best bioassay method in this experiment, was used for 57 allelopathic rice germplasm screening, and 5 of them, i.e., Iguape Cateto, PI312777, Azucena, Taichung Native 1 and IAC25 performed the strongest allelopathic potential in the suppression on barnyardgrass.

  15. Shielded corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry: novel bioassays for the assessment of skin barrier products.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-01

    One of the most frequent occupational and environmental insults to the skin is linked to chronic exposure to weak irritants. There is a need for new predictive tests assessing the efficacy of barrier creams. Shielded variants of corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are introduced as novel ex vivo bioassays applicable for comparing protection to surfactants and organic solvents. Both bioassays showed good reproducibility for each offending agent and skin-protective products. Significant differences in efficacy were indicated between the presumptive barrier products. Shielded corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry may be convenient bioassays to compare the protection afforded by topical products against specific offending compounds to the skin. They avoid animal testing and toxicological hazards in human testing. In addition, they are cheap, rapid and reproducible.

  16. Effect of temperature on the photoproperties of luminescent terbium sensors for homogeneous bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhi-Ning; Wu, Ying-Song; Wang, Zheng; He, An; Li, Ming; Chen, Meijun; Du, Hongyan; Ma, Qiang; Liu, Tiancai

    2013-01-01

    We developed a luminescent terbium sensor (LTS) based on energy resonance transfer for homogeneous bioassays. The effect of temperature on photoluminescence and time-resolved fluorescence of the LTS was investigated. When the temperature was increased from 277 K to 369 K, the photoluminescence quantum yield decreased by up to 25 %, time-resolved fluorescence decreased by up to 54 %, and the lifetime shortened dramatically. Studies showed that both photoluminescence and time-resolved fluorescence quantum yields were largely recovered after samples were heated from 298 to 310, 333 or 369 K and subsequently cooled to 298 K. These results indicate that the homogeneous bioassay with LTS is sensitive to temperature and should be conducted at a constant temperature to ensure the temperature effect does not influence data and to increase the accuracy of the results. The results of this study are important for LTS applications in homogeneous bioassays. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A rapid and inexpensive bioassay to evaluate the decontamination of organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Claborn, David M; Martin-Brown, Skylar A; Sagar, Sanjay Gupta; Durham, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An inexpensive and rapid bioassay using adult red flour beetles was developed for use in assessing the decontamination of environments containing organophosphates and related chemicals. A decontamination protocol was developed which demonstrated that 2 to 3 applications of 5% bleach solution were required to obtain nearly complete decontamination of malathion. The bioassay was also used to screen common household cleaners as potential decontaminating agents, but only 5% bleach was effective at improving survival of insects on steel plates treated with 25% malathion. A toxic degradation product (malaoxon) was detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry; this toxin affected the decontamination efficacy and resulted in continued toxicity to the beetles until subsequent decontaminations. The bioassay provides evidence to support the use of red flour beetles as a sensitive, less expensive method for determining safety levels of environments contaminated with malathion and other toxins, and may have application in the study of chemical warfare agents.

  18. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine; Witt, Gesine; Haase, Nora; Escher, Beate I

    2016-06-07

    Mixtures of organic contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment. Depending on their persistence and physicochemical properties, individual chemicals that make up the mixture partition and distribute within the environment and might then jointly elicit toxicological effects. For the assessment and monitoring of such mixtures, a variety of cell-based in vitro and low-complexity in vivo bioassays based on algae, daphnids or fish embryos are available. A very important and sometimes unrecognized challenge is how to combine sampling, extraction and dosing to transfer the mixtures from the environment into bioassays, while conserving (or re-establishing) their chemical composition at adjustable levels for concentration-effect assessment. This article outlines various strategies for quantifiable transfer from environmental samples including water, sediment, and biota into bioassays using total extraction or polymer-based passive sampling combined with either solvent spiking or passive dosing.

  19. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  20. Genotoxicity of soil from farmland irrigated with wastewater using three plant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, G L; Rodriguez, D M

    1999-05-19

    Three well known plant bioassays, the Allium root chromosome aberration (AL-RAA) assay, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay, and the Tradescantia stamen hair (Trad-SHM) mutation assay were validated in 1991 by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) under the auspices of the World Health Organization, and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). These plant bioassays have proven to be efficient tests for chemical screening and especially for in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental pollutants. As a result of this validation study, standard protocols of these three plant bioassays were used by some of the 11 participating countries in the IPCS to carry on genotoxicity tests on air, water and soil as a follow up activity. In the city of Queretaro, Mexico, wastewater coming from both industrial and domestic sources and without any treatment is used to irrigate the farm crops, polluting the soil. Potentially the pollutants could reach the food chain. For the above reason, soil irrigated with wastewater was sampled and monitored for the presence of genotoxic agents using the above three bioassays. Extracts from soil samples were made using distilled water and organic solvents by shaking the sample for about 12 h under a relatively low temperature (15-20 degrees C). Plant cuttings of Tradescantia or the roots of Allium were treated by submerging them in the extracts. Three replicates of each sample were analyzed in each of the three bioassays. Extracts using DMSO, ethanol and distilled water tested positive in the three bioassays and there were no differences for the genotoxicity of the extracts with the different solvents.

  1. Bioassay for estimating the biogenic methane-generating potential of coal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Corum, M.D.; Cohn, A.; Bunnell, J.E.; Clark, A.C.; Orem, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Generation of secondary biogenic methane in coal beds is likely controlled by a combination of factors such as the bioavailability of coal carbon, the presence of a microbial community to convert coal carbon to methane, and an environment supporting microbial growth and methanogenesis. A set of treatments and controls was developed to bioassay the bioavailability of coal for conversion to methane under defined laboratory conditions. Treatments included adding a well-characterized consortium of bacteria and methanogens (enriched from modern wetland sediments) and providing conditions to support endemic microbial activity. The contribution of desorbed methane in the bioassays was determined in treatments with bromoethane sulfonic acid, an inhibitor of microbial methanogenesis. The bioassay compared 16 subbituminous coal samples collected from beds in Texas (TX), Wyoming (WY), and Alaska (AK), and two bituminous coal samples from Pennsylvania (PA). New biogenic methane was observed in several samples of subbituminous coal with the microbial consortium added, but endemic activity was less commonly observed. The highest methane generation [80????mol methane/g coal (56??scf/ton or 1.75??cm3/g)] was from a south TX coal sample that was collected from a non-gas-producing well. Subbituminous coals from the Powder River Basin, WY and North Slope Borough, AK contained more sorbed (original) methane than the TX coal sample and generated 0-23????mol/g (up to 16??scf/ton or 0.5??cm3/g) new biogenic methane in the bioassay. Standard indicators of thermal maturity such as burial depth, nitrogen content, and calorific value did not explain differences in biogenic methane among subbituminous coal samples. No original methane was observed in two bituminous samples from PA, nor was any new methane generated in bioassays of these samples. The bioassay offers a new tool for assessing the potential of coal for biogenic methane generation, and provides a platform for studying the

  2. Development of androgen- and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, Edwin; Jansen, Hendrina J; Riteco, Jacoba A C; Brouwer, Abraham; van der Burg, Bart

    2005-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERalpha (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell lines derived from the human U2-OS osteosarcoma cell line, all using highly selective reporter constructs based with a basal promoter element linked to multimerized response elements, allowing efficient and specific measurement of compounds interfering with androgen, estrogen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors. The AR CALUX bioassay contains the human androgen receptor and a luciferase reporter construct containing three androgen-responsive elements coupled to a minimal TATA promoter. This cell line was characterized by its stable expression of AR protein, its highly selective response to low levels of different natural and synthetic androgens, and its insignificant response to other nuclear hormone receptor ligands such as estrogens, progestins, and glucocorticoids. The EC50 of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was found to be 0.13 nM, consistent with the high affinity of this ligand to the human AR. Flutamide, cyproterone acetate, and the environmental contaminants vinclozolin, DDT, methoxychlor, its metabolite HPTE, and penta-BFR showed clear antagonistic activity in the AR CALUX bioassay, competitively inhibiting DHT-mediated transactivation. The established AR CALUX bioassay proved to excel in terms of easy cell line maintenance, high fold induction range (typical 30 times over solvent control), low minimal detection limit (3.6 pM), and high androgen selectivity. Potential applications such as testing the androgenic or estrogenic activity of pure chemicals and pharmaceuticals and complex mixtures (environmental, food, feed, and clinical) are discussed.

  3. Serum Sulfonamide Concentration After Oral Administration: Comparison of Results of Chemical Assay with Two Bioassay Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Harris A.; Barza, Michael; Weinstein, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Sulfonamide concentrations were studied in 210 serum samples from 10 volunteers after ingestion of sulfacytine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfadiazine. Results obtained by chemical assay were compared with bioassay values determined by two techniques: twofold broth dilution and agar diffusion. Although the correlation for individual samples was rather poor for the twofold broth-dilution method, the agar-diffusion bioassay correlated well with chemical determinations. The agar-diffusion assay tended to “underread” the chemical assay by an amount characteristic of each drug. PMID:5045472

  4. Review of Bioassays for Monitoring Fate and Transport ofEstrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water

    SciTech Connect

    CGCampbell@lbl.gov

    2004-01-30

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are recognizedcontaminants threatening water quality. Despite efforts in sourceidentification, few strategies exist for characterization or treatment ofthis environmental pollution. Given that there are numerous EDCs that cannegatively affect humans and wildlife, general screening techniques likebioassays and biosensors provide an essential rapid and intensiveanalysis capacity. Commonly applied bioassays include the ELISA and YESassays, but promising technologies include ER-CALUXa, ELRA, Endotecta,RIANA, and IR-bioamplification. Two biosensors, Endotecta and RIANA, arefield portable using non-cellular biological detection strategies.Environmental management of EDCs in water requires integration ofbiosensors and bioassays for monitoring and assessment.

  5. False-Positive Serum Botulism Bioassay in Miller-Fisher Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeylikman, Yuriy; Shah, Vishal; Shah, Umang; Mirsen, Thomas R; Campellone, Joseph V

    2015-09-01

    We describe a patient with acute progressive weakness and areflexia. Both botulism and Miller-Fisher variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome were initial diagnostic considerations, and she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and botulinum antitoxin. A mouse bioassay was positive for botulinum toxin A, although her clinical course, electrodiagnostic studies, and cerebrospinal fluid findings supported Miller-Fisher syndrome. This patient's atypical features offer points of discussion regarding the evaluation of patients with acute neuromuscular weakness and emphasize the limitations of the botulism bioassay.

  6. A versatile electrowetting-based digital microfluidic platform for quantitative homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergauwe, Nicolas; Witters, Daan; Ceyssens, Frederik; Vermeir, Steven; Verbruggen, Bert; Puers, Robert; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) lab-on-a-chip systems have already proven their potential within a broad range of bio-assays. Nevertheless, research on the analytical performance of those systems is limited, yet crucial for a further breakthrough in the diagnostic field. Therefore, this paper presents the intrinsic possibilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip as a versatile platform for homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays with high analytical performance. Both droplet dispensing and splitting cause variations in droplet size, thereby directly influencing the assay's performance. The extent to which they influence the performance is assessed by a theoretical sensitivity analysis, which allows the definition of a basic framework for the reduction of droplet size variability. Taking advantage of the optimized droplet manipulations, both homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays are implemented in the EWOD lab-on-a-chip to demonstrate the analytical capabilities and versatility of the device. A fully on-chip enzymatic assay is realized with high analytical performance. It demonstrates the promising capabilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip in food-related and medical applications, such as nutritional and blood analyses. Further, a magnetic bio-assay for IgE detection using superparamagnetic nanoparticles is presented whereby the nanoparticles are used as solid carriers during the bio-assay. Crucial elements are the precise manipulation of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles with respect to dispensing and separation. Although the principle of using nano-carriers is demonstrated for protein detection, it can be easily extended to a broader range of bio-related applications like DNA sensing. In heterogeneous bio-assays the chip surface is actively involved during the execution of the bio-assay. Through immobilization of specific biological compounds like DNA, proteins and cells a reactive chip surface is realized, which enhances the bio-assay performance. To demonstrate

  7. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  8. Comparative Heavy Metal Uptake by Soil-Dwelling Invertebrates and the Bioassay Earthworm Eisenia Foetida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    ATE FILE Cu-’ ( COMPARATIVE HEAVY METAL UPTAKE BY SOIL-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES AND THE BIOASSAY EARTHWORM EISENIA FOETIDA (V) 0) • " DTrC Final...welling Invertebrates and the Bioassay Earthworm Zisenia foetida 12. PIRSONAL i1OW W_ - 13.T ofI 01"IT 11b. TIM COVEM* 14. DIAIEMR J. fk y Final Technical...using the earthworm Eisenia foetida exposed to dredged material and soil from the field sites (earthworm bioassaf pr5ce dre). Three upland dredged

  9. Database Resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these data from 37 distinct databases. The E-utilities serve as the programming interface for the Entrez system. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. New resources released in the past year include iCn3D, MutaBind, and the Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Reference Database; and resources that were updated in the past year include My Bibliography, SciENcv, the Pathogen Detection Project, Assembly, Genome, the Genome Data Viewer, BLAST and PubChem. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:27899561

  10. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David L; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; DiCuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Geer, Lewis Y; Kapustin, Yuri; Khovayko, Oleg; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J; Madden, Thomas L; Maglott, Donna R; Ostell, James; Miller, Vadim; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Steven T; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusov, Roman L; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, My NCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link(BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genome, Genome Project and related tools, the Trace and Assembly Archives, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Viral Genotyping Tools, Influenza Viral Resources, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART) and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. These resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  11. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David L.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Khovayko, Oleg; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J.; Madden, Thomas L.; Maglott, Donna R.; Miller, Vadim; Ostell, James; Pruitt, Kim D.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Shumway, Martin; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Steven T.; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusov, Roman L.; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data available through NCBI's web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, My NCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genome, Genome Project and related tools, the Trace, Assembly, and Short Read Archives, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Influenza Viral Resources, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Database of Genotype and Phenotype, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. These resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:18045790

  12. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David L.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Geer, Lewis Y.; Kapustin, Yuri; Khovayko, Oleg; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J.; Madden, Thomas L.; Maglott, Donna R.; Ostell, James; Miller, Vadim; Pruitt, Kim D.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Steven T.; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusov, Roman L.; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, My NCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link(BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genome, Genome Project and related tools, the Trace and Assembly Archives, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Viral Genotyping Tools, Influenza Viral Resources, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART) and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. These resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at . PMID:17170002

  13. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David L; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; Dicuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Khovayko, Oleg; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J; Madden, Thomas L; Maglott, Donna R; Miller, Vadim; Ostell, James; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Shumway, Martin; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Steven T; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusov, Roman L; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data available through NCBI's web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, My NCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genome, Genome Project and related tools, the Trace, Assembly, and Short Read Archives, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Influenza Viral Resources, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Database of Genotype and Phenotype, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. These resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  14. 9 CFR 147.16 - Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). 147.16 Section 147.16 Animals and Animal Products... the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). This procedure has been...

  15. 9 CFR 147.16 - Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). 147.16 Section 147.16 Animals and Animal Products... the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). This procedure has been...

  16. UTILITY OF A FULL LIFE-CYCLE COPEPOD BIOASSAY APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED CONTAMINANT MIXTURES. (R825279)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We compared a 21 day full life-cycle bioassay with an existing 14 day partial life-cycle bioassay for two species of meiobenthic copepods, Microarthridion littorale and Amphiascus tenuiremis. We hypothesized that full life-cycle tests would bette...

  17. A marine bioassay test set to assess marine water and sediment quality-its need, the approach and first results.

    PubMed

    Peters, C; Becker, S; Noack, U; Pfitzner, S; Bülow, W; Barz, K; Ahlf, W; Berghahn, R

    2002-10-01

    There is a need for establishing a marine bioassay test set to assess marine water and sediment samples in Germany. The selected marine bioassay test set, two tests for the water phase (with the luminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin) and a whole sediment test with the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas) is described and first results are shown.

  18. Standardization of a fluconazole bioassay and correlation of results with those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Rex, J H; Hanson, L H; Amantea, M A; Stevens, D A; Bennett, J E

    1991-01-01

    An improved bioassay for fluconazole was developed. This assay is sensitive in the clinically relevant range (2 to 40 micrograms/ml) and analyzes plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens; bioassay results correlate with results obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay and HPLC analyses of spiked plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples (run as unknowns) gave good agreement with expected values. Analysis of specimens from patients gave equivalent results by both HPLC and bioassay. HPLC had a lower within-run coefficient of variation (less than 2.5% for HPLC versus less than 11% for bioassay) and a lower between-run coefficient of variation (less than 5% versus less than 12% for bioassay) and was more sensitive (lower limit of detection, 0.1 micrograms/ml [versus 2 micrograms/ml for bioassay]). The bioassay is, however, sufficiently accurate and sensitive for clinical specimens, and its relative simplicity, low sample volume requirement, and low equipment cost should make it the technique of choice for analysis of routine clinical specimens. PMID:1854166

  19. High-throughput mosquito and fly bioassay system for natural and artificial substrates treated with residual insecticides.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert L; Wynn, W Wayne; Britch, Seth C; Allan, Sandra A; Walker, Todd W; Geden, Christopher J; Hogsette, Jerome A; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2013-03-01

    A high-throughput bioassay system to evaluate the efficacy of residual pesticides against mosquitoes and muscid flies with minimal insect handling was developed. The system consisted of 4 components made of readily available materials: 1) a CO2 anaesthetizing chamber, 2) a specialized aspirator, 3) a cylindrical flat-bottomed glass bioassay chamber assembly, and 4) a customized rack.

  20. UTILITY OF A FULL LIFE-CYCLE COPEPOD BIOASSAY APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED CONTAMINANT MIXTURES. (R825279)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We compared a 21 day full life-cycle bioassay with an existing 14 day partial life-cycle bioassay for two species of meiobenthic copepods, Microarthridion littorale and Amphiascus tenuiremis. We hypothesized that full life-cycle tests would bette...

  1. Evaluating macroinvertebrate population and community level effects in outdoor microcosms: Use of in situ bioassays and multivariate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.L.; Manning, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Evaluating toxicant effects on aquatic communities is difficult due to the ecological complexity at higher levels of organization. Two methods were assessed to improve the understanding of effects on macroinvertebrate communities in aquatic model ecosystems. First, in situ bioassay population effects were used to interpret effects at a higher organization level. Second, canonical discriminant analysis was used to investigate effects on community structure. In situ bioassays were conducted on six occasions in 17-m{sup 3} microcosms treated with copper sulfate. Macroinvertebrates occurring naturally in the microcosms were monitored. Epibenthic in situ bioassays were conducted using Caenis sp. (Ephemeroptera) and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) and a water column bioassay was conducted using Notonectidae (Hemiptera). Survival and growth were assessed after 3 d. Effects of copper on both notonectidae and Caenis were observed following application. However, the final Caenis epibenthic bioassays indicated that potential for recovery and survival was {ge}95%. Potential for recovery was less distinct in the water column bioassays. Copper effects also occurred on epibenthic macroinvertebrate populations and communities. Only four taxa, including Caenis, distinguished community differences among copper treatments soon after application. Later, communities showed similarities to the pretreatment bioassay. However, actual recovery was less apparent than the potential for recovery indicated by the bioassays, and community differences due to Caenis persisted.

  2. Laboratory bioassay for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on plant growth and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, K.S.; Liberta, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on juvenile corn growth and the ability of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi, indigenous to coal spoil, to form mycorrhizae. The bioassay demonstrated that application rates can be identified that have the potential to promote increased plant dry weight without suppressing the formation of VA mycorrhizae in a plant's root system.

  3. Determining UV Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by Using Cell Culture and a Mouse Bioassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque assay (TOP-assay), and a quantitative reve...

  4. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  5. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field-collected populations of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) from Coachella Valley, CA, Imperial Valley, CA, Riverside, CA and Yuma Valley, AZ, were evaluated for susceptibility to several active ingredients representing ten classes of insecticide chemistry. Both leaf-spray and leaf-dip bioassays wer...

  6. Rapid Bioassessment and In Situ Bioassay: Cost Effective Tools for Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    2002-08-23

    Environmental impact can be difficult to assess, especially at the ecosystem level. Any impact assessment methodology that can give cost effective and timely results is highly desirable. Rapid bioassessment (RBA) is cost effective and produces timely results. Several types of RBA have been used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to assess stream conditions, including the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish community characteristics, and various techniques using aquatic macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance. In an attempt to broaden the applicability of the RBA concept, we have also begun to develop RBA techniques for seep-fed wetlands and terrestrial habitats. These techniques will focus on vertebrate and macroinvertebrate assemblages for seep-fed wetlands and arthropod assemblages for terrestrial habitats. In situ bioassay is another technique that could be used for rapid and economical assessment of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. We propose the development of two methods of in situ bioassay that can address bioavailability of constituents of concern. The use of caged bioassay organisms can be applied to terrestrial systems such as capped or existing waste sites using the common house cricket. Another proposed bioassay could use a resident species, such as the imported red fire ant, which is found in disturbed habitats and open areas such as waste sites. Combining in situ techniques with RBA methodologies has the potential to provide a comprehensive assessment of chemical and physical impacts to a wide range of ecosystem types.

  7. Maternal and fetal toxicity in developmental toxicology bioassays: Weight changes and their biological significance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard developmental toxicology bioassays are designed to identify agents with the potential to induce adverse effects in the embryo/fetus. Guidelines call for the inclusion of a dose level(s) that induces “overt maternal toxicity.” The possibility that general maternal toxicit...

  8. Androgen Bioassay for the Detection of Non-labeled Androgenic Compounds in Nutritional Supplements.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Elliot R; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, XiaoHong; Heather, Alison K

    2017-08-08

    Both athletes and the general population use nutritional supplements. Athletes often turn to supplements hoping that consuming the supplement will help them be more competitive and healthy while the general population hopes to improve body image or vitality. While many supplements contain ingredients that may have useful properties, there are supplements that are contaminated with compounds that are banned for use in sport or have been deliberately adulterated to fortify a supplement with an ingredient that will produce the advertised effect. In the present study, we have used yeast- and mammalian cell androgen bioassays to characterize the androgenic bioactivity of 112 sports supplements available from the Australian market, either over the counter or via the Internet. All 112 products did not declare an androgen on the label as an included ingredient. Our findings show that 6/112 supplements had strong androgenic bioactivity in the yeast cell bioassay, indicating products spiked or contaminated with androgens. The mammalian cell bioassay confirmed the strong androgenic bioactivity of 5/6 positive supplements. Supplement 6 was metabolized to weaker androgenic bioactivity in the mammalian cells. Further to this, Supplement 6 was positive in a yeast cell progestin bioassay. Together, these findings highlight that nutritional supplements, taken without medical supervision, could expose or predispose users to the adverse consequences of androgen abuse. The findings reinforce the need to increase awareness of the dangers of nutritional supplements and highlight the challenges that clinicians face in the fast-growing market of nutritional supplements.

  9. Chemistry and bioactivity of olive biophenols in some antioxidant and antiproliferative in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Obied, Hassan K; Prenzler, Paul D; Konczak, Izabela; Rehman, Ata-U; Robards, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The major biophenols in olives and the crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction from olive mill waste were studied for their ability to counteract different stages of oxidative damage, that is, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical (SOR), and hydroxyl radical in vitro. Antiproliferative activity on colon cancer (HT-29) and gastric cancer (AGS) cell lines was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide bioassay. Emphasis was given to how the observed in vitro activity is controlled by the structural feature of biophenols and possible synergism and antagonism. While in some bioassays, for example, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, the nonphenolic moiety had minimal affect, it had a significant role in the SOR scavenging bioassay. Verbascoside was more active than caffeic acid or hydroxytyrosol evaluated individually or in equimolar mixtures in some bioassays. Mixtures of biophenols were more active than individual biophenols as antiproliferative agents. Overall, the mixture of hydroxytyrosol/caffeic acid and the biophenol extracts were more effective in protecting DNA from oxidative damage and inhibiting the growth of cancer cells.

  10. Utilization of a duckweed bioassay to evaluate leaching of heavy metals in smelter contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Youngman, A.L.; Lydy, M.J.; Williams, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a duckweed bioassay could be used to evaluate the downward migration of heavy metals in smelter soils. The duckweed bioassay was initially used to evaluate elutriates prepared from samples of smelter soils. These initial tests verified that the elutriates would elicit toxic responses. Elutriate testing was followed with an evaluation of leachate from untreated soil cores or soil cores that had been amended with organic matter either unplanted or planted to a grass-forb seed mixture. There was an inverse linear relationship between heavy-metal concentrations in leachate and NOEC and IC{sub 50} values expressed as percentages among all soil cores. Based on these preliminary duckweed bioassays, there were no differences between soil types or organic amended or non-amended soil, but leachate from vegetated soil cores were less toxic than were leachates from non-vegetated soil cores. Overall, the duckweed bioassays were useful in detecting heavy metal availability in elutriate and leachate samples from smelter soils.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioavailability in industrial and agricultural soils: Linking SPME and Tenax extraction with bioassays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meixia; Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Xiaojun; Allinson, Graeme; Rookes, James; Cahill, David

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial and agricultural soils using chemical methods and a bioassay, and to study the relationships between the methods. This was conducted by comparing the quantities of PAHs extracted from two manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils and an agricultural soil with low level contamination by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and Tenax-TA extraction with the quantities taken up by the earthworm (Eisenia fetida). In addition, a biodegradation experiment was conducted on one MGP soil (MGP-A) to clarify the relationship between PAH removal by biodegradation and the variation in PAH concentrations in soil pore water. Results demonstrated that the earthworm bioassay could not be used to examine PAH bioavailability in the tested MGP soils; which was the case even in the diluted MGP-A soils after biodegradation. However, the bioassay was successfully applied to the agricultural soil. These results suggest that earthworms can only be used for bioassays in soils with low toxicity. In general, rapidly desorbing concentrations extracted by Tenax-TA could predict PAH concentrations accumulated in earthworms (R(2)=0.66), while SPME underestimated earthworm concentrations by a factor of 2.5. Both SPME and Tenax extraction can provide a useful tool to predict PAH bioavailability for earthworms, but Tenax-TA extraction was proven to be a more sensitive and precise method than SPME for the prediction of earthworm exposure in the agricultural soil.

  12. A critical appraisal of the value of the mouse cancer bioassay in safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Alden, C L; Smith, P F; Piper, C E; Brej, L

    1996-01-01

    Substantial progress in understanding nongenotoxic or secondary mechanisms of tumorigenesis has been made over the past decade. However, the methods used in regulated studies for assessment of carcinogenic potential in chemicals in development have not evolved significantly. Based on the experience of over 30 yr of testing and the societal need to control costs, reevaluation of standard cancer rodent bioassay protocols is being done. Expert consensus after evaluating the results of full-scale rodent bioassays of both sexes in 2 species is that a reduced protocol is acceptable. After review of relevant data, it is our opinion that cancer hazard assessment in male and female rats only would be sufficient and that, in the future, mouse bioassays will not add significant value on a routine basis. We are unable to find an example of a mouse tumorigenic finding that predicts a confirmed or probable human response with negative findings in a rat bioassay. The savings realized by eliminating mouse testing from routine protocols would be substantial and better spent in expanding short-term studies to add to our understanding of chemical carcinogenesis.

  13. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  14. APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

  15. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  16. SUPERNUMERARY RIBS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY BIOASSAYS AND IN HUMAN POPULATIONS: INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LSNR) or cervical (CSNR) are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some...

  17. USE OF SALMONELLA MICROSUSPENSION BIOASSAY TO DETECT THE MUTGENICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Use of a Salmonella Microsuspension Bioassay to Detect the Mutagenicity of
    Munitions Compounds at Low Concentrations

    Abstract

    Past production and handling of munitions has resulted in soil contamination at various military facilities. Depending on...

  18. Determining UV Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by Using Cell Culture and a Mouse Bioassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque assay (TOP-assay), and a quantitative reve...

  19. Age and sex related responsiveness of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in novel behavioral bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hardiness and mobile nature of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) make them easy to work with but are the same factors that make their responses to behavior modifying chemical stimuli difficult to evaluate. To overcome these difficulties we developed two bioassays: a two choice test with airflow and a...

  20. An Estuarine Fish Bioassay for Sensitive Biomonitoring of Oil-related Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    An embryonic and larval bioassay using the estuarine fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, was modified for the rapid detection of bioavailable compounds that act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The early development of fishes is particularly sensitive to AhR agonists, such ...

  1. The Intersection of CMOS Microsystems and Upconversion Nanoparticles for Luminescence Bioimaging and Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liping.; Doughan, Samer.; Han, Yi.; DaCosta, Matthew V.; Krull, Ulrich J.; Ho, Derek.

    2014-01-01

    Organic fluorophores and quantum dots are ubiquitous as contrast agents for bio-imaging and as labels in bioassays to enable the detection of biological targets and processes. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer a different set of opportunities as labels in bioassays and for bioimaging. UCNPs are excited at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths where biological molecules are optically transparent, and their luminesce in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range is suitable for detection using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These nanoparticles provide multiple sharp emission bands, long lifetimes, tunable emission, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly useful for bio-imaging applications and multiplexed bioassays. This paper surveys several key concepts surrounding upconversion nanoparticles and the systems that detect and process the corresponding luminescence signals. The principle of photon upconversion, tuning of emission wavelengths, UCNP bioassays, and UCNP time-resolved techniques are described. Electronic readout systems for signal detection and processing suitable for UCNP luminescence using CMOS technology are discussed. This includes recent progress in miniaturized detectors, integrated spectral sensing, and high-precision time-domain circuits. Emphasis is placed on the physical attributes of UCNPs that map strongly to the technical features that CMOS devices excel in delivering, exploring the interoperability between the two technologies. PMID:25211198

  2. Diagnostic Value of a Chimeric TSH Receptor (Mc4)-Based Bioassay for Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji In; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Graves' disease (GD) is caused by thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI). We used a recently introduced, technically enhanced TSI bioassay to assess its diagnostic value and determine the cut-off in patients in high iodine intake area. Methods In a cross-sectional setting, we collected serum from 67 patients with untreated GD, 130 with GD under treatment, 22 with GD in remission, 42 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 12 with subacute thyroiditis, 20 with postpartum thyroiditis, and 93 euthyroid controls. TSI was measured using the Thyretain™ bioassay, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with chimeric TSHR (Mc4). TSI levels are reported as a specimen-to-reference ratio percentage (SRR%). Results The TSI levels in patients with GD (either treated or not) were significantly higher than those of the remaining patients (p < 0.05). The new bioassay showed a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 95.9% with a cut-off value of 123.0 SRR% for GD. A weak correlation was found between TSI and thyrotropin-binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII) (rs = 0.259, p = 0.03), but no correlation was found between TSI and tri-iodothyronine or free thyroxine. Conclusions The Mc4-CHO bioassay showed comparable diagnostic value for GD with the conventional TBII assay. We propose a cut-off of 123.0 SRR% in areas where iodine intake is high. PMID:21716594

  3. A new in vitro bioassay system for discovery and quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mosquitoes are vectors of many pathogens that cause human diseases. Although prevention and control of immature stages is the best method to control mosquitoes, repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. The In vitro K & D bioassay system ...

  4. Peroral bioassay of nucleopolyhedrosis viruses in larvae of western spruce budworm.

    Treesearch

    Mauro E. Martignoni; Paul J. Iwai

    1981-01-01

    The relative virulence of entomopathogenic viruses and the potency of virus preparations for control of destructive insects can be estimated reliably only by means of biological assay in the target species. A simple, yet sensitive peroral bioassay procedure is described for preparations of nucleopolyhedrosis viruses pathogenic for the western spruce budworm, ...

  5. A simple agar plate method, using micro-algae, for herbicide bio-assay or detection.

    PubMed

    Wright, S J

    1975-07-01

    A simple, inexpensive method is described for the bio-assay of herbicides using micro-algae growing on agar plates. A result is obtainable in 2 days and the method is suitable for biodetection of herbicide residues, or toxicity studies on soil or aquatic pollutants.

  6. SUPERNUMERARY RIBS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY BIOASSAYS AND IN HUMAN POPULATIONS: INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LSNR) or cervical (CSNR) are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some...

  7. Bayesian Analysis for Linearized Multi-Stage Models in Quantal Bioassay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Lynn; Cohen, Michael P.

    Bayesian methods for estimating dose response curves in quantal bioassay are studied. A linearized multi-stage model is assumed for the shape of the curves. A Gibbs sampling approach with data augmentation is employed to compute the Bayes estimates. In addition, estimation of the "relative additional risk" and the "risk specific…

  8. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    Treesearch

    Yvette M. Karchesy; Rick G. Kelsey; George Constantine; Joseph J. Karchesy

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 μg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta...

  9. Applicability of a yeast bioassay in the detection of steroid esters in hair.

    PubMed

    Becue, Ilse; Bovee, Toine F H; Van Poucke, Christof; Groot, Maria J; Nielen, Michel W F; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the applicability of a yeast androgen and estrogen bioassay in the detection of steroid esters in hair samples of animals treated with a hormone ester cocktail. The outcome of the activity screenings was critically compared with the results previously obtained with LC-MS/MS analysis. Hair samples of one pour-on treated animal, 10 ml DMSO containing 25 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 60 mg testosterone decanoate (TD) and 60 mg testosterone cypionate (TC), were selected and analyzed with the androgen and estrogen yeast bioassay. Results showed that by the introduction of a hydrolysis step, bioassays can be used to screen for the presence of hormone esters in hair samples. Based on the difference in fluorescence responses between the non-hydrolyzed and the hydrolyzed hair samples, it was possible to detect the presence of EB up to at least 56 days after a single pour-on treatment and to detect the presence of TC and TD up to at least 14 days after the treatment. Although the LC-MS/MS analysis could detect TC and TD up to 49 days after treatment, bioassays have the advantage that they can also detect any (un)known steroid ester.

  10. Maternal and fetal toxicity in developmental toxicology bioassays: Weight changes and their biological significance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard developmental toxicology bioassays are designed to identify agents with the potential to induce adverse effects in the embryo/fetus. Guidelines call for the inclusion of a dose level(s) that induces “overt maternal toxicity.” The possibility that general maternal toxicit...

  11. USE OF SALMONELLA MICROSUSPENSION BIOASSAY TO DETECT THE MUTGENICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Use of a Salmonella Microsuspension Bioassay to Detect the Mutagenicity of
    Munitions Compounds at Low Concentrations

    Abstract

    Past production and handling of munitions has resulted in soil contamination at various military facilities. Depending on...

  12. Relationships of maternal and fetal weight changes in developmental toxicology bioassays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard developmental toxicology bioassays are designed to identify agents with the potential to induce adverse effects in the embryo/fetus. Guidelines require the inclusion of a dose level(s) that induces “overt maternal toxicity”. The common occurrence of dose levels at which ...

  13. The use of bioassay to determine the effects of cooking on the toxicity of fumonisins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins are mycotoxin contaminants of maize. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common and toxic fumonisin, causes species-specific diseases in animals, is carcinogenic to rodents, and induces neural tube defects (NTD) in LM/Bc and CD1 mouse bioassays. The human health implications associated with FB1...

  14. APPLICATION OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF A LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earthworm acute toxicity, plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) and plant genotoxicity bioassays were employed to evaluate the remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. The remediation involved removal of heavy metals by a soil washing/soil leaching treatment process. A p...

  15. Laboratory Screening and Field Bioassays of Insecticides for Controlling the Balsam Woolly Adelgid in Southen Appalachia

    Treesearch

    F.L. Hastings; P.J. Barry; I.R. Ragenovich

    1979-01-01

    Two concentrations of 13 insecticides and 3 fatty acids were screened in the laboratory against the balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae (Ratz.)). Efficacy was judged on the percentage of dead adults and the number of living crawlers 24 hours after application. The top candidate materials, including lindane, were field bioassayed. Permethrin (Pounce or Ambush),...

  16. Relationships of maternal and fetal weight changes in developmental toxicology bioassays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard developmental toxicology bioassays are designed to identify agents with the potential to induce adverse effects in the embryo/fetus. Guidelines require the inclusion of a dose level(s) that induces “overt maternal toxicity”. The common occurrence of dose levels at which ...

  17. Development of a plant bioassay to assess toxicity of chemical stressors to emergent macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.

    1996-09-01

    A static renewal bioassay has been proposed to evaluate the effects of chemical stressors on the growth of emergent macrophytes. Bioassay methods were developed using Oryza sativa L. (domestic rice) as the test species and boron as the test compound. After culturing O. sativa in a natural sediment for 2 weeks, the plants were continuously exposed to various concentrations of boron dissolved in the dilution water. At the end of the exposure period the plants were evaluated. Endpoints included visual observations, dry weight, residue, and chlorophyll concentration in the leaf tissue. Dose-response relationships were established for each endpoint; however, dry weight appears to be the least sensitive endpoint. Exposure duration also significantly influenced toxic values. The bioassay procedure was then used to screen several other emergent macrophytes for toxicity to boron. Visual observations and residue indicated treatment differences for each of these species; however, dry weight and chlorophyll concentration did not confirm the differences. Oryza sativa plants exposed to water naturally contaminated with boron accumulated similar concentrations of boron in their leaf tissue as plants exposed to laboratory-prepared solutions of boron. Based on the data presented here, this bioassay appears to be useful in evaluating the potential toxicity of chemical stressors to emergent macrophytes.

  18. Development of a novel, bioluminescence-based, fungal bioassay for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Hedda J; Campbell, Colin D; Killham, Ken

    2002-07-01

    Naturally bioluminescent fungi, Armillaria mellea and Mycena citricolor, were used to develop a novel, bioluminescence-based bioassay for toxicity testing. Bioassays were carried out to assess the toxicity of 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), copper and zinc. The results suggested that 60 min was a suitable exposure time for the bioassay. Light reduction was observed in response to 3,5-DCP, PCP and Cu for both A. mellea and M. citricolor, but to Zn only for A. mellea. Armillaria mellea was significantly less sensitive to 3,5-DCP and PCP than M. citricolor. The EC50 values for A. mellea and M. citricolor were similar to EC50 values for 3,5-DCP, PCP and Cu (but not Zn) of bioluminescence-based bacterial biosensors. They were also similar to EC50 values for Cu and Zn of a bioluminescence-based yeast biosensor. The results highlighted the importance of using both prokaryotic and eukaryotic biosensors. The novel bioassay provides a rapid and sensitive method to assess bioavailability of pollutants as well as a method to determine their toxicity to filamentous fungi. It also expands the range of organisms that can be used for bioluminescence-based toxicity testing by complementing existing biosensors.

  19. A BIOASSAY THAT IDENTIFIES POSTNATAL FUNCTIONAL DEFICITS IN MICE PRENATALLY EXPOSED TO XENOBIOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental strategies to evaluate adverse postnatal effects due to prenatal exposure exist for many organ systems. Often, however, there is insufficient information to suggest that a particular organ system(s) may be sensitive to the test agent. A single bioassay to identify ...

  20. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.

  1. Bioassay of Pine Bark Extracts as Biting Stimulants for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    H.A. Thomas; J.A. Richmond; E.L. Bradley

    1981-01-01

    A bioassay was developed to compare pine outer-bark constituents extracted chemically from five species of southern pines. Extracts from inner and outer bark were also compared. Extracts from the outer bark of shortleaf pine elicited the greatest number of biting responses which significantly exceeded the controls. Beetles responded more often to extracts from the...

  2. Development of a rapid resistance monitoring bioassay for codling moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Van Kretschmar, Jaap B; Barlow, Vonny M; Roe, R Michael; Walgenbach, James F

    2012-06-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is one of the most important pests of apple worldwide. Use of insecticides for management of this insect has been extensive and has resulted in resistance development. There are a number of different bioassay methods to monitor for codling moth resistance; however, many are not applicable to new insecticides and most are time consuming. A novel 16-well plasticware bioassay plate containing lyophilized diet was developed for rapid resistance monitoring of codling moth. The contact insecticides acetamiprid and azinphosmethyl were significantly more toxic to neonates than to fourth instars. However, there was no significant difference in LC(50) values between neonates and fourth instars to the ingestion insecticides chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, novaluron and spinetoram. Field colonies of codling moth were significantly more resistant to methoxyfenozide than susceptible populations. A diagnostic dose of 20 µg mL(-1) (LC(99) ) was established to monitor for codling moth resistance to methoxyfenozide. The results presented here demonstrate that a novel and rapid bioassay can be used to monitor for codling moth resistance to methoxyfenozide. The bioassay method is relevant to both ingestion and contact insecticides, but a single diagnostic dose, regardless of larval age, is only relevant to ingestion insecticides. Age-dependent diagnostic doses are likely necessary for contact insecticides. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Experience with NQA-1 quality assurance standards applied to in vitro bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1991-10-01

    On June 1, 1990, the large (about 4000 samples per year) excreta bioassay program at the Hanford Site ceased abruptly when the contract with the bioassay laboratory was terminated. An intense, high-priority effort was begun to replace the services on an interim basis until a new contract could be procured. Despite the urgency to get the excreta bioassay program going again, the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program was constrained to use only labs that could meet stringent quality assurance (QA) requirements, even during the interim period. The QA requirements were based on NQA-1 with selected additions from the Environmental Protection Agency's QAMS 005/80 (EPA 1983) and the American Society for Testing and Materials' C 1009-83 (ASTM 1984). This constraint was driven both by legal reasons and by the Hanford Site contractors and workers not wanting the quality of the data to be sacrificed. Finding labs that could (1) handle the large throughput, (2) meet the technical requirements, and (3) pass the QA audit proved more difficult than first anticipated. This presentation focuses on the QA requirements that the labs had to meet and how those very broad requirements were applied specifically to excreta bioassay. 5 refs.

  4. Zebrafish bioassay-guided natural product discovery: isolation of angiogenesis inhibitors from East African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Alexander D; Liekens, Sandra; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Maes, Jan; Munck, Sebastian; Busson, Roger; Rozenski, Jef; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter A M

    2011-02-17

    Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products.

  5. Zebrafish Bioassay-Guided Natural Product Discovery: Isolation of Angiogenesis Inhibitors from East African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Alexander D.; Liekens, Sandra; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R.; Maes, Jan; Munck, Sebastian; Busson, Roger; Rozenski, Jef; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural products represent a significant reservoir of unexplored chemical diversity for early-stage drug discovery. The identification of lead compounds of natural origin would benefit from therapeutically relevant bioassays capable of facilitating the isolation of bioactive molecules from multi-constituent extracts. Towards this end, we developed an in vivo bioassay-guided isolation approach for natural product discovery that combines bioactivity screening in zebrafish embryos with rapid fractionation by analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and initial structural elucidation by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Bioactivity screening of East African medicinal plant extracts using fli-1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos identified Oxygonum sinuatum and Plectranthus barbatus as inhibiting vascular development. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation identified the active components of these plants as emodin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase CK2, and coleon A lactone, a rare abietane diterpenoid with no previously described bioactivity. Both emodin and coleon A lactone inhibited mammalian endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro, as well as angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results suggest that the combination of zebrafish bioassays with analytical chromatography methods is an effective strategy for the rapid identification of bioactive natural products. PMID:21379387

  6. A BIOASSAY THAT IDENTIFIES POSTNATAL FUNCTIONAL DEFICITS IN MICE PRENATALLY EXPOSED TO XENOBIOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental strategies to evaluate adverse postnatal effects due to prenatal exposure exist for many organ systems. Often, however, there is insufficient information to suggest that a particular organ system(s) may be sensitive to the test agent. A single bioassay to identify ...

  7. OBSERVATIONS ON THE 10-DAY CHIRONOMUS TENTANS SURVIVAL AND GROWTH BIOASSAY IN EVALUATING GREAT LAKES SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 10-day bioassay with larval chironomids (Chironomus tentans) was used to evaluate sediment samples from harbors at Michigan City, IN, St. Joseph, MI, Grand Haven, MI and Toledo, OH for toxicity, based on the endpoints of survival, dry weight, and growth. Larval responses in se...

  8. Statistical correlations between GLC assay and smaller European elm bark beetle bioassay

    Treesearch

    Jack H. Barger; Roy A. Cuthbert; Donald G. Seegrist

    1973-01-01

    American elm trees, Ulmus americana L., were sprayed with methoxychlor by helicopter or mist blower, and twig crotches were collected from sprayed trees for bioassay of Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham) and GLC assay. Correlations established between the 2 assays were dependent on method of application and amount of methoxychlor...

  9. Olfactoryresponse of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to methyl salicylate in laboratory bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...

  10. The intersection of CMOS microsystems and upconversion nanoparticles for luminescence bioimaging and bioassays.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liping; Doughan, Samer; Han, Yi; DaCosta, Matthew V; Krull, Ulrich J; Ho, Derek

    2014-09-10

    Organic fluorophores and quantum dots are ubiquitous as contrast agents for bio-imaging and as labels in bioassays to enable the detection of biological targets and processes. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer a different set of opportunities as labels in bioassays and for bioimaging. UCNPs are excited at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths where biological molecules are optically transparent, and their luminesce in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range is suitable for detection using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. These nanoparticles provide multiple sharp emission bands, long lifetimes, tunable emission, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly useful for bio-imaging applications and multiplexed bioassays. This paper surveys several key concepts surrounding upconversion nanoparticles and the systems that detect and process the corresponding luminescence signals. The principle of photon upconversion, tuning of emission wavelengths, UCNP bioassays, and UCNP time-resolved techniques are described. Electronic readout systems for signal detection and processing suitable for UCNP luminescence using CMOS technology are discussed. This includes recent progress in miniaturized detectors, integrated spectral sensing, and high-precision time-domain circuits. Emphasis is placed on the physical attributes of UCNPs that map strongly to the technical features that CMOS devices excel in delivering, exploring the interoperability between the two technologies.

  11. Efficiency of several cultural methods and a chick bioassay to recover dry stressed Campylobacter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of 5 enrichment procedures for recovery of dry-atmospheric-temperature stressed C. jejuni and C. coli and determine the viable status of the non-culturable strains using a chick bioassay. Sterile chick paper pads (PP) and filter papers (FP) were i...

  12. Utilizing high throughput bioassays to characterize the bioactivity of complex environmental samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays can be employed to evaluate the integrated effects of complex mixtures of both known and unidentified contaminants present in environmental samples. However, such methods have typically focused on one or a few bioactivities despite the fact that the chemicals in a mixtu...

  13. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  14. Utilizing high throughput bioassays to characterize the bioactivity of complex environmental samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays can be employed to evaluate the integrated effects of complex mixtures of both known and unidentified contaminants present in environmental samples. However, such methods have typically focused on one or a few bioactivities despite the fact that the chemicals in a mixtu...

  15. Does co-extracted dissolved organic carbon cause artefacts in cell-based bioassays?

    PubMed

    Neale, Peta A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-08-01

    Bioanalytical tools are increasingly being employed for water quality monitoring, with applications including samples that are rich in natural organic matter (or dissolved organic carbon, DOC), such as wastewater. While issues associated with co-extracted DOC have been identified for chemical analysis and for bioassays with isolated enzymes, little is known about its effect on cell-based bioassays. Using mixture experiments as diagnostic tools, this study aims to assess whether different molecular weight fractions of wastewater-derived DOC adversely affect cell-based bioassays, specifically the bioluminescence inhibition test with the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the combined algae assay with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the human cell line AREc32 assay for oxidative stress. DOC did not cause suppressive effects in mixtures with reference compounds. Binary mixtures further indicated that co-extracted DOC did not disturb cell-based bioassays, while slight deviations from toxicity predictions for low molecular weight fractions may be partially due to the availability of natural components to V. fischeri, in addition to organic micropollutants.

  16. Development of bioassay techniques with extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T.L.; White, P.; Mackay, D.; Metcalfe, C.

    1995-12-31

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), consisting of polyethylene bags filled with triolein, have been used to monitor for lipophilic organic contaminants in water. Although extracts from SPMDs have most often been analyzed for concentrations of organic contaminants, there is also the potential to monitor the toxicity of these extracts using in vitro and in vivo bioassays. SPMDs were deployed for four weeks at several sites along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie to monitor the distribution of toxic organic contaminants in the water. Analysis of the extracts from the SPMDs for concentrations of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicated that the regions in the Detroit River within the Trenton Channel and near Zug Island were the most highly contaminated. Bioassays conducted with extracts from the SPMDs included the in vitro SOS Chromotest for genotoxic activity, an acute lethality test with Daphnia magna, and a fish embryotoxicity test with embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These bioassay data generally indicated that the toxicity and concentrations of organic contaminants in the SPMD extracts were correlated. This study indicates that there is potential to use short-term bioassays of extracts from SPMDs to monitor for in situ contamination in the aquatic environment.

  17. An Estuarine Fish Bioassay for Sensitive Biomonitoring of Oil-related Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    An embryonic and larval bioassay using the estuarine fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, was modified for the rapid detection of bioavailable compounds that act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The early development of fishes is particularly sensitive to AhR agonists, such ...

  18. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  19. A cellulose-based bioassay for the colorimetric detection of pathogen DNA.

    PubMed

    Saikrishnan, Deepika; Goyal, Madhu; Rossiter, Sharon; Kukol, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Cellulose-paper-based colorimetric bioassays may be used at the point of sampling without sophisticated equipment. This study reports the development of a colorimetric bioassay based on cellulose that can detect pathogen DNA. The detection was based on covalently attached single-stranded DNA probes and visual analysis. A cellulose surface functionalized with tosyl groups was prepared by the N,N-dimethylacetamide-lithium chloride method. Tosylation of cellulose was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Sulfhydryl-modified oligonucleotide probes complementary to a segment of the DNA sequence IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were covalently immobilized on the tosylated cellulose. On hybridization of biotin-labelled DNA oligonucleotides with these probes, a colorimetric signal was obtained with streptavidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase catalysing the oxidation of tetramethylbenzamidine by H2O2. The colour intensity was significantly reduced when the bioassay was subjected to DNA oligonucleotide of randomized base composition. Initial experiments have shown a sensitivity of 0.1 μM. A high probe immobilization efficiency (more than 90 %) was observed with a detection limit of 0.1 μM, corresponding to an absolute amount of 10 pmol. The detection of M. tuberculosis DNA was demonstrated using this technique coupled with PCR for biotinylation of the DNA. This work shows the potential use of tosylated cellulose as the basis for point-of-sampling bioassays.

  20. Nystatin-Induced Potassium Efflux from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Measured by Flame Photometry: a Potential Bioassay Approach

    PubMed Central

    Clements-Jewery, S.

    1976-01-01

    A potential bioassay method for nystatin has been developed based on the ability of this antibiotic to bring out dose-related potassium ion efflux from susceptible cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such extracellular potassium ion concentration being measured by flame photometry. PMID:773299

  1. Paper-based chromatic toxicity bioassay by analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Vila, F; Vigués, N; Guerrero-Navarro, A; Jiménez, S; Gómez, D; Fernández, M; Bori, J; Vallès, B; Riva, M C; Muñoz-Berbel, X; Mas, J

    2016-03-03

    Water quality assessment requires a continuous and strict analysis of samples to guarantee compliance with established standards. Nowadays, the increasing number of pollutants and their synergistic effects lead to the development general toxicity bioassays capable to analyse water pollution as a whole. Current general toxicity methods, e.g. Microtox(®), rely on long operation protocols, the use of complex and expensive instrumentation and sample pre-treatment, which should be transported to the laboratory for analysis. These requirements delay sample analysis and hence, the response to avoid an environmental catastrophe. In an attempt to solve it, a fast (15 min) and low-cost toxicity bioassay based on the chromatic changes associated to bacterial ferricyanide reduction is here presented. E. coli cells (used as model bacteria) were stably trapped on low-cost paper matrices (cellulose-based paper discs, PDs) and remained viable for long times (1 month at -20 °C). Apart from bacterial carrier, paper matrices also acted as a fluidic element, allowing fluid management without the need of external pumps. Bioassay evaluation was performed using copper as model toxic agent. Chromatic changes associated to bacterial ferricyanide reduction were determined by three different transduction methods, i.e. (i) optical reflectometry (as reference method), (ii) image analysis and (iii) visual inspection. In all cases, bioassay results (in terms of half maximal effective concentrations, EC50) were in agreement with already reported data, confirming the good performance of the bioassay. The validation of the bioassay was performed by analysis of real samples from natural sources, which were analysed and compared with a reference method (i.e. Microtox). Obtained results showed agreement for about 70% of toxic samples and 80% of non-toxic samples, which may validate the use of this simple and quick protocol in the determination of general toxicity. The minimum instrumentation

  2. Confirmation of botulism in birds and cattle by the mouse bioassay and Endopep-MS.

    PubMed

    Hedeland, Mikael; Moura, Hercules; Båverud, Viveca; Woolfitt, Adrian R; Bondesson, Ulf; Barr, John R

    2011-09-01

    There have been several outbreaks of botulism among poultry and wild birds in Sweden in recent years. The National Veterinary Institute of Sweden (SVA) has identified botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)/C1 or the mosaic BoNT/C1D using the mouse bioassay. This is believed to be the first report on the application of the Endopep mass spectrometry (Endopep-MS) method to selected clinical animal (serum and liver) samples and a feed sample that had previously given positive test results with the mouse bioassay. In the mouse bioassay eight of the eleven samples were found to be neutralized by both BoNT/C1 and /D antitoxins; the other three were neutralized only by BoNT/C1 antitoxin, but the mice showed a prolonged survival time when the samples had been treated with /D antitoxin. The Endopep-MS analysis, on the other hand, demonstrated only BoNT/C1 activity for all eleven samples. This suggests that at least eight of the samples were of the chimeric toxin type BoNT/C1D, where the enzymically active site is identical to that of BoNT/C1, while other parts of the protein contain sequences of BoNT/D. This is the first step of a cross-validation between the established mouse bioassay and the Endopep-MS of serotypes BoNT/C1 and /C1D. Endopep-MS is concluded to have potential as an attractive alternative to the mouse bioassay.

  3. Effects of wind speed on aerosol spray penetration in adult mosquito bioassay cages.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W Clint; Fritz, Bradley K; Farooq, Muhammad; Cooperband, Miriam F

    2008-09-01

    Bioassay cages are commonly used to assess efficacy of insecticides against adult mosquitoes in the field. To correlate adult mortality readings to insecticidal efficacy and/or spray application parameters properly, it is important to know how the cage used in the bioassay interacts with the spray cloud containing the applied insecticide. This study compared the size of droplets, wind speed, and amount of spray material penetrating cages and outside of cages in a wind tunnel at different wind speeds. Two bioassay cages, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) and Circle, were evaluated. The screen materials used on these cages reduced the size of droplets, wind speed, and amount of spray material inside the cages as compared to the spray cloud and wind velocity outside of the cages. When the wind speed in the dispersion tunnel was set at 0.6 m/sec (1.3 mph), the mean wind speed inside of the CMAVE Bioassay Cage and Circle Cage was 0.045 m/sec (0.10 mph) and 0.075 m/sec (0.17 mph), respectively. At air velocities of 2.2 m/sec (4.9 mph) in the dispersion tunnel, the mean wind speed inside of the CMAVE Bioassay Cage and Circle Cage was 0.83 m/sec (1.86 mph) and 0.71 m/sec (1.59 mph), respectively. Consequently, there was a consistent 50-70% reduction of spray material penetrating the cages compared to the spray cloud that approached the cages. These results provide a better understanding of the impact of wind speed, cage design, and construction on ultra-low-volume spray droplets.

  4. A bioassay to measure cytotoxicity of plasma from patients treated with mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R S; Erlichman, C; Rauth, A M

    1985-11-01

    The unpredictable clinical toxicity observed in patients treated with mitomycin C and the observation that this agent must be reduced to an active form before alkylating target molecules have led to the development of a bioassay which is capable of detecting biologically active forms of mitomycin C in the plasma of drug-treated patients. The bioassay makes use of a repair-deficient mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells, UV-20, which is 40 to 60 times more sensitive to mitomycin C than its wild-type parent. A standard curve relating in vitro cell colony-forming ability of UV-20 versus drug concentration in the plating medium has been determined. Mitomycin C levels in patient plasma as low as 1 ng/ml can be detected, compared to the 5-ng/ml limit of detection obtained with a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for the parent compound. This assay has been utilized to detect active drug in plasma obtained from patients with colorectal cancer treated with mitomycin C as a single agent. At the completion of drug injection, serial blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes, and aliquots of plasma were extracted and assayed for mitomycin C levels by high-pressure liquid chromatography, diluted and assayed directly for their toxicity for UV-20 cells, or frozen at -20 degrees C to be assayed at a later time. The activity detected by immediate bioassay was stable up to 2 mo in frozen samples. Plasma pharmacokinetics determined by the bioassay in seven patients were no different than those determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. No stable, cytotoxic species other than the parent compound were detected by the bioassay in the plasma of patients treated with mitomycin C.

  5. Alternative bioassay for the detection of saxitoxin using the speckled cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea).

    PubMed

    Ruebhart, David R; Radcliffe, Wendy L; Eaglesham, Geoffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins produced by cyanobacteria pose a risk to public health as they occur in drinking water reservoirs and recreational lakes and accumulate in the food chain. One of these PSP toxins, saxitoxin (STX) is one of the most toxic nonprotein substances known. Accordingly, there is a requirement to monitor for these toxins. The standard bioassay used to detect these toxins is the mouse bioassay; however, its use is constrained by animal ethics guidelines and practical considerations. Reported here is the use of the globally distributed speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea as a bioassay test organism for the selective detection of PSP toxicity of Anabaena circinalis aqueous extract and STX. N. cinerea was shown to be tolerant to pure cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) at doses 10-fold greater than mouse LD₅₀ values while being sensitive to STX. Similarly, N. cinerea was shown to be tolerant of toxin-containing aqueous extracts of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Nodularia spumigena while being sensitive to A. circinalis. Peak sensitivity to STX was 60 min postinjection with a KD₅₀ of 31.2 ng/g body weight. While this was approximately 3-fold less sensitive than the mouse bioassay, the insect test organism was around 34-fold smaller in mass than a mouse (20 g); thus one-tenth the amount of toxin in absolute quantity was required to reach an ED₅₀ level. The N. cinerea bioassay presents a selective test for PSP toxicity that is rapid, economical, efficient, and simple to perform.

  6. Toxicokinetics and critical body burden of fluoranthene in amphipod bioassays with Hyalella azteca and Diporeia sp.

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, S.K.; Landrum, P.

    1995-12-31

    Freshwater amphipods (Hyalella azteca and Diporeia sp.) were exposed to fluoranthene under yellow light in 10-day water-only and 30-day sediment bioassays. In water, the 10-d-LC50 for H. azteca (at 20 C) was 564 nmol/L (114 {micro}g/L). Survival of Diporeia (at 4 C) was higher, ranging from 87 to 97% at concentrations up to 1,285 nmol/L (260 {micro}g/L, the limit of water solubility). Although H. azteca was more sensitive than Diporeia to fluoranthene in water, it appeared to be less sensitive in sediment bioassays. Survival of H. azteca in sediment bioassays was generally greater than 90% at all doses, even after 30 d at the highest dose (136 nmol/gdw). A 10-d exposure of H. azteca to a sediment concentration (136 nmol/gdw) with an estimated interstitial water concentration (264 nmol/L), more than twice that of the water-only LC50 (114 nmol/L), resulted in only 5% mortality. In contrast, survival of Diporeia at the highest sediment dose (688 nmol/gdw) averaged 67%, 44%, and 16% after 10, 17 and 30-d exposures, respectively. Thus, although no substantial mortality was observed for Diporeia in water-only bioassays, sediment exposures resulted in significant dose dependent mortality. At the highest sediment doses, observed body burdens in Diporeia were in the range of 1--2 {micro}mol/gww, concentrations that would be expected to produce death by narcosis. In general, the body burden of H. azteca did not exceed 0.5 {micro}mol/gww in the sediment bioassay, which is consistent with the low mortality that was observed. Thus, measures of the actual dose in the organism best define the exposure. These results suggest that estimation of an interstitial water concentration may be insufficient for predicting sediment toxicity.

  7. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical identification of mutagens in bioremediated soils.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, L R; Hughes, T J; Claxton, L D; Austern, B; Brenner, R; Kremer, F

    1998-01-01

    Soil from a Superfund site (Reilly Tar Site, St. Louis Park, Minnesota) contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from creosote was treated with several bioremediation technologies including bioslurry (BS), biopile (BP), compost (CMP), and land treatment (LT). These treatment technologies are being evaluated in pilot scale laboratory systems by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. To evaluate the genotoxicity and identify the mutagens in the soil before and after the various treatments, fractionated extracts of five soils were bioassayed for mutagenic activity with a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella histidine reversion assay. Soils were extracted by sonication using dichloromethane (DCM). The five extracts were fractionated in triplicate (two for bioassay and one for chemical analysis) by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using hexane/DCM/methanol, and the fraction for bioassay were solvent-exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide by nitrogen evaporation. Forty HPLC fractions for each sample were bioassayed in strain YG1041 with and without exogenous liver metabolic activation. As shown in a companion paper, the mutagenicity of two treatments (BS and BP) was significantly greater than the mutagenicity of the untreated soil. Mutagenic fractions (> 500 revertants) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PAH analysis of the soils indicated that all treatments were effective in reducing the total PAH concentration (48-74%). Qualitative GC/MS analysis of the mutagenic fractions from the BS and BP treatments indicated that they contained azaarenes, which are mutagens. The CMP and LT processes were the most effective and least toxic bioremediation procedures based on mutagenic potency and chemical analysis. This research demonstrated that the combination of bioassays and chemical analysis provided a more accurate determination of

  8. Scientific Considerations for Evaluating Cancer Bioassays Conducted by the Ramazzini Institute

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jane C.; Jinot, Jennifer; Evans, Marina V.; Cote, Ila; Vandenberg, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Ramazzini Institute (RI) has completed nearly 400 cancer bioassays on > 200 compounds. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and others have suggested that study design and protocol differences between the RI and other laboratories by may contribute to controversy regarding cancer hazard findings, principally findings on lymphoma/leukemia diagnoses. Objective: We aimed to evaluate RI study design, protocol differences, and accuracy of tumor diagnoses for their impact on carcinogenic hazard characterization. Methods: We analyzed the findings from a recent Pathology Working Group (PWG) review of RI procedures and tumor diagnoses, evaluated consistency of RI and other laboratory findings for chemicals identified by the RI as positive for lymphoma/leukemia, and examined evidence for a number of other issues raised regarding RI bioassays. The RI cancer bioassay design and protocols were evaluated in the context of relevant risk assessment guidance from international authorities. Discussion: Although the PWG identified close agreement with RI diagnoses for most tumor types, it did not find close agreement for lymphoma/leukemia of the respiratory tract or for neoplasms of the inner ear and cranium. Here we discuss a) the implications of the PWG findings, particularly lymphoma diagnostic issues; b) differences between RI studies and those from other laboratories that are relevant to evaluating RI cancer bioassays; and c) future work that may help resolve some concerns. Conclusions: We concluded that a) issues related to respiratory tract infections have complicated diagnoses at that site (i.e., lymphoma/leukemia), as well as for neoplasms of the inner ear and cranium, and b) there is consistency and value in RI studies for identification of other chemical-related neoplasia. Citation: Gift JS, Caldwell JC, Jinot J, Evans MV, Cote I, Vandenberg JJ. 2013. Scientific considerations for evaluating cancer bioassays conducted by the Ramazzini Institute

  9. Quality of water types in Ukraine evaluated by WaterTox bioassays.

    PubMed

    Arkhipchuk, V V; Malinovskaya, M V

    2002-01-01

    The quality of river, ground-, and tap water was analyzed using the basic set of WaterTox bioassays [Daphnia (Daphnia magna), Hydra (Hydra attenuata), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa)] as well as two additional bioassays, onion (Allium cepa) and microalga (Selenastrum gracile). Samples of these waters were also concentrated fivefold using a solid-phase procedure. The results of the Daphnia and Hydra bioassays showed that the winter and spring concentrated and nonconcentrated samples from the Dnieper and Desna rivers, the main water supply sources for Kiev, were nontoxic. In spring, after concentration, the two river samples brought about the same relative decrease in the lettuce root length (by 35%, p < 0.001), where the Desna River sample considerably reduced (by 79.1%, p < 0.001) the number of microalga cells. Samples of groundwater from countryside wells studied in autumn in several villages of the Kiev region were toxic mainly to Hydra (sublethal effects were found in 11%-78%) and lettuce (the root length decreased 15%-56%). Studies of tap water samples from two of the largest cities of Ukraine, Kiev and Kharkiv, were found to be nontoxic to both plants, lettuce and onion, but showed increased sublethal and lethal effects on both animals, Daphnia and Hydra, as well as a reduced number of microalgae. Different bioassays were sensitive to varying degrees to different water types. This reinforces the necessity of using sets of bioassays in toxicity evaluation. In general, all the tested water samples demonstrated some toxicity. These data suggest that drinking water quality in Ukraine needs improvement. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bioassays for the detection of chemicals that can form bioactivation-dependent reactive free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.T.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Wezel, A. van; Vermeulen, N.P.E. . Div. of Molecular Toxicology National Inst. for Coastal and Marine Management, Den Haag )

    1999-06-01

    In vitro bioassays were developed for the detection of chemicals that can be bioactivated to reactive free radical species in microsomal fractions. Two methods were deployed, a down-scaled spectrophotometric method for the detection of chemicals that can cause lipid peroxidation using the measurement of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and a fluorometric method for the detection of chemicals that can undergo redox cycling to generate superoxide radicals based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide. The response of these systems to prototypical and environmentally relevant chemicals, including tetrachloromethane and paraquat, was examined. The detection limit of the lipid peroxidation bioassay, based on the formation of TBARS, was about 1 [micro]M for tetrachloromethane; that of the bioassay for redox cyclers, based on the production of hydrogen peroxide, was about 2 [micro]M for paraquat and about 100-fold lower for the potent redox cycler 2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzoquinone (TMBQ). Several binary mixtures of chemicals were tested for potential nonadditive effects in both in vitro systems. Some antagonistic effects among halogenated methanes were observed in the lipid peroxidation assay. In the hydrogen peroxide production assay, greater than additive effects were seen between small concentrations of paraquat and TMBQ. A number of surface water concentrates from several locations in The Netherlands, with various levels of chemical contamination, exhibited a weak response in the hydrogen peroxide production assay. Acetone was found to interfere with the response of the bioassay to redox cyclers and, therefore, the water concentrates (originally in acetone) were transferred to ethanol prior to testing. A good correlation was observed between the response of the water concentrates in the hydrogen peroxide production assay and their acute toxicity in Daphnia magna. No correlation was observed between this bioassay response and toxicity in the Microtox

  11. Responses of lone star tick (acari: ixodidae) nymphs to the repellent deet applied in acetone and ethanol solutions in vitro bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of repellents. Although tick repellent bioassays tend to be rather uncomplicated, several factors can influence their outcomes. Typically repellent bioassays use a solvent, such as acetone or ethanol, to disp...

  12. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (Bookshelf, PubMed Central (PMC) and PubReader); medical genetics (ClinVar, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen); genes and genomics (BioProject, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genome, HomoloGene, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, PopSet, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser, Trace Archive and UniGene); and proteins and chemicals (Biosystems, COBALT, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), Protein Clusters, Protein and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for many of these databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  13. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David L; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; DiCuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Geer, Lewis Y; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Kenton, David L; Khovayko, Oleg; Lipman, David J; Madden, Thomas L; Maglott, Donna R; Ostell, James; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Schriml, Lynn M; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Suzek, Tugba O; Tatusov, Roman; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  14. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; DiCuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Fingerman, Ian M; Geer, Lewis Y; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J; Lu, Zhiyong; Madden, Thomas L; Madej, Tom; Maglott, Donna R; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Miller, Vadim; Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Panchenko, Anna; Phan, Lon; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Slotta, Douglas; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Wang, Yanli; Wilbur, W John; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2011-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Splign, ProSplign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), IBIS, Biosystems, Peptidome, OMSSA, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  15. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; DiCuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J; Madden, Thomas L; Maglott, Donna R; Miller, Vadim; Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2009-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART) and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications is custom implementation of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  16. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; Dicuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Fingerman, Ian M; Geer, Lewis Y; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Krasnov, Sergey; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J; Lu, Zhiyong; Madden, Thomas L; Madej, Tom; Maglott, Donna R; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Miller, Vadim; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Panchenko, Anna; Phan, Lon; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Slotta, Douglas; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Wang, Yanli; Wilbur, W John; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2012-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Website. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  17. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David L.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Kenton, David L.; Khovayko, Oleg; Lipman, David J.; Madden, Thomas L.; Maglott, Donna R.; Ostell, James; Pruitt, Kim D.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Schriml, Lynn M.; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T.; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Suzek, Tugba O.; Tatusov, Roman; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database, SAGEmap, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: . PMID:16381840

  18. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Eric W.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Fingerman, Ian M.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J.; Lu, Zhiyong; Madden, Thomas L.; Madej, Tom; Maglott, Donna R.; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Miller, Vadim; Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Panchenko, Anna; Phan, Lon; Pruitt, Kim D.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T.; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Slotta, Douglas; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Wang, Yanli; Wilbur, W. John; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2011-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Splign, ProSplign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), IBIS, Biosystems, Peptidome, OMSSA, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:21097890

  19. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Eric W.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J.; Lu, Zhiyong; Madden, Thomas L.; Madej, Tom; Maglott, Donna R.; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Miller, Vadim; Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Panchenko, Anna; Pruitt, Kim D.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T.; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Slotta, Douglas; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Wang, Yanli; John Wilbur, W.; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, Reference Sequence, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Peptidome, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:19910364

  20. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2016-01-04

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (PubMed Central (PMC), Bookshelf and PubReader), health (ClinVar, dbGaP, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen), genomes (BioProject, Assembly, Genome, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser and the Trace Archive), genes (Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), HomoloGene, PopSet and UniGene), proteins (Protein, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), COBALT, Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and Protein Clusters) and chemicals (Biosystems and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (PubMed Central (PMC), Bookshelf and PubReader), health (ClinVar, dbGaP, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen), genomes (BioProject, Assembly, Genome, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser and the Trace Archive), genes (Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), HomoloGene, PopSet and UniGene), proteins (Protein, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), COBALT, Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and Protein Clusters) and chemicals (Biosystems and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:26615191

  2. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Eric W.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Fingerman, Ian M.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Krasnov, Sergey; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J.; Lu, Zhiyong; Madden, Thomas L.; Madej, Tom; Maglott, Donna R.; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Miller, Vadim; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Panchenko, Anna; Phan, Lon; Pruitt, Kim D.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T.; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Slotta, Douglas; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Wang, Yanli; Wilbur, W. John; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2012-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Website. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:22140104

  3. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Eric W.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J.; Madden, Thomas L.; Maglott, Donna R.; Miller, Vadim; Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Pruitt, Kim D.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T.; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2009-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART) and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications is custom implementation of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:18940862

  4. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, PubReader, Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link, Primer-BLAST, COBALT, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Genetic Testing Registry, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, ClinVar, MedGen, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page.

  5. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Genetic Testing Registry, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page.

  6. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Genetic Testing Registry, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page. PMID:23193264

  7. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (Bookshelf, PubMed Central (PMC) and PubReader); medical genetics (ClinVar, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen); genes and genomics (BioProject, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genome, HomoloGene, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, PopSet, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser, Trace Archive and UniGene); and proteins and chemicals (Biosystems, COBALT, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), Protein Clusters, Protein and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for many of these databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:25398906

  8. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Acland, Abigail; Agarwala, Richa; Barrett, Tanya; Beck, Jeff; Benson, Dennis A.; Bollin, Colleen; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Church, Deanna M.; Clark, Karen; DiCuccio, Michael; Dondoshansky, Ilya; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y.; Gorelenkov, Viatcheslav; Hoeppner, Marilu; Johnson, Mark; Kelly, Christopher; Khotomlianski, Viatcheslav; Kimchi, Avi; Kimelman, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Krasnov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Anatoliy; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J.; Lu, Zhiyong; Madden, Thomas L.; Madej, Tom; Maglott, Donna R.; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Murphy, Terence; Ostell, James; O'Sullivan, Christopher; Panchenko, Anna; Phan, Lon; Pruitt, Don Preussm Kim D.; Rubinstein, Wendy; Sayers, Eric W.; Schneider, Valerie; Schuler, Gregory D.; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T.; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Siyan, Karanjit; Slotta, Douglas; Soboleva, Alexandra; Soussov, Vladimir; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Trawick, Bart W.; Vakatov, Denis; Wang, Yanli; Ward, Minghong; John Wilbur, W.; Yaschenko, Eugene; Zbicz, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, PubReader, Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link, Primer-BLAST, COBALT, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Genetic Testing Registry, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, ClinVar, MedGen, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page. PMID:24259429

  9. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; Dicuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J; Lu, Zhiyong; Madden, Thomas L; Madej, Tom; Maglott, Donna R; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Miller, Vadim; Mizrachi, Ilene; Ostell, James; Panchenko, Anna; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Stephen T; Shumway, Martin; Sirotkin, Karl; Slotta, Douglas; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Wang, Yanli; John Wilbur, W; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ye, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, Reference Sequence, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Peptidome, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  10. Reassessing the two-year rodent carcinogenicity bioassay: a review of the applicability to human risk and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marone, Palma Ann; Hall, William C; Hayes, A Wallace

    2014-02-01

    The 2-year rodent carcinogenicity test has been the regulatory standard for the prediction of human outcomes for exposure to industrial and agro-chemicals, food additives, pharmaceuticals and environmental pollutants for over 50 years. The extensive experience and data accumulated over that time has spurred a vigorous debate and assessment, particularly over the last 10 years, of the usefulness of this test in terms of cost and time for the information obtained. With renewed interest in the United States and globally, plus new regulations in the European Union, to reduce, refine and replace sentinel animals, this review offers the recommendation that reliance on information obtained from detailed shorter-term, 6 months rodent studies, combined with genotoxicity and chemical mode of action can realize effective prediction of human carcinogenicity instead of the classical two year rodent bioassay. The aim of carcinogenicity studies should not be on the length of time, and by obligation, number of animals expended but on the combined systemic pathophysiologic influence of a suspected chemical in determining disease. This perspective is in coordination with progressive regulatory standards and goals globally to utilize effectively resources of animal usage, time and cost for the goal of human disease predictability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioassays for estrogenic activity: development and validation of estrogen receptor (ERalpha/ERbeta) and breast cancer proliferation bioassays to measure serum estrogenic activity in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Lee, L; Gong, Y; Shen, P; Wong, S P; Wise, Stephen D; Yong, E L

    2009-02-01

    Standard estrogenic prodrugs such as estradiol valerate (E2V) and increasingly popular phytoestrogen formulations are commonly prescribed to improve menopausal health. These drugs are metabolized to numerous bioactive compounds, known or unknown, which may exert combinatorial estrogenic effects in vivo. The aim of this study is to develop and validate estrogen receptor (ER) alpha/ERbeta reporter gene and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation bioassays to quantify serum estrogenic activities in a clinical trial setting. We measured changes in serum estrogenicity following ingestion of E2V and compared this to mass spectrometric measurements of its bioactive metabolites, estrone and 17beta-stradiol. ERalpha bioactivity of the 192 serum samples correlated well (R = 79%) with 17beta-estradiol levels, and adding estrone improved R to 0.83 (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.0001), suggesting that the ERalpha assay reflects summated activity of compounds in serum. ERbeta correlated moderately (R = 0.52) with estrone and 17beta-estradiol, with an estrone/17beta-estradiol coefficient ratio that was twice that of ERalpha, indicating estrone was more active on a molar basis in the ERbeta assay. Unlike the ERalpha and ERbeta bioassays, MCF-7 cell proliferation was driven by 17beta-estradiol, and addition of estrone did not increase the predictive value of the model, suggesting that the driver or drivers for breast cancer cell proliferation were not the same as for ERalpha and ERbeta transactivation. In contrast, a decoction of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Epimedium pubescens did not induce significant changes in estrogenic bioactivity over baseline. These data indicate that ERalpha/ERbeta reporter gene and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation bioassays reflect different aspects of estrogenic activity and that these assays suggest that the Epimedium formulation tested is unlikely to exert significant estrogenic effects in humans.

  12. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  13. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  14. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/disease-condition/ostomy-expanded-version United ...

  15. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  16. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) : American SIDS Institute -- sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc. ...

  17. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org Cancer.Net -- www.cancer.net/coping- ...

  18. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  19. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  20. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  1. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  2. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  3. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  4. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.epilepsy.com National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  5. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  6. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  7. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  8. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  9. Burns - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - burns ... The following organizations are good resources for information on burns : Burns Recovered -- brsg.org Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center - Burn Model Systems -- www.msktc.org/burn

  10. Applicability of toxicity bioassays to ecological risk assessment in arid and semiarid ecosystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Markwiese, J. T.; Ryti, R. T.; Hooten, M. M.; Michael, D. I.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Environmental Assessment; Neptune and Company, Inc.

    2001-01-01

    Substantial tracts of land in the southwestern and western U.S. are undergoing or will require ERA. Toxicity bioassays employed in baseline ERAs are, for the most part. representative of mesic systems, and highly standardized test species (e.g., lettuce, earthworm) are generally not relevant to arid system toxicity testing. Conversely, relevant test species are often poorly characterized with regard to toxicant sensitivity and culture conditions. The applicability of toxicity bioassays to ecological risk assessment in arid and semiarid ecosystems was reviewed for bacteria and fungi, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and terrestrial vertebrates. Bacteria and fungi are critical to soil processes, and understanding their ecology is important to understanding the ecological relevance of bioassays targeting either group. Terrestrial bacteria require a water film around soil particles to be active, while soil fungi can remain active in extremely dry soils. It is therefore expected that fungi will be of greater importance to arid and semiarid systems (Whitford 1989). If microbial processes are to be measured in soils of arid environments, it is recommended that bioassays target fungi. Regardless of the taxa studied, problems are associated with the standardization and interpretability of microbial tests, and regulatory acceptance may hinder widespread incorporation of microbial toxicity bioassays in arid system risk assessments. Plant toxicity bioassays are gaining recognition as sensitive indicators of soil conditions because they can provide a cost-effective and relatively rapid assessment of soil quality for both pre- and postremediation efforts. Although the choices of suitable plant species for assessing mesic system soils are numerous, the choices for arid system soils are limited. Guidance is provided for evaluating plant species with regard to their suitability for serving as representative arid system flora. Terrestrial invertebrates can survive and flourish in

  11. Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Margaret M.

    1997-01-01

    Access to relevant materials on the Internet has been improved by subject-organized online indexes of resources. The following resources for educational information are listed: federal or federally funded Web sites; companies and organizations; classified lists of resources (hotlists); and hotlist directories of K-12 schools, colleges, and…

  12. EPA DSSTox and ToxCast Project Updates: Generating New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s National Center for Computational Toxicology is generating data and capabilities to support a new paradigm for toxicity screening and prediction. The DSSTox project is improving public access to quality structure-annotated chemical toxicity information in less summarized forms than traditionally employed in SAR modeling, and in ways that facilitate data-mining and data read-across. The DSSTox Structure-Browser provides structure searchability across the full published DSSTox toxicity-related inventory, enables linkages to and from previously isolated toxicity data resources (soon to include public microarray resources GEO, ArrayExpress, and CEBS), and provides link-outs to cross-indexed public resources such as PubChem, ChemSpider, and ACToR. The published DSSTox inventory and bioassay information also have been integrated into PubChem allowing a user to take full advantage of PubChem structure-activity and bioassay clustering features. Phase I of the ToxCastTM project has generated high-throughput screening (HTS) data from several hundred biochemical and cell-based assays for a set of 320 chemicals, mostly pesticide actives, with rich toxicology profiles. DSSTox and ACToR are providing the primary cheminformatics support for ToxCastTM and collaborative efforts with the National Toxicology Program’s HTS Program and the NIH Chemical Genomics Center. DSSTox will also be a primary vehicle for publishing ToxCastTM ToxRef summarized bioassay data for use

  13. Toxicity bioassays for water from black-odor rivers in Wenzhou, China.

    PubMed

    DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p < 0.05), and related to pH and ammonium nitrogen of water

  14. Highly variable sensitivity of five binding and two bio-assays for TSH-receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Diana, T; Wüster, C; Kanitz, M; Kahaly, G J

    2016-10-01

    TSH-receptor (TSHR) antibodies (Ab) can be measured with binding or bio-assays. Sensitivity and specificity of five binding and two bio-assays were compared. TSHR-blocking (TBAb) and TSHR-stimulating (TSAb) Ab were measured with reporter bio-assays. Blocking activity was defined as percent inhibition of luciferase expression relative to induction with bTSH alone. TSAb was reported as percentage of specimen-to-reference ratio (SRR%). TSHR-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) were measured with Kronus, Dynex, Kryptor, Cobas, and Immulite. Sixty patients with Graves' disease (GD), 20 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and 20 healthy controls (C) were included. C tested negative in all assays (specificity 100 %) while all 60 hyperthyroid GD patients tested positive in the TSAb bio-assay (sensitivity 100 %). Among these 60 GD patients, 20 had low TSAb positivity (SRR% 140-279), but were TBII positive in only 20 (100 %), 7 (35 %), 9 (45 %), 11 (55 %), and 18 (90 %) using the Kronus, Dynex, Kryptor, Cobas, and Immulite, respectively. In 20 moderate TSAb-positive (SRR% 280-420) patients, TBII tested positive in 20 (100 %), 14 (70 %), 13 (65 %), 16 (80 %), and 19 (95 %), respectively. The high (SRR% > 420) TSAb-positive patients were all TBII positive. All 20 hypothyroid HT patients tested TBAb positive (sensitivity 100 %) in the bio-assay while they tested TBII positive in 20 (100 %), 18 (90 %), 20, 20, and 18, respectively. Results obtained with two luminometers correlated for TSAb positive (r = 0.99, p < 0.001), TBAb positive (r = 0.88, p < 0.001), and C (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). None of the binding assays differentiated between TSAb and TBAb. Sensitivity is highly variable between binding and bio-assays for TSHR-Abs.

  15. The use of acute and chronic bioassays to determine the ecological risk and bioremediation efficiency of oil-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, C A; van der Waarde, J J; Derksen, J G; van der Hoek, E E; Veul, M F; Bouwens, S; Rusch, B; Kronenburg, R; Stokman, G N

    2001-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of acute and chronic bioassays for the ecological risk assessment of polluted soils, soil samples from a site with an historical mineral oil contamination (< 50-3,300 mg oil/kg dry soil) at the Petroleum Harbour in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, were screened for ecological effects using acute and chronic bioassays. A two-step 0.001 M Ca(NO3)2 extraction at a final solution-to-soil ratio of 1:1 was used to prepare extracts for the acute bioassays. Acute bioassays (< or = 5 d) applied to the 0.001 M Ca(NO3)2 extracts from the polluted and reference soils included growth tests with bacteria (Bacillus sp.), algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata), and plants (Lactuca sativa), immobility tests with nematodes (Plectus acuminatus), springtails (Folsomia candida), and cladocerans (Daphnia magna), and the Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri). Chronic bioassays (four weeks) performed on the same soil samples included tests with L. sativa, F. candida, and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and the bait-lamina test (substrate consumption). The acute bioassays on Microtox showed a response that corresponded with the level of oil pollution. All other acute bioassays did not show such a consistent response, probably because pollutant levels were too low to cause acute effects. All chronic bioassays showed sublethal responses according to the contaminant levels (oil and in some soils also metals). This shows that chronic bioassays on soil samples are more sensitive in assessing the toxicity of mineral oil contamination in soil than acute bioassays on soil extracts. A pilot scale bioremediation study on soils taken from the two most polluted sites and a control site showed a rapid decline of oil concentrations to reach a stable level within eight weeks. Acute bioassays applied to the soils, using Microtox, algae, and D. magna, and chronic bioassays, using plants, Collembola, earthworms, and bait-lamina consumption, in all cases showed a rapid reduction of toxicity, which

  16. [Investigation on pattern of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on famous-region drug and bioassay--the work reference].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-05-01

    Selection and standardization of the work reference are the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis. as an example, the manufacture process of the famous-region drugs extraction was explained from the aspects of original identification, routine examination, component analysis and bioassay. The common technologies were extracted, and the selection and standardization procedures of the work reference for the bioassay of Chinese materia medica were drawn up, so as to provide technical support for constructing a new mode and method of the quality control of Chinese materia medica based on the famous-region drugs and bioassay.

  17. Environmental effects of dredging: Wetland animal bioassays/biomonitoring. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Simmers, J.W.; Kay, S.H.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

    1987-03-01

    This note follows Technical Note EEDP-O3-1 and adds support to the concept of using wetland animals as Indicators of bioavailable contaminants in dredged material used to create intertidal wetlands. The text of this tech note was taken from a paper by Kay, Marquenie, and Simmers (1986). Animal bioassay test procedures are being evaluated (field tested) and verified under the Interagency Field Verification of Testing and Predictive Methodologies for Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives in the Field Verification Program (FVP). Bioassays have been shown to be a relatively simple tool for ecological evaluation and environmental assessment of potential contaminant movement within permanent or temporary wetlands, and with field verification, it will be a useful biomonitoring tool as well.

  18. Two antifungal components isolated from Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli by bioassay-guided purification.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kit-Man; Fu, Lai-Hong; Cheng, Ling; Wong, Chun-Wai; Wong, Yin-Lai; Lau, Ching-Po; Han, Simon Quan-Bin; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Hui, Mamie; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli have long been used as Chinese medicines to treat various ailments such as asthma, eczema and dermatomycosis. In previous studies, their antifungal activities were demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to isolate active antidermatophytic compounds from their ethanolic extracts by means of bioassay-guided purification. Guided by the inhibitory activities on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Paecilomyces variotii, bakuchiol was isolated from the n-hexane fraction of Fructus Psoraleae whilst macrocarpal C was isolated from the n-hexane fraction of Folium Eucalypti Globuli. Both pure compounds could effectively inhibit the growth of dermatophytes in vitro. This is the first paper to report the isolation and identification of active antidermatophytic compounds from Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli by the bioassay-guided purification.

  19. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Villarini, M; Fatigoni, C; Dominici, L; Maestri, S; Ederli, L; Pasqualini, S; Monarca, S; Moretti, M

    2009-12-01

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone # 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air.

  20. Carcinogenicity bioassays of vinyl chloride monomer: a model of risk assessment on an experimental basis.

    PubMed Central

    Maltoni, C; Lefemine, G; Ciliberti, A; Cotti, G; Carretti, D

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented regarding the final results of the Bentivoglio (Bologna) project on long-term carcinogenicity bioassays of vinyl chloride (VC). The experimental project studied the effects of the monomer, administered by different routes, concentrations and schedules of treatment, to animals (near 7000) of different species, strains, sex and age. To our knowledge this is the largest experimental carcinogenicity study performed on a single compound by a single institution. The results indicate that VC is a multipotential carcinogen, affecting a variety of organs and tissues. In the experimental conditions studied, the neoplastic effects of the monomer were also detected at low doses. The experimental and biological factors greatly affect the neoplastic response to VC. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays are, at present, a unique tool for the identification and quantification of environmental and occupational risks. Precise and highly standardized experimental procedures are needed to obtain data for risk assessment. PMID:6800782

  1. Bioassay using blocking temperature: Interparticle interactions between biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with biotargets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. Y.; Yang, T. W.; Shen, D.; Chen, K. L.; Chen, J. M.; Liao, S. H.; Chieh, J. J.; Yang, H. C.; Wang, L. M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a bioassay of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration achieved via the measurement of blocking temperature (TB). Biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BMNs) consisting of anti-alpha-fetoprotein coated onto dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticles composed of Fe3O4 were prepared and then conjugated with AFP biotargets. It was found that both the saturation magnetization and value of TB increased with the concentration of the associated AFP. Furthermore, the dependence of TB of the samples on magnetic field agreed with the interparticle interaction model. Thus, this study demonstrated a platform to detect biomarkers by characterizing TB with a sensitivity limit of 20 ppb of AFP. The promising results obtained for this bioassay can be attributed to the interparticle interactions and Néel motions of magnetic moments in the BMNs.

  2. Evaluation of mouse bioassay results in an inter-laboratory comparison for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jijuan; Zheng, Jiang; Yu, Bing; Wang, Qiuyan; Xu, Junyi; Li, Aifeng

    2011-07-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of the AOAC mouse bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish was carried out among 25 Chinese laboratories to examine the overall performance for PSP testing in China, and to analyze the main factors affecting the performance of this method. The toxic scallop Patinopecten yessoensis collected from coast of Bohai Sea, China, was used as a test sample in the comparison study. The results were reported and evaluated using robust statistical methods. The z scores showed that 80%, 8%, and 12% of laboratories reported satisfactory results, unsatisfactory results, and questionable results, respectively. This evaluation demonstrates that the PSP mouse bioassay is an appropriate method for screening and testing PSP toxicity in shellfish. However, it was found that the experience and skill of technicians, as well as the body weight and health status of mice being used significantly affected the accuracy of the method.

  3. Genotoxicity of SPL (spent pot lining) as measured by Tradescantia bioassays.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Vieira, L F; Davide, L C; Gedraite, L S; Campos, J M S; Azevedo, H

    2011-10-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste product generated in the process of aluminum production. Tradescantia micronuclei (Trad-MN) and stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) bioassays are very useful tests to assess genotoxicity of environmental pollutants. In the present study, we intended to investigate the genotoxicity of this waste with Tradescantia bioassays using leachates of SPL simulating the natural leachability of SPL in soil. The formation of micronuclei (MN) was found to be concentration dependent. MN frequency enhanced significantly with SPL treatment. In addition, SPL also appeared to increase the percentage of dyads and triads. Trad-SHM assay showed that SPL increases pink mutation events as SPL concentration increases. These results demonstrated that SPL is a cytogenotoxic agent that affects different genetic end-points (induction of micronuclei and point mutations) even at low concentration (2% and 3%).

  4. Regional differences in stratum corneum reactivity to surfactants. Quantitative assessment using the corneosurfametry bioassay.

    PubMed

    Henry, F; Goffin, V; Maibach, H I; Piérard, G E

    1997-12-01

    The skin does not react similarly to the presence of xenobiotics over all anatomic sites. Distinct regional differences have been described for irritancy and percutaneous absorption. The present study assesses the regional variation of stratum corneum reactivity to surfactants using the corneosurfametry bioassay. Stratum corneum was harvested from 6 body sites in 20 young adults. Corneosurfametry was performed using water, 1% SLS and a 5% soap solution. Data show that the best variable to assess regional variability in irritancy is the overall difference in corneosurfametry (ODC), comparing the effect of a given surfactant with water. The dorsal hand and volar forearm were the least reactive, the neck, forehead, back and dorsal foot the most reactive, sites. It is concluded that the corneosurfametry bioassay, through the ODC variable, is a practically noninvasive tool for the evaluation of regional variation in irritancy at the level of the stratum corneum.

  5. Comparison of cancer risks projected from animal bioassays to epidemiologic studies of acrylonitrile-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ward, C E; Starr, T B

    1993-10-01

    Bioassay findings have demonstrated that acrylonitrile (ACN) is a rodent carcinogen, but the available epidemiologic evidence provides little support for the human carcinogenicity of ACN. This discordance between laboratory animal and human study findings is explored by determining post hoc the statistical power of 11 epidemiologic studies of ACN-exposed workers to detect the all-site and brain cancer excesses that are projected from rodent drinking water bioassay data. At reasonable estimates of the level and duration of exposures among the occupational cohorts, a majority of the human studies had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect the projected excesses, yet such responses were consistently absent. We conclude, subject to certain caveats, that the upper bound estimate of ACN's inhalation cancer potency of 1.5 x 10(-4) per ppm is too high to be consistent with the human ACN experience.

  6. Moment Selective Digital Detection of Single Magnetic Beads for Multiplexed Bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llandro, J.; Hayward, T. J.; Bland, J. A. C.; Morecroft, D.; Castaño, F. J.; Colin, I. A.; Ross, C. A.

    2008-06-01

    Research into lab-on-a-chip multiplexed bioassays has focused on libraries of biochemical probes, indexed by optically encoded micron-sized labels. However, few current methods have reconciled large multiplexing capability with a rapid detection system amenable to miniaturization. Magnetic identification of labels provides a strong candidate solution to this problem, yet no proposed single-label magnetic detection system can both read and encode magnetic labels. We present a magnetic multiplexed assay in lab-on-a-chip format which identifies target biomolecules from the hybridization results by reading encoded magnetic beads. We show that a microfabricated magnetoresistive ring-shaped sensor can read the magnetic moments of individual commercially available paramagnetic beads using an active digital technique. This work provides proof of principle for a new approach to magnetic labeling of biomolecules for high-throughput bioassays.

  7. Effect of disinfection upon dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in wastewater: bacterial bioassays.

    PubMed

    Arana, I; Santorum, P; Muela, A; Barcina, I

    2000-08-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in organic matter content of wastewater effluents attributable to chlorination and ozonation have been analysed using bioassays as well as organic carbon direct measures. Bioassays were carried out using the bacterial populations of wastewater and two Escherichia coli strains as test micro-organisms. Our results indicate that pure strains present some advantages over indigenous bacteria. Although wastewater bacterial populations are better adapted to growth in wastewater, E. coli strains are more sensitive to changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. Moreover, the use of pure cultures allows estimation of the portion of DOC which can be converted in cell biomass, the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Finally, the results obtained using prototrophic and the auxotrophic strains of E. coli suggested that ozonation alters the amino acid composition of wastewater while chlorination does not change the quantity nor the quality of the DOC present in effluents.

  8. Evaluation of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae as a bioassay for mycotoxins in animal feedstuffs.

    PubMed Central

    Prior, M G

    1979-01-01

    Brine shrimp larvae was tested as a possible simple biological screening system to identify specimens of animal feedstuffs that should be examined further by chemical analytical procedures for mycotoxins. All extracts of the control, nonmouldy feedstuffs increased larval mortality, this being most marked in the case of silage. Chemical and biological testing of diagnostic specimens indicated that the bioassay identified two of four chemically positive specimens and 59 of 135 chemically negative specimens and 59 identified larvicidal compounds present in normal feedstuffs gave a high percentage (56%) of false-positive bioassay results when compared to the results of chemical analyses for three mycotoxins. The use of brine shrimp larvae did not materially reduce the necessity of conducting chemical analyses for mycotoxins. PMID:548157

  9. Simultaneous bioassays in a microfluidic channel on plugs of different magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Bronzeau, Sandrine; Pamme, Nicole

    2008-02-18

    Magnetic particles coated with specific biomolecules are often used as solid supports for bioassays but conventional test tube based techniques are time consuming and labour intensive. An alternative is to work on magnetic particle plugs immobilised inside microfluidic channels. Most research so far has focussed on immobilising one type of particle to perform one type of assay. Here we demonstrate how several assays can be performed simultaneously by flushing a sample solution over several plugs of magnetic particles with different surface coatings. Within a microchannel, three plugs of magnetic particles were immobilised with external magnets. The particles featured surface coatings of glycine, streptavidin and protein A, respectively. Reagents were then flushed through the three plugs. Molecular binding occurred between matching antigens and antibodies in continuous flow and was detected by fluorescence. This first demonstration opens the door to a quicker and easier technique for simultaneous bioassays using magnetic particles.

  10. Assessment of sediment toxicity during anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil using Microtox and Hyalella azteca bioassays.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Lee, Kenneth; Cobanli, Susan E; King, Thomas; Wrenn, Brian A; Doe, Kenneth G; Jackman, Paula M; Venosa, Albert D

    2007-02-01

    The potential ecological impacts of anaerobic degradation of vegetable oil on freshwater sediments were investigated. Sediment toxicity was evaluated using two regulatory biotests: the Microtox Solid Phase Test and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) bioassay. The results of the Microtox test showed that the toxicity of the vegetable-oil-contaminated sediments (about 17-33 g oil/kg dry sediments) increased after 2 weeks incubation and then decreased to near background levels after incubation for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions. The amphipod toxicity bioassay showed that the toxicity of fresh contaminated sediments decreased over time and returned to background levels within 8 weeks. These results suggest that the impact of vegetable oils on organisms within sediments may be limited. To account for the significance of environmental conditions, additional studies over a wide range of incubation conditions (e.g., temperature, nutrient concentration) and other test organisms at various trophic levels are recommended for both acute and chronic toxicity assessment.

  11. Inkjet-printed bioassays for direct reading with a multimode DVD/Blu-Ray optical drive.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Shi, Maolin; Cui, Caie; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2014-09-16

    Compact disc-based bioassays have been developed as novel point-of-care (POC) tools for various applications in chemical analysis and biomedical diagnosis. For the fabrication of assay discs, the surface patterning and sample introduction have been restricted to manual delivery that is unfavorable for on-demand high throughput medical screening. Herein, we have adapted a conventional inkjet printer to prepare bioassays on regular DVD-Rs and accomplished quantitative analysis with a multimode DVD/Blu-Ray optical drive in conjunction with free disc diagnostic software. The feasibility and accuracy of this method have been demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of inkjet-printed biotin-streptavidin binding assays on DVD, which serves as a trial system for other complex, medically relevant sandwich-format or competitive immunoassays.

  12. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. PMID:21637622

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and Mouse Bioassay in Rodents of Ahvaz District, Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saki, J.; Khademvatan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is obligate coccidian zoonotic parasite. Felidae family is definitive and wide ranges of warm-blooded vertebrates are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Rodents are measured as an important source of T. gondii infection for the definitive host. Thus, this study aimed to investigate Toxoplasm infection in rodents of Ahvaz district, southwest of Iran. A total of 100 rodents (73 Rattus norvegicus, 21 Rattus rattus, and 6 Mus musculus) were collected and studied by GRA6PCR and mouse bioassay. The finding indicated that 6 out of 100 (6%) and 2 out of 100 (2%) samples were positive by PCR and mouse bioassay, respectively. The results show notable chronic infection in the rodent and potential transmission of the infection among animal and men in the region. Accordingly, this study recommended investigating of the T. gondii infection in definitive and other intermediate hosts in other points of Khuzestan province, Southwest, Iran. PMID:24605327

  14. Comparison of laboratory and in situ sediment bioassays using Corophium volutator.

    PubMed

    Kater, B J; Postma, J F; Dubbeldam, M; Prins, J T

    2001-06-01

    Bioassays with the marine amphipod Corophium volutator were performed simultaneously in situ and in the laboratory using sediments sampled from the in situ locations. In most cases, the in situ response was significantly higher compared to the laboratory response. This difference was not caused by direct influence of the use of the field chamber on Corophium sp., nor was the difference caused by the overlying water used. Experiments showed homogenization can affect the toxicity of a sediment, but not in such a way that it can completely explain the difference between the response in situ and in the laboratory. Possible explanatory factors are harbor activity, storms, and temperature. To reduce the influence of some of these factors, the best period of the year to perform in situ bioassays with C. volutator is May, June, or September.

  15. Development of a larval bioassay for susceptibility of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Rust, M K; Waggoner, M; Hinkle, N C; Mencke, N; Hansen, O; Vaughn, M; Dryden, M W; Payne, P; Blagburn, B L; Jacobs, D E; Bach, T; Bledsoe, D; Hopkins, T; Mehlhorn, H; Denholm, I

    2002-07-01

    Strategies for controlling cat fleas, Ctenocephalidesfelisfelis (Bouché), have undergone dramatic changes in the past 5 yr. With the advent of on-animal treatments with residual activity the potential for the development of insecticide resistance increases. A larval bioassay was developed to determine the baseline susceptibility of field-collected strains of cat fleas to imidacloprid. All four laboratory strains tested showed a similar level of susceptibility to imidacloprid. Advantages of this bioassay are that smaller numbers of fleas are required because flea eggs are collected for the test. Insect growth regulators and other novel insecticides can also be evaluated. Using a discriminating dose, the detection of reduced susceptibility in field strains can be determined with as few as 40 eggs.

  16. Biomagnification of bioassay derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, P.D.; Ankley, G.T.; Best, D. A.; Crawford, R.; DeGalan, N.; Giesy, J.P.; Kubiak, T.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Newsted, J.L.; Tillitt, D. E.; Verbrugge, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years contamination of the Great Lakes ecosystem with planar chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) has attracted considerable concern due to their known reproductive and teratogenic effects. The H4IIE bioassay has been standardized as a means of measuring the biological potency of a PCH mixture as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ). Using this bioassay we have investigated the biomagnification of TCDD-EQ in a semi-closed ecosystem. The biomagnification of TCDD-EQ is demonstrated and results indicate that the food chain is the major pathway for TCDD-EQ through this ecosystem. The H4IIE assay system is demonstrated to be a viable integrative measure of the total concentration of TCDD-EQ in different trophic levels.

  17. A macroalgal germling bioassay to assess biocide concentrations in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Girling, J A; Thomas, K V; Brooks, S J; Smith, D J; Shahsavari, E; Ball, A S

    2015-02-15

    A bioassay method using the early life stages (germlings) of macroalgae was developed to detect toxicity of anti-fouling paint biocides. A laboratory based bioassay using Ulva intestinalis and Fucus spiralis germlings was performed with 4 common anti-fouling biocides (tributyltin (TBT), Irgarol 1051, Diuron and zinc sulphate), over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (0.0033-10 μg l(-1)). Comparison between the two species showed that germlings of U. intestinalis were better adapted for in-situ monitoring, as germlings of F. spiralis appeared to be too robust to display sufficient growth differences. The response of U. intestinalis germling growth appeared to reflect environmental biocide concentrations. Overall the developed method showed potential for the assessment of the sub-lethal effects of anti-fouling biocides on the early developmental stages of U. intestinalis.

  18. Lung tumors in strain A mice as a bioassay for carcinogenicity of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, G.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the protocol for the strain A mouse lung tumor bioassay and summarizes results on selected chemicals that have been tested for carcinogenicity in the assay. The assay is of 6 months duration and can distinguish 2-fold differences in carcinogenic potential of compounds from several chemical classes. Specifically, the assay is sensitive to polycyclic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines and nitrosoureas, carbamates, aflatoxin, certain metals, hydrazines, and others, but is relatively insensitive to aromatic amines, aliphatic halides, and other compounds that are carcinogenic in the rodent liver and/or bladder. Recommendations are made for future studies on the: (1) distribution and metabolism of chemicals in strain A mouse lung tissue and in specific lung cell types; (2) ability of the lung tumor bioassay to detect inhibitors and promoters of carcinogenesis; and (3) use of the assay for testing mixtures of chemicals for carcinogenic activity.

  19. Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

  20. Translation-dependent bioassay for amino acid quantification using auxotrophic microbes as biocatalysts of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kameya, Masafumi; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-03-01

    Bioassay for amino acid quantification is an important technology for a variety of fields, which allows for easy, inexpensive, and high-throughput analyses. Here, we describe a novel translation-dependent bioassay for the quantification of amino acids. For this, the gene encoding firefly luciferase was introduced into Lactococcus lactis auxotrophic to Glu, His, Ile, Leu, Pro, Val, and Arg. After a preculture where luciferase expression was repressed, the cells were mixed with analytes, synthetic medium, and an inducer for luciferase expression. Luminescence response to the target amino acid appeared just after mixing, and linear standard curves for these amino acids were obtained during 15-60-min incubation periods. The rapid quantification of amino acids has neither been reported in previous works on bioassays nor is it theoretically feasible with conventional methods, which require incubation times of more than 4 h to allow for the growth of the microbe used. In contrast, our assay was shown to depend on protein translation, rather than on cell growth. Furthermore, replacement of the luciferase gene with that of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or β-galactosidase allowed for fluorescent and colorimetric detection of the amino acids, respectively. Significantly, when a Gln-auxotrophic Escherichia coli mutant was created and transformed by a luciferase expression plasmid, a linear standard curve for Gln was observed in 15 min. These results demonstrate that this methodology can provide versatile bioassays by adopting various combinations of marker genes and host strains according to the analytes and experimental circumstances.

  1. Considerations in Selecting Bioassay Organisms for Determining the Potential Environmental Impact of Dredged Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    using the water flea Daphnia magna, mayfly larvae Hexagenia limbata, and fatnead minnow Pimephales promelas. Thirteen of the sed- iments were collected...were selected for each location. Daphnia pulex juveniles were tested with samples from location 1 (0 parts per thousand [ppt] salinity), 19 A.6 grass...and Anderson 1 4 1 2 0 used larvae of the mayfly Hexagenia limbata, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the isopod Asellus communis in bioassays with

  2. Effects of Tributyltin Antifouling Paint Leachates on Pearl Harbor Organisms. Site-Specific Flowthrough Bioassay Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    panels were removed from the tanks. and the bioassay communities were allowed 2 months of recovery ( depuration ) under flowthrough conditions. All remaining...it is not known to what degree the oysters had accumulated and depurated leachates. Those results will be reported later. 5. 17 % %.- %, , - 7 - 6...those individuals may have accumulated lethal amounts of TBT over the 60-day treatment interval and were unable to depurate enough TBT to affect their

  3. Bioassays with terrestrial and aquatic species as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon degradation.

    PubMed

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Ortega, Lina; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-09-01

    In this study chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests were applied for the assessment of a heavily hydrocarbon-contaminated soil prior and after the application of a remediation procedure that consisted in the stimulation of soil autochthonous populations of hydrocarbon degraders in static-ventilated biopiles. Terrestrial bioassays were applied in mixtures of test soils and artificial control soil and studied the survival and reproduction of Eisenia fetida and the avoidance response of E. fetida and Folsomia candida. Effects on aquatic organisms were studied by means of acute tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and Daphnia magna performed on aqueous elutriates from test soils. The bioremediation procedure led to a significant reduction in the concentration of hydrocarbons (from 34264 to 3074 mg kg(-1), i.e., 91 % decrease) and toxicity although bioassays were not able to report a percentage decrease of toxicity as high as the percentage reduction. Sublethal tests proved the most sensitive terrestrial bioassays and avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails showed potential as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon remediation due to their high sensitivity and short duration. The concentrations of hydrocarbons in water extracts from test soils were 130 and 100 μg L(-1) before and after remediation, respectively. Similarly to terrestrial tests, most aquatic bioassays detected a significant reduction in toxicity, which was almost negligible at the end of the treatment. D. magna survival was the most affected by soil elutriates although toxicity to the crustacean was associated to the salinity of the samples rather than to the concentration of hydrocarbons. Ecotoxicity tests with aqueous soil elutriates proved less relevant in the assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils due to the low hydrosolubility of hydrocarbons and the influence of the physicochemical parameters of the aquatic medium.

  4. Is there a role for estrogen activity assays? Recombinant cell bioassay for estrogen: Development and applications.

    PubMed

    Klein, Karen Oerter

    2015-07-01

    There are many questions which cannot be answered without a very sensitive estradiol assay. A recombinant cell bioassay (RCBA) for estradiol was developed in 1994. The sensitivity of the bioassay is 0.02-0.2 pg/ml (0.07-0.7 pmol/L), more than 20 times more sensitive than commercial RIAs and 10 times more sensitive than newer mass spectrometry assays. The RCBA for estradiol opened the door to study low levels of estradiol equivalents (EE) across the physiological spectrum of life from prepubertal children through menopause and across the spectrum from normal physiology, in boys as well as girls, to pathology, including: premature thelarche; estradiol suppression in children treated with GnRH analogues for precocious puberty; aromatase inhibition in boys with growth hormone deficiency; the differences between oral and transdermal routes of estrogen administration in girls with Turner's syndrome; women with breast cancer treated with aromatase inhibitors; and women with urogenital atrophy treated with low dose vaginal estrogen. A bioassay also allows study of endocrine disruptors, like phytoestrogens and other environmental compounds, which are relevant to public health and alternative medicine options. This paper reviews the assay and the last 20 years of applications. A bioassay for estrogen has a role because measuring biological effect is theoretically useful, increasing the understanding of physiology in addition to biochemical levels, giving different information than other assays, and opening the door to measure very low levels of estrogen activity in both humans and the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasensitive microarray bioassays using cyanine5 dye-doped silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, S. P.; Kelleher, S. M.; Acorn, J. N.; Kurzbuch, D.; Daniels, S.; McDonagh, C.; Clancy, E.; Smith, T. J.; Nooney, R.

    2016-11-01

    Herein we report the use of high brightness Cyanine5-doped silica nanoparticles (NPs) for the detection of antibodies or DNA in microarray bioassays. NP labels showed negligible non-specific binding, greater sensitivity and lower limits of detection when compared to free dye-labelled biomolecules. Moreover, the spotted microarrays used in this study required low NP and antibody concentrations to generate large data sets with improved statistical accuracy. These NPs have significant potential for use in biosensing for disease detection.

  6. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E.

    PubMed

    Chatla, Kamalakar; Gaunt, Patricia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Hohn, Claudia; Ford, Lorelei; Hanson, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these signs and mortality after sera from affected fish is administered to sentinel catfish. The diagnosis is confirmed if the toxicity is neutralized with BoNT/E antitoxin. Because small catfish are often unavailable, the utility of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) was evaluated in BoNT/E and VTC bioassays. Channel catfish and zebrafish susceptibilities were compared using trypsin-activated BoNT/E in a 96-hr trial by intracoelomically administering 0, 1.87, 3.7, 7.5, 15, or 30 pg of toxin per gram of body weight (g-bw) of fish. All of the zebrafish died at the 7.5 pg/g-bw and higher, while the catfish died at the 15 pg/g-bw dose and higher. To test the bioassay, sera from VTC-affected fish or control sera were intracoelomically injected at a dose of 10 µl per zebrafish and 20 µl/g-bw for channel catfish. At 96 hr post-injection, 78% of the zebrafish and 50% of the catfish receiving VTC sera died, while no control fish died. When the VTC sera were preincubated with BoNT/E antitoxin, they became nontoxic to zebrafish. Histology of zebrafish injected with either VTC serum or BoNT/E demonstrated renal necrosis. Normal catfish serum was toxic to larval zebrafish in immersion exposures, abrogating their utility in VTC bioassays. The results demonstrate bioassays using adult zebrafish for detecting BoNT/E and VTC are sensitive and practical.

  7. The application of bioassays as indicators of petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Grazyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Brigmon, Robin L

    2005-04-01

    Bioremediation has proven successful in numerous applications to petroleum contaminated soils. However, questions remain as to the efficiency of bioremediation in lowering long-term soil toxicity. In the present study, the bioassays Spirotox, Microtox, Ostracodtoxkit F, umu-test with S-9 activation, and plant assays were applied, and compared to evaluate bioremediation processes in heavily petroleum contaminated soils. Six higher plant species (Secale cereale L., Lactuca sativa L., Zea mays L., Lepidium sativum L., Triticum vulgare L., Brassica oleracea L.) were used for bioassay tests based on seed germination and root elongation. The ecotoxicological analyses were made in DMSO/H2O and DCM/DMSO soil extracts. Soils were tested from two biopiles at the Czechowice oil refinery, Poland, that have been subjected to different bioremediation applications. In biopile 1 the active or engineered bioremediation process lasted four years, while biopile 2 was treated passively or non-engineered for eight months. The test species demonstrated varying sensitivity to soils from both biopiles. The effects on test organisms exposed to biopile 2 soils were several times higher compared to those in biopile 1 soils, which correlated with the soil contaminants concentration. Soil hydrocarbon concentrations indeed decreased an average of 81% in biopile 1, whereas in biopile 2 TPH/TPOC concentrations only decreased by 30% after eight months of bioremediation. The bioassays were presented to be sensitive indicators of soil quality and can be used to evaluate the quality of bioremediated soil. The study encourages the need to combine the bioassays with chemical monitoring for evaluation of the bioremediation effectiveness and assessing of the contaminated/remediated soils.

  8. Fluorescence-Based Bioassays for the Detection and Evaluation of Food Materials

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-01-01

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials. PMID:26473869

  9. The interpretation of disease phenotypes to identify TSE strains following murine bioassay: characterisation of classical scrapie.

    PubMed

    Beck, Katy E; Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas; Thorne, Leigh; Terry, Linda A; Denyer, Margaret; Webb, Paul; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2012-11-01

    Mouse bioassay can be readily employed for strain typing of naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases. Classical scrapie strains have been characterised historically based on the established methodology of assessing incubation period of disease and the distribution of disease-specific vacuolation across the brain following strain stabilisation in a given mouse line. More recent research has shown that additional methods could be used to characterise strains and thereby expand the definition of strain "phenotype". Here we present the phenotypic characteristics of classical scrapie strains isolated from 24 UK ovine field cases through the wild-type mouse bioassay. PrPSc immunohistochemistry (IHC), paraffin embedded tissue blots (PET-blot) and Western blotting approaches were used to determine the neuroanatomical distribution and molecular profile of PrPSc associated with each strain, in conjunction with traditional methodologies. Results revealed three strains isolated through each mouse line, including a previously unidentified strain. Moreover IHC and PET-blot methodologies were effective in characterising the strain-associated types and neuroanatomical locations of PrPSc. The use of Western blotting as a parameter to define classical scrapie strains was limited. These data provide a comprehensive description of classical scrapie strain phenotypes on isolation through the mouse bioassay that can provide a reference for further scrapie strain identification.

  10. Fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Zhu, Yun; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2015-10-13

    We summarize here the recent progress in fluorescence-based bioassays for the detection and evaluation of food materials by focusing on fluorescent dyes used in bioassays and applications of these assays for food safety, quality and efficacy. Fluorescent dyes have been used in various bioassays, such as biosensing, cell assay, energy transfer-based assay, probing, protein/immunological assay and microarray/biochip assay. Among the arrays used in microarray/biochip assay, fluorescence-based microarrays/biochips, such as antibody/protein microarrays, bead/suspension arrays, capillary/sensor arrays, DNA microarrays/polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based arrays, glycan/lectin arrays, immunoassay/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based arrays, microfluidic chips and tissue arrays, have been developed and used for the assessment of allergy/poisoning/toxicity, contamination and efficacy/mechanism, and quality control/safety. DNA microarray assays have been used widely for food safety and quality as well as searches for active components. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling may be useful for such purposes due to its advantages in the evaluation of pathway-based intracellular signaling in response to food materials.

  11. Dual signal amplification for bioassays using ion release from nanolabels and ion-activated enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Chad L; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    2012-10-21

    A dual signal amplification technique was developed for bioassays. The technique consists of zinc-ion release from ZnS nanoparticle labels and enzyme kinetics activated by the released zinc ions as cofactors. In the ion release process, each ZnS nanoparticle label liberates a high number of zinc ions by acidic dissolution. After the ion release, at appropriate pH levels, the released zinc ions are used as cofactors to trigger the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase. The fluorescence produced from the activated enzyme kinetics is measured for bioassay signal quantification. A model bioassay on mouse IgG adopting this technique presents a detection limit around 0.5 pM and a detection range over at least two orders of magnitude. This technique was also successfully applied to the detection of human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in human serum samples to demonstrate a clinical diagnosis application. The developed immunoassay is capable of distinguishing clinically critical levels of cTnI. This technique possesses a high detection resolution and offers the advantage of straightforward operation (simple preparation of ZnS nanoparticles and no enzyme immobilization).

  12. Bioassay for Nisin in Milk, Processed Cheese, Salad Dressings, Canned Tomatoes, and Liquid Egg Products

    PubMed Central

    Hakovirta, J.; Reunanen, J.; Saris, P. E. J.

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive nisin quantification bioassay was constructed, based on Lactococcus lactis chromosomally encoding the nisin regulatory proteins NisK and NisR and a plasmid with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant gfpuv gene under the control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter. This strain, LAC275, was capable of transducing the signal from extracellular nisin into measurable GFPuv fluorescence through the NisRK signal transduction system. The LAC275 cells detected nisin concentrations of 10 pg/ml in culture supernatant, 0.2 ng/ml in milk, 3.6 ng/g in processed cheese, 1 ng/g in salad dressings and crushed, canned tomatoes, and 2 ng/g in liquid egg. This method was up to 1,000 times more sensitive than a previously described GFP-based nisin bioassay. This new assay made it possible to detect significantly smaller amounts of nisin than the presently most sensitive published nisin bioassay based on nisin-induced bioluminescence. The major advantage of this sensitivity was that foods could be extensively diluted prior to the assay, avoiding potential inhibitory and interfering substances present in most food products. PMID:16461641

  13. Chlorpyrifos bioassay and resistance monitoring of San Joaquin Valley California citricola scale populations.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yuling; Chueca, Patricia; Scott, Sara J; Montez, Greg H; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E

    2010-08-01

    The responses to chlorpyrifos of six populations of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), were tested using a leaf dip bioassay, and two- to nine-fold resistances were found. LC50 responses of nymphs ranged from 7.5 to 68.9 ppm and LC90 responses ranged from 20 to 222 ppm chlorpyrifos. A population tested monthly during August-October showed up to 3.5-fold differences in LC50 responses but no differences in LC90 responses as scale size increased. A diagnostic concentration of 178 ppm chlorpyrifos was used to test 93 populations from throughout the San Joaquin Valley California during 2006-2009 by using a leaf dip bioassay. Of the populations tested, 41% showed > 20% survival after exposure to the diagnostic concentration of chlorpyrifos, indicating resistance problems. Research is needed to relate the level of survival of the scales in the bioassay to the field efficacy of the insecticide. Tulare County citrus growers applied a higher number of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides during the 15-yr period from 1994 to 2008, and these orchards showed a higher average scale survival of chlorpyrifos and a higher number of locations with resistant scale compared with the other San Joaquin Valley counties. Chlorpyrifos resistance is a significant issue for citricola scale management because biological control is ineffective in the San Joaquin Valley and the alternative neonicotinoid and insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides require more frequent application.

  14. Toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in soils posing environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Asensio, V; Zaldibar, B; Soto, M; Marigómez, I

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity profiles of two soils (a brownfield in Legazpi and an abandoned iron mine in Zugaztieta; Basque Country) contaminated with several metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu in Legazpi; Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in Zugaztieta) and petroleum hydrocarbons (in Legazpi) were determined using a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Investigated soils exceeded screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe). Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with a selected set of test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates, as well as with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. The sensitivity of the test species and the toxicity endpoints varied depending on the soil. It was concluded that whilst Zugaztieta soil showed very little or no toxicity, Legazpi soil was toxic according to almost all the toxicity tests (solid phase Microtox, D. discoideum inhibition of fruiting body formation and developmental cycle solid phase assays, lettuce seed germination and root elongation test, earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests, D. discoideum cell viability and replication elutriate assays). Thus, albeit both soils had similar SVs, their ecotoxicological risk, and therefore the need for intervening, was different for each soil as unveiled after toxicity profiling based on multiple endpoint bioassays. Such a toxicity profiling approach is suitable to be applied for scenario-targeted soil risk assessment in those cases where applicable national/regional soil legislation based on SVs demands further toxicity assessment.

  15. Short-term bioassays of fractionated emission samples from wood combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Alfheim, I.; Becher, G.; Hongslo, J.K.; Lazaridis, G.; Loefroth, G.; Ramdahl, T.; Rivedal, E.; Salomaa, S.; Sanner, T.; Sorsa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of an emission sample from wood burning, consisting of particles and volatiles, have been fractionated on an HPLC silica gel column into five fractions of increasing polarity. Nonfractionated samples and the individual fractions have been tested in three different short-term bioassays: the Ames Salmonella assay, the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction-test in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), and the cell transformation test on Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Most of the total activity was found in the volatile part of the sample with all three bioassays, whereas the particle extract had the highest activity per unit mass extracted. The second most polar fraction contained most of the mass and was also highly active in all assays. The most polar fraction was very potent in the Salmonella assay, but showed only a weak response in the eukaryotic bioassays. Storage of the samples for several months at 0 degrees C revealed that the bacterial mutagens present in the most polar fraction were labile; the mutagenicity was almost totally lost after 1 year's storage.

  16. An assessment of the checkpoint bioassay concept for full scale wastewater UV reactor validation.

    PubMed

    Maka, P P; Lawryshyn, Y A

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to help policy makers and manufacturers understand the impact of parameter uncertainties on UV reactor performance, a numerical bioassay model was developed by integrating a UV reactor model based on computational fluid dynamics with a Monte Carlo model developed to account for parameter uncertainty. For the model implemented, it was determined that reactor performance uncertainty was less than 6%. The integrated model was used to evaluate several checkpoint bioassay criteria including one currently used by the California Department of Public Health. The model showed that these criteria failed to take into account the fact that in an ideal case, a full scale reactor will pass a single checkpoint test 50% of the time. In reality, differences in equipment measurement errors between the system validation and checkpoint bioassay, and limitations of the power law form of the dose monitoring equation in accurately representing system validation data will result in poorer than expected performance. It was suggested that such checkpoint criteria be modified by crediting the inherent over-sizing of full scale reactors.

  17. Determination of an environmental background level of 90Sr in urine for the Hanford bioassay program.

    PubMed

    Antonio, C L; Rivard, J W

    2009-11-01

    During the decommissioning and maintenance of some of the facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, workers have potential for a Sr intake. However, because of worldwide radioactive fallout, Sr is present in our environment and can be detectable in routine urine bioassay samples. It is important for the Hanford Site bioassay program to discriminate an occupational intake from a non-occupational environmental one. A detailed study of the background Sr in the urine of unexposed Hanford workers was performed. A survey of the Hanford Site bioassay database found 128 Hanford workers who were hired between 1997 and 2002 and who had a very low potential for an occupational exposure prior to the baseline strontium urinalysis. Each urinalysis sample represented excretion during an approximate 24-h period. The arithmetic mean value for the 128 pre-exposure baselines was 3.6 +/- 5.1 mBq d. The 99 percentile result was 17 mBq d, which was interpreted to mean that 1% of Hanford workers not occupationally exposed to strontium might exceed 17 mBq d.

  18. Chronic bioassays of rainbow trout fry with compounds representative of contaminants in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Berlin, William H.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the hazard of organic compounds detected in Great Lakes fish by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we tested compounds representative of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyclic alkanes and alkenes. Sixty-day bioassays on the effects of nicotine, phenanthrene, pinane, and pinene on the behavior, growth, and survival of rainbow trout fry, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were conducted in a large, constant-flow, temperature-controlled water system. The following 60-day LCSO's were determined (mg/L): nicotine 5.0, phenanthrene 0.2, pinane 0.8, and pinene 1.2. Values of lowest observed effects level (LOEL) and no observed effects level (NOEL) showed that growth was generally as sensitive an endpoint as behavior and was more sensitive than time of swim-up. The 60-day LC50 values for rainbow trout were compared with earlier acute bioassays with Daphnia pulexand rainbow trout and chronic bioassays with D.pulex conducted at the Great Lakes Science Center. Rainbow trout fry were less sensitive than daphnids in all tests, indicating that toxicity tests with daphnids should be protective of salmonid fry for these types of compounds. The results for representative compounds indicate that these classes of compounds should be included in aquatic risk assessments at sites in the Great Lakes.

  19. [Anti-platelet aggregation bioassay based quality control for XST capsules].

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Mao, Xin; Han, Shu-xian; Chen, Ying; Xiang, Yan-hua; Ge, Yi-meng; Liao, Fu-long; You, Yun

    2015-12-01

    A in vitro platelet aggregation bioassay was developed for the quality control of XST capsules. The in vitro anti-platelet aggregation effect in rats was observed to detect the bioactivity of XST capsules. Panax notoginseng saponins and Xuesaitong lyophilizedpowder for injection were taken as standard control substances to determine the potency. According to the results, XST capsules showeda significant inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro anti-platelet activity oflyophilized powder for injection was stabler than that of Panax notoginseng saponins, and so suitable to serve as a standard control substance. The biological potency of XST capsules compared with standard control substance was detected by using parallel line assay. According to the results, the established bioassay method had a good repeatability (RSD 2.92%). The sample test results could pass thereliability test(linear deviation P > 0.05, parallel deviation P > 0.05). This bioassay method could be used as one of the complementary quality control methods for XST capsules.

  20. Bivalve embryo bioassay to assess the potential toxicity of dredged material before dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Quiniou, F.

    1995-12-31

    Dredged harbor sediments frequently contain a wide spectrum of contaminants in addition to a significant percentage of organic matter. Also, dredging and dumping activities into sea water, of these highly contaminated soil may induce a harmful effect on the environment. In France, in accordance with Oslo convention guidelines, a working group on dredging activities and environment (GEODE) created since 1991 decided to set up a pilot research program to assess the intrinsic toxicity of four harbor sludges. Intrinsic toxicity of harbor muds were tested by solid phase (whole sediment) and aqueous extract bioassays (sea water elutriates) using the sublethal toxicity test bivalve embryo bioassay (Crassostrea gigas). Elutriates enable them to detect the toxicity of contaminants which may be released in the soluble form into the water column during dredging operations. While, whole sediment integrate the synergistic effects of all the contaminants (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) including pore water. Bioassays results, correlated to chemical analysis, are compared to contaminant levels determined by French working group GEODE and Canadian sediment quality criteria.

  1. The Epidermis and the Respiratory Tract as Bioassay Systems in Tobacco Carcinogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, E. L.; Hoffmann, D.

    1970-01-01

    In tobacco carcinogenesis research, considerable attention has been paid to the choice of the bioassay. The ideal system should simulate the human smoking setting as closely as possible and should utilize tissue of a type similar to that found at the sites where the tobacco smoke-related cancers originate in man. However, although certain inhalation experiments in the laboratory meet these requirements to some extent, they are generally timeconsuming and difficult to evaluate and since they usually have to be performed on large animals, are extremely costly when used for the identification of the actual tumorigenic agents in the smoke. The present article examines the reasons why mouse skin is a useful bioassay. The system has enabled investigators to identify tumour initiators and accelerators and to determine that the major tumour promoters reside in the weakly acidic portion of tobacco smoke. The mouse skin bioassay demonstrated that with significant inhibition of the pyrosynthesis of alkylated and non-alkylated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, the tumorigenicity of the “tar” will also decrease significantly. ImagesFig. 9 PMID:4920216

  2. Pt-Decorated Magnetic Nanozymes for Facile and Sensitive Point-of-Care Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Kweon, Soon Ho; Cho, Seongyeon; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, Moon Il; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Jinwoo

    2017-10-11

    Development of facile and sensitive bioassays is important for many point-of-care applications. In this study, we fulfilled such demand by synthesizing Pt-decorated magnetic nanozymes and developing a bioassay based on unique properties of the newly synthesized nanozymes. Fe3O4-Pt/core-shell nanoparticles (MPt/CS NPs) with various compositions were synthesized and characterized. Fe3O4 NP itself is a good nanozyme with catalytic activity superior to that of natural enzymes, but catalytic activity can be further improved by incorporating Pt to the outer layers of the Fe3O4 NPs and building heterogeneous nanostructures. Magnetic properties of MPt/CS NPs enable magnetic enrichment of liquid samples, whereas catalytic properties of MPt/CS NPs allow signal amplification by enzyme-like reactions. By integrating MPt/CS NPs in lateral flow immunoassay strips, one of the widely used point-of-care bioassay devices, and harnessing magnetic and enzyme-like properties of MPt/CS NPs, an increase in sensitivity of two orders of magnitude was achieved compared to the sensitivity of conventional lateral flow immunoassay based on Au nanoparticles.

  3. Bioassay for nisin in milk, processed cheese, salad dressings, canned tomatoes, and liquid egg products.

    PubMed

    Hakovirta, J; Reunanen, J; Saris, P E J

    2006-02-01

    A sensitive nisin quantification bioassay was constructed, based on Lactococcus lactis chromosomally encoding the nisin regulatory proteins NisK and NisR and a plasmid with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant gfp(uv) gene under the control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter. This strain, LAC275, was capable of transducing the signal from extracellular nisin into measurable GFPuv fluorescence through the NisRK signal transduction system. The LAC275 cells detected nisin concentrations of 10 pg/ml in culture supernatant, 0.2 ng/ml in milk, 3.6 ng/g in processed cheese, 1 ng/g in salad dressings and crushed, canned tomatoes, and 2 ng/g in liquid egg. This method was up to 1,000 times more sensitive than a previously described GFP-based nisin bioassay. This new assay made it possible to detect significantly smaller amounts of nisin than the presently most sensitive published nisin bioassay based on nisin-induced bioluminescence. The major advantage of this sensitivity was that foods could be extensively diluted prior to the assay, avoiding potential inhibitory and interfering substances present in most food products.

  4. Predicting water toxicity: pairing passive sampling with bioassays on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Melanie; Negri, Andrew; Fabricius, Katharina; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-11-08

    Many coral reefs worldwide occur adjacent to urban or agricultural land which places these ecosystems at threat of exposure to complex mixtures of pollutants. In this study, the pairing of passive sampler extracts with bioassays is proposed as a tool for predicting effects of organic pollutant mixtures on key biota within coral reef ecosystems. Passive samplers, SDB-RPS Empore disks, which sequester a mixture of the contaminants present in the environment, were deployed at three sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Extracts from these samplers were analysed for herbicides and applied to bioassays targeting integral life stages or functions of coral reef biota. Biota included scleractinian coral larvae, sea urchin larvae, a marine diatom and marine bacteria. Photosynthesis in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was inhibited at the sampled environmental concentration while an environmental concentration factor of 15 times inhibited luminescence in the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Concentrations of 50 times sampled environmental levels of organic pollutants inhibited >90% of Acropora millepora settlement and 100-fold environmental enrichment inhibited 100% Heliocidaris tuberculata larval development. These results demonstrate the utility of pairing passive sampling with bioassays and reveal that mixtures of organic pollutants in the GBR have the potential to cause detrimental effects to coral reef biota.

  5. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Elliot R.; McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Heather, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping. PMID:23389345

  6. Toxicological profiling of sediments using in vitro bioassays, with emphasis on endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Corine J; Cenijn, Peter H; Hamers, Timo; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette; Murk, Albertinka J; Brouwer, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    In vitro bioassays are valuable tools for screening environmental samples for the presence of bioactive (e.g., endocrine-disrupting) compounds. They can be used to direct chemical analysis of active compounds in toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) approaches. In the present study, five in vitro bioassays were used to profile toxic potencies in sediments, with emphasis on endocrine disruption. Nonpolar total and acid-treated stable extracts of sediments from 15 locations in the Rhine Meuse estuary area in The Netherlands were assessed. Dioxin-like and estrogenic activities (using dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression [DR-CALUX] and estrogen-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression [ER-CALUX] assays) as well as genotoxicity (UMU test) and nonspecific toxic potency (Vibrio fischeri assay) were observed in sediment extracts. For the first time, to our knowledge, in vitro displacement of thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) from the thyroid hormone transport protein thransthyretin by sediment extracts was observed, indicating the presence of compounds potentially able to disrupt T4 plasma transport processes. Antiestrogenic activity was also observed in sediment. The present study showed the occurrence of endocrine-disrupting potencies in sediments from the Dutch delta and the suitability of the ER- and DR-CALUX bioassays to direct endocrine-disruption TIE studies.

  7. Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and in vitro bioassay application in water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Annemieke; Schriks, Merijn; Brand, Walter; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; van der Kooi, Margaretha M E; van Doorn, René H; Emke, Erik; Reus, Astrid A; van der Linden, Sander C; de Voogt, Pim; Heringa, Minne B

    2013-11-01

    The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39 chemicals were spiked to surface water, which were extracted using Oasis MCX cartridges. The extracts were chemically analyzed by liquid chromatography linear ion trap Orbitrap analysis and recoveries appeared to be on average 61% Compounds with logK(ow) values in the range between 0 and 4 are recovered well using this method. In a next step, the same extracts were tested for genotoxic activity using the Comet assay and Ames fluctuation test and for specific endocrine receptor activation using a panel of CALUX assays, for estrogenic (ER), androgenic (AR), glucocorticoid (GR), progestagenic (PR), and thyroidogenic (TR) agonistic activities. The results of the genotoxicity assays indicated that spiked genotoxic compounds were preserved during sample preparation. The measured responses of the GR CALUX and ER CALUX assays were similar to the predicted responses. The measured responses in the AR CALUX and PR CALUX assays were much lower than expected from the analytical concentration, probably due to antagonistic effects of some spiked compounds. Overall, the presented sample preparation method seems to be suitable for both chemical analysis and specific in vitro bioassay applications.

  8. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Biological Liquid Crystals: A Review of Single-Molecule Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Kilho; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Jinsung; Yoon, Gwonchan; Soo Sohn, Young; Park, Shinsuk; Yoon, Dae Sung; Na, Sungsoo; Kwon, Taeyun

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins. PMID:19865530

  9. Comparison of the sensitivity of seven marine and freshwater bioassays as regards antidepressant toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laetitia; Di Poi, Carole; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Benchouala, Amira; Bojic, Clément; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Costil, Katherine; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The hazards linked to pharmaceutical residues like antidepressants are currently a major concern of ecotoxicology because they may have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Our study assesses the ecotoxicity of three antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine) using a battery of marine and freshwater species representing different trophic levels, and compares the bioassay sensitivity levels. We selected the following bioassays: the algal growth inhibition test (Skeletonema marinoi and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the microcrustacean immobilization test (Artemia salina and Daphnia magna), development and adult survival tests on Hydra attenuata, embryotoxicity and metamorphosis tests on Crassostrea gigas, and in vitro assays on primary cultures of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The results showed high inter-species variability in EC50-values ranging from 43 to 15,600 µg/L for fluoxetine, from 67 to 4,400 µg/L for sertraline, and from 4.70 µg/L to more than 100,000 µg/L for clomipramine. Algae (S. marinoi and P. subcapitata) and the embryo-larval stages of the oyster C. gigas were the most sensitive taxa. This raises an issue due to their ecological and/or economic importance. The marine crustacean A. salina was the least sensitive species. This difference in sensitivity between bioassays highlights the importance of using a test battery.

  10. An evaluation of the effectiveness of utilizing bioassays in the assessment of contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, R.; Carter, J.; Tay, K.L.; Doe, K.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the battery of biological tests recommended by Environment Canada in the document ``A Review of Whole Organism Bioassays for Assessing the Quality of Soil, Freshwater Sediment and Freshwater in Canada`` for the assessment of contaminated sites. Soil and sediment samples were collected from three contaminated sites in the Atlantic Region and subjected to biological and chemical tests. Four bioassays were conducted on the soil samples: lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence, algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) population growth inhibition, earthworm (Eisenia andrel) survival and inhibition of light output in Microtox (Vibrio fischeri). Soil samples collected from Makinsons, Newfoundland had elevated levels of PCBs, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and heavy metals and showed some toxicity in the algal population growth inhibition test. Samples from the Weldon, New Brunswick site were high in TPH and were marginally toxic to Microtox and lettuce seedlings. The earthworm survival test did not appear sensitive to any of the contaminated soil samples. Freshwater sediment samples, collected from Five Island Lake, Nova Scotia had elevated PCB and heavy metal concentrations. These samples underwent four biological tests: midge (Chironomus tentans) survival, amphipod (Hyalella azteca) survival, algal population growth inhibition and Microtox. At 100% concentration, the sediment was toxic to the first three species, with toxicities ranging from marginal to high. For all samples, the bioassay results were compared to chemical analyses and, in most cases, there was a positive correlation between contaminant concentrations and toxicity.

  11. Fast and sensitive optical toxicity bioassay based on dual wavelength analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Vila, F; Vigués, N; Díaz-González, M; Muñoz-Berbel, X; Mas, J

    2015-05-15

    Global urban and industrial growth, with the associated environmental contamination, is promoting the development of rapid and inexpensive general toxicity methods. Current microbial methodologies for general toxicity determination rely on either bioluminescent bacteria and specific medium solution (i.e. Microtox(®)) or low sensitivity and diffusion limited protocols (i.e. amperometric microbial respirometry). In this work, fast and sensitive optical toxicity bioassay based on dual wavelength analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction kinetics is presented, using Escherichia coli as a bacterial model. Ferricyanide reduction kinetic analysis (variation of ferricyanide absorption with time), much more sensitive than single absorbance measurements, allowed for direct and fast toxicity determination without pre-incubation steps (assay time=10 min) and minimizing biomass interference. Dual wavelength analysis at 405 (ferricyanide and biomass) and 550 nm (biomass), allowed for ferricyanide monitoring without interference of biomass scattering. On the other hand, refractive index (RI) matching with saccharose reduced bacterial light scattering around 50%, expanding the analytical linear range in the determination of absorbent molecules. With this method, different toxicants such as metals and organic compounds were analyzed with good sensitivities. Half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) obtained after 10 min bioassay, 2.9, 1.0, 0.7 and 18.3 mg L(-1) for copper, zinc, acetic acid and 2-phenylethanol respectively, were in agreement with previously reported values for longer bioassays (around 60 min). This method represents a promising alternative for fast and sensitive water toxicity monitoring, opening the possibility of quick in situ analysis.

  12. Laboratory bioassays of vegetable oils as kairomonal phagostimulants for grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Latchininsky, Alexandre V; Schell, Scott P; Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2007-10-01

    Vegetable oils have kairomonal attractant properties to grasshoppers primarily due to the presence of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids. These fatty acids are dietary essentials for grasshoppers and, once volatilized, can be detected by the insects' olfactory receptors. A laboratory bioassay method has been developed to identify vegetable oils that have fatty acid profiles similar to grasshoppers and that induce grasshopper attraction and feeding. Such oils could be useful kairomonal adjuvants and/or carriers for acridicide formulations. Three sets of laboratory bioassays demonstrated that the addition of a standard aliquot of different vegetable oils resulted in varying degrees of grasshopper feeding on otherwise neutral substrates. Addition of olive oil stimulated the greatest feeding in all three sets of assays, regardless of the age of the tested insects. Furthermore, addition of canola or flax oils markedly enhanced grasshopper feeding. These three oils--i.e., olive, canola, and flax oil--proved to be the best performing grasshopper stimulants. A second group of oils included rapeseed-flax mix and rapeseed oils; however, their performance was not as consistent as oils in the first group--especially with regard to nymphal feeding. A third group of oils consisted of soybean, corn, peanut, and sunflower oil. Theoretical expectations regarding these oils varied wildly, suggesting that the results of a single bioassay should be cautiously interpreted as being negative.

  13. DSSTOX NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM BIOASSAY ON-LINE DATABASE STRUCTURE-INDEX LOCATOR FILE: SDF FILE AND DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    NTPBSI: National Toxicology Program Bioassay On-line Database Structure-Index Locator File. Database contains the results collected on approxiately 300 toxicity studies from shorter duration test and from genetic toxicity studies, both in vitro and in vivo tests.

  14. DSSTOX NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM BIOASSAY ON-LINE DATABASE STRUCTURE-INDEX LOCATOR FILE: SDF FILE AND DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    NTPBSI: National Toxicology Program Bioassay On-line Database Structure-Index Locator File. Database contains the results collected on approxiately 300 toxicity studies from shorter duration test and from genetic toxicity studies, both in vitro and in vivo tests.

  15. Laboratory Bioassays with Three Different Substrates to Test the Efficacy of Insecticides against Various Stages of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Aneliya Koleva; Dahlmann, Melanie; Hauck, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Rapid worldwide spread and polyphagous nature of the spotted wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) calls for efficient and selective control strategies to prevent severe economic losses in various fruit crops. The use of insecticides is one option for management of this invasive pest insect. Efficacy of insecticides is usually assessed first in laboratory bioassays, which are compounded by the cryptic nature of D. suzukii larvae and the fact that fruits used in bioassays often start to rot and dissolve before larvae have reached the adult stage. Here, we report on laboratory bioassays using three different types of substrates allowing a thorough screening of insecticides for their potential effects against D. suzukii eggs, larvae and adults. Suitability of our bioassays was validated in an assessment of the efficacy of four bioinsecticides and one synthetic insecticide against various developmental stages of D. suzukii. Water-apple juice agar used as a bioassay substrate allowed egg counting and observation of larval development due to its transparency, while apple-nutrition medium allowed complete metamorphosis. Use of grape berries in bioassays made it possible to assess effects of an insecticide present on a fruit’s surface on oviposition and larval hatch from eggs. Insecticides tested in these three different bioassays with acetamiprid, spinosad or natural pyrethrins as active ingredients achieved a significant D. suzukii control if they were applied before egg deposition. Number of adult flies was significantly reduced if the bioassay medium was treated with an azadirachtin A containing insecticide both before or after egg deposition. PMID:28042104

  16. Laboratory Bioassays with Three Different Substrates to Test the Efficacy of Insecticides against Various Stages of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Aneliya Koleva; Dahlmann, Melanie; Hauck, Mirjam; Reineke, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Rapid worldwide spread and polyphagous nature of the spotted wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) calls for efficient and selective control strategies to prevent severe economic losses in various fruit crops. The use of insecticides is one option for management of this invasive pest insect. Efficacy of insecticides is usually assessed first in laboratory bioassays, which are compounded by the cryptic nature of D. suzukii larvae and the fact that fruits used in bioassays often start to rot and dissolve before larvae have reached the adult stage. Here, we report on laboratory bioassays using three different types of substrates allowing a thorough screening of insecticides for their potential effects against D. suzukii eggs, larvae and adults. Suitability of our bioassays was validated in an assessment of the efficacy of four bioinsecticides and one synthetic insecticide against various developmental stages of D. suzukii Water-apple juice agar used as a bioassay substrate allowed egg counting and observation of larval development due to its transparency, while apple-nutrition medium allowed complete metamorphosis. Use of grape berries in bioassays made it possible to assess effects of an insecticide present on a fruit's surface on oviposition and larval hatch from eggs. Insecticides tested in these three different bioassays with acetamiprid, spinosad or natural pyrethrins as active ingredients achieved a significant D. suzukii control if they were applied before egg deposition. Number of adult flies was significantly reduced if the bioassay medium was treated with an azadirachtin A containing insecticide both before or after egg deposition. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. The H4IIE cell bioassay as an indicator of dioxin-like chemicals in wildlife and the environment.

    PubMed

    Whyte, J J; Schmitt, C J; Tillitt, D E

    2004-01-01

    The H4IIE cell bioassay has proven utility as a screening tool for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs) and structurally similar chemicals accumulated in organisms from the wild. This bioassay has additional applications in hazard assessment of PHH exposed populations. In this review, the toxicological principles, current protocols, performance criteria, and field applications for the assay are described. The H4IIE cell bioassay has several advantages over the analytical measurement of PHHs in environmental samples, but conclusions from studies can be strengthened when both bioassay and analytical chemistry data are presented together. Often, the bioassay results concur with biological effects in organisms and support direct measures of PHHs. For biomonitoring purposes and prioritization of PHH-contaminated environments, the H4IIE bioassay may be faster and less expensive than analytical measurements. The H4IIE cell bioassay can be used in combination with other biomarkers such as in vivo measurements of CYP1A1 induction to help pinpoint the sources and identities of dioxin-like chemicals. The number of studies that measure H4IIE-derived TCDD-EQs continues to increase, resulting in subtle improvements over time. Further experiments are required to determine if TCDD-EQs derived from mammalian cells are adequate predictors of toxicity to non-mammalian species. The H4IIE cell bioassay has been used in over 300 published studies, and its combination of speed, simplicity, and ability to integrate the effects of complex contaminant mixtures makes it a valuable addition to hazard assessment and biomonitoring studies.

  18. The H4IIE cell bioassay as an indicator of dioxin-like chemicals in wildlife and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.J.; Schmitt, C. J.; Tillitt, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    The H4IIE cell bioassay has proven utility as a screening tool for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs) and structurally similar chemicals accumulated in organisms from the wild. This bioassay has additional applications in hazard assessment of PHH exposed populations. In this review, the toxicological principles, current protocols, performance criteria, and field applications for the assay are described. The H4IIE cell bioassay has several advantages over the analytical measurement of PHHs in environmental samples, but conclusions from studies can be strengthened when both bioassay and analytical chemistry data are presented together. Often, the bioassay results concur with biological effects in organisms and support direct measures of PHHs. For biomonitoring purposes and prioritization of PHH-contaminated environments, the H4IIE bioassay may be faster and less expensive than analytical measurements. The H4IIE cell bioassay can be used in combination with other biomarkers such as in vivo measurements of CYP1A1 induction to help pinpoint the sources and identities of dioxin-like chemicals. The number of studies that measure H4IIE-derived TCDD-EQs continues to increase, resulting in subtle improvements over time. Further experiments are required to determine if TCDD-EQs derived from mammalian cells are adequate predictors of toxicity to non-mammalian species. The H4IIE cell bioassay has been used in over 300 published studies, and its combination of speed, simplicity, and ability to integrate the effects of complex containment mixtures makes it a valuable addition to hazard assessment and biomonitoring studies.

  19. Rapid End-Point Quantitation of Prion Seeding Activity with Sensitivity Comparable to Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Wilham, Jason M.; Orrú, Christina D.; Bessen, Richard A.; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Sano, Kazunori; Race, Brent; Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Taubner, Lara M.; Timmes, Andrew; Caughey, Byron

    2010-01-01

    A major problem for the effective diagnosis and management of prion diseases is the lack of rapid high-throughput assays to measure low levels of prions. Such measurements have typically required prolonged bioassays in animals. Highly sensitive, but generally non-quantitative, prion detection methods have been developed based on prions' ability to seed the conversion of normally soluble protease-sensitive forms of prion protein to protease-resistant and/or amyloid fibrillar forms. Here we describe an approach for estimating the relative amount of prions using a new prion seeding assay called real-time quaking induced conversion assay (RT-QuIC). The underlying reaction blends aspects of the previously described quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) and amyloid seeding assay (ASA) methods and involves prion-seeded conversion of the alpha helix-rich form of bacterially expressed recombinant PrPC to a beta sheet-rich amyloid fibrillar form. The RT-QuIC is as sensitive as the animal bioassay, but can be accomplished in 2 days or less. Analogous to end-point dilution animal bioassays, this approach involves testing of serial dilutions of samples and statistically estimating the seeding dose (SD) giving positive responses in 50% of replicate reactions (SD50). Brain tissue from 263K scrapie-affected hamsters gave SD50 values of 1011-1012/g, making the RT-QuIC similar in sensitivity to end-point dilution bioassays. Analysis of bioassay-positive nasal lavages from hamsters affected with transmissible mink encephalopathy gave SD50 values of 103.5–105.7/ml, showing that nasal cavities release substantial prion infectivity that can be rapidly detected. Cerebral spinal fluid from 263K scrapie-affected hamsters contained prion SD50 values of 102.0–102.9/ml. RT-QuIC assay also discriminated deer chronic wasting disease and sheep scrapie brain samples from normal control samples. In principle, end-point dilution quantitation can be applied to many types of prion and amyloid seeding

  20. Flow-through bioassay for measuring bioaccumulation of toxic substances from sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Sayers, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    Over 10 million cubic meters of sediment are dredged annually from Great Lakes waterways. Because much of this material is taken from harbors, connecting channels, and other nearshore areas that often are contaminated with toxic substances, the sediments proposed for dredging need to be evaluated for the presence of bioavailable contaminants and the potential for toxicity to the biota. Sound decisions on the appropriate disposal of the dredged material can be made only after such an evaluation. Presently, no standardized procedure exists for evaluating dredged material in freshwater systems although current criteria for discharge of dredged material into marine water have been developed (USEPA/CE 1977). In the ocean discharge guideline, it is recommended that bioassays be conducted on liquid, solid, and suspended particulate phases of dredged material. because it appears that the solid phase has the greatest potential for environmental damage and because measurement of bioaccumulation must be made to evaluate sediments for disposal (USEPA/CE 1977, Seeyle and Mac 1983), we developed a bioassay for testing the solid phase of dredged material that measures the survival of organisms and, perhaps more important, the bioaccumulation of toxic substances by aquatic organisms from naturally contaminated sediments (Peddicord et al. 1980; Rubinstein et al. 1980, 1983; Seeyle st al. 1982), several have used testing methods that result in unacceptable mortality to control organisms (Bahnick et al. 1981, Prater et al. 1983). Our bioassay is intended to estimate the potential for bioaccumlation of contaminants from sediments that are not acutely toxic to test organisms, but are suspected of containing persistent contaminants. By using test organisms that are not highly susceptible to toxic compounds, the bioaccumulation test allows estimation of the potential food-chain accumulation of contaminants that may occur in local biota from surficial sediments. In practice

  1. Resource Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

    The series of "Resource Inventories" is designed to encourage wider use of available information and services in the field of special education technology. A resource inventory is provided for each of 46 states of the United States. Each inventory includes directory information on public and private agencies and organizations that offer…

  2. Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiestand, M. Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of learning about diabetes and provides a list of ways to obtain this information. Different resources include videos, internet sites, books, cookbooks, and magazines. Provides a detailed list of each of the previous resources and recommends that people with or without diabetes make a concerted effort to educate…

  3. Rethinking Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  4. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  5. Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID PROCEDURE TO ANALYSE Pu, Am AND 90Sr IN EMERGENCY URINE BIOASSAY IN CIEMAT BIOELIMINATION LABORATORY: METHOD VALIDATION BY EMERGENCY BIOASSAY INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISES.

    PubMed

    Sierra, I; Hernández, C

    2016-09-01

    After a radiological or nuclear incident, it is necessary to give a prompt response and to know the number of persons exposed to internal contamination, to evaluate the contamination levels in each person and even and to identify the radionuclides involved. In vitro laboratories routine monitoring measurements employed to quantify (90)Sr and actinides in urine require radiochemical separation and long counting time, which implies a minimum of 1 or 2 weeks to obtain the results, respectively. In this work, rapid radiochemical separation method applied directly to urine samples is presented. It is based on minimal sample preparation, without co-precipitation phase, using extraction resin columns and vacuum box technology. Pu isotopes and (241)Am are isolated, electrodeposited and measured by alpha spectrometry, whereas (90)Sr is measured by liquid scintillation counting. Finally, results of the participation in European Radiation Dosimetry Group intercomparison on Emergency Bioassay exercise and Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz exercise validate the accuracy of this procedure.

  7. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources.

  8. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  9. Arthritis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  10. Diabetes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  11. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  12. Hemophilia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  13. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  14. Forest Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  15. Quantitative bioassays for measuring biologically functional gonadotropins based on eel gonadotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Y; Dirks, R P; de Wijze, D L; Brittijn, S A; Burgerhout, E; Spaink, H P; van den Thillart, G E E J M

    2012-08-01

    Significant declines in eel stocks have been noted in many parts of the world. Because eel aquaculture is dependent on wild-caught juveniles, there is a need to achieve artificial reproduction. Adult eel maturation is currently induced by repeated injections of purified gonadotropin (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG]) or pituitary extract. Thus the determination of the biological efficacy and quantification of internal levels of gonadotropic hormones is important for optimizing artificial reproduction protocols. To quantify the plasma levels of biologically functional gonadotropic hormones, we developed a bioassay for luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) based on the stable expression of receptors in HEK293 cells of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica LH (ajLHR) and the European eel Anguilla anguilla FSH (aaFSHR), respectively. Such cells also contain a firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by a cAMP-responsive element (CRE-Luc). We found that the obtained stable cells, with ajLHR, responded linearly to a more than 100,000-fold concentration range of hCG diluted in saline. The cells with aaFSHR showed a linear response to a 1000-fold concentration range of salmon pituitary extract mixed with saline. The biological functionality of the LH and FSH bioassays was validated using hCG, human FSH, and pituitary extracts from salmon, carp and eel. Since the toxins in eel plasma damaged the HEK293 cells, the protocol was adapted to selectively inactivate the toxins by heating at 37°C for 24h. This process successfully enabled the monitoring of hormone levels in blood plasma sampled from hCG-injected eels. In this paper, we describe the development of gonadotropin bioassays that will be useful for improving reproduction protocols in eel aquaculture.

  16. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

  17. Predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals in humans from rodent bioassay data

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, G. School of Public Health, Boston, MA ); Wilson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    Regulatory agencies currently rely on rodent carcinogenicity bioassay data to predict whether or not a given chemical poses a carcinogenic threat to humans. The authors argue that it is always more useful to know a chemical's carcinogenic potency (with confidence limits) than to be able to say only qualitatively that it has been found to be a carcinogen. In a typical bioassay, a chemical is administered to groups of 50 to 100 rodents at the highest feasible level (the maximum tolerated dose) and rarely at less than 1/10 this dose in order to maximize the statistical significance of any increase in tumors that might result. Recently, much experimental work has focused on the mechanisms by which site-specific toxicity arising from chronic administration at the maximum tolerated dose may lead to carcinogenicity. Extrapolation of high-dose results to low dose does not take into consideration the possibility of a threshold dose, below which the carcinogenic potency is much lower or even zero. Threshold dose-response phenomena may be much more relevant to the etiology of cancer in the rodent bioassays than was earlier realized; if so, there is an even greater need for establishing dose-dependent potency estimates. The emphasis of this review is in the interspecies comparison of high-dose potencies. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of carcinogenicities between mice and rats and between rodents and humans is reviewed and discussed. They conclude that there is a good qualitative (yes/no) correlation for both the rat/mouse and the rodent/human comparison.

  18. Application of a lux-based bioassay to assess soil toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, G.I. |; Campbell, C.D.; Rattray, E.A.S.; Glover, L.A.; Killham, K.

    1995-12-31

    The expression of prokaryotic bioluminescence is linked with cell metabolism and accordingly bioassays have been developed using naturally bioluminescent bacteria to assess ecotoxicity. Advances in biotechnology have allowed the isolation of the lux genes (responsible for bioluminescence) from marine organisms and their insertion into terrestrial bacteria. This has enabled the use of ecologically relevant bacteria to assess toxicity by measuring bioluminescence response in the presence of toxins. The lux genes were inserted into Pseudomonas fluorescens and Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii as a multi-copy plasmid and also integrated into the chromosome. It was found that in aqueous solutions the plasmid constructs were more sensitive than the chromosomal constructs to a range of toxins. The order of toxicity for Ps. fluorescens was Zn = Cu > Cd > Ni > Cr > DCP and for R. trifolii Zn > Cu > Cd > DCP > Cr. The lux based bioassays were more reproducible and sensitive than ATP and dehydrogenase assays and offered greater sensitivity than Photobacterium phosphoreum assays to assess toxicity of inorganic pollutants. Extracts from 4 soil types were spiked with a range of toxins and when EC{sub 50} values were determined it was shown that toxicity was related to soil characteristics. This enabled the assay to be used to assess the Lee Valley soil experiment which represents an important international study of the effect of the application of contaminated sewage to land. High metal application rates had been shown to have serious implications for soil ecology. Chemical analysis, carried out 26 years after sewage addition confirmed that soil extracts still had increased metal concentrations. The lux-based bioassays, which proved to be rapid, reproducible and sensitive confirmed that the metals were still biologically available and hence toxic.

  19. Bioassay of prostacyclin and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from porcine aortic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gryglewski, RJ; Moncada, S; Palmer, RMJ

    1997-01-01

    A cascade superfusion technique has been developed for the differential bioassay of prostacyclin and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) released from porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured on microcarriers, packed into a column and perfused. Bradykinin (Bk; 20–100 Nm) released prostacyclin (9.6 ± 1.5 Nm per 106 cells; mean ± s.e.mean, n = 9) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 2.1 ± 0.6 Nm per 10° cells) from the column measured by relaxation of strips of bovine coronary artery (BCA) and rabbit mesenteric or coeliac artery, respectively. The presence of these prostanoids in the effluent was confirmed by specific radioimmunoassays. A23187 (500–2000 Nm) also released both prostacyclin and PGE2 from the cells. This release was long-lasting and not reproducible. Bk (20–100 Nm) and A23187 (30–300 Nm) released EDRF from the column. This was detected in a cascade of four rabbit aortic strips (RbA), denuded of endothelium and contracted with U46619 or phenylephrine. The relaxation of the RbA strips caused by EDRF was progressively attenuated down the cascade (half-life < 7 s) and was not affected by indomethacin. EDRF and prostacyclin could be differentially bioassayed in a cascade of alternating RbAs and BCAs as prostacyclin did not relax RbAs and the time delay to the BCAs destroys EDRF. EDRF could be bioassayed on its own when the endothelial cells were treated with indomethacin. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 0.2, noradrenaline 1.0, platelet-activating factor (Paf-acether) 1.0, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine 1.0, acetylcholine 0.5, bethanecol 0.5, adenosine diphosphate 0.25 and angiotensin II 0.1 μm did not release either prostanoids or EDRF from the column. PMID:9142426

  20. Novel chimeric thyroid-stimulating hormone-receptor bioassay for thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Lytton, S D; Li, Y; Olivo, P D; Kohn, L D; Kahaly, G J

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) are a functional biomarker of Graves' disease (GD). To develop a novel TSI bioassay, a cell line (MC4-CHO-Luc) was bio-engineered to constitutively express a chimeric TSH receptor (TSHR) and constructed with a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent luciferase reporter gene that enables TSI quantification. Data presented as percentage of specimen-to-reference ratio (SRR%) were obtained from 271 patients with various autoimmune and thyroid diseases and 180 controls. Sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 99% for untreated GD were attained by receiver operating characteristic analysis, area under the curve 0·989, 95% confidence interval 0·969–0·999, P = 0·0001. Precision testing of manufactured reagents of high, medium, low and negative SRR% gave a percentage of coefficient-of-variation of 11·5%, 12·8%, 14·5% and 15·7%, respectively. There was no observed interference by haemoglobin, lipids and bilirubin and no non-specific stimulation by various hormones at and above physiological concentrations. TSI levels from GD patients without (SRR% 406 ± 134, mean ± standard deviation) or under anti-thyroid treatment (173 ± 147) were higher (P < 0·0001) compared with TSI levels of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (51 ± 37), autoimmune diseases without GD (24 ± 10), thyroid nodules (30 ± 26) and controls (35 ± 18). The bioassay showed greater sensitivity when compared with anti-TSHR binding assays. In conclusion, the TSI-Mc4 bioassay measures the functional biomarker accurately in GD with a standardized protocol and could improve substantially the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases involving TSHR autoantibodies. PMID:21070207

  1. Gemifloxacin mesylate (GFM) stability evaluation applying a validated bioassay method and in vitro cytotoxic study.

    PubMed

    Paim, Clésio S; Führ, Fernanda; Barth, Aline B; Gonçalves, Carlos E I; Nardi, Nance; Steppe, Martin; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2011-02-15

    The validation of a microbiological assay applying the cylinder-plate method to determine the quinolone gemifloxacin mesylate (GFM) content is described. Using a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 as the test organism, the GFM content in tablets at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 μg mL(-1) could be determined. A standard curve was obtained by plotting three values derived from the diameters of the growth inhibition zone. A prospective validation showed that the method developed is linear (r=0.9966), precise (repeatability and intermediate precision), accurate (100.63%), specific and robust. GFM solutions (from the drug product) exposed to direct UVA radiation (352 nm), alkaline hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis, thermal stress, hydrogen peroxide causing oxidation, and a synthetic impurity were used to evaluate the specificity of the bioassay. The bioassay and the previously validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method were compared using Student's t test, which indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between these two validated methods. These studies demonstrate the validity of the proposed bioassay, which allows reliable quantification of GFM in tablets and can be used as a useful alternative methodology for GFM analysis in stability studies and routine quality control. The GFM reference standard (RS), photodegraded GFM RS, and synthetic impurity samples were also studied in order to determine the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results indicated that the GFM RS and photodegraded GFM RS were potentially more cytotoxic than the synthetic impurity under the conditions of analysis applied. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparisons of laboratory bioassays and a whole-lake experiment: Rotifer responses to experimental acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Frost, T.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors test whether data from laboratory bioassays can be used to predict zooplankton responses during a whole-lake experiment using two rotifers, Keratella cochlearis and Keratella taurocephala. The acidification experiment was conducted in Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin, USA, which was divided into a reference basin maintained at a natural pH near 6.1 and a treatment basin which was acidified in 2-yr stages to pH values of 5.6, 5.2, and 4.7. Laboratory assays examined the effect of pH on reproduction under varied food conditions and survivorship without food. In the lake, the two rotifers showed strong and opposite responses to acidification: K. cochlearis decreased in abundance while K. taurocephala increased. In the laboratory bioassays, neither species was sensitive to pH when food conditions yielded high reproductive rates. When food was limited, K. cochlearis exhibited lower survivorship and a trend towards lower reproductive rates at lower pH. With limited food, K. taurocephala survivorship was either unaffected by pH or higher at high pH and its reproduction was slightly higher at intermediate pH. In situ experiments revealed that food conditions in the treatment basin lowered reproduction by K. cochlearis, indicating that a combined effect of food and pH caused its population decline. Neither food nor pH could explain the increase in K. taurocephala, which appeared to be linked to a reduction in its predators at lower pH. Overall, the analyses revealed substantial discrepancies between laboratory bioassays and in-lake responses. This was particularly the case for K. taurocephala, for which assays predicted no changes or a decline in abundance rather than the marked increase that actually occurred. The results suggest that caution should be used in extending results from laboratory assays to natural ecosystems.

  3. Importance of equilibration time in the partitioning and toxicity of zinc in spiked sediment bioassays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Luoma, S.N.; Yoo, H.

    2004-01-01

    The influences of spiked Zn concentrations (1-40 ??mol/g) and equilibration time (???95 d) on the partitioning of Zn between pore water (PW) and sediment were evaluated with estuarine sediments containing two levels (5 and 15 ??mol/g) of acid volatile sulfides (AVS). Their influence on Zn bioavailability was also evaluated by a parallel, 10-d amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) mortality test at 5, 20, and 85 d of equilibration. During the equilibration, AVS increased (up to twofold) with spiked Zn concentration ([Zn]), whereas Zn-simultaneously extracted metals ([SEM]; Zn with AVS) remained relatively constant. Concentrations of Zn in PW decreased most rapidly during the initial 30 d and by 11- to 23-fold during the whole 95-d equilibration period. The apparent partitioning coefficient (Kpw, ratio of [Zn] in SEM to PW) increased by 10- to 20-fold with time and decreased with spiked [Zn] in sediments. The decrease of PW [Zn] could be explained by a combination of changes in AVS and redistribution of Zn into more insoluble phases as the sediment aged. Amphipod mortality decreased significantly with the equilibration time, consistent with decrease in dissolved [Zn]. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value (33 ??M) in the second bioassay, conducted after 20 d of equilibration, was twofold the LC50 in the initial bioassay at 5 d of equilibration, probably because of the change of dissolved Zn speciation. Sediment bioassay protocols employing a short equilibration time and high spiked metal concentrations could accentuate partitioning of metals to the dissolved phase and shift the pathway for metal exposure toward the dissolved phase.

  4. Determination of the androgenic potency of whole effluents using mosquitofish and trout bioassays.

    PubMed

    Bandelj, E; van den Heuvel, M R; Leusch, F D L; Shannon, N; Taylor, S; McCarthy, L H

    2006-12-01

    This study combined bioassay-derived and direct chemical analysis of steroidal compounds in pulp and paper and municipal sewage effluent in order to determine the cause of masculinization of female mosquitofish. The bioassays used in this study consisted of androgen and estrogen receptor binding, and aromatase inhibition using tissues from rainbow trout. This study observed no masculinization of female mosquitofish from a pulp and paper mill effluent that was previously observed to cause this effect. Mosquitofish sampled from the receiving environment of the same mill verified that masculinization was not occurring in the wild. The municipal sewage effluent also had no masculinizing effect. In vitro bioassays indicated significant sources of both androgens and estrogens in the effluents tested with sewage effluent having both the highest estradiol (41 ng/L) and testosterone (182 ng/L) equivalent concentration. These results could not be attributed to any particular compounds measured in the effluents. Two compounds implicated in the masculinization of mosquitofish by pulp and paper effluent, androstenedione and androstadienedione required relatively large (10-100 microg/L) waterborne concentrations to elicit a masculinizing effect and neither of these compounds are likely to occur at levels this high in the natural environment. The potent aromatase inhibitor, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione also did not cause masculinization at 100 microg/L indicating that masculinization did not occur through this mechanism. The mammalian anti-androgen, cyproterone acetate was only partially effective in mosquitofish and reduced the severity of masculinization in the presence of methyl testosterone. While neither effluent masculinized mosquitofish, there was a significant reduction of in vitro ovarian steroid production with the most severe effects observed with the sewage effluent. Overall, this study found the disappearance of a masculinizing effect that had been previously observed

  5. Development of marine sediment bioassays and toxicity tests for monitoring and regulation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Thain, J.; Matthiessen, P.

    1995-12-31

    There is a need in Europe and elsewhere for a broad suite of whole-sediment bioassays and toxicity tests which can be used for routine monitoring and assessment of the marine environment and for evaluating the toxic effects of chemicals which may find their way into sediments. Until recently, few European species had been incorporated into such tests but the availability of suitable methodologies is now increasing rapidly. Perhaps the most important recent activity in this area consisted of an international ring test of acute sediment toxicity test methods which was organized by the Oslo and Paris Commissions in 1993, using up to 4 offshore chemicals as test materials. It evaluated the performance of 4 acute (5--10 day) tests involving: the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum, the bivalve mollusc Abra alba, the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina. The ring test concluded that the C. volutator test was the most appropriate for evaluating offshore chemicals, but all these methods are now widely used in Europe, both as toxicity tests and as bioassays. For example, the A. marina procedure (which has both lethal and sublethal endpoints), in combination with the C. volutator method, is now routinely used in the UK for monitoring the toxicity of estuarine sediments. Further activities are in progress. Perhaps the most important is the development of chronic marine sediment tests and bioassays which can be used to assess the long-term effects of the many sedimentary contaminants which are able to persist in this type of habitat and possibly cause delayed effects on the growth and reproduction, etc. of benthic fauna.

  6. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alex M; Bunin, Barry A; Litterman, Nadia K; Schürer, Stephan C; Visser, Ubbo

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers.

  7. Bioassay methods for detection of N-palmitoylbrevetoxin-B2 (BTX-B4).

    PubMed

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Fuquay, Jennifer Maucher; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Miles, Christopher O; Loader, Jared I; Wilkins, Alistair L; Ramsdell, John S

    2010-01-01

    Brevetoxins (BTXs) are a class of cyclic polyether toxins produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. These substances are subject to extensive conjugative metabolism in shellfish. BTX-B forms a conjugate with cysteine and is oxidized and reduced to yield BTX-B2, which is further modified by fatty acid addition via cysteine amide linkage to give biologically active brevetoxin metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the commonly used in vitro (ELISA, radioimmunoassay, receptor binding assay and N2A cytotoxicity assay) and in vivo mouse brevetoxin bioassays for the detection of the brevetoxin fatty acid conjugate N-palmitoylBTX-B2, and compared the results to those for dihydroBTX-B and BTX-B2. The receptor binding assay for N-palmitoylBTX-B2 showed comparable sensitivity to that for dihydroBTX-B, and an 11-fold higher sensitivity than for BTX-B2. Although the ELISA showed similarly high sensitivity to dihydroBTX-B and BTX-B2, with EC(50) values of ca. 0.26 ng/ml, it was 23 times less sensitive to N-palmitoylBTX-B2. On the other hand, the N2A cytotoxicity assay was highly sensitive to N-palmitoylBTX-B2, with an EC(50) of 0.15 ng/ml, but was 12- and 40-fold less sensitive to dihydroBTX-B and BTX-B2, respectively. The relative sensitivity of the N2A cytotoxicity assay for each of these metabolites paralleled that of the mouse bioassay (relative LD(50) values 1:20:30 for N-palmitoylBTX-B2:dihydroBTX-B:BTX-B2). We conclude that the most sensitive bioassay for dihydroBTX-B and BTX-B2 is the ELISA, whereas the N2A cytotoxicity assay is most sensitive for N-palmitoylBTX-B2.

  8. Neonatal mouse assay for tumorigenicity: alternative to the chronic rodent bioassay.

    PubMed

    Flammang, T J; Tungeln, L S; Kadlubar, F F; Fu, P P

    1997-10-01

    The chronic rodent bioassay for tumors has been utilized systematically for 25 years to identify chemicals with carcinogenic potential in man. In general, those chemicals exhibiting tumorigenicity at multiple sites in both mice and rats have been regarded as possessing strong carcinogenic potential in humans. In comparison, the value of data collected for those test chemicals exhibiting more sporadic tumorigenicity results (e.g., single species/single sex or dose-independent) has been questioned. As knowledge of the carcinogenic process has increased, several alternative test systems, usually faster and less expensive than the 2-year bioassay, have been suggested for identification of the strongly acting, transspecies carcinogens. The International Conference on Harmonization for Technical Requirements for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use has proposed an international standard that allows for the use of one long-term rodent carcinogenicity study, plus one supplementary study to identify potential human pharmaceutical carcinogens. The neonatal mouse assay for tumorigenicity has been used since 1959; however, relative to other alternate tests, little has been written about this system. It is clear that this assay system successfully identifies transspecies carcinogens from numerous chemical classes, thus recommending itself as a strong candidate for a supplementary study to identify potential human carcinogens. In contrast, there are decidedly less data available from this assay in response to pharmaceuticals shown to exhibit weak and/or conflicting results in the 2-year bioassay, knowledge invaluable to the regulatory process. This paper reviews the historical development and our experience with the neonatal mouse assay and includes suggestions for a standardized protocol and strategies to document its response to "weak" and/or "nongenotoxic" carcinogens.

  9. Bioassay of prion-infected blood plasma in PrP transgenic Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Thackray, Alana M; Andreoletti, Olivier; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2016-12-01

    In pursuit of a tractable bioassay to assess blood prion infectivity, we have generated prion protein (PrP) transgenic Drosophila, which show a neurotoxic phenotype in adulthood after exposure to exogenous prions at the larval stage. Here, we determined the sensitivity of ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila to ovine prion infectivity by exposure of these flies to a dilution series of scrapie-infected sheep brain homogenate. Ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila showed a significant neurotoxic response to dilutions of 10(-2) to 10(-10) of the original scrapie-infected sheep brain homogenate. Significantly, we determined that this prion-induced neurotoxic response in ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila was transmissible to ovine PrP transgenic mice, which is indicative of authentic mammalian prion detection by these flies. As a consequence, we considered that PrP transgenic Drosophila were sufficiently sensitive to exogenous mammalian prions to be capable of detecting prion infectivity in the blood of scrapie-infected sheep. To test this hypothesis, we exposed ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila to scrapie-infected plasma, a blood fraction notoriously difficult to assess by conventional prion bioassays. Notably, pre-clinical plasma from scrapie-infected sheep induced neurotoxicity in PrP transgenic Drosophila and this effect was more pronounced after exposure to samples collected at the clinical phase of disease. The neurotoxic phenotype in ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila induced by plasma from scrapie-infected sheep was transmissible since head homogenate from these flies caused neurotoxicity in recipient flies during fly-to-fly transmission. Our data show that PrP transgenic Drosophila can be used successfully to bioassay prion infectivity in blood from a prion-diseased mammalian host.

  10. The use of plant-based bioassays in homeopathic basic research.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Tim; Scherr, Claudia; Shah, Devika; Majewsky, Vera; Wolf, Ursula; Betti, Lucietta; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate homeopathic basic research studies that use plant-based bioassays. With this in view, a compilation was made of the findings of three systematic literature reviews covering plant-based bioassays in the three fields of healthy, abiotically, or biotically stressed plants. This compilation focused on investigations using advanced experimental methods and detailed descriptions, also with the aim of supporting the design of future experiments. Publications included had to report on studies into the effects of homeopathic preparations on whole plants, seeds, plant parts and cells. Outcomes had to be measured by established procedures and statistically evaluated. A Manuscript Information Score (MIS) was applied using predefined criteria to identify publications with sufficient information for adequate interpretation (MIS ≥ 5). Additional evaluation focused on the use of adequate controls to investigate specific effects of homeopathic preparations, and on the use of systematic negative control (SNC) experiments to ensure the stability of the bioassay. Only a fraction of the studies reported here were performed with 'ultra high' dilutions, whereas other studies were performed with moderate or high dilutions. A total of 157 publications were identified, describing a total of 167 experimental studies. 84 studies included statistics and 48 had a MIS ≥ 5, thus allowing adequate interpretation. 29 studies had adequate controls to identify specific effects of homeopathic preparations, and reported significant effects of decimal and centesimal homeopathic potencies, including dilution levels beyond Avogadro's number. 10 studies reported use of SNC experiments, yielding evidence for the stability of the experimental set-up. Plant models appear to be a useful approach for investigating basic research questions relating to homeopathic preparations, but more independent replication trials are needed in order to verify the results found in single

  11. GHSI EMERGENCY RADIONUCLIDE BIOASSAY LABORATORY NETWORK - SUMMARY OF THE SECOND EXERCISE.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Bartizel, Christine; Battisti, Paolo; Böttger, Axel; Bouvier, Céline; Capote-Cuellar, Antonio; Carr, Zhanat; Hammond, Derek; Hartmann, Martina; Heikkinen, Tarja; Jones, Robert L; Kim, Eunjoo; Ko, Raymond; Koga, Roberto; Kukhta, Boris; Mitchell, Lorna; Morhard, Ryan; Paquet, Francois; Quayle, Debora; Rulik, Petr; Sadi, Baki; Sergei, Aleksanin; Sierra, Inmaculada; de Oliveira Sousa, Wanderson; Szabό, Gyula

    2016-08-29

    The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ((90)Sr, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, and (239)Pu). Laboratories were required to submit their reports within 72 h following receipt of the sample, using a pre-formatted template, on the procedures, methods and techniques used to identify and quantify the radionuclides in the sample, as well as the bioassay results with a 95% confidence interval. All of the participating laboratories identified and measured all or some of the radionuclides in the sample. However, gaps were identified in both the procedures used to assay multiple radionuclides in one sample, as well as in the methods or techniques used to assay specific radionuclides in urine. Two-third of the participating laboratories had difficulties in determining all the radionuclides in the sample. Results from this exercise indicate that challenges remain with respect to ensuring that results are delivered in a timely, consistent and reliable manner to support medical interventions. Laboratories within the networks are encouraged to work together to develop and maintain collective capabilities and capacity for emergency bioassay, which is an important component of radiation emergency response.

  12. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, Barry A.; Litterman, Nadia K.; Schürer, Stephan C.; Visser, Ubbo

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers. PMID:25165633

  13. Evaluation of Proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Dredged Material Bioassays Using Great Lakes Sediments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    using EPA 600/4-79-020 method 220.1. The Trimmed Spearman - Karber method was used to estimate LC, values for the reference toxicant tests (Hamilton, Russo...V. (1977). "Trimmed Spearman - Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays," Environ. Sci. Technol. 11(7), 714-719...concentrations of copper, the trimmed Spearman - Karber 96-hr LC5o (95 percent C.I. (confidence interval)) estimates were 70 pg/L (40 to 110 jig/L) and 130 pg

  14. Development of an egg-white bioassay for monitoring biotin levels in urine and serum.

    PubMed

    Zarogiannis, Sotirios; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Vogiatzidis, Konstantinos; Salmas, Marios; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Molyvdas, Paschalis Adam; Lafis, Spiros

    2007-05-01

    This article reports on the development of a simple and cost-effective bioassay for the detection of biotin in urine and serum, based on the very selective binding of avidin and biotin. Avidin was allowed to react without isolating it from egg white. Egg white was treated with the dye HABA, which binds to avidin. Upon subsequent treatment with biotin, HABA is released due to the high affinity of biotin to avidin. The amount of HABA released is proportional to the amount of biotin used.

  15. Rapid prototyping of paper-based microfluidics with wax for low-cost, portable bioassay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Shi, Weiwei; Jiang, Lei; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-05-01

    Here we present a simple and low-cost production method to generate paper-based microfluidic devices with wax for portable bioassay. The wax patterning method we introduced here included three different ways: (i) painting with a wax pen, (ii) printing with an inkjet printer followed by painting with a wax pen, (iii) printing by a wax printer directly. The whole process was easy to operate and could be finished within 5-10 min without the use of a clean room, UV lamp, organic solvent, etc. Horse radish peroxidase, BSA and glucose assays were conducted to verify the performance of wax-patterned paper.

  16. Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the MicrotoxR bioassay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, G.T.; Hoke, R.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Winger, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically-adjusted distilled deionized water.

  17. Population ecology of rotifers as a bioassay tool for ecotoxicological tests in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Halbach, U; Siebert, M; Westermayer, M; Wissel, C

    1983-10-01

    The population dynamics of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus rubens were used under controlled experimental conditions as a sensitive bioassay for toxic substances in sublethal doses. Even slight reductions in organism fertility and life expectancy were reflected at the integrated level of population dynamics. Serving as bioindicators for the standard test are the population parameters "intrinsic rate of natural increase" (r), "carrying capacity" (k), "frequency" (f), and "pregnancy" of the density oscillations (p). The optimal spreading power (steepest slope of the response curves) lies at different concentration areas for each parameter, so that they can be used specifically in standard tests.

  18. Analysis of polonium-210 in food products and bioassay samples by isotope-dilution alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhichao; Wu, Zhongyu

    2009-05-01

    A rapid and reliable radiochemical method coupled with a simple and compact plating apparatus was developed, validated, and applied for the analysis of (210)Po in variety of food products and bioassay samples. The method performance characteristics, including accuracy, precision, robustness, and specificity, were evaluated along with a detailed measurement uncertainty analysis. With high Po recovery, improved energy resolution, and effective removal of interfering elements by chromatographic extraction, the overall method accuracy was determined to be better than 5% with measurement precision of 10%, at 95% confidence level.

  19. Population ecology of rotifers as a bioassay tool for ecotoxicological tests in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, U.; Siebert, M.; Westermayer, M.; Wissel, C.

    1983-10-01

    The population dynamics of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus rubens were used under controlled experimental conditions as a sensitive bioassay for toxic substances in sublethal doses. Even slight reductions in organism fertility and life expectancy were reflected at the integrated level of population dynamics. Serving as bioindicators for the standard test are the population parameters ''intrinsic rate of natural increase'' (r), ''carrying capacity'' (k), ''frequency'' (f), and ''pregnancy'' of the density oscillations (p). The optimal spreading power (steepest slope of the response curves) lies at different concentration areas for each parameter, so that they can be used specifically in standard tests.

  20. Test System Stability and Natural Variability of a Lemna Gibba L. Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Claudia; Simon, Meinhard; Spranger, Jörg; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background In ecotoxicological and environmental studies Lemna spp. are used as test organisms due to their small size, rapid predominantly vegetative reproduction, easy handling and high sensitivity to various chemicals. However, there is not much information available concerning spatial and temporal stability of experimental set-ups used for Lemna bioassays, though this is essential for interpretation and reliability of results. We therefore investigated stability and natural variability of a Lemna gibba bioassay assessing area-related and frond number-related growth rates under controlled laboratory conditions over about one year. Methology/Principal Findings Lemna gibba L. was grown in beakers with Steinberg medium for one week. Area-related and frond number-related growth rates (r(area) and r(num)) were determined with a non-destructive image processing system. To assess inter-experimental stability, 35 independent experiments were performed with 10 beakers each in the course of one year. We observed changes in growth rates by a factor of two over time. These did not correlate well with temperature or relative humidity in the growth chamber. In order to assess intra-experimental stability, we analysed six systematic negative control experiments (nontoxicant tests) with 96 replicate beakers each. Evaluation showed that the chosen experimental set-up was stable and did not produce false positive results. The coefficient of variation was lower for r(area) (2.99%) than for r(num) (4.27%). Conclusions/Significance It is hypothesised that the variations in growth rates over time under controlled conditions are partly due to endogenic periodicities in Lemna gibba. The relevance of these variations for toxicity investigations should be investigated more closely. Area-related growth rate seems to be more precise as non-destructive calculation parameter than number-related growth rate. Furthermore, we propose two new validity criteria for Lemna gibba bioassays