Science.gov

Sample records for public eso near-ir

  1. Visible and near-IR observations of transneptunian objects. Results from ESO and Calar Alto Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Birkle, K.; Hainaut, O.; Sekiguchi, T.; Vair, M.; Watanabe, J.; Rupprecht, G.; FORS Instrument Team

    2001-11-01

    We present visible (BVRI) and near-IR (JHKs) broadband photometry and visible low-dispersion spectroscopy of Transneptunian Objects (TNOs) and Centaurs. In total, 16 TNOs and 1 Centaur were observed over the past two years at ESO telescopes in La Silla and Paranal in Chile as well as at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. The sample consists of objects measured for the first time and those for which comparison data is available from literature. The targets were: 1992QB1, 1993RO, 1994EV3, 1995HM5, 1995SM55, 1996RQ20, 1996TL66, 1996TO66, 1996TP66, 1997CQ29, 1997CS29, 1998HK151, 1998TF35, 1998VG44, 1998WH24, 1998XY95, 1999TC36. The spectra of 5 TNOs (1995SM55, 1996TO66, 1997CQ29, 1997CS29, 1998HK151) show almost constant gradients over the visible wavelength range with only marginal indication for a flatter slope beyond 750-800 nm. The photometric colour gradients obtained quasi-simultaneously are in good agreement with the spectral data. This suggests that in general photometric colour gradients are a valuable diagnostic tool for spectral type classification of TNOs. The photometric study revealed a number of new objects with neutral and red colours. For re-measured objects the published broadband colours were - in general - confirmed, although a few remarkable exceptions exist. Two TNOs appear to be outlyers according to the available broadband colours: 1993EV3 and 1995HM5. 1995SM55 is the bluest TNO measured so far. No clear global correlation between V-I colour and absolute R filter brightness of our TNO targets is found. However, the data for the 5 brightest TNOs (brighter than 5 mag absolute magnitude) could also be interpreted with a linear increase of V-I colour by about 0.75 mag per brightness magnitude. The colour-colour diagrams show continuous reddening of the TNOs in V-R vs. B-V, R-I vs. B-V and R-I vs. V-R. The bimodality suggested from earlier measurements of Tegler & Romanishin (\\cite{Tegler98}) is not confirmed. According to our colour gradient

  2. Public surveys at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Hilker, Michael; Hussain, Gaitee; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rejkuba, Marina; Retzlaff, Jörg; Mieske, Steffen; Szeifert, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Leibundgut, Bruno; Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a strong mandate to survey the Southern Sky. In this article, we describe the ESO telescopes and instruments that are currently used for ESO Public Surveys, and the future plans of the community with the new wide-field-spectroscopic instruments. We summarize the ESO policies governing the management of these projects on behalf of the community. The on-going ESO Public Surveys and their science goals, their status of completion, and the new projects selected during the second ESO VISTA call in 2015/2016 are discussed. We then present the impact of these projects in terms of current numbers of refereed publications and the scientific data products published through the ESO Science Archive Facility by the survey teams, including the independent access and scientific use of the published survey data products by the astronomical community.

  3. Linking Publications and Observations: The ESO Telescope Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meakins, S.; Grothkopf, U.

    2012-09-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. In this context, the ESO Library has developed and maintains two tools: FUSE, a full-text search tool, and the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a content management system that is used to classify and annotate ESO-related scientific papers. The new public telbib interface provides faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. It is available at www.eso.org/libraries/telbib.html.

  4. Publication of science data products through the ESO archive: lessons learned and future evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retzlaff, Jörg; Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa A. R.; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Phase 3 denotes the process of preparation, submission, validation and ingestion of science data products for storage in the ESO Science Archive Facility and subsequent publication to the scientific community. In this paper we will review more than four years of Phase 3 operations at ESO and we will discuss the future evolution of the Phase 3 system.

  5. NY-ESO-1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    NY-ESO-1, official name CTAG1B, is an antigen that is expressed in normal testis and ovary and overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. The CTAG1B gene is found in a duplicated region of the X-chromosome and therefore has a neighboring gene of identical sequence. CTAG1B is expressed from 18 weeks until birth in human fetal testis. In the adult testis, is strongly expressed in spermatogonia and in primary spermatocytes, but not in post-meiotic cells or in testicular somatic cells (at protein level).

  6. Report on the ESO Workshop ''Rainbows on the Southern Sky: Science and Legacy Value of the ESO Public Surveys and Large Programmes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Leibundgut, B.; Beccari, G.

    2015-12-01

    This was the third ESO workshop on the science from Large Programmes and the second on Public Surveys. By design, this workshop covered all areas of research in observational astronomy, providing a forum for the presentation of the most recent scientific results from these programmes and fostering discussions on the planned developments enabled by large and coherent time allocations on ESO telescopes. Several aspects of the legacy value of such programmes —technological, archival content, access to data, time domain and sociological — were evaluated and set a reference for future developments of ESO services to the community.

  7. OHANA: Eta Carinae's Variability in the Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, Andrea; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Rivinius, Thomas; Rivinius

    2015-01-01

    Near-IR photometry of η Car since 1972 revealed a long-term trend towards hotter temperatures and a cycloidal behavior of its near-IR colors around periastron passages. Both effects are likely triggered by the companion. We used VLTI AMBER observations from 2004-2014 to investigate η Car's variabilities in the near-IR.

  8. The ESO-MIM Star Trek: A broadbased public oriented short interactive exhibition for an introduction to contemporary astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, O.; Miranda, F.

    2005-12-01

    In the course of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Public Relations work in Chile, we have created a permanent exhibition of astronomy for a broad section of the public in the Museo Interactivo Mirador-MIM (Interactive Museum of science, Chile), a collaboration between ESO and MIM. This Museum is mostly directed towards schoolchildren (7-14 years old), with adult visits at weekends. It is funded by public money and is unique in Chile. We decided to present the most recent questions relative to astronomy, based on pictures taken mostly at ESO observatories, and to skip the basics of astronomy that are taught at school.

  9. ESO takes the public on an astronomical journey "Around the World in 80 Telescopes"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    A live 24-hour free public video webcast, "Around the World in 80 Telescopes", will take place from 3 April 09:00 UT/GMT to 4 April 09:00 UT/GMT, chasing day and night around the globe to let viewers "visit" some of the most advanced astronomical telescopes on and off the planet. The webcast, organised by ESO for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), is the first time that so many large observatories have been linked together for a public event. ESO PR Photo 13a/09 Map of Participating Observatories ESO PR Photo 13b/09 100 Hours of Astronomy logo Viewers will see new images of the cosmos, find out what observatories in their home countries or on the other side of the planet are discovering, send in questions and messages, and discover what astronomers are doing right now. Participating telescopes include those at observatories in Chile such as ESO's Very Large Telescope and La Silla, the Hawaii-based telescopes Gemini North and Keck, the Anglo-Australian Telescope, telescopes in the Canary Islands, the Southern African Large Telescope, space-based telescopes such as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, ESA XMM-Newton and Integral, and many more. "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" will take viewers to every continent, including Antarctica! The webcast production will be hosted at ESO's headquarters near Munich, Germany, with live internet streaming by Ustream.tv. Anyone with a web browser supporting Adobe Flash will be able to follow the show, free of charge, from the website www.100hoursofastronomy.org and be a part of the project by sending messages and questions. The video player can be freely embedded on other websites. TV stations, web portals and science centres can also use the high quality feed. Representatives of the media who wish to report from the "front-line" and interview the team should get in touch. "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" is a major component of the 100 Hours of Astronomy (100HA), a Cornerstone project of the International

  10. Strong Lens Search in the ESO Public Survey KiDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Covone, G.; Roy, N.; Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Radovich, M.; Getman, F.; Capaccioli, M.; Colonna, A.; Paolillo, M.; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    We have started a systematic search for strong lens candidates in the ESO public survey KiDS based on the visual inspection of massive galaxies in the redshift range 0. 1 < z < 0. 5. As a pilot program we have inspected 100 deg2, which overlap with SDSS and where there are known lenses to use as a control sample. Taking advantage of the superb image quality of VST/OmegaCAM, the colour information and accurate model subtracted images, we have found 18 new lens candidates, for which spectroscopic confirmation will be needed to confirm their lensing nature and study the mass profile of the lensing galaxies.

  11. Near-IR imaging of occlusal dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Christopher M.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains and pigmentation. Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  12. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 - 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The highest contrast for near- IR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 - 1700 nm. These near-IR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either co-polarization or crosspolarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500-1700-nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for near-IR reflectance measurements.

  13. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  14. Filling the gap --near UV, optical and near IR extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Derck

    2014-10-01

    We propose a SNAP program to obtain STIS low resolution near-UV, optical and near-IR (G430L and G750L) spectra for a set of O7-B7 class III-V stars in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds with available IUE or HST/STIS UV spectropotometry, optical photometry and 2MASS IR photometry. Together with the existing data, the new observations will provide complete photometric and spectrophotometric coverage from 1150 to 10000 A and enable us to produce complete extinction curves from the far-UV to the near-IR, with well-determined values of R(V). The proposed set of 150 program sight lines includes the full range of interstellar extinction curve types from both the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The new data will allow us to examine variability in the near-UV through near-IR spectral regions, including the UV-optical "knee", and the "Very Broad Structure" and to verify the applicability of the near IR extinction law recently derived by Fitzpatrick and Massa (2009). We will examine the response of these features to different interstellar environments and their relationship to other curve features. These are largely unexplored aspects of the extinction curves which will provide additional constraints on the properties of interstellar grains. The curves will be derived using model atmospheres for the program stars, eliminating the need for standard stars.

  15. A Near-IR Uncaging Strategy Based on Cyanine Photochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of photocaging groups activated by near-IR light would enable new approaches for basic research and allow for spatial and temporal control of drug delivery. Here we report a near-IR light-initiated uncaging reaction sequence based on readily synthesized C4′-dialkylamine-substituted heptamethine cyanines. Phenol-containing small molecules are uncaged through sequential release of the C4′-amine and intramolecular cyclization. The release sequence is initiated by a previously unexploited photochemical reaction of the cyanine fluorophore scaffold. The uncaging process is compatible with biological milieu and is initiated with low intensity 690 nm light. We show that cell viability can be inhibited through light-dependent release of the estrogen receptor antagonist, 4-hydroxycyclofen. In addition, through uncaging of the same compound, gene expression is controlled with near-IR light in a ligand-dependent CreERT/LoxP-reporter cell line derived from transgenic mice. These studies provide a chemical foundation that we expect will enable specific delivery of small molecules using cytocompatible, tissue penetrant near-IR light. PMID:25211609

  16. A near-IR uncaging strategy based on cyanine photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Alexander P; Nani, Roger R; Zhu, Jianjian; Mackem, Susan; Schnermann, Martin J

    2014-10-08

    The development of photocaging groups activated by near-IR light would enable new approaches for basic research and allow for spatial and temporal control of drug delivery. Here we report a near-IR light-initiated uncaging reaction sequence based on readily synthesized C4'-dialkylamine-substituted heptamethine cyanines. Phenol-containing small molecules are uncaged through sequential release of the C4'-amine and intramolecular cyclization. The release sequence is initiated by a previously unexploited photochemical reaction of the cyanine fluorophore scaffold. The uncaging process is compatible with biological milieu and is initiated with low intensity 690 nm light. We show that cell viability can be inhibited through light-dependent release of the estrogen receptor antagonist, 4-hydroxycyclofen. In addition, through uncaging of the same compound, gene expression is controlled with near-IR light in a ligand-dependent CreER(T)/LoxP-reporter cell line derived from transgenic mice. These studies provide a chemical foundation that we expect will enable specific delivery of small molecules using cytocompatible, tissue penetrant near-IR light.

  17. Early fire sensing using near-IR diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomse, David S.; Hovde, D. Christian; Chen, Shin-Juh; Silver, Joel A.

    2002-09-01

    We describe research leading to a trace gas detection system based on optical absorption using near-IR diode lasers that is intended to provide early warning of incipient fires. Applications include "high loss" structures such as office buildings, hospitals, hotels and shopping malls as well as airplanes and manned spacecraft where convention smoke detectors generate unacceptably high false alarm rates. Simultaneous or near-simultaneous detection of several gases (typically carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, acetylene and hydrogen cyanide) provides high sensitivity while reducing the chance of false alarms. Continuous measurement of carbon dioxide concentrations also provides an internal check of instrument performance because ambient levels will not drop below ~350 ppm.

  18. Retrieval of Atmospheric CO2 Column from Ground-based Near IR Spectra of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This grant has supported a graduate research assistant stipend for Zhonghua Yang, a geochemistry Ph.D. student at Caltech. In this project, we have significantly improved the retrieval of atmospheric column CO2 (and molecular oxygen) from ground-based, high resolution near-IR solar transmission spectra. This work has greatly benefited from interactions with Dr. Geoffrey Toon and Stan Sander of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and with James T. Randerson, University of California - Irvine. The results from this study are summarized in three publications, reprints of which are enclosed in with this report.

  19. ESO Highlights in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    As is now the tradition, the European Southern Observatory looks back at the exciting moments of last year. 2008 was in several aspects an exceptionally good year. Over the year, ESO's telescopes provided data for more than 700 scientific publications in refereed journals, making ESO the most productive ground-based observatory in the world. ESO PR Highlights 2008 ESO PR Photo 01a/09 The image above is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2008. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2008 page. Austria signed the agreement to join the other 13 ESO member states (ESO 11/08 and 20/08), while the year marked the 10th anniversary of first light for ESO's "perfect science machine", the Very Large Telescope (ESO 16/08 and 17/08). The ALMA project, for which ESO is the European partner, had a major milestone in December, as the observatory was equipped with its first antenna (ESO 49/08). Also the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope impressed this year with some very impressive and publicly visible results. Highlights came in many fields: Astronomers for instance used the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to discover and image a probable giant planet long sought around the star Beta Pictoris (ESO 42/08). This is now the eighth extrasolar planet to have been imaged since the VLT imaged the first extrasolar planet in 2004 (three of eight were imaged with VLT). The VLT also enabled three students to confirm the nature of a unique planet (ESO 45/08). This extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is a planet about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. The world's foremost planet-hunting instrument, HARPS, located at ESO's La Silla observatory, scored a new first, finding a system of three super-Earths around a star (ESO 19/08). Based on the complete HARPS sample, astronomers now think that one Sun-like star out of three harbours short orbit, low

  20. X-shooter near-IR spectrograph arm realisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Ramon; Elswijk, Eddy; Tromp, Niels; ter Horst, Rik; Horrobin, Matthew; Vernet, Joel; Finger, Gert; Groot, Paul; Kaper, Lex

    2008-07-01

    X-shooter is a new high-efficiency spectrograph observing the complete spectral range of 300-2500 nm in a single exposure, with a spectral resolving power R>5000. The instrument will be located at the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs and consists of three spectrographs: UV, VIS and Near-IR. This paper addresses the design, hardware realization and performance of the Near-IR spectrograph of the X-Shooter instrument and its components. Various optical, mechanical and cryogenic manufacturing and verification techniques are discussed. The cryogenic performance of replicated light weight gratings is presented. Bare aluminium mirrors are produced and polished to optical quality to preserve high shape accuracy at cryogenic conditions. Their manufacturing techniques and performance are both discussed. The cryogenic collimator and dispersion boxes, on which the optical components are mounted, feature integrated baffles for improved stiffness and integrated leaf springs to reduce tension on optical components, thereby challenging 5 axis simultaneous CNC milling capabilities. ASTRON Extreme Light Weighting is used for a key component to reduce the flexure of the cryogenic system; some key numbers and unique manufacturing experience for this component are presented. The method of integrated system design at cryogenic working temperatures and the resulting alignment-free integration are evaluated. Finally some key lab test results for the complete NIR spectrograph are presented.

  1. Graphene-supported tunable near-IR metamaterials.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyong; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Wangzhou

    2015-01-15

    By integrating the metallic metamaterials (MMs) with a graphene layer, the resonant properties of an active tunable device based on the metal-SiO(2)-graphene (MSiO(2)G) structure have been theoretically investigated in the near-IR spectral region. The results manifest that the influences of the graphene layer on the propagation properties are significant. Owing to the tunability of the Fermi level of graphene, the resonance of transmitted or reflected curves can be tuned in a wide range (160-193 THz). To an original metal unit cell structure, an elevated Fermi level of graphene layer enhances the resonance dips and shifts it to the higher frequency. Compared with the original structure, the corresponding complementary MMs structure shows a much sharper spectral curve and can be used to fabricate a switcher or filters. The results are very helpful for designing graphene plasmonic devices.

  2. Near-IR imaging toward a puzzling young stellar object precessing jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Fariña, C.; Ortega, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: The study of jets that are related to stellar objects in formation is important because it enables us to understand the history of how the stars have built up their mass. Many studies currently examine jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies toward massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are rare. In a previous study, based on 12CO J = 3-2 and public near-IR data, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows toward the infrared point source UGPS J185808.46+010041.8 (IRS) and some infrared features suggesting the existence of a precessing jet. Methods: Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs broad- and narrowbands centered on the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Brγ, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.̋35 and 0.̋45. Results: The emission in the JHKs broadbands shows in great detail a cone-shaped nebula extending to the north-northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed of two arc-like features and a bow-shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis of proper motions based on our Gemini observations and UKIDSS data additionally supports the precession scenario. We present one of the best-resolved cone-like nebula that is most likely related to a precessing jet up to date. The analysis of the observed near-IR lines shows that the H2 is collisionally excited, and the spatially coincidence of the [FeII] and H2 emissions in the closer arc-like feature suggests that this region is affected by a J shock. The second arc-like feature presents H2 emission without [FeII], which suggests a nondissociated C shock or a less energetic J shock. The H2 1-0 S(1) continuum-subtracted image reveals several knots and filaments at a larger

  3. Near-IR imaging of moderate redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, S. A.; Dickinson, M. E.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained near-IR imaging of 3 moderate-z clusters on the 1.3 m at KPNO with SQIID, a new camera offering wide-field (5.5 arcmin) simultaneous JHK band imaging. Our photometry on a sample of approximately 100 likely member galaxies in one of the clusters, Abell 370 at z = 0.37, shows that we can obtain magnitudes good to 20 percent down to K = 18, considerably below the estimated K* = 16.5 at this redshift. These data indicate that there are no systematic problems in obtaining photometry at faint levels with SQIID. With the development of larger arrays, the field is open to progress. The resulting J, H, and K data for three clusters are combined with previously obtained multiband optical photometry. We present an investigation of the spectral properties and evolution of the dominant cold stellar populations by comparing optical-to-IR colors and color-magnitude diagrams to predictions from population synthesis models and galaxy spectral evolution codes.

  4. Near-IR emissions in the upper Jovian atmosphere after SL-9 impact: Indications of possible northern counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Encrenaz, Th.; Stüwe, J. A.; Wiedemann, G.

    The evolution of the Jovian atmosphere as a result of the impact of SL-9 was monitored in the near-IR at the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at ESO, La Silla, from July 22-31, 1994. At the beginning of the observational run the spectra around 3.5 µm show enhanced H3+ emissions at -44° and +44° latitude, which are distributed similarly in longitude. Later, most of the H3+ emission is present in the northern polar region while it has faded at -44°. In the 2.1 µm range all spectra obtained at -44° lat. show a continuum associated to the impact sites on which in some cases the H2 quadrupole line is indicated. The spatial distribution of the H2 emission in the northern hemisphere does not show a clear correlation to the impact sites.

  5. Photodissociation of Peroxynitric Acid in the Near-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roehl, Coleen M.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Zhang, Hui; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature-dependent near-IR photodissociation spectra were obtained for several vibrational overtone transitions of peroxynitric acid (HNO4) with a tunable OPO photolysis/OH laser-induced-fluorescence system. Band-integrated photodissociation cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub diss)), determined relative to that for the 3nu(sub 1), OH stretching overtone, were measured for three dissociative bands. Assuming unit quantum efficiency for photodissociation of 3nu(sub 1), we find 2nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 3)(8242/cm) = (1.21 x 10(exp -20) (independent of temperature), 2nu(sub 1) (6900/cm) = 4.09 x 10(exp 18) * e(sup (-826,5/T)) (295 K greater than T greater than 224 K), and nu(sub 1) + 2nu(sub 3) (6252/cm) = 1.87 x 10(exp -19) * e(sup (- 1410.7/T)) (278 K greater than T greater than 240 K) sq cm/molecule cm. The photodissociation cross-sections are independent of pressure over the range 2 to 40 Torr. Temperature-dependent quantum yields (phi) for these transitions were obtained using integrated absorption cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub abs)) of HNO4 overtone vibrations measured with a FTIR spectrometer. In the atmosphere, photodissociation in the infrared is dominated by excitation of the first overtone of the OH stretching vibration (2nu((sub 1)). Inclusion of all dissociative HNO4 overtone and combination transitions yields a daytime IR photolysis rate of approximately 1 x 10(esp -1)/s. This process significantly shortens the estimated lifetime of HNO4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  6. The Near-Ir Spectrum of CH_3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaoyue; Lehmann, Kevin; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrei V.; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The near-IR spectrum, from 5000-8960 cm-1, of isotopically pure CH_3D was taken at temperatures of 294, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900K with a high resolution Fourier Transform machine at Old Dominion University. The spectra where analyzed to give the wavenumbers, integrated line intensities, and lower state term values (using lines observed in at least 3 different spectra). For the 294 K spectrum 12080 lines with S between 3.6x10-22 and 1x10-27 cm (not corrected for CH_3D natural abundance) were determined for this spectral interval. A theoretical spectrum of CH_3D has also been calculated at the Univ. of Reins, with >400,000 transitions predicted between 5000-6300 cm-1 with S values between 2.1x10-22 and 1 x 10-27 cm at 294K. Comparison of the predictions with 175 J" = 0 and 1 transitions previously assigned by the ETH group^1 shows that for 130 of these the absolute difference between the observed and predicted line wavenumbers is less than 0.1 cm-1 and for all but one transition the absolute difference is less than 1 cm-1. In this project, we are combining the temperature dependence of the line intensities, combination differences, and comparisons of line positions and strengths with the theoretical spectrum to extend the assignments of CH_3D lines in this spectral region. Selected assignments will be confirmed by IR-IR double resonance measurements at the University of Virginia. Ultimately, we hope to give a global analysis of CH_3D spectrum using a global effective Hamiltonian model. 1. Ulenikov, O.N. et al., Molecular Physics 108, 1209-1240 (2010)

  7. PESSTO: survey description and products from the first data release by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smartt, S. J.; Valenti, S.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Young, D. R.; Sullivan, M.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, K. W.; Taubenberger, S.; Yaron, O.; Anderson, J. P.; Ashall, C.; Balland, C.; Baltay, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Baumont, S.; Bersier, D.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bongard, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Bulla, M.; Cappellaro, E.; Campbell, H.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chen, T.-W.; Childress, M. J.; Clocchiatti, A.; Contreras, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Danziger, J.; de Jaeger, T.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Elman, N.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gall, E.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Morales Garoffolo, A.; Greggio, L.; Guillou, L. L.; Hachinger, S.; Hadjiyska, E.; Hage, P. E.; Hillebrandt, W.; Hodgkin, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; James, P. A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kotak, R.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Leloudas, G.; Lundqvist, P.; Lyman, J. D.; Hook, I. M.; Maguire, K.; Manulis, I.; Margheim, S. J.; Mattila, S.; Maund, J. R.; Mazzali, P. A.; McCrum, M.; McKinnon, R.; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Nicholl, M.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pignata, G.; Phillips, M. M.; Polshaw, J.; Pumo, M. L.; Rabinowitz, D.; Reilly, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Scalzo, R.; Schmidt, B.; Schulze, S.; Sim, S.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Walker, E.; Walton, N. A.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Yuan, F.; Zampieri, L.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) began as a public spectroscopic survey in April 2012. PESSTO classifies transients from publicly available sources and wide-field surveys, and selects science targets for detailed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up. PESSTO runs for nine months of the year, January - April and August - December inclusive, and typically has allocations of 10 nights per month. Aims: We describe the data reduction strategy and data products that are publicly available through the ESO archive as the Spectroscopic Survey data release 1 (SSDR1). Methods: PESSTO uses the New Technology Telescope with the instruments EFOSC2 and SOFI to provide optical and NIR spectroscopy and imaging. We target supernovae and optical transients brighter than 20.5m for classification. Science targets are selected for follow-up based on the PESSTO science goal of extending knowledge of the extremes of the supernova population. We use standard EFOSC2 set-ups providing spectra with resolutions of 13-18 Å between 3345-9995 Å. A subset of the brighter science targets are selected for SOFI spectroscopy with the blue and red grisms (0.935-2.53 μm and resolutions 23-33 Å) and imaging with broadband JHKs filters. Results: This first data release (SSDR1) contains flux calibrated spectra from the first year (April 2012-2013). A total of 221 confirmed supernovae were classified, and we released calibrated optical spectra and classifications publicly within 24 h of the data being taken (via WISeREP). The data in SSDR1 replace those released spectra. They have more reliable and quantifiable flux calibrations, correction for telluric absorption, and are made available in standard ESO Phase 3 formats. We estimate the absolute accuracy of the flux calibrations for EFOSC2 across the whole survey in SSDR1 to be typically ~15%, although a number of spectra will have less reliable absolute flux calibration because of

  8. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  9. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Christopher; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-24

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  10. Near IR-emitting DNA-probes exploiting stepwise energy transfer processes.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Andras; Borbas, K Eszter; Bruce, James I

    2007-10-10

    The synthesis and characterisation of two new cyclen-based near IR-emitting lanthanide complexes is reported; the lanthanides are sensitised by rhodamine, which in turn is excited by energy transfer from a coumarin 2 moiety. The three lumophores function as an energy transfer cascade spanning the UV-visible-near IR region of the spectrum, resulting in large Stokes shifts. Double stranded DNA selectively switches one of the two energy transfer processes off, enabling luminescent DNA-sensing in the near IR region. The regioselective di-alkylation of the cyclen scaffold is explained with the help of DFT calculations.

  11. Cyanine Photocages Enable the Near-IR Light Activation of Antibody-Drug Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Nani, Roger R.; Gorka, Alexander P.; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the clinical application of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), novel cleavage strategies that provide improved selectivity are still needed. Near-IR light could provide a targetable, biocompatible external stimulus to initiate drug release. Here we report the first approach using near-IR light to cleave a small molecule from a biomacromolecule, which we apply to the problem of ADC linkage. Our method uses a recently developed near-IR uncaging reaction that exploits the photochemical reactivity of C4’-N-dialkylamine heptamethine cyanines. This communication describes the synthesis of bioconjugatable cyanine-small molecule photocages, bioconjugation and 690 nm light-mediated cleavage from the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab, and initial in vitro and in vivo evaluation. These studies provide the critical chemical underpinning from which to develop this near-IR cleavable linker strategy. PMID:26403799

  12. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    Congress (Parliament) in 1964. According to this, the Chilean Government "grants to ESO the same immunities, prerogatives, privileges and facilities as the Government applies to the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL), as granted in the Convention signed in Santiago on 16 February 1953" (Article 4 of the Chile-ESO Convention). Through this, the Chilean Government has in particular recognized that "the possessions and properties of (ESO) wherever they may be, and whoever may have them in his possession, shall be exempt of registration, requisition, confiscation, expropriation and of whatever interference, may it be through executive, administrative, judicial or legislative action" (Art. 4, Sec. 8, CEPAL Convention). Such privileges and immunities are not peculiar to the relations between Chile and ESO. They apply, as already mentioned, to CEPAL as well as to all other United Nations' Agencies and they are today typically recognized by the host states of International Organisations throughout the world. The Chilean Government and ESO agreed in 1983-84 by an exchange of diplomatic notes that these privileges and immunities apply not only to the La Silla observatory, but equally to any other observatory site that the Organisation may establish in the future in the Republic of Chile. It is obvious that, in order to exclude a possible breach of international law, the reported preliminary decision requires to be considered and interpreted in the light of these privileges and immunities. ESO trusts that the competent Chilean authorities will take the appropriate action and decisions which are required for ensuring the Organisation's international status and its protection from any public interference into its possessions and properties. In a Press Conference at the ESO Headquarters in Santiago de Chile on February 13, 1995, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt, ESO's highest-ranking representative in Chile, stated on behalf of the Organisation that "ESO is in Chile with

  13. Educational Projects at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, H. M. J.

    2005-11-01

    ESO's public outreach activities comprise communication and media activities, educational projects and targeted events, addressing well-defined audiences. In 2004, one major activity stands out both in terms of visibility and in covering all of the above areas: the Venus Transit 2004 Public Science Discovery Programme. This very successful programme comprised the development of an extensive set of teaching materials for schools, a web-based information and reporting system, observational activities on the day of the transit as well as a video contest and a final event in Paris in November.

  14. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M.; Fu, Hai; Wardlow, J.; Amber, S.; Baker, A. J.; Baes, M.; Bock, J.; Bourne, N.; Dye, S.; Bussmann, R. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  15. Assessment of the remineralization in simulated enamel lesions via dehydration with near-IR reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that near-IR imaging can be used to nondestructively monitor the severity of enamel lesions. Arrested lesions typically have a highly mineralized surface layer that reduces permeability and limits diffusion into the lesion. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rate of water loss correlates with the degree of remineralization using near-IR reflectance imaging. Artificial bovine (n=15) enamel lesions were prepared by immersion in a demineralization solution for 24 hours and they were subsequently placed in an acidic remineralization solution for different periods. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 30 seconds and surfaces were imaged using an InGaAs camera at 1300-1700 nm wavelengths. Near-IR reflectance intensity differences before and after dehydration decreased with longer periods of remineralization. This study demonstrated that near-IR reflectance imaging was suitable for the detection of remineralization in simulated caries lesions and near-IR wavelengths longer than 1400 nm are well suited for the assessment of remineralization.

  16. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Andrew C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Light scattering in dental enamel decreases markedly from the UV to the near-IR and recent studies employing near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging including optical coherence tomography indicate that this wavelength region is ideally suited for imaging dental caries due to the high transparency of enamel. The opacity of dentin is an important factor in optimizing the contrast of demineralization in reflectance measurements. It also influences the contrast of occlusal lesions in transillumination. Light scattering in dentin is an order of magnitude larger than in enamel, it is highly anisotropic and has a different spectral light scattering dependence than enamel. The objective of this study was to measure the optical attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at near-IR wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm. In this study the collimated transmission of near-IR light through polished thin sections of dentin of 0.05 to 0.6 mm thickness was measured. Beer-Lambert plots show that the attenuation coefficients range in magnitude from 20 to 40 cm-1. Attenuation increased significantly with increasing wavelength and the increases were not entirely consistent with increased water absorption.

  17. Near-IR fluorescence and reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging of quantum dots in mammalian skin

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Luke J.; Glazowski, Christopher E.; Zavislan, James M.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the skin penetration of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important concern due to the increasing presence of NPs in consumer products, including cosmetics. Technical challenges have slowed progress in evaluating skin barrier and NP factors that contribute to skin penetration risk. To limit sampling error and other problems associated with histological processing, many researchers are implementing whole tissue confocal or multiphoton microscopies. This work introduces a fluorescence and reflectance confocal microscopy system that utilizes near-IR excitation and emission to detect near-IR lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) through ex vivo human epidermis. We provide a detailed prediction and experimental analysis of QD detection sensitivity and demonstrate detection of QD skin penetration in a barrier disrupted model. The unique properties of near-IR lead-based QDs will enable future studies that examine the impact of further barrier-disrupting agents on skin penetration of QDs and elucidate mechanistic insight into QD tissue interactions at the cellular level. PMID:21698023

  18. Near-IR spectroscopy of the eruptive variable source V2493 Cyg (HBC 722)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Efimova, N.; Larionov, V.; Arkharov, A.; Gorshanov, D.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.

    2012-05-01

    As part of our near-IR spectroscopic monitoring program of EXor pre-Main sequence variables (Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056) on-going at the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), we have recently (2012 May 11) obtained a low resolution (R~250) near-IR spectrum (0.8 - 2.5 μm) of the outbursting source V2493 Cyg (otherwise called HBC 722). Since its outburst in August 2009 (Miller et al.

  19. Near-IR Light-Mediated Cleavage of Antibody-Drug Conjugates Using Cyanine Photocages.

    PubMed

    Nani, Roger R; Gorka, Alexander P; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Schnermann, Martin J

    2015-11-09

    Despite significant progress in the clinical application of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), novel cleavage strategies that provide improved selectivity are still needed. Herein is reported the first approach that uses near-IR light to cleave a small molecule from a biomacromolecule, and its application to the problem of ADC linkage. The preparation of cyanine antibody conjugates, drug cleavage mediated by 690 nm light, and initial in vitro and in vivo evaluation is described. These studies provide the critical chemical underpinning from which to develop this near-IR light cleavable linker strategy.

  20. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. In addition to the state-of-the-art Very Large Telescope and the four Auxiliary Telescopes of 1.8-m diameter which can move to relocate in up to 30 different locations feeding the interferometer, Paranal will also be home to the 2.6-m VLT Survey telescope (VST) and the 4.2-m VISTA IR survey telescope. Both Paranal and La Silla have a proven record of their unique ability to address most current issues in observational astronomy. In 2004 alone, each observatory provided data for the publication of about 350 peer-reviewed journal articles, more than any other ground-based observatory. With the present merging of these top-ranking astronomical observatories, fostering synergies and harmonizing the many diverse activities, ESO and the entire community of European astronomers will profit even more from these highly efficient research facilities. Images of ESO's observatories and telescopes are available in the ESO gallery.

  1. Near-IR polarization imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.1 The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  2. Near-IR Polarization Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Darling, Cynthia L; Jiao, Jane J; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.(1) The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  3. Improved and Expanded Near-IR Oscillator Strengths for Ti I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael P.; Sneden, Chris; Nave, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    We report on recent work to produce an improved and expanded set of near-IR oscillator strengths for Ti I. Emission branching fractions are measured from several spectra recorded with the NIST 2-m FTS covering the region from 4000 Å to 5.5 μm. Traditionally, branching fractions are combined with level lifetimes measured using laser-induced fluorescence; however, this technique becomes problematic for near-IR oscillator strength studies. Instead, we employ thorough and robust reverse stellar analyses of the Sun and Arcturus to obtain lifetimes for new levels of interest. This work makes use of an extensive set of previously reported laboratory Ti I oscillator strengths in the visible to better understand uncertainties and check for systematic effects in the reverse stellar analyses. This method will soon be applied to other species to help address the scarcity of near-IR Fe-group atomic data and support the growing interests of the near-IR astronomical community.

  4. Electronic spectra of Fe3+ oxides and oxide hydroxides in the near IR to near UV.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.; Waite, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Optical absorption and diffuse reflectance spectra of several Fe2O3 and FeOOH polymorphs (hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite) in the near-IR to near-UV spectral regions (2000-200 nm) are presented. The spectra consist primarily of Fe3+ ligand field and ligand-to-metal charge-transfer transitions.-J.A.Z.

  5. EsoRex: ESO Recipe Execution Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2015-04-01

    EsoRex (ESO Recipe Execution Tool) lists, configures, and executes Common Pipeline Library (CPL) (ascl:1402.010) recipes from the command line. Its features include automatically generating configuration files, recursive recipe-path searching, command line and configuration file parameters, and recipe product naming control, among many others.

  6. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  7. The mid-IR and near-IR interferometry of AGNs: key results and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, M.

    2015-09-01

    Infrared interferometry has been very productive in directly probing the structure of AGNs at sub-pc scales. With tens of objects already probed in the mid-IR and near-IR, I will summarize the key results and im- plications from this direct exploration. The Keck interferometry in the near-IR and VLTI in the mid-IR shaped the luminosity dependence of the torus size and structure, while the latter also revealed an equatorial structure at several Rsub (dust sublimation radius), and a polar-elongated region at a few tens of Rsub. Notably, this polar component seems to dominate the compact mid-IR flux. This component can persuasively be attributed to a polar outflow. However, interferometry, through emissivity estimations, also indicates that it is not a UV-optically-thin cloud but participating in the obscuration of the nucleus. I will discuss how to accommodate all these facts to build a consistent picture.

  8. Remote Sensing of Water Vapor and Thin Cirrus Clouds using MODIS Near-IR Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major facility instrument on board the Terra Spacecraft, was successfully launched into space in December of 1999. MODIS has several near-IR channels within and around the 0.94 micrometer water vapor bands for remote sensing of integrated atmospheric water vapor over land and above clouds. MODIS also has a special near-IR channel centered at 1.375-micron with a width of 30 nm for remote sensing of cirrus clouds. In this paper, we describe briefly the physical principles on remote sensing of water vapor and cirrus clouds using these channels. We also present sample water vapor images and cirrus cloud images obtained from MODIS data.

  9. Excitation transfer mechanism along the visible to the Near-IR in rhodamine J-heteroaggregates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valencia, Juan R; Toudert, Johann; González-García, Lola; González-Elipe, Agustín R; Barranco, Angel

    2010-06-28

    An enhanced fluorescent emission of the dye Rhodamine 800 in the Near-IR is observed in the presence of other xanthene dye molecules (RhX) when they are hosted in different matrices due to the formation of a new type of fluorescent J-heteroaggregates. This enhanced emission of the acceptor occurs despite the low spectral overlapping and the low quantum yield of Rh800.

  10. Wavelength-agile near-IR optical parametric oscillator using a deposited silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Mark A; Foster, Amy C

    2015-06-15

    Using a deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide, we demonstrate ultra-broad bandwidth (60 THz) parametric amplification via four-wave mixing (FWM), and subsequently achieve the first silicon optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at near-IR wavelengths. Utilization of the time-dispersion-tuned technique provides an optical source with active wavelength tuning over 42 THz with a fixed pump wave.

  11. Dramatic increase of the near-IR flux of the young source V2492 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. A.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Vitali, F.; Larionov, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of our EXor monitoring program dubbed EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI, Lorenzetti et al. 2007 ApJ 665, 1182; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056), we are now observing a new increase of the near-IR brightness of the protostar V2492 Cyg, based on data taken at the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy).

  12. Near-IR Image-Guided Laser Ablation of Demineralization on Tooth Occlusal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that reflectance images at near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are well-suited for image-guided laser ablation of carious lesions since the contrast between sound and demineralized enamel is extremely high and interference from stains is minimized. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that near-IR reflectance images taken at a wavelength range of 1,500–1,700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3 μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. Methods The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this in vitro study. Shallow simulated caries lesions with random patterns and varying depth and position were produced on tooth occlusal surfaces. Sequential near-IR reflectance images at 1,500–1,700 nm were used to guide the laser for the selective removal of the demineralized enamel. Digital microscopy and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) were used to assess selectivity. Results Images taken before and after lesion removal suggest that the demineralized areas were removed with high selectivity. Although the estimated volume of tissue ablated was typically higher than the initial lesion volume measured with PS-OCT, the volume of enamel removed by the laser correlated well with the initial lesion volume. Conclusion Sequential near-IR reflectance images at 1,500–1,700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3 μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. PMID:26763111

  13. Peripheral Substitution of a Near-IR-Absorbing Soluble Phthalocyanine Using "Click" Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayukh, Mayank; Lu, Chin-Wei; Hernandez, Edgardo; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-06-10

    A series of near-IR-absorbing soluble phthalocyanines (Pcs) with eight alkyne moieties as side chains of the chromophore have been synthesized. One of these Pcs has been used as a scaffold for functional group modification using alkyne–azide click chemistry with various azides. This led to a small library of Pcs with photo and thermal crosslinkable, dendritic, and hydrophilic moieties starting from a single Pc molecule. A patterned thin film was fabricated by photocrosslinking one of these Pc derivatives.

  14. Visible and near IR lidar backscatter observations on the GLOBE Pacific Survey missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Chudamani, S.; Cavanaugh, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement techniques and initial results of the Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) performed in November 1989 and May-June 1990 to provide data on prevailing values of atmospheric backscatter cross section are presented. The upper troposphere aerosol scattering cross section was low in the Southern Hemisphere for the May-June flights and low in the Northern Hemisphere for the November flights. The initial results indicate that the instrumentation and calibration techniques applied for the near IR lidar measurements were successful.

  15. Polarization resolved near-IR imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light is reflected from and transmitted through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of optical imaging devices. New optical imaging tools employing non-ionizing radiation are needed for the detection and assessment of dental caries. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light is reflected from the occlusal surface or transmitted through thin sections of extracted human whole teeth. Previous near-IR imaging studies suggest that polarization imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of early dental caries due to the rapid depolarization of incident polarized light by the highly scattering areas of decay. In this study, the reflectance from tooth occlusal surfaces with demineralization and transmitted light through tooth thin sections with caries lesions were investigated. Major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel. This study suggests that polarization resolved optical imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of dental decay.

  16. Near-IR and PS-OCT imaging of developmental defects in dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2007-02-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and near-IR (NIR) imaging are promising new technologies under development for monitoring early carious lesions. Fluorosis is a growing problem in the U.S., and the more prevalent mild fluorosis can be visually mistaken for early enamel demineralization. Some initial NIR images suggest that enamel defects and dental caries manifest different optical behavior in the NIR. Unfortunately, there is little quantitative information available regarding the differences in optical properties of sound enamel, enamel developmental defects, and demineralized enamel due to caries. This study tested the hypothesis that hypomineralized enamel due to fluorosis can be differentiated from demineralized enamel due to caries using NIR and PS-OCT imaging because of different optical behavior in the NIR. Thirty extracted human teeth with various degrees of suspected fluorosis and/or caries were imaged using PS-OCT and NIR transillumination. An InGaAs camera and a near-IR diode laser were used to measure the optical attenuation through transverse tooth sections (~200 μm). Developmental defects were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved OCT images, demonstrating that PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively measure the depth and possible severity of the defects. Enamel defects on whole teeth that could be imaged with high contrast with visible light were transparent in the near-IR while demineralized areas due to caries were opaque. In contrast, dental caries could be clearly distinguished from sound enamel. This study suggests that PS-OCT and NIR methods may potentially be used as tools to assess the severity and extent of enamel defects and for the differentiation of mild fluorosis defects from early carious lesions.

  17. Interpretation of the Near-IR Spectra of the Kuiper Belt Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Brown, Michael E.; Stansberry, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-IR observations of the Kuiper Belt Object (136472) 2005 FY(9) have indicated the presence of unusually long (1 cm or more) optical path lengths in a layer of methane ice. Using microphysical and radiative transfer modeling, we show that even at the frigid temperatures in the outer reaches of the solar system, a slab of low porosity methane ice can indeed form by pressureless sintering of micron-sized grains, and it can qualitatively reproduce the salient features of the measured spectra. A good semiquantitative match with the near-IR spectra can be obtained with a realistic slab model, provided the spectra are scaled to a visible albedo of 0.6, at the low end of the values currently estimated from Spitzer thermal measurements. Consistent with previous modeling studies, matching spectra scaled to higher albedos requires the incorporation of strong backscattering effects. The albedo may become better constrained through an iterative application of the slab model to the analysis of the thermal measurements from Spitzer and the visible/near-IR reflectance spectra. The slab interpretation offers two falsifiable predictions (1) Absence of an opposition surge, which is commonly attributed to the fluffiness of the optical surface. This prediction is best testable with a spacecraft, as Earth-based observations at true opposition will not be possible until early next century. (2) Unlikelihood of the simultaneous occurrence of very long spectroscopic path lengths in both methane and nitrogen ice on the surface of any Kuiper Belt Object, as the more volatile nitrogen would hinder densification in methane ice.

  18. Theoretical Near-IR Spectra for Surface Abundance Studies of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of O-type stars based on theoretical near-IR spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio near-IR (1-5 micron) spectra of massive stars in different environments of local galaxies. Our goal is to analyze model near-IR spectra corresponding to those expected from NIRspec on JWST in order to map the wind properties and surface composition across the parameter range of 0 stars and to determine projected rotational velocities. As a massive star evolves, internal coupling, related mixing, and mass loss impact its intrinsic rotation rate. These three parameters form an intricate loop, where enhanced rotation leads to more mixing which in turn changes the mass loss rate, the latter thus affecting the rotation rate. Since the effects of rotation are expected to be much more pronounced at low metallicity, we pay special attention to models for massive stars in the the Small Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy provides a unique opportunity to probe stellar evolution, and the feedback of massive stars on galactic evol.ution in conditions similar to the epoch of maximal star formation. Plain-Language Abstract: We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of massive stars based on theoretical near-infrared (1-5 micron) spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. This study is to prepare for observations by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. Bismuth-doped optical fibres: A new breakthrough in near-IR lasing media

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30

    Recent results demonstrate that bismuth-doped optical fibres have considerable potential as near-IR active lasing media. This paper examines bismuth-doped fibres intended for the fabrication of fibre lasers and optical amplifiers and reviews recent results on the luminescence properties of various types of bismuth-doped fibres and the performance of bismuth-doped fibre lasers and optical amplifiers for the spectral range 1150 - 1550 nm. Problems are discussed that have yet to be solved in order to improve the efficiency of the bismuth lasers and optical amplifiers. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  20. Reductant-free colloidal synthesis of near-IR emitting germanium nanocrystals: role of primary amine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Batu; Ogawara, Makoto; Sakka, Yoshio; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    High temperature colloidal synthesis without using hazardous reducing agent is demonstrated here to develop a straight forward pathway for synthesizing near-IR (NIR) light emitting germanium nanocrystals (Ge NCs). The NCs were prepared by heating a mixture of germanium (II) iodide and organoamine. This article presents an important role of the primary amine which serves as a reducing agent as well as an inhibitor against oxidation by comparing with the tertiary amine. Interestingly, the difference in chemical reactivity between each amine causes the difference in major structural phase of the products. An efficient route to produce NIR light emitting Ge NCs is demonstrated.

  1. Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy using lanthanide centred near-IR emission.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiyu; Tropiano, Manuel; Mantulnikovs, Konstantins; Faulkner, Stephen; Vosch, Tom; Sørensen, Thomas Just

    2015-02-11

    The narrow, near infrared (NIR) emission from lanthanide ions has attracted great interest, particularly with regard to developing tools for bioimaging, where the long lifetimes of lanthanide excited states can be exploited to address problems arising from autofluorescence and sample transparency. Despite the promise of lanthanide-based probes for near-IR imaging, few reports on their use are present in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that images can be recorded by monitoring NIR emission from lanthanide complexes using detectors, optical elements and a microscope that were primarily designed for the visible part of the spectrum.

  2. Variability Survey of ω Centauri in the Near-IR: Period-Luminosity Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Gran, F.; Alonso-García, J.; Dékány, I.

    2017-03-01

    ω Centauri is by far the most massive globular star cluster in the Milky Way, and possibly the remnant of a dwarf galaxy. As such, it contains a large number of variable stars of different classes. Here we report on an extensive, wide-field time-series study of ω Cen in the J and K S bands, which has allowed us to study the near-IR period-luminosity relations for different variability classes, including the first such relations for the SX Phoenicis stars.

  3. Improved and Expanded Near-IR Oscillator Strengths for Fe-group Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael P.; Nave, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of modern experimental techniques, including LIF lifetime and FTS branching fraction measurements, has significantly increased the scope and reliability of laboratory atomic transition probabilities in the UV and visible. However, the combination of these techniques is problematic in the IR, a region of increasing importance due to improved detector, spectrometer, and telescope technologies. The result is a significant gap between the capabilities to record new IR astronomical spectra and the data needed to sufficiently understand and analyze them. To aid in closing this gap, we are developing new laboratory techniques to measure improved and expanded sets of oscillator strengths in the near-IR (λ ≈ 1-5 μm), with a primary focus on the Fe-group elements. A description of the methods proposed and their applicability will be presented. Input from the astronomical community is essential in order to focus the research on those lines and atomic species representing the greatest near-IR atomic data needs.

  4. Near-IR spectroscopic imaging for skin hydration: the long and the short of it.

    PubMed

    Attas, E Michael; Sowa, Michael G; Posthumus, Trevor B; Schattka, Bernhard J; Mantsch, Henry H; Zhang, Shuliang L

    2002-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopic methods have been developed to determine the degree of hydration of human skin in vivo. Noncontact reflectance spectroscopic imaging was used to investigate the distribution of skin moisture as a function of location. A human study in a clinical setting has generated quantitative data showing the effects of a drying agent and a moisturizer on delineated regions of the forearms of eight volunteers. Two digital imaging systems equipped with liquid-crystal tunable filters were used to collect stacks of monochromatic images at 10-nm intervals over the 650-1050 and 960-1700 nm wavelength bands. Synthetic images generated from measurements of water absorption band areas at three different near-IR wavelengths (970, 1200, and 1450 nm) showed obvious differences in the apparent distribution of water in the skin. Changes resulting from the skin treatments were much more evident in the long-wavelength images than in the short-wavelength ones. The variable sensitivity of the method at different wavelengths has been interpreted as being the result of different penetration depths of the IR light used in the reflectance studies.

  5. ESO PR Highlights in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Last year proved again a wonderful one for astronomy in general and for ESO in particular. Certainly the most important astronomical event for a large public was the unique Transit of Venus : on June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - passed in front of the Sun. This rare event - the last one occurred in 1882 - attracted the attention of millions of people all over the world. ESO in cooperation with several other institutes and with support from the European Commission organised through the whole year the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme that successfully exposed the broad public to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. The web site experienced a record 55 million webhits during a period of 8 hours around the transit. The programme also re-enacted the historical determination of the distance to the Sun (the "Astronomical Unit") by collecting 4550 timings of the four contacts made by more than 1500 participating group of observers and combining them in a calculation of the AU. This resulted in an astonishing accurate value of the Astronomical Unit. More details are available at the VT-2004 website, whose wealth of information will certainly make it a useful tool until the next transit in 2012! For ESO also, 2004 proved a very special year. Finland officially joined as eleventh member state and in December, the Chilean President, Ricardo Lagos, visited the Paranal Observatory. Last year was also the Fifth anniversary of the Very Large Telescope, ESO's flagship facility, as on April 1, 1999 the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), was "handed over" to the astronomers. On this occasion, ESO released several products, including a selection of the best astronomical images taken with the VLT, the VLT Top 20. But there is no doubt that the numerous high quality images published last year are all contenders to top the charts of best astronomical pictures. The year 2004 also saw many

  6. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  7. Nd:AlN polycrystalline ceramics: A candidate media for tunable, high energy, near IR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieg, A. T.; Grossnickle, M. J.; Kodera, Y.; Gabor, N. M.; Garay, J. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present processing and characterization of Nd-doped aluminum nitride (Nd:AlN) polycrystalline ceramics. We compare ceramics with significant segregation of Nd to those exhibiting minimal segregation. Spatially resolved photoluminescence maps reveal a strong correlation between homogeneous Nd doping and spatially homogeneous light emission. The spectroscopically resolved light emission lines show excellent agreement with the expected Nd electronic transitions. Notably, the lines are significantly broadened, producing near IR emission (˜1077 nm) with a remarkable ˜100 nm bandwidth at room temperature. We attribute the broadened lines to a combination of effects: multiple Nd-sites, anisotropy of AlN and phonon broadening. These broadened, overlapping lines in a media with excellent thermal conductivity have potential for Nd-based, tunable lasers with high average power.

  8. Video rate imaging at 1.5 THz via frequency upconversion to the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekavec, Patrick F.; Kozlov, Vladimir G.; McNee, Ian; Lee, Yun-Shik; Vodopyanov, Konstantin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate video rate THz imaging in both reflection and transmission by frequency upconverting the THz image to the near-IR. In reflection, the ability to resolve images generated at different depths is shown. By mixing the THz pulses with a portion of the fiber laser pump (1064 nm) in a quasi-phase matched gallium arsenide crystal, distinct sidebands are observed at 1058 nm and 1070 nm, corresponding to sum and difference frequency generation of the pump pulse with the THz pulse. By using a polarizer and long pass filter, the strong pump light can be removed, leaving a nearly background free signal at 1070 nm. We have obtained video rate images with spatial resolution of 1mm and field of view ca. 20 mm in diameter without any post processing of the data.

  9. Measurement and compensation of laser-induced wavefront deformations and focal shifts in near IR optics.

    PubMed

    Stubenvoll, Martin; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate the feasibility of passive compensation of the thermal lens effect in fused silica optics, placing suitable optical materials with negative dn/dT in the beam path of a high power near IR fiber laser. Following a brief overview of the involved mechanisms, photo-thermal absorption measurements with a Hartmann-Shack sensor are described, from which coefficients for surface/coating and bulk absorption in various materials are determined. Based on comprehensive knowledge of the 2D wavefront deformations resulting from absorption, passive compensation of thermally induced aberrations in complex optical systems is possible, as illustrated for an F-Theta objective. By means of caustic measurements during high-power operation we are able to demonstrate a 60% reduction of the focal shift in F-Theta lenses through passive compensation.

  10. Improved and Expanded Near-IR Oscillator Strengths for Fe-group Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael; Nave, Gillian; Sneden, Christopher Alan

    2015-08-01

    The use of modern experimental techniques, including LIF lifetime and FTS branching fraction measurements, has significantly increased the scope and reliability of laboratory atomic transition probabilities in the UV and visible. However, this combination of techniques is problematic in the IR, a region of increasing importance due to improved detector, spectrometer, and telescope technologies. The result is a significant gap between the capabilities to record new IR astronomical spectra and the data needed to sufficiently analyze them. To aid in closing this gap, we are incorporating new techniques, including reverse stellar analyses, to measure sets of oscillator strengths in the near-IR (λ ≈ 1-5 μm), with a primary focus on the Fe-group elements. A description of the methods and their applicability will be presented, including recent results for Ti I.

  11. EAGLE ISS: a modular twin-channel integral-field near-IR spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Peter; Stobie, Brian; Vivès, Sébastien; Vola, Pascal; Wells, Martyn; Evans, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    The ISS (Integral-field Spectrograph System) has been designed as part of the EAGLE Phase A Instrument Study for the E-ELT. It consists of two input channels of 1.65x1.65 arcsec field-of-view, each reconfigured spatially by an imageslicing integral-field unit to feed a single near-IR spectrograph using cryogenic volume-phase-holographic gratings to disperse the image spectrally. A 4k x 4k array detector array records the dispersed images. The optical design employs anamorphic magnification, image slicing, VPH gratings scanned with a novel cryo-mechanism and a three-lens camera. The mechanical implementation features IFU optics in Zerodur, a modular bench structure and a number of highprecision cryo-mechanisms.

  12. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  13. ATLAST Detector Needs for Direct Spectroscopic Biosignature Characterization in the Visible and Near-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, S. H.; Stahle, Carl; Stark, Christopher C.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    Are we alone? Answering this ageless question will be a major focus for astrophysics in coming decades. Our tools will include unprecedentedly large UV-Optical-IR space telescopes working with advanced coronagraphs and starshades. Yet, these facilities will not live up to their full potential without better detectors than we have today. To inform detector development, this paper provides an overview of visible and near-IR (VISIR; lambda = 0.4 - 1.8 micrometers) detector needs for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), specifically for spectroscopic characterization of atmospheric biosignature gasses. We also provide a brief status update on some promising detector technologies for meeting these needs in the context of a passively cooled ATLAST.

  14. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth A.; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for caries detection employing transillumination and reflectance imaging geometries. Three intra-oral NIR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo, real time videos using a high definition InGaAs SWIR camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provide occlusal and interproximal images using 1300-nm light where water absorption is low and enamel manifests the highest transparency. A third reflectance probe utilizes cross polarization and operates at >1500-nm, where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. These probes are being used in an ongoing clinical study to assess the diagnostic performance of NIR imaging for the detection of caries lesions in teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons.

  15. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Kiselev, A.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Bazilevsky, A. T.; Bondarenko, A.; Moiseev, P.

    2013-09-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2015) and Luna-Resurs (launch in 2017) Russian surface missions. The LIS is mounted on the mechanic arm of landing module in the field of view (45°) of stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast together with High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface area in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The electrically commanded acousto-optic filter scans sequentially at a desired sampling, with random access, over the entire spectral range.

  16. ESO Presentation in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.; D'Odorico, S.

    2004-12-01

    On November 8, ESO continued its series of presentations in memberstates with an event in Copenhagen. So far events have been organised in Belgium, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The purpose of these presentations is to raise the awareness of ESO amongst decision-makers, academia and the media. Over time, the scope and specific focus of the national events have varied, considering the particular circumstances and the wishes of the national hosts, and accordingly, the presentation in Denmark was primarily oriented towards industry. The meeting was initiated by the Royal Danish Consulate General in Munich in conjunction with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation. Leading up to the meeting, several articles about ESO had appeared in the Danish press and the 2nd TV Channel featured a report on the ESO projects also in connection with the event.

  17. A New Method for Wide-field Near-IR Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel B.; MacKenty, John; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    We present a new technique for wide and shallow observations using the near-infrared channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide-field near-IR surveys with HST are generally inefficient, as guide star acquisitions make it impractical to observe more than one pointing per orbit. This limitation can be circumvented by guiding with gyros alone, which is possible as long as the telescope has three functional gyros. The method presented here allows us to observe mosaics of eight independent WFC3-IR pointings in a single orbit by utilizing the fact that HST drifts by only a very small amount in the 25 s between non-destructive reads of unguided exposures. By shifting the reads and treating them as independent exposures the full resolution of WFC3 can be restored. We use this “drift and shift” (DASH) method in the Cycle 23 COSMOS-DASH program, which will obtain 456 WFC3 H 160 pointings in 57 orbits, covering an area of 0.6 degree in the COSMOS field down to H 160 = 25. When completed, the program will more than triple the area of extra-galactic survey fields covered by near-IR imaging at HST resolution. We demonstrate the viability of the method with the first four orbits (32 pointings) of this program. We show that the resolution of the WFC3 camera is preserved, and that structural parameters of galaxies are consistent with those measured in guided observations.

  18. Near-IR Extragalactic Background Results from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Michael B.; CIBER

    2016-01-01

    The near IR extragalactic background light (EBL) encodes the integrated light production over cosmic history, so represents the total emission from all galaxies along the line of sight up to ancient first-light objects present during the epoch of reionization (EOR). This EOR emission necessarily comprises part of the background, and indeed a minimum level is required to supply enough photons to ionize the intergalactic medium, corresponding to an EBL brightness less than 1 nW m^-2 sr^-1, about one tenth of the integrated galactic light (IGL). In addition to emission from these IGL and EOR populations, low surface brightness tidal streams of stars stripped by gravitational interactions during galaxy formation at low redshifts, called intrahalo light (IHL), may also contribute a significant fraction of the EBL. Models for these components can be constrained both through direct photometric measurements, as well as the new technique of EBL anisotropy intensity mapping that takes advantage of the fact that the Zodiacal Light is spatially smooth while distant populations produce anisotropies with distinct spatial and spectral characteristics. This talk will present recent results from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), a sounding rocket borne payload designed to measure both the fluctuations and direct photometric emission of the extra-galactic background light. The anisotropy of the near-IR EBL suggests the presence of a bright component approximately as bright as the IGL component near 1 micron which we interpret as the aggregate emission from low-redshift IHL. New direct photometric measurements from CIBER's low resolution spectrometer will also be discussed.

  19. Untangling the Near-IR Spectral Features in the Protoplanetary Environment of KH 15D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulanantham, Nicole A.; Herbst, William; Gilmore, Martha S.; Cauley, P. Wilson; Leggett, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report on Gemini/GNIRS observations of the binary T Tauri system V582 Mon (KH 15D) at three orbital phases. These spectra allow us to untangle five components of the system: the photosphere and magnetosphere of star B, the jet, scattering properties of the ring material, and excess near-infrared (near-IR) radiation previously attributed to a possible self-luminous planet. We confirm an early-K subgiant classification for star B and show that the magnetospheric He i emission line is variable, possibly indicating increased mass accretion at certain times. As expected, the H2 emission features associated with the inner part of the jet show no variation with orbital phase. We show that the reflectance spectrum for the scattered light has a distinctive blue slope and spectral features consistent with scattering and absorption by a mixture of water and methane ice grains in the 1–50 μm size range. This suggests that the methane frost line is closer than ∼5 au in this system, requiring that the grains be shielded from direct radiation. After correcting for features from the scattered light, jet, magnetosphere, and photosphere, we confirm the presence of leftover near-IR light from an additional source, detectable near minimum brightness. A spectral emission feature matching the model spectrum of a 10 MJ, 1 Myr old planet is found in the excess flux, but other expected features from this model are not seen. Our observations, therefore, tentatively support the picture that a luminous planet is present within the system, although they cannot yet be considered definitive.

  20. Open House at the ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.

    2006-12-01

    On 15 October, the ESO Headquarters opened its doors to the public as part of the All-Campus Open House organised in connection with the inauguration of the extension of the underground line U6 from Munich to the Garching campus. The day was blessed with clear skies and plenty of sunshine, and a large number of citizens took advantage of the opportunity to visit the campus. The estimated number of visitors at ESO was close to 3000 people, a record number. Another record was set by the number of ESO staff who, in anticipation of the high num-ber of guests, volunteered to spend their Sunday at work to explain what ESO is doing and why it is important.

  1. The ESO Telescope bibliography at your fingertips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta; Meakins, Silvia

    2012-09-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. The ESO Library has developed and maintains the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a database of refereed papers that use observational data generated by ESO's facilities. Recently, a new public interface has been released. In addition to classical queries for bibliographic and facility-related information, it provides advanced features like faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. An additional tool offers the possibility to create graphical statistics on the fly based on user-defined criteria. The ESO Telescope Bibliography is available at http://telbib.eso.org/.

  2. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European

  3. Near-IR activity of hybrid solar cells: Enhancement of efficiency by dissociating excitons generated in PbS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, Asim; Rath, Arup K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2010-02-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on PbS nanoparticles remained inactive in the near-IR region due to a not-so-favorable energy band-diagram that does not allow dissociation of excitons generated in PbS. In this work, with the introduction of TiO2 nanostructures in the PbS-based hybrid system, we show an enhancement of photovoltaic performance in both visible and near-IR regions. The addition of TiO2 increases the power conversion efficiency from 0.006% to 0.12%. With the aid of energy band-diagram, we show that excitons generated in PbS even in the near-IR range can now become dissociated to yield photocurrent in the external circuit.

  4. Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-07

    We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.

  5. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  6. Dimensional Reduction of a Layered Metal Chalcogenide into a 1D Near-IR Direct Band Gap Semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Porter, Spencer H.; Goldberger, Joshua E.

    2012-07-24

    Reducing the dimensionality of inorganic lattices allows for the creation of new materials that have unique optoelectronic properties. We demonstrate that a layered metal chalcogenide lattice, TiS{sub 2}, can form a dimensionally reduced crystalline one-dimensional hybrid organic/inorganic TiS{sub 2}(ethylenediamine) framework when synthesized from molecular precursors in solution. This solid has strong absorption above 1.70 eV and pronounced emission in the near-IR regime. The energy dependence of the absorption, the near-IR photoluminescence, and electronic band structure calculations confirm that TiS{sub 2}(ethylenediamine) has a direct band gap.

  7. Axion Decay and Anisotropy of Near-IR Extragalactic Background Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Chen, Xuelei; Zemcov, Michael; Smidt, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is composed of the cumulative radiation from all galaxies and active galactic nuclei over cosmic history. In addition to point sources, the EBL also contains information from diffuse sources of radiation. The angular power spectra of the near-infrared intensities could contain additional signals, and a complete understanding of the nature of the infrared (IR) background is still lacking in the literature. Here we explore the constraints that can be placed on particle decays, especially candidate dark matter (DM) models involving axions that trace DM halos of galaxies. Axions with a mass around a few electronvolts will decay via two photons with wavelengths in the near-IR band and will leave a signature in the IR background intensity power spectrum. Using recent power spectra measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, we find that the 0.6-1.6 μm power spectra can be explained by axions with masses around 4 eV. The total axion abundance Ω a ≃ 0.05, and it is comparable to the baryon density of the universe. The suggested mean axion mass and abundance are not ruled out by existing cosmological observations. Interestingly, the axion model with a mass distribution is preferred by the data, which cannot be explained by the standard quantum chromodynamics theory and needs further discussion.

  8. Near-IR diode laser absorption for measurement of tropospheric HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of using tunable lead salt diode lasers in the infrared for measurement of tropospheric HO2 has been frequently considered. Although the sensitivity of diode laser absorption has been improved through the use of high frequency detection techniques, nature has been unkind in that the HO2 absorption cross sections are weak. Even using the most optimistic assumptions about attainable path length and detectable absorbance, measurement of tropospheric HO2 by diode laser absorption in the mid-IR appears marginal. A possible alternative method for measuring HO2 is by absorption at near-infrared wavelengths. Several absorption bands of HO2 occur in the wavelength region between 1.2 and 1.6 micron due to electronic transitions and overtones of the fundamental vibrational modes. InGaAsP diode lasers operate in this wavelength region and can be used for high resolution spectroscopy in a manner analogous to the lead salt lasers. A diode laser system in the near-IR offers some advantages.

  9. Spectroscopic observations of the Uranus' satellite Miranda in Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgeot, F.; Dumas, C.; Merlin, F.; Vernazza, P.; Alvarez-Candal, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present new Near-IR spectra of the Uranus' icy satellite Miranda. This body is probably the most remarkable of all satellites of Uranus, displaying series of surface features such as faults, craters and largescale upwelling, remnant of a geologically very active past. The observations were performed first at the Palomar Observatory with the PHARO instrument (Palomar High Angular Resolution Observer) and then at the Mauna Kea Observatory with SpeX instrument based on the IRTF (Infra-Red Telescope Facility). Water ice is clearly visible in K-band (large 2.0 μm absorption band) and crystalline water ice (at 1.65 μm) seems to cover the most part of the satellite's surface. We focused the study in H band on the 1.42-1.72 μm range at observations dates corresponding to the leading and trailing hemispheres of Miranda. Contrary to the other outer Uranus' moons (Grundy et al. 2006), we did not found any significative differences between both hemispheres in this spectral range. We also studied the possible presence of volatiles like ammonia hydrate and do not exclude the possible presence of a tiny 2.22 μm band yet observed by Bauer et al. 2002. No significant features of carbon dioxide were identified on any spectra. We performed spectral models, based on bi-hemispherical reflectance theory (Hapke 1993) in order to obtain more details on the chemical compounds possibly present on the surface of this Uranian satellite.

  10. Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemistry of Near-IR Absorbing Bacteriochlorins Related to Bacteriochlorophyll a

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrev, Andrei; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Chen, Ping; Ohkubo, Kei; Robinson, Byron C.; Barkigia, Kathleen M.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kadish, Karl M.; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2012-01-01

    A series of new bacteriochlorins was synthesized using 132-oxobacteriopyropheophorbide- a (derived from bacteriochlorophyll-a) as a starting material, which on reacting with o-phenylenediamine and 1,10-diaminonaphthalene afforded highly conjugated annulated bacteriochlorins with fused quinoxaline, benzimidazole and perimidine rings respectively. The absorption spectra of these novel bacteriochlorins demonstrated remarkably red-shifted intense Qy absorption bands observed in the range of 816–850 nm with high molar extinction coefficients (89,900–136,800). Treatment of 132-oxo-bacteriopyropheophorbide a methyl ester with diazomethane resulted in the formation of bacterioverdins containing a fused six member methoxy substituted cyclohexenone (verdin) as an isomeric mixture. The pure isomers which exhibit long wavelength absorptions in the near-IR region (865–890 nm) are highly stable at room temperature with high reactivity with O2 at the triplet photoexcited state, favorable redox potential and could be potential candidates for use as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). PMID:23082726

  11. A car-borne highly sensitive near-IR diode-laser methane detector

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, A G; Ershov, Oleg V; Shapovalov, Yu P

    2003-08-31

    A highly sensitive automated car-borne detector for measuring methane concentration in real time is designed, developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. Measurements were made with the help of an uncooled tunable near-IR 1.65-{mu}m laser diode. The detector consists of a multipass optical cell with a 45-m long optical path and a base length of 0.5 m. The car-borne detector is intended for monitoring the methane concentration in air from the moving car to reveal the leakage of domestic gas. The sensitivity limit (standard deviation) under field conditions is 1 ppm (20 ppb under laboratory conditions) for a measuring time of 0.4 s. The measuring technique based on the detection of a single methane line ensured a high selectivity of methane detector relative to other gases. The methane detector can be easily modified for measuring other simple-molecule gases (e.g., CO, CO{sub 2}, HF, NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) by replacing the diode laser and varying the parameters of the control program. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  12. Monitoring proton dissociation and solution conformation of chiral ytterbium complexes with near-IR CD.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Moreno; Pintacuda, Guido; Cuzzola, Angela; Di Bari, Lorenzo

    2005-05-05

    The ytterbium complex [Yb((S)-THP)](3+) ((S)-THP = (1S,4S,7S,10S-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) is investigated in solution through NMR, near-IR absorption, and CD spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the paramagnetic pseudocontact NMR shift shows Lambda helicity of the ligand cage around the metal. The NIR CD spectrum recorded at acidic pH is found to be very similar to that of [Yb((R)-DOTMA)](-) ((R)-DOTMA = (1R,4R,7R,10R)-alpha,alpha',alpha'',alpha'''-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), which in solution assumes a twisted square antiprism (TSA) conformation. The similarity of the NIR CD spectra is discussed, and it is the first proof of the Lambda(lambda,lambda,lambda,lambda) conformation of [Yb((S)-THP)](3+). NIR CD spectra recorded in the pH range of 2-9 allow one to easily follow proton dissociation and to calculate the pK of this equilibrium in water (pK(A) = 6.4 +/- 0.1). This value agrees well with that determined for [Lu((S)-THP)](3+) using potentiometric methods. This demonstrates once again that NIR CD spectroscopy is a powerful technique for investigating the solution structure and dynamics of these complexes.

  13. Design of a near-IR Doppler instrument for planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Wang, Ji; Groot, John

    2010-07-01

    Doppler searches are extending to the near infrared to detect and characterize habitable planets around low mass stars. We present an optical design and performance of a near-IR Doppler instrument. This instrument has two operating modes covering 0.8-1.8 microns. One mode is called IRET, which consists of a fix-delay interferometer and a crossdispersed echelle spectrograph to simultaneously cover 0.8-1.35 microns with a spectral resolution of R=22000 on a 2k x 2k H2RG IR array. The other mode is called FIRST, which uses a silicon immersion grating as the main disperser to simultaneously cover 1.4-1.8 microns with a spectral resolution of R=55000 on the same detector as IRET. The triplepass parabola white pupil design is used to restrain background scatter radiation with stable configuration for precision radial velocity measurements. We used high index standard glasses for camera optics and VPH gratings as crossdispersers in both modes. The FIRST mode can be switched in and out conveniently while the IRET mode is kept without moving parts to increase its stability. This instrument is designed to deliver up to 1 m/s Doppler precision RV measurements of nearby bright M dwarfs at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope. The instrument is expected to be operational in the spring 2011.

  14. Hybrid organo-inorganic clay with nonionic interlayers. mid- and near-IR spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Finocchio, Elisabetta; Baccini, Irene; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca

    2011-07-07

    The intercalation of organic polymers molecules (i.e., PEGs and BRIJ) into a standard Ca-montmorillonite has been studied by XRD, TG, and IR spectroscopy. The polymer intercalation is confirmed by the increasing of the d(001) in XRD spectra as well as by the complex multisteps thermal decomposition behavior of the organo-clay materials. Mid-IR and diffuse reflectance near-IR spectra of the intercalated materials show the polymer diagnostic bands (CH stretching and deformation mode), shifted or changed in shape by the interaction with the clay matrix. Both PEG 1500 and PEG 4000 based materials are likely intercalated in an extended configuration, similar to the amorphous polymer form. BRIJ intercalated polymer spectra suggest the disordered conformation of the alkilic chain in a prevailing "gauche", poorly packed, conformation. Host montmorillonite IR bands, mainly OH and water stretching and deformation fundamentals, combination, and overtone bands, are reduced in intensity by polymer intercalation, pointing out an interaction, likely through H-bonding and/or a possible substitution of cations hydration water molecules.

  15. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Korablev, O.; Mantsevich, S.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R.; Kiselev, A.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bondarenko, A.; Dokuchaev, I.; Moiseev, P.; Victorov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Skorov, Y.; Bisikalo, D.; Velikodsky, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2017) and Luna- Resurs (launch in 2019) Russian surface missions. It's a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module. The instrument's field of view (FOV) of 1° is co-aligned with the FOV(45°) of a stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. It's spectrometer based on LIS with required redesign for ExoMars mission. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast coaligned with the FOV (5°) of High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers and are intended for study of the surface composition in the vicinity of the lander and rover. The spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The spectral selection is provided by acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed.

  16. Abundances in bulge stars from high-resolution, near-IR spectra. I. The CNO elements observed during the science verification of CRIRES at VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Edvardsson, B.; Gustafsson, B.; Eriksson, K.; Käufl, H. U.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.

    2009-03-01

    Context: The formation and evolution of the Milky Way bulge is not yet well understood and its classification is ambiguous. Constraints can, however, be obtained by studying the abundances of key elements in bulge stars. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the chemical evolution of C, N, O, and a few other elements in stars in the Galactic bulge, and to discuss the sensitivities of the derived abundances from molecular lines. Methods: High-resolution, near-infrared spectra in the H band were recorded using the CRIRES spectrometer on the Very Large Telescope. Due to the high and variable visual extinction in the line-of-sight towards the bulge, an analysis in the near-IR is preferred. The C, N, and O abundances can all be determined simultaneously from the numerous molecular lines in the wavelength range observed. Results: The three giant stars in Baade's window presented here are the first bulge stars observed with CRIRES during its science verification observations. We have especially determined the C, N, and O abundances, with uncertainties of less than 0.20 dex, from CO, CN, and OH lines. Since the systematic uncertainties in the derived C, N, and O abundances due to uncertainties in the stellar fundamental parameters, notably T_eff, are significant, a detailed discussion of the sensitivities of the derived abundances is included. We find good agreement between near-IR and optically determined O, Ti, Fe, and Si abundances. Two of our stars show a solar [C+N/Fe], suggesting that these giants have experienced the first dredge-up and that the oxygen abundance should reflect the original abundance of the giants. The two giants fit into the picture, in which there is no significant difference between the oxygen abundance in bulge and thick-disk stars. Our determination of the sulphur abundances is the first for bulge stars. The high [S/Fe] values for all the stars indicate a high star-formation rate in an early phase of the bulge evolution. Based on

  17. THE GEMINI SPECTRAL LIBRARY OF NEAR-IR LATE-TYPE STELLAR TEMPLATES AND ITS APPLICATION FOR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Winge, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic library of late spectral type stellar templates in the near-IR range 2.15-2.42 {mu}m, at R = 5300-5900 resolution, oriented to support stellar kinematics studies in external galaxies, such as the direct determination of the masses of supermassive black holes in nearby active (or non-active) galaxies. The combination of high spectral resolution and state-of-the-art instrumentation available in 8 m class telescopes has made the analysis of circumnuclear stellar kinematics using the near-IR CO band heads one of the most used techniques for such studies, and this library aims to provide the supporting data sets required by the higher spectral resolution and larger spectral coverage currently achieved with modern near-IR spectrographs. Examples of the application for kinematical analysis are given for data obtained with two Gemini instruments, but the templates can be easily adjusted for use with other near-IR spectrographs at similar or lower resolution. The example data sets are also used to revisit the 'template mismatch' effect and the dependence of the velocity dispersion values obtained from the fitting process with the characteristics of the stellar templates. The library is available in electronic form from the Gemini Web pages.

  18. Highly selective and responsive visible to near-IR ytterbium emissive probe for monitoring mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chan, Chi-Fai; Lan, Rongfeng; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-01-20

    A new lanthanide probe based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process with the combination of ytterbium porphyrinate complex and a rhodamine B derivative unit was synthesized to detect the Hg(2+) ion with responsive emission in the visible and near-IR region with a detection limit of 10 μM.

  19. ESO science data product standard for 1D spectral products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micol, Alberto; Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa A. R.; Mascetti, Laura; Retzlaff, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Phase 3 process allows the upload, validation, storage, and publication of reduced data through the ESO Science Archive Facility. Since its introduction, 2 million data products have been archived and published; 80% of them are one-dimensional extracted and calibrated spectra. Central to Phase3 is the ESO science data product standard that defines metadata and data format of any product. This contribution describes the ESO data standard for 1d-spectra, its adoption by the reduction pipelines of selected instrument modes for in-house generation of reduced spectra, the enhanced archive legacy value. Archive usage statistics are provided.

  20. Implications of New Methane Absorption Coefficients on Uranus Vertical Structure Derived from Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.

    2009-09-01

    Using new methane absorption coefficients from Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, submitted to Icarus, "Methane Absorption Coefficients for the Jovian Planets from Laboratory, Huygens, and HST Data"), we fit Uranus near-IR spectra previously analyzed in Sromovsky et al. (2006, Icarus 182, 577-593, Fink and Larson, 1979 J- and H-band), Sromovsky and Fry (2008, Icarus 193, 252-266, 2006 NIRC2 J- and H-band, 2006 SpeX) using Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319) methane absorption coefficients. Because the new absorption coefficients usually result in higher opacities at the low temperatures seen in Uranus' upper troposphere, our previously derived cloud altitudes are expected to generally rise to higher altitudes. For example, using Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) model D temperature and methane abundance profiles, we are better able to fit the J-band 43-deg. south bright band with the new coefficients (chi-square=205, vs. 315 for Irwin), with the pressure of the upper tropospheric cloud decreasing to 1.6 bars (from 2.4 bars using Irwin coefficients). Improvements in fitting H-band spectra from the same latitude are not as readily obtained. Derived upper tropospheric cloud pressures are very similar using the two absorption datasets (1.6-1.7 bars), but the character of the fits differs. New Karkoschka and Tomasko coefficients better fit some details in the 1.5-1.58 micron region, but Irwin fits the broad absorption band wing at 1.61-1.62 microns better, and the fit chi-square values are similar (K&T: 243, Irwin: 220). Results for a higher methane concentration (Lindal et al. model F) were similar. Whether the new coefficients will simply raise derived altitudes across the planet or will result in fundamental changes in structure is as yet unclear. This work was suported by NASA planetary astronomy and planetary atmospheres programs.

  1. A Concept for Seeing-Limited Near-IR Spectroscopy on the Giant Magellan Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcoe, Robert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Egan, Mark; Malonis, Andrew; Hellickson, Tim

    2016-09-01

    We present a simple seeing-limited IR spectrometer design for the Giant Magellan Telescope, with continuous R = 6000 coverage from 0.87-2.50 microns for a 0:7" slit. The instrument's design is based on an asymmetric white pupil echelle layout, with dichroics splitting the optical train into yJ, H, and K channels after the pupil transfer mirror. A separate low-dispersion mode offers single-object R ~ 850 spectra which also cover the full NIR bandpass in each exposure. Catalog gratings and H2RG detectors are used to minimize cost, and only two cryogenic rotary mechanisms are employed, reducing mechanical complexity. The instrument dewar occupies an envelope of 1:8×1:5×1:2 meters, satisfying mass and volume requirements for GMT with comfortable margin. We estimate the system throughput at ~35% including losses from the atmosphere, telescope, and instrument (i.e. all coatings, gratings, and sensors). This optical efficiency is comparable to the FIRE spectrograph on Magellan, and we have specified and designed fast cameras so the GMT instrument will have an almost identical pixel scale as FIRE. On the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes, FIRE is read-noise limited in the y and J bands, similar to other existing near-IR spectrometers and also to JWST/NIRSPEC. GMT's twelve-fold increase in collecting area will therefore offer gains in signal-to-noise per exposure that exceed those of moderate resolution optical instruments, which are already sky-noise limited on today's telescopes. Such an instrument would allow GMT to pursue key early science programs on the Epoch of Reionization, galaxy formation, transient astronomy, and obscured star formation environments prior to commissioning of its adaptive optics system. This design study demonstrates the feasibility of developing relatively affordable spectrometers at the ELT scale, in response to the pressures of joint funding for these telescopes and their associated instrument suites.

  2. Low altitude cloud height and methane humidity retrievals on Titan in the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkovics, M.; Hayes, A.; Mitchell, J.; De Pater, I.; Young, E.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of low altitude clouds on Titan, with cloud-top altitudes below ~10km, likely occurs by a fundamentally different mechanism than for the clouds commonly observed to have cloud-tops in the upper troposphere, above ~15km [1]. Near-infrared spectroscopy of clouds has been the method of choice for determining cloud altitudes [2], however, uncertainties in aerosols scattering properties and opacities, together with limitations in laboratory measurements of gas opacities (in particular for methane), lead to uncertainties in how accurately the altitude of low clouds can be retrieved [3]. Here we revisit near-IR spectra obtained with Keck and Cassini using new laboratory methane line data in the HITRAN 2012 database [4] to address the problem of measuring the altitudes of low clouds. We discuss the role of topography in relation to the formation of low clouds and other diagnostics of conditions near the surface, such as the tropospheric methane humidity. We reanalyze measurements the tropospheric humidity variation [5] and describe observational strategies for improved diagnostics of the tropospheric humidity on Titan . Acknowledgements: Funding for this work is provided by the NSF grant AST-1008788 and NASA OPR grant NNX12AM81G. References: [1] Brown, et al. (2009) ApJ, 706, L110-L113. [2] Ádámkovics et al. (2010) Icarus, 208, 868-877. [3] Griffith et al. (2012) Icarus, 218, 975-988. [4] Rothman et al. (2013) AIP Conf. Proc., 1545, 223-231. [5] Penteado & Griffith (2010) Icarus, 206, 345-351.

  3. IGRINS Near-IR High-resolution Spectroscopy of Multiple Jets around LkHα 234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H2 emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position-velocity diagrams of the H2 1-0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H2 emission at the systemic velocity (VLSR = -10.2 km s-1) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at VLSR = -100--130 km s-1. We infer that the H2 emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H2 lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500-3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  4. The Surprising in Vivo Instability of Near-IR-Absorbing Hollow Au–Ag Nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal ablation based on resonant illumination of near-infrared-absorbing noble metal nanoparticles that have accumulated in tumors is a highly promising cancer therapy, currently in multiple clinical trials. A crucial aspect of this therapy is the nanoparticle size for optimal tumor uptake. A class of nanoparticles known as hollow Au (or Au–Ag) nanoshells (HGNS) is appealing because near-IR resonances are achievable in this system with diameters less than 100 nm. However, in this study, we report a surprising finding that in vivo HGNS are unstable, fragmenting with the Au and the remnants of the sacrificial Ag core accumulating differently in various organs. We synthesized 43, 62, and 82 nm diameter HGNS through a galvanic replacement reaction, with nanoparticles of all sizes showing virtually identical NIR resonances at ∼800 nm. A theoretical model indicated that alloying, residual Ag in the nanoparticle core, nanoparticle porosity, and surface defects all contribute to the presence of the plasmon resonance at the observed wavelength, with the major contributing factor being the residual Ag. While PEG functionalization resulted in stable nanoparticles under laser irradiation in solution, an anomalous, strongly element-specific biodistribution observed in tumor-bearing mice suggests that an avid fragmentation of all three sizes of nanoparticles occurred in vivo. Stability studies across a wide range of pH environments and in serum confirmed HGNS fragmentation. These results show that NIR resonant HGNS contain residual Ag, which does not stay contained within the HGNS in vivo. This demonstrates the importance of tracking both materials of a galvanic replacement nanoparticle in biodistribution studies and of performing thorough nanoparticle stability studies prior to any intended in vivo trial application. PMID:24547810

  5. Determination of Near-IR Water Vapor Self Continuum from Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlawer, Eli; Gombos, Daniel; Alvarado, Matthew; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Payne, Vivienne; Chase, Alison; Michalsky, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    There is still significant uncertainty in the strength of water vapor continuum absorption in the windows between near-infrared water vapor bands. Many radiation codes obtain their water vapor continuum absorption coefficients from the MT CKD continuum model, which derives its near-infrared values from a water vapor line-shape function that has been constrained by continuum measurements in other spectral regions. A number of recent laboratory studies have shown that the strength of the near-IR self continuum in the MT CKD model is too low, but these laboratory studies disagree with each other by more than an order of magnitude. At the high end of the range of measured strengths, the self continuum absorbs a significant amount of solar radiation, so it is crucial that other observational studies are performed to establish the actual strength of this absorption source. We describe here an analysis of measurements from a solar FTS in Lamont, OK, part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Thirteen periods on individual days in 2012 were identified as being reasonably stable with respect to aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor. For each period, the FTS measurements, coincident measurements from a Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) at the DOE ARM site, and calculations from the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) were used to obtain aerosol optical depths in window regions from 8000-20000 cm-1, which were then extended to lower wavenumbers through a generalized Angstrom relationship. In windows between 4000-7000 cm-1, these aerosol optical depths, and the LBLRTM optical depths without any self continuum, were subtracted from FTS-derived total optical depths. The self continuum absorption coefficients that were derived from this procedure were at the low end of the recent laboratory studies, but higher than the current version of MT CKD. The implications of the results of this study with respect to the absorption of

  6. IGRINS NEAR-IR HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTIPLE JETS AROUND LkHα 234

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Kang-Min; Oh, Jae Sok; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Sungho; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Pak, Soojong; Lee, Hye-In; Le, Huynh Anh Nguyen; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; and others

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H{sub 2} emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position–velocity diagrams of the H{sub 2} 1−0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H{sub 2} emission at the systemic velocity (V{sub LSR} = −10.2 km s{sup −1}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at V{sub LSR} = −100–−130 km s{sup −1}. We infer that the H{sub 2} emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H{sub 2} lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500–3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation.

  7. Optical design of a versatile FIRST high-resolution near-IR spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-01

    We report the update optical design of a versatile FIRST high resolution near IR spectrograph, which is called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST). This spectrograph uses cross-dispersed echelle design with white pupils and also takes advantage of the image slicing to increase the spectra resolution, while maintaining the instrument throughput. It is an extremely high dispersion R1.4 (blazed angle of 54.74°) silicon immersion grating with a 49 mm diameter pupil is used as the main disperser at 1.4μm -1.8μm to produce R=72,000 while an R4 echelle with the same pupil diameter produces R=60,000 at 0.8μm -1.35μm. Two cryogenic Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings are used as cross-dispersers to allow simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.8μm -1.8μm. The butterfly mirrors and dichroic beamsplitters make a compact folding system to record these two wavelength bands with a 2kx2k H2RG array in a single exposure. By inserting a mirror before the grating disperser (the SIG and the echelle), this spectrograph becomes a very efficient integral field 3-D imaging spectrograph with R=2,000-4,000 at 0.8μm-1.8μm by coupling a 10x10 telescope fiber bundle with the spectrograph. Details about the optical design and performance are reported.

  8. Near-IR Period-Luminosity Relations for variable stars in ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Gran, F.; Alonso-García, J.; Dékány, I.

    2014-10-01

    We report on an extensive time-series study of the globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139), obtained in the framework of the VVV Templates project (Catelan et al. 2013, arXiv: 1310.1996). This cluster was chosen for this project due to its large variable star content. A total of 42 and 100 epochs of the cluster in J and K_{S}, respectively, were taken using VIRCAM@VISTA, and PSF photometry was performed to derive light curves for 270 pulsating stars (RRab, RRc, type II Cepheids and SX Phoenicis) with an unprecedented phase coverage in the near-IR. Period-Luminosity (PL) relations in both bands were derived using Fourier fitted magnitudes for RR Lyrae and Type II Cepheids, while weighted-average magnitudes were used for SX Phe stars. Using the PL relation for RRab stars derived by Dékány et al. (2013, ApJ, 776, 19L) in the VISTA K_{S} system, we determine a distance modulus of (m-M)_{0} = 13.78 ± 0.04 mag, in good agreement with Del Principe et al. (2006, ApJ, 652, 362). From Type II Cepheids we derived a value of (m-M)_{0} = 13.67 ± 0.07 mag, similar to what was found by Matsunaga et al. (2006, MNRAS, 370, 1979). For SX Phe stars, we use the derived periods and magnitudes to infer their pulsation modes, and we confirm that at least 12 of them are fundamental-mode pulsators (Olech et al. 2005, MNRAS, 363, 40).

  9. ESO PR Highlights in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Another great year went by for ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. From 1 January 2007, with the official joining of the Czech Republic, ESO has 13 member states, and since September, ESO has a new Director General, Tim de Zeeuw (ESO 03/07 and 38/07). Many scientific discoveries were made possible with ESO's telescopes. Arguably, the most important is the discovery of the first Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of a low-mass red dwarf (ESO 22/07). If there is water on this planet, then it should be liquid! ESO PR Highlights 2007 This is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2007. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2007 page. In our own Solar System also, astronomers made stunning breakthroughs with ESO's telescopes, observing the effect of the light from the Sun on an asteroid's rotation (ESO 11/07), describing in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope (ESO 18/07), peering at the rings of Uranus (ESO 37/07), discovering a warm south pole on Neptune (ESO 41/07), showing a widespread and persistent morning drizzle of methane over the western foothills of Titan's major continent (ESO 47/07), and studying in the greatest details the wonderful Comet McNaught (ESO 05/07 and 07/07). In the study of objects slightly more massive than planets, the VLT found that brown dwarfs form in a similar manner to normal stars (ESO 24/07). The VLT made it also possible to measure the age of a fossil star that was clearly born at the dawn of time (ESO 23/07). Other discoveries included reconstructing the site of a flare on a solar-like star (ESO 53/07), catching a star smoking (ESO 34/07), revealing a reservoir of dust around an elderly star (ESO 43/07), uncovering a flat, nearly edge-on disc of silicates in the heart of the magnificent Ant Nebula (ESO 42/07), finding material around a star before it exploded (ESO 31/07), fingerprinting the Milky Way (ESO 15/07), revealing a rich

  10. Monitoring of near-IR emission features at the NTT and detection of the northern counterparts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Encrenaz, T.; Stüwe, J. A.; Wiedemann, G.

    The evolution of the Jovian stratosphere after the impact of P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 was monitored spectroscopically in the 3.5 μm and 2.1 μm regions using the IRSPEC spectrometer at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope on La Silla between July 16 and 31, 1994. H3+ and H2 emissions were observed above some of the impact sites and the strongest of the monitored H3+ lines was also detected at the longitudes of the impact areas in the northern hemisphere. These counterparts of the impact sites were clearly visible between July 23 and 25, 1994. Later the longitudinal distribution of the emissions detected in the northern hemisphere does no longer show a correlation to the impact areas. The distribution of the H3+ and H2 emissions on the entire Jovian disk including the auroral regions is presented as a function of time.

  11. ESO's First Observatory Celebrates 40th Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    ESO's La Silla Observatory, which is celebrating its 40th anniversary, became the largest astronomical observatory of its time. It led Europe to the frontline of astronomical research, and is still one of the most scientifically productive in ground-based astronomy. ESO PR Photo 12a/09 La Silla Aerial View ESO PR Photo 12b/09 The ESO New Technology Telescope ESO PR Photo 12c/09 SEST on La Silla ESO PR Photo 12d/09 Looking for the best site ESO PR Video 12a/09 ESOcast 5 With about 300 refereed publications attributable to the work of the observatory per year, La Silla remains at the forefront of astronomy. It has led to an enormous number of scientific discoveries, including several "firsts". The HARPS spectrograph is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. It detected the system around Gliese 581, which contains what may be the first known rocky planet in a habitable zone, outside the Solar System (ESO 22/07). Several telescopes at La Silla played a crucial role in discovering that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (ESO 21/98) and in linking gamma-ray bursts -- the most energetic explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang - with the explosions of massive stars (ESO 15/98). Since 1987, the ESO La Silla Observatory has also played an important role in the study and follow-up of the nearest supernova, SN 1987A (ESO 08/07). "The La Silla Observatory continues to offer the astronomical community exceptional capabilities," says ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. "It was ESO's first presence in Chile and as such, it triggered a very long and fruitful collaboration with this country and its scientific community." The La Silla Observatory is located at the edge of the Chilean Atacama Desert, one of the driest and loneliest areas of the world. Like other observatories in this geographical area, La Silla is located far from sources of polluting light and, as the Paranal Observatory that houses the Very Large Telescope, it has one of the darkest and clearest

  12. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large

  13. The mass function of M 4 from near IR and optical HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulone, Luigi; de Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco

    1999-02-01

    Deep images of the galactic globular cluster M 4 taken at various locations with the NIC 3 and the WFPC 2 cameras on HST were used to derive detailed local optical and near IR luminosity functions. White dwarfs have been detected for the first time on a color sequence at constant luminosity in the F110W band. Transformation of the observed luminosity functions into mass functions via the most up to date theoretical mass luminosity relations currently available results in best fit local mass functions, in logarithmic mass units, that consist of a power-law dN ~ m(-x) dlog m, with single exponent x = -0.8 for the inner regions and a two-segment power-law which rises with x = 1 down to M814 =~ 8.5 and then drops all the way to the detection limit with x = -0.3 for the outer regions. This behaviour cannot be reconciled with the expectations of a multi-mass King-Michie dynamical model using as input the canonical structure parameters for this cluster (core radius r_c = 50{('') } and concentration c = 1.6: Harris 1996). Thus, either the model does not accurately reflect the structure of the cluster due to some effect not properly accounted for in it or the canonical cluster structural parameters have to be significantly modified. Reasonable fits to all the present observations can be obtained with various global mass functions provided the cluster's structural parameters such as concentration c and core radius r_c, are in the range c in [1.4, 1.9] and r_c in [50{('') } , 90{('') } ]. The best compromise, in this case, consists in a model with a two-segment power-law mass function with exponents x = 0.2-1.0 in the mass interval 0.8 < Msun < 0.25, x = -0.4 for m <= 0.25 M_sun and structural parameters that require the least modification from the currently established values. This last result differs only minimally from that obtained for other globular clusters studied so far with HST which seem to have global mass functions increasing up to a peak at ~ 0.25 M_sun and then

  14. Optical Testing of Diamond Machined, Aspheric Mirrors for Groundbased, Near-IR Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, V. John; Mink, Ronald G.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Connelly, Joseph A.; Mentzell, J. Eric; Arnold, Steven M.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Winsor, Robert S.; MacKenty, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a facility-class instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 and 2.1 meter telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8-2.5 micron) spectrometer and operates at approximately 80 K. The 6061-T651 aluminum bench and mirrors constitute an athermal design. The instrument produces simultaneous spectra at low- to mid-resolving power (R=lambda/delta lambda= 300-3000) of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field. We describe ambient and cryogenic optical testing of the IRMOS mirrors across a broad range in spatial frequency (figure error, mid-frequency error, and microroughness). The mirrors include three rotationally symmetric, off-axis conic sections, one off-axis biconic, and several flat fold mirrors. The symmetric mirrors include convex and concave prolate and oblate ellipsoids. They range in aperture from 94x86 mm to 286x269 mm and in f-number from 0.9 to 2.4. The biconic mirror is concave and has a 94x76 mm aperture, R(sub x)=377 mm, k(sub x)=0.0778, R(sub y)=407 mm, and k(sub y)=0.1265 and is decentered by -2 mm in X and 227 mm in Y. All of the mirrors have an aspect ratio of approximately 6:1. The surface error fabrication tolerances are less than 10 nm RMS microroughness, 'best effort' for mid-frequency error, and less than 63.3 nm RMS figure error. Ambient temperature (approximately 293 K) testing is performed for each of the three surface error regimes, and figure testing is also performed at approximately 80 K. Operation of the ADE Phaseshift MicroXAM white light interferometer (micro-roughness) and the Bauer Model 200 profilometer (mid-frequency error) is described. Both the sag and conic values of the aspheric mirrors make these tests challenging. Figure testing is performed using a Zygo GPI interferometer, custom computer generated holograms (CGH), and optomechanical alignment fiducials. Cryogenic CGH null testing is discussed in detail. We discuss complications such as the change in

  15. Optical and Near-IR Spectral Comparison with Chromophore Candidates in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander; Chanover, Nancy; Miller, Charles; Loeffler, Mark; Hudson, Reggie; Simon, Amy

    2014-11-01

    Large atmospheric features, such as the belts, zones, and storms that make up Jupiter’s atmosphere remain colored by an unidentified chemical compound (or set of compounds). Optical reflectance spectra of Jupiter’s atmosphere in the literature show few spectral features in the blue (shortwards of 500 nm), unlike the red portion of the spectrum which is dominated by the methane absorption spectrum. The prevailing spectral slope and dearth of molecular absorption features in the blue are attributed to absorption by coloring compounds, or chromophores, in the upper Jovian atmosphere. While both organic and inorganic candidate compounds have been proposed, few laboratory studies have been conducted at temperatures and pressures appropriate for local Jupiter conditions to determine the identity of the chromophores responsible for coloring these large atmospheric features such as Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. In this study, we analyzed ground-based optical spectra and near-IR spectral image cubes of Jupiter for comparison with laboratory data of a potential chromophore compound. Optical spectra 330-450 nm in the blue, ~570-690 nm in the red) were obtained between December 2013 and February 2014 with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph, mounted on the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory. Near-infrared (1.25-2.5 μm) spectra of various locations in Jupiter’s atmosphere were obtained from spectral image cubes taken with the New Horizons Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array during the early 2007 Jupiter flyby. The combination of these two data sets allowed us to identify specific regions in the Jovian atmosphere with distinct coloration. We compare these ground- and space-based observations to laboratory spectra from the Cosmic Ice Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Thin films of NH4SH were exposed to varying amounts of ionizing radiation at Jovian temperature conditions, thereby enabling us to evaluate NH4SH as a

  16. Fabrication of 3D polymer photonic crystals for near-IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Peng; Qiu, Liang; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Prather, Dennis W.; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Kelmelis, Eric

    2008-02-01

    occurred as we reduced the lattice constant for near-IR applications. In this work, we address this problem by employing SU8. The exposure is vertically confined by using a mismatched 220nm DUV source. Intermixing problem is eliminated due to more densely crosslinked resist molecules. Using this method, we have demonstrated 3D "woodpile" structure with 1.55μm lattice constant and a 2mm-by-2mm pattern area.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D. E-mail: massa@derckmassa.net

    2009-07-10

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, {beta}, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as {beta} decreases, R(V) {identical_to} A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the {beta} increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to {+-}0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  18. Charon's, Hydra's, and Nix's near IR spectra as seen by New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Protopapa, Silvia; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; New Horizons Surface Composition Theme Team

    2016-10-01

    Charon, Pluto's largest satellite, is a predominantly grey-color icy world covered mostly in H2O ice, with spectral evidence for NH3 and/or its hydrates, as previously reported (Cook et al. 2007, ApJ. 663, 1406; Verbiscer et al. 2007, LPSC 38, 2318; Merlin et al. 2010, Icarus, 210, 930; Cook et al. 2014, AAS/DPS Abstracts, 46, #401.04; Holler et al. 2016, submitted, arXiv:1606.05695). In their 2010 work, Merlin et al. reported the presence of ammonia species along with H2O ice both in crystalline and amorphous phase. They introduced a blue component to model the slope present in their near-IR observations, which could not be otherwise reproduced without the adoption of an ad hoc component. The presence of ammonia and H2O in its crystalline form prompted Cook et al. (2007) to suggest cryovolcanism as a favored mechanism of resurfacing although the geological evidence for volcanism reported from New Horizons imaging observations does not appear to be recent (Moore et al. Science, 351, 1284).We analyze one of New Horizons' observations of Charon taken with the LEISA imaging spectrometer from a distance of ~82,000 km at high spatial resolution (4.9 km/pixel). Images from the New Horizons spacecraft reveal a surface with terrains of seemingly different ages and a moderate degree of localized coloration.Hydra was observed by New Horizons at a distance 240,000 and 370,000 hardly resolving its disk. Nix on the other hand was observed from a much more favorable distance of 60,000 and 162,000 km revealing a nearly uniform surface coloration and structure.Although Hydra could hardly be resolved at the flyby distance we have obtained its spectral signature and we compare it with those of Charon and Nix. A feature at ~2.2 µm, corresponding to the NH3 and/or NH3 hydrates, is visible subtly on Charon and clearly on Hydra and Nix hinting at the possibility that NH3 might be less volatile than previously thought and making the need for recent cryovolcanism less crucial

  19. DEEP NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4: HUNTING FOR BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Dieball, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Knigge, C.; Rich, R. M.; Allard, F.; Dotter, A.; Richer, H.; Zurek, D.

    2016-01-20

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 near-IR (NIR) imaging data of the globular cluster (GC) M4. The best-photometry NIR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) clearly shows the main sequence extending toward the expected end of the hydrogen-burning limit and going beyond this point toward fainter sources. The white dwarf (WD) sequence can be identified. As such, this is the deepest NIR CMD of a GC to date. Archival HST optical data were used for proper-motion cleaning of the CMD and for distinguishing the WDs from brown dwarf (BD) candidates. Detection limits in the NIR are around F110W ≈ 26.5 mag and F160W ≈ 27 mag, and in the optical around F775W ≈ 28 mag. Comparing our observed CMDs with theoretical models, we conclude that we have reached beyond the H-burning limit in our NIR CMD and are probably just above or around this limit in our optical–NIR CMDs. Thus, any faint NIR sources that have no optical counterpart are potential BD candidates, since the optical data are not deep enough to detect them. We visually inspected the positions of NIR sources that are fainter than the H-burning limit in F110W and for which the optical photometry did not return a counterpart. We found in total five sources for which we did not get an optical measurement. For four of these five sources, a faint optical counterpart could be visually identified, and an upper optical magnitude was estimated. Based on these upper optical magnitude limits, we conclude that one source is likely a WD, one source could be either a WD or BD candidate, and the remaining two sources agree with being BD candidates. No optical counterpart could be detected for just one source, which makes this source a good BD candidate. We conclude that we found in total four good BD candidates.

  20. The Orion fingers: Near-IR adaptive optics imaging of an explosive protostellar outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Silvia, Devin; Youngblood, Allison

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Adaptive optics (AO) images are used to test the hypothesis that the explosive BN/KL outflow from the Orion OMC1 cloud core was powered by the dynamical decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars. Methods: Narrow-band H2, [Fe ii], and broad-band Ks obtained with the Gemini South multi-conjugate AO system GeMS and near-IR imager GSAOI are presented. The images reach resolutions of 0.08 to 0.10'', close to the 0.07'' diffraction limit of the 8-m telescope at 2.12 μm. Comparison with previous AO-assisted observations of sub-fields and other ground-based observations enable measurements of proper motions and the investigation of morphological changes in H2 and [Fe ii] features with unprecedented precision. The images are compared with numerical simulations of compact, high-density clumps moving ~103 times their own diameter through a lower density medium at Mach 103. Results: Several sub-arcsecond H2 features and many [Fe ii] "fingertips" on the projected outskirts of the flow show proper motions of ~300 km s-1. High-velocity, sub-arcsecond H2 knots ("bullets") are seen as far as 140'' from their suspected ejection site. If these knots propagated through the dense Orion A cloud, their survival sets a lower bound on their densities of order 107 cm-3, consistent with an origin within a few au of a massive star and accelerated by a final multi-body dynamic encounter that ejected the BN object and radio source I from OMC1 about 500 yr ago. Conclusions: Over 120 high-velocity bow-shocks propagating in nearly all directions from the OMC1 cloud core provide evidence for an explosive origin for the BN/KL outflow triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars. Such events may be linked to the origin of runaway, massive stars. The final set of FITS files is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A130

  1. Anticancer drug released from near IR-activated prodrug overcomes spatiotemporal limits of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data

  2. Near-IR spectra of ISOGAL sources in the inner Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheis, M.; Lançon, A.; Omont, A.; Schuller, F.; Ojha, D. K.

    2003-07-01

    We present near-IR spectra (HK-band) of a sample of 107 sources with mid-IR excesses at 7 and 15;mu m detected during the ISOGAL survey. Making use of the DENIS interstellar extinction map from Schultheis et al. (1999) we derive luminosities and find that the Mbol vs. 12CO and M_bol vs. H2O diagrams are powerful tools for identifying supergiants, AGB stars, giants and young stellar objects. The majority of our sample are AGB stars ( ~ 80%) while we find four good supergiant candidates, nine young stellar objects and 12 RGB candidates. We have used the most recent K0-[15] relation by Jeong et al. (\\cite{Jeong2002}) based on recent theoretical modeling of dust formation of AGB stars to determine mass-loss rates. The mass-loss rates of the supergiants are comparable with those in the solar neighbourhood while the long-period variables cover a mass-loss range from -5 < log dot M < -7. The red giant candidates lie at the lower end of the mass-loss rate range between -6.5 < log dot M < -9. We used the equivalent width of the CO bandhead at 2.3 μm, the NaI doublet and the CaI triplet to estimate metallicities using the relation by Ramírez et al. (\\cite{Ramirez2000}). The metallicity distribution of the ISOGAL objects shows a mean [Fe/H] ~ -0.25 dex with a dispersion of +/- 0.40 dex which is in agreement with the values of Ramírez et al. (\\cite{Ramirez2000}) for Galactic Bulge fields between b = -4o and b = -1.3o. A comparison with the solar neighbourhood sample of Lançon & Wood (\\cite{LW}) shows that our sample is ~ 0.5 dex more metal-rich on average. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The spectra are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/405/531

  3. Blue--green to near-IR switching electroluminescence from Si-rich silicon oxide/nitride bilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berencén, Y.; Jambois, O.; Ramírez, J. M.; Rebled, J. M.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Domínguez, C.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Garrido, B.

    2011-07-01

    Blue--green to near-IR switching electroluminescence (EL) has been achieved in a metal-oxide-semiconductor light emitting device, where the dielectric has been replaced by a Si-rich silicon oxide/nitride bilayer structure. To form Si nanostructures, the layers were implanted with Si ions at high energy, resulting in a Si excess of 19%, and subsequently annealed at 1000°C. Transmission electron microscopy and EL studies allowed ascribing the blue--green emission to the Si nitride related defects and the near-IR band with the emission of the Si-nanoclusters embedded into the SiO2 layer. Charge transport analysis is reported and allows for identifying the origin of this two-wavelength switching effect.

  4. Characterization and monitoring of Flamingos-II, a near-IR imager and spectrograph at Gemini South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogsrud, David; Diaz, Ruben; Ferrero, Gabriel; Mora, Marcelo; Navarete, Felipe; Schirmer, Mischa

    2015-01-01

    We present results of the characterization and continual monitoring of the Flamingos-II instrument. Currently installed at Gemini South Observatory, Flamingos-II is a near-IR imager and longslit/multi-object spectrograph. In addition to the characterization of the detector, methodologies and results of the Science Verification pipeline, Telluric corrections, and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) mask design software are presented.

  5. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  6. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  7. Near-IR Photoluminescence of Pr/Cu/Sn Tridoped Phosphate Glass: Nonplasmonic Material System Versus Plasmonic Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, José A.; Sendova, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    An optical spectroscopy study of Pr2O3, CuO, and SnO tridoped barium phosphate glass prepared by the melt-quenching technique has been carried out, emphasizing near-infrared (IR) emission properties. The material is studied in its nonplasmonic state (as synthesized) and plasmonic form (heat-treated), aiming to elucidate the effects of Cu nanoparticles. The data indicate that Cu+ ions and Sn centers are stabilized in the melt-quenched glass. Broad ultraviolet excitations of both species can lead to near-IR emission of Pr3+ ions via energy transfer. The plasmonic nanocomposite is produced upon heat treatment as Sn2+ reduces Cu+ to Cu0 atoms, ultimately precipitating as Cu nanoparticles sustaining the surface plasmon resonance. Consequently, depletion of primarily Cu+ modified the ultraviolet excitation properties for the sensitized near-IR Pr3+ emission. Further, suppression of the Pr3+ emission from near-IR emitting states 1D2 and 1G4 was observed in the Cu nanocomposite in accord with a "plasmonic diluent" role of the nanoparticles.

  8. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- UDS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} to provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.In combination with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young

  9. Twenty Years at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1982-12-01

    On the 5th of October 1962, the ESO Convention was signed in Paris by representatives of Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. More than a year later, on the 17th of January 1964, the Convention went into effect, following parliamentary ratification in the required majority of countries. In 1967, Denmark also joined. In the early days (partly before the formalities were completed), site surveys were made which led to the choice of La Silla as the observatory location, and work was started on the La Silla infrastructure and on the Schmidt telescope and the 3.6 m telescope. Some other telescopes were ordered from industry. After it was realized that ESO did not have the necessary (technical) management capabilities to bring all its projects to a successful completion, discussions took place with CERN which led in 1970 to the founding of the T(elescope) P(roject) Division in Geneva, partly staffed with CERN personnel. As a result, the 3.6 m telescope was completed in 1976.

  10. Quality initiative at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprecht, Gero; Arsenault, Robin; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Kraus, Maximilian; Sivera, Paola; Tromp, Arnout; Verzichelli, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    An initiative is under way at ESO Headquarters to optimise operations, in particular in the engineering, technical and associated management areas. A systematic approach to strengthen the operating processes is in preparation, starting with a mapping of the extensive existing process network. Processes identified as sufficiently important and complex to merit an in-depth analysis will be properly specified and their implementation optimised to strike a sensible balance between organisational overhead (documentation) and efficiency. By applying methods and tools tried and tested in industry we expect to achieve a more unified approach to address recurrent tasks. This will enable staff to concentrate more on new challenges and improvement and avoid spending effort on issues already resolved in the past.

  11. Understanding the two-dimensional ionization structure in luminous infrared galaxies. A near-IR integral field spectroscopy perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis; Piqueras López, Javier; Arribas, Santiago; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Pastoriza, Miriani; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Sales, Dinalva

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional excitation structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and Seyferts using near-IR integral field spectroscopy. This study extends to the near infrared the well-known optical and mid-IR emission line diagnostics used to classify activity in galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved spectroscopy of prototypes, we identify in the [FeII]1.64 μm/Brγ- H22.12 μm/Brγ plane regions dominated by the different heating sources, i.e. active galactic nuclei (AGNs), young main-sequence massive stars, and evolved stars i.e. supernovae. The ISM in LIRGs occupy a wide region in the near-IR diagnostic plane from -0.6 to +1.5 and from -1.2 to +0.8 (in log units) for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ line ratios, respectively. The corresponding median(mode) ratios are +0.18(0.16) and +0.02(-0.04). Seyferts show on average larger values by factors ~2.5 and ~1.4 for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ ratios, respectively. New areas and relations in the near-IR diagnostic plane are defined for the compact, high surface brightness regions dominated by AGN, young ionizing stars, and supernovae explosions, respectively. In addition to these high surface brightness regions, the diffuse regions affected by the AGN radiation field cover an area similar to that of Seyferts, but with high values in [FeII]/Brγ that are not as extreme. The extended, non-AGN diffuse regions cover a wide area in the near-IR diagnostic diagram that overlaps that of individual excitation mechanisms (i.e. AGN, young stars, and supernovae), but with its mode value to that of the young star-forming clumps. This indicates that the excitation conditions of the extended, diffuse ISM are likely due to a mixture of the different ionization sources, weighted by their spatial distribution and relative flux contribution. The integrated line ratios in LIRGs show higher excitation conditions i.e. towards AGNs, than those measured by the spatially resolved

  12. Airborne observed solar elevation and row direction effects on the near-IR/red ratio of cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to obtain data over two adjacent cotton fields having rows perpendicular to one another, at three times of day (different solar elevations), and on two dates (different plant size). The near IR/red ratios were displayed in image form, so that within-field variations and differences between fields could be easily assessed. The ratio varied with changing Sun elevation for north-south oriented rows, but no variation was detected for east-west oriented rows.

  13. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Mars Analogue Materials Under Arid Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the hyper-spectral imagers MRO-CRISM and Mars Express OMEGA in martian orbit have signatures from Fe-bearing phases (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, and jarosite), H2O/OH-bearing phases (e.g., smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases), and carbonate [e.g., 1-5]. Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of VNIR spectra acquired in the laboratory under appropriate environmental conditions on samples whose mineralogical composition is known. We report here additional results for our ongoing project [6] to acquire VNIR spectra under arid conditions.

  14. Relations Between Chile and ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal

  15. TNO Photometry and Spectroscopy at ESO and Calar Alto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Sekiguchi, T.; Vair, M.; Hainaut, O.; Delahodde, C.; West, R. M.; Tozzi, G. P.; Barrera, L.; Birkle, K.; Watanabe, J.; Meech, K.

    New photometry and spectroscopy of Transneptunian objects (TNO) has been obtained at ESO (VLT+FORS1, NTT+SOFI) and the Calar Alto (3.5m+MOSCA) observatory. BVRI photometry of more than 10 objects confirms the general colour-colour distribution of TNOs found previously. Quasi-simultaneous spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range of 5 TNOs did not reveal any spectral signature apart from the spetral gradients which are in agreement with the broadband colours. JHK filter photometry of 3 objects indicates that the reddening may only occur in the near-IR at least in some cases. Using new observations from the ESO VLT the lightcurve, colours and spectrum of 1996TO66 are investigated: the rotation period of 6.25h is confirmed, also the change in the lightcurve between 1997 and 1998 which indicates an exceptional behaviour in this object (temporary cometary activity ?). The 1999 photometry and spectroscopy in the visible revealed solar colours, no reddening and no spectral features. V-R colour changes over the rotation phase are not found. This works is done in colaboration with:

  16. Decisions by the ESO Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    Today, Wednesday, 19 April 1995, the ESO Council [1] met in extraordinary session at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) to discuss the recent developments which have affected the operations of this Organisation in its host state, the Republic of Chile [2]. The delegations were informed about the various events which have impeded ESO's operations in Chile, in particular the construction of the 16-m equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama desert. The ESO Council welcomes and appreciates the signature on 18 April 1995 by Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Chilean Government and Professor Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of ESO, of the "Interpretative, Supplementary and Amending Agreement" to the ESO/Chile Convention of 1963 for the establishment of an astronomical observatory in Chile and the accompanying assurances by the Chilean Government. Council considers this as a very significant step towards a new level of cooperation between Chile and ESO, and expects to approve this Agreement at the same time as the Chilean Parliament. Council also appreciates the determined efforts of the Chilean Government to guarantee ESO's privileges and immunities on the basis of the 1963 Convention and to solve the issues surrounding private claims to the Paranal site in short order. However, there still exist a number of problems which impede ESO's activities in Chile including the issue of ESO's immunity from national jurisdiction, financial damage incurred to ESO and its VLT project, and the practical implementation of custom clearance and accreditation procedures to permit the continuation of work. Consequently, Council has directed the ESO Management to continue direct negotiations with the Chilean Government to resolve all pending issues, to continue work on Paranal, and also to convene an ad-hoc Working Group to propose alternatives for the possible placement of one VLT telescope or of the entire VLT

  17. Visual, Near-IR, and TiO Spectrophotometry of Pulsating Giant and Supergiant M-Type Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasatonic, R. P.; Guinan, E. F.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsating M-type giant and supergiant stars radiate mainly in the near to intermediate IR (1000-2000 nm). Since most prior long-term photometric observations have been done visually or with UBVRI filters, an on-going program was established to monitor selected stars using both wide-band visual (550 nm) and Wing (719 nm, 754 nm, and 1040 nm) intermediate band filters. Outer atmopsheric titanium-oxide (TiO) strenghts are calculated and compared with generated visual light curves to study correlations of stellar pulsa- tions with molecular formation. IR color temperatures are computed and are used in combination with measured bolome- tric magnitudes to estimate radii changes throughout pulsa- tional cycles. These results should provide information relevant for studies of internal structures, atmopsheres, and evolution of red giant and supergiant stars. Some stars currently being observed include Mira, Aldebaran, Alpha Her, Betelgeuse, V CVn, R Leo, and CE Tau. Additionally, a calibration of the Wing 3-color spectro- photometry sytem is in progress to correlate TiO strengths with known spectral types and near-IR color temperatures for the benefit of the community. Observations measuring spectral sub-type changes via cyclic pulsational variations in TiO-indices and near-IR color temperature changes will be more accurate once the calibration is completed. This work was in part supported by NSF grant AST-9315365, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  18. Understanding the clumpy star-formation in local (U)LIRGs: A near-IR IFS perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueras López, J.; Colina, L.; Arribas, S.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2017-03-01

    The importance of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (U/LIRGs) in the context of the cosmological evolution of the star formation has been well established in the last decades. In particular, the study of local U/LIRGs using near-IR integral field spectroscopic techniques allows us to disentangle the 2D distribution of the star-formation using high spatial resolution, and characterise dust-enshrouded, spatially-resolved star-forming regions with great amount of detail. We present a comprehensive 2D IFS near-IR study of the extinction-corrected star-formation in a local sample of 10 LIRGs and 7 ULIRGs, based on VLT-SINFONI observations. We investigate the spatially-resolved distribution of the extinction-corrected star-formation rate (SFR) and star-formation rate surface density (Σ_{SFR}) by analysing the Brγ and Paα emission of the galaxies of the sample. We also obtained integrated measurements of the SFR and Σ_{SFR}, and identified a sample of 95 individual star-forming regions, characterised in terms of their size and Paα luminosity. These measurements will be discussed and compared with other SFR tracers like Hα, 24μm, and L_{IR}, and other local and high-z samples of star-forming clumps.

  19. Development of a Near-Ir Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer for the Detection of Atmospheric Oxidation Products and Organoamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Jewell, Breanna; Thurnherr, Emily

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 10,000 to 100,000 different compounds have been measured in the atmosphere, each one undergoes many oxidation reactions that may or may not degrade air quality. To date, the fate of even some of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere is poorly understood. One difficulty is the detection of atmospheric oxidation products that are very labile and decompose during analysis. To study labile species under atmospheric conditions, a highly sensitive, non-destructive technique is needed. Here we describe a near-IR incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup that we are developing to meet this end. We have chosen to utilize the near-IR, where vibrational overtone absorptions are observed, due to the clean spectral windows and better spectral separation of absorption features. In one spectral window we can simultaneously and continuously monitor the composition of alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids in an air mass. In addition, we have used our CEAS setup to detect organoamines. The long effective path length of CEAS allows for low detection limits, even of the overtone absorption features, at ppb and ppt levels.

  20. Properties of the fullerene C60-containing PN Lin49 in the SMC; Explanations of strong near-IR excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, Francisca; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Aleman, Isabel; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Cami, Jan; Ochsendorf, Bram; Peeters, Els

    2016-07-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C6o-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Lin49 is a C-rich and metal- deficient PN (Z∼⃒0.0006) and its nebular abundances are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.25Mʘ stars with the metallicity Z = 0.001 of Fishlock et al. (2014, [1]). By stellar absorption fitting with TLUSTY, we derived stellar abundances, effective temperature, and surface gravity. We constructed the photo-ionization model with CLOUDY in order to investigate physical conditions of Lin49. The model with the 0.005-0.1 μm radius graphite and a constant hydrogen density shell could not fit the ∼⃒1-5 μm SED owing to the strong near-IR excess. We propose that the near-IR excess indicates (1) the presence of extremely small carbon molecules or (2) the presence of high-density structure surrounding the central star.

  1. Near UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer using the beam-folding position-tracking method based on retroreflectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuzhu; Chan, Robert K Y; Cheng, Amelia S K

    2008-12-01

    A near UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer based on a beam-folding position-tracking method realized by using retroreflectors is reported. The use of retroreflectors maintains all beams in the beam-fold arrangement in parallel with the incident beams. The beam-folding interferometer used for position tracking is arranged to have optical path symmetry with the measurement interferometer in the zero path difference position of the measurement interferometer, and the vertex of the movable retroreflector in the measurement interferometer is arranged very close to the midpoint of the vertices of two movable retroreflectors in the position-tracking interferometer. These measures keep the equivalent optical axis of the position-tracking interferometer well in line with that of the measurement interferometer even with translational misalignments. Therefore, the change in the optical path difference of the position-tracking interferometer is always synchronous to that of the measurement interferometer during the scanning process. That is, the position-tracking error can be suppressed to very small values during a scan. We have demonstrated a UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer with a standard quality ball-bearing translation stage achieving a resolution close to the theoretical resolution of approximately 0.28 cm(-1) at the He-Ne laser wavelength when the scan distance reaches the travel distance of over 2 cm. This was achieved without the need for elaborate optics, sophisticated detecting electronics, and high-precision servomotion control.

  2. IR-780 Loaded Phospholipid Mimicking Homopolymeric Micelles for Near-IR Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Yin; Han, Haijie; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2016-03-23

    IR-780 iodide, a near-infrared (near-IR) fluorescent dye, can be utilized as an effective theranostic agent for both imaging and photothermal therapy. However, its lipophilicity limits its further biomedical applications. Herein, we synthesized a phospholipid mimicking amphiphilic homopolymer poly(12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecyl phosphorylcholine) (PMDPC) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The amphiphilic homopolymer PMDPC can be self-assembled into micelles and used for the encapsulation of IR-780. The IR-780 loaded micelles (PMDPC-IR-780) exhibited low cytotoxicity in the dark, whereas remarkable photothermal cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3) was observed upon near-IR laser irradiation. We further investigated in vivo biodistribution of PMDPC-IR-780 micelles. Higher accumulation of PMDPC-IR-780 than that of free IR-780 in tumor tissue was verified, which might be ascribed to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and long circulation time benefiting from the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine surface. Therefore, the IR-780 loaded phospholipid mimicking homopolymeric micelles could have great potential for cancer theranostics.

  3. News from the ESO Science Archive Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycki, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Bierwirth, T.; Boelter, M.; Da Rocha, C.; Delmotte, N.; Forchì, V.; Fourniol, N.; klein Gebbinck, M.; Lange, U.; Mascetti, L.; Micol, A.; Moins, C.; Munte, C.; Pluciennik, C.; Retzlaff, J.; Romaniello, M.; Rosse, N.; Sequeiros, I. V.; Vuong, M.-H.; Zampieri, S.

    2015-09-01

    ESO Science Archive Facility (SAF) - one of the world's biggest astronomical archives - combines two roles: operational (ingest, tallying, safekeeping and distribution to observers of raw data taken with ESO telescopes and processed data generated both internally and externally) and scientific (publication and delivery of all flavours of data to external users). This paper presents the “State of the SAF.” SAF, as a living entity, is constantly implementing new services and upgrading the existing ones. We present recent and future developments related to the Archive's Request Handler and metadata handling as well as performance and usage statistics and trends. We also discuss the current and future datasets on offer at SAF.

  4. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  5. Shaping ESO2020+ Together: Feedback from the Community Poll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Ivison, R.; Berger, J.-P.; Caselli, P.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Alonso Herrero, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Leibundgut, B.; Moitinho, A.; Saviane, I.; Spyromilio, J.; Testi, L.; Vennes, S.

    2015-09-01

    A thorough evaluation and prioritisation of the ESO science programme into the 2020+ timeframe took place under the auspices of a working group, comprising astronomers drawn from ESO’s advisory structure and from within ESO. This group reported to ESO’s Scientific Technical Committee, and to ESO Council, concluding the exercise with the publication of a report, “Science Priorities at ESO”. A community poll and a dedicated workshop, held in January 2015, formed part of the information gathering process. The community poll was designed to probe the demographics of the user community, its scientific interests, use of observing facilities and plans for use of future telescopes and instruments, its views on types of observing programmes and on the provision of data processing and archiving. A total of 1775 full responses to the poll were received and an analysis of the results is presented here. Foremost is the importance of regular observing programmes on all ESO observing facilities, in addition to Large Programmes and Public Surveys. There was also a strong community requirement for ESO to process and archive data obtained at ESO facilities. Other aspects, especially those related to future facilities, are more challenging to interpret because of biases related to the distribution of science expertise and favoured wavelength regime amongst the targeted audience. The results of the poll formed a fundamental component of the report and pro-vide useful data to guide the evolution of ESO’s science programme.

  6. Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sorvoja, H.S.S.; Myllylae, T S; Myllylae, Risto A; Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A; Elseoud, A A; Nikkinen, J; Tervonen, O; Kiviniemi, V

    2011-01-24

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source - detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  7. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xukun; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Huadan; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yanfang; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-27

    A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10(-8) W ⋅ cm (-1)/Hz(1/2).

  8. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Batu; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs). The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i) a two-step process and (ii) in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters. PMID:27877634

  9. Status of the BOOTES-IR Project at OSN for GRB near-IR follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunniffe, R.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jelínek, M.; Gorosabel, J.; Moliné, B.; García-Segura, F.

    2013-07-01

    Bootes-IR (Castro-Tiradoet al. 2005) is a robotic observatory based around a 60 cm alt-az telescope (dubbed T60) that can slew rapidly while carrying heavy instrumentation at the Nasmyth foci. Initially commissioned with an optical camera, with which the optical afterglow to GRB 060707 (http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/gcn3/5290.gcn3) was discovered, we have concentrated our efforts on the near-IR (0.8-2.5 μm) camera (BIRCAM) for which the telescope was specifically designed. The telescope is installed at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada near Granada in Spain, at an altitude of 3000 m and in an area of very low humidity. The telescope, dome, camera and liquid nitrogen generation and refilling systems have all been recently brought back into operation, and routine observations are expected to begin within the next few months.

  10. A study of distributed dielectric bragg reflectors for vertically emitting lasers of the near-IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Blokhin, A. A.; Vasil'ev, A. P.; Guseva, Yu. A.; Kulagina, M. M.; Karpovsky, I. O.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Troshkov, S. I.; Prasolov, N. D.; Brunkov, P. N.; Levitsky, V. S.; Lisak, V.; Maleev, N. A.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-10-01

    Studies aimed at optimization of the design of a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) produced by the reactive magnetron sputtering method for applications in near-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts (ICC-VCSELs) are carried out. It is shown that the reflectivity of the dielectric DBRs based on SiO2/TiO2 decreases due to the polycrystalline structure of the TiO2 layers, which causes diffusive scattering of light. In contrast, amorphous Ta2O5 layers is characterized by a low surface roughness and low fluctuation in the refractive index. Single-mode ICC-VCSELs in the 980-nm spectral range with dielectric DBR based on SiO2/Ta2O5 with a threshold current less than 0.27 mA, electric resistance of less than 200 Ω, and differential efficiency of more than 0.8 W/A are demonstrated.

  11. Studying Atmospheres Of Exoplanets With The VLT: Near IR Eclipses Of WASP-17b And WASP-18b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebb, Leslie; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Gillon, M.

    2011-09-01

    Secondary eclipse measurements of a transiting planet obtained when the planet is occulted by its host star provide important information about the thermal emission of the planet itself. Studies of the planet's atmosphere is possible when such eclipse observations are made over a range of wavelengths. In addition, the eclipse timing is useful for determining the orbital eccentricity of the system which is a key parameter in understanding the tidal history and internal energy budget of the planet. Here, we present new H and K-band observations of the secondary eclipses of two unique transiting planets, WASP-17b and WASP-18b. These data were obtained with the HAWK-1 instrument on the VLT and are part of a larger program to obtain ground based, near IR eclipses of a large number of transiting planets.

  12. Organic photovoltaic devices comprising solution-processed substituted metal-phthalocyanines and exhibiting near-IR photo-sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Dominic V.; Mayukh, Mayank; Placencia, Diogenes; Armstrong, Neal R.

    2016-11-29

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are disclosed. An exemplary device has first and second electrodes and an organic, photovoltaically active zone located between the first and second electrodes. The photovoltaically active zone includes an organic electron-donor material and an organic electron-acceptor material. The electron-donor material includes one or more trivalent- or tetravalent-metal phthalocyanines with alkylchalcogenide ring substituents, and is soluble in at least one organic solvent. This solubility facilitates liquid-processability of the donor material, including formation of thin-films, on an unlimited scale to form planar and bulk heterojunctions in organic OPVs. These donor materials are photovoltaically active in both visible and near-IR wavelengths of light, enabling more of the solar spectrum, for example, to be applied to producing electricity. Also disclosed are methods for producing the metalated phthalocyanines and actual devices.

  13. Exploring the NRO Opportunity for a Hubble-Sized Wide-Field Near-IR Space Telescope - New WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Alan; Spergel, David; Mountain, Matt; Postman, Mark; Elliott, Erin; Bendek, Eduardo; Bennett, David; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Guyon, Olivier; Hirata, Christopher; Kalirai, Jason; Kasdin, Jeremy; Kruk, Jeff; Macintosh, Bruce; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Penny, Matthew; Shaklan, Stuart; Stern, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We discuss scientific, technical, and programmatic issues related to the use of an NRO 2.4m telescope for the WFIRST initiative of the 2010 Decadal Survey. We show that this implementation of WFIRST, which we call "NEW WFIRST," would achieve the goals of the NWNH Decadal Survey for the WFIRST core programs of Dark Energy and Microlensing Planet Finding, with the crucial benefit of deeper and/or wider near-IR surveys for GO science and a potentially Hubble-like Guest Observer program. NEW WFIRST could also include a coronagraphic imager for direct detection of dust disks and planets around neighboring stars, a high-priority science and technology precursor for future ambitious programs to image Earth-like planets around neighboring stars.

  14. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Batu; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-02-01

    This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs). The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i) a two-step process and (ii) in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters.

  15. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Reverberation- Mapped AGNs in the Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Bentz, Misty C.

    2013-02-01

    We propose to use WHIRC on WIYN to obtain high spatial resolution near-IR images of the remaining host galaxies in our sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs in order to study the effect of host-galaxy morphology on the M_BH-L_bulge scaling relationship. Recent studies of the M_BH-sigma_star relationship, which is based on the stellar and gas-dynamical sample of black hole masses, have uncovered a possible offset in the relationship due to the presence of a pseudobulge or bar in the host galaxy. This offset would adversely affect ones ability to use the M_BH-sigma_star relationship as a way to estimate black hole masses efficiently because it would require the detailed morphology of the galaxy to be known it a priori. Preliminary results based on optical HST data suggest that the M_BH-L_bulge is not plagued by this same offset. However, due to dust and on-going star formation, the optical data yield an M_BH-L_bulge relationship with a slightly higher scatter. WHIRC near-IR imaging is essential to minimize the effects of dust and star formation in order to confirm the M_BH-L_bulge relationship as a more accurate predictor of black hole masses and a potentially more fundamental relationship, thus informing our understanding of black hole and galaxy co-evolution across cosmic time. emphThe proposed observations will comprise a significant portion of the PI's PhD thesis.

  16. ESO Catalogue Facility Design and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moins, C.; Retzlaff, J.; Arnaboldi, M.; Zampieri, S.; Delmotte, N.; Forchí, V.; Klein Gebbinck, M.; Lockhart, J.; Micol, A.; Vera Sequeiros, I.; Bierwirth, T.; Peron, M.; Romaniello, M.; Suchar, D.

    2013-10-01

    The ESO Phase 3 Catalogue Facility provides investigators with the possibility to ingest catalogues resulting from ESO public surveys and large programs and to query and download their content according to positional and non-positional criteria. It relies on a chain of tools that covers the complete workflow from submission to validation and ingestion into the ESO archive and catalogue repository and a web application to browse and query catalogues. This repository consists of two components. One is a Sybase ASE relational database where catalogue meta-data are stored. The second one is a Sybase IQ data warehouse where the content of each catalogue is ingested in a specific table that returns all records matching a user's query. Spatial indexing has been implemented in Sybase IQ to speed up positional queries and relies on the Spherical Geometry Toolkit from the Johns Hopkins University which implements the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM) algorithm. It is based on a recursive decomposition of the celestial sphere in spherical triangles and the assignment of an index to each of them. It has been complemented with the use of optimized indexes on the non-positional columns that are likely to be frequently used as query constraints. First tests performed on catalogues such as 2MASS have confirmed that this approach provides a very good level of performance and a smooth user experience that are likely to facilitate the scientific exploitation of catalogues.

  17. Development of a femtosecond time-resolved near-IR multiplex stimulated Raman spectrometer in resonance with transitions in the 900-1550 nm region.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Tomohisa; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-07-21

    Charge transfer and charge delocalisation processes play key roles in the functions of large biomolecular systems and organic/inorganic devices. Many of the short-lived transients involved in these processes can be sensitively detected by monitoring their low-energy electronic transitions in the near-IR region. Ultrafast time-resolved near-IR Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for investigating the structural dynamics of the short-lived transients as well as their electronic dynamics. In this study, we have developed a femtosecond time-resolved near-IR multiplex stimulated Raman spectrometer using the Raman pump pulse at 1190 nm and a broadband probe pulse covering the 900-1550 nm region. Spectral and temporal instrument responses of the spectrometer are estimated to be 5 cm(-1) and 120 fs, respectively. Time-resolved near-IR stimulated Raman spectra of poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (P3DDT) are recorded in toluene solution for investigating its structural changes following the photoexcitation. The spectra strongly indicate conformational changes of P3DDT in excited states associated with the elongation of its effective conjugation length. The results on P3DDT fully demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly developed femtosecond time-resolved near-IR stimulated Raman spectrometer.

  18. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  19. Graphitic carbon nitride C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl: Characterisation by UV and near-IR FT Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Paul F.; Lees, Victoria; Quirico, Eric; Sella, Andrea; Reynard, Bruno; Simon, Patrick; Bailey, Edward; Deifallah, Malek; Cora, Furio

    2009-10-15

    The graphitic layered compound C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl was prepared by reaction between melamine and cyanuric chloride under high pressure-high temperature conditions in a piston cylinder apparatus and characterised using SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, UV Raman and near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy with near-IR excitation. Theoretical calculations using density functional methods permitted evaluation of the mode of attachment of H atoms to nitrogen sites in the structure and a better understanding of the X-ray diffraction pattern. Broadening in the UV and near-IR FT Raman spectra indicate possible disordering of the void sites within the graphitic layers or it could be due to electron-phonon coupling effects. - Graphical abstract: The graphitic layered compound C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl was prepared by reaction between melamine and cyanuric chloride under high pressure-high temperature conditions in a piston cylinder apparatus and characterised using SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, UV Raman and near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using near-IR excitation. Theoretical calculations using density functional methods permitted evaluation of the mode of attachment of H atoms to nitrogen sites around the C{sub 12}N{sub 12} voids within the layered structure and also led to better understanding of the X-ray diffraction pattern. Sharp peaks in the UV Raman spectra are due to C{sub 3}N{sub 3} triazine ring units in the structure, that may be enhanced by resonance Raman effects. Broadening in the UV and near-IR FT Raman spectra indicate possible disordering within the graphitic layers or electron-phonon coupling effects.

  20. Summertime Coincident Observations of Ice Water Path in the Visible/Near-IR, Radar, and Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Jasna V.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate representation of the physical and radiative properties of clouds in climate models continues to be a challenge. At present, both remote sensing observations and modeling of microphysical properties of clouds rely heavily on parameterizations or assumptions on particle size distribution (PSD) and cloud phase. In this study, we compare Ice Water Path (IWP), an important physical and radiative property that provides the amount of ice present in a cloud column, using measurements obtained via three different retrieval strategies. The datasets we use in this study include Visible/Near-IR IWP from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument flying aboard the Aqua satellite, Radar-only IWP from the CloudSat instrument operating at 94 GHz, and NOAA/NESDIS operational IWP from the 89 and 157 GHz channels of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) instrument flying aboard the NOAA-18 satellite. In the Visible/Near-IR, IWP is derived from observations of optical thickness and effective radius. CloudSat IWP is determined from measurements of cloud backscatter and assumed PSD. MHS IWP retrievals depend on scattering measurements at two different, non-water absorbing channels, 89 and 157 GHz. In order to compare IWP obtained from these different techniques and collected at different vertical and horizontal resolutions, we examine summertime cases in the tropics (30S - 30N) when all 3 satellites are within 4 minutes of each other (approximately 1500 km). All measurements are then gridded to a common 15 km x 15 km box determined by MHS. In a grid box comparison, we find CloudSat to report the highest IWP followed by MODIS, followed by MHS. In a statistical comparison, probability density distributions show MHS with the highest frequencies at IWP of 100-1000 g/m(exp 2) and CloudSat with the longest tail reporting IWP of several thousands g/m(exp 2). For IWP greater than 30 g/m(exp 2), MODIS is consistently higher than CloudSat, and it is higher at

  1. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Reverberation-Mapped AGNs in the Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Emily; Bentz, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results for a near-IR M-L scaling relationship for active galaxies in the reverberation sample. We are particularly interested in the effect of host-galaxy morphology on the M-L scaling relationship. In order to study evolution over cosmic time we must employ scaling relations, which are calibrated to the direct methods of black hole mass measurement and rely on correlations between host galaxy properties and black hole masses. However, it remains uncertain which scaling relation most reliably predicts black hole masses based on host galaxy observables. Recent studies of the M- relationship have uncovered a possible offset in the relationship due to the presence of a pseudobulge or bar in the host galaxy. This offset would adversely affect one's ability to use the M-relationship as a way to estimate black hole masses efficiently because it would require the detailed morphology of the galaxy to be known a priori. Preliminary results based on optical HST data suggest that the M-L relation for active galaxies with reverberation-based black hole masses is not plagued by the same offsets. However, due to dust and on-going star formation, the optical data yield an M-L relationship with a slightly higher scatter than the M- relation. We have carried out near-IR imaging with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) on the WIYN telescope to minimize the effects of dust and star formation in order to test whether the M-L relationship is a more accurate predictor of black hole masses and a potentially more fundamental relationship. The imaging campaign has been completed, and we are currently in the process of carefully modeling the galaxy surface brightness features so that we can accurately remove the contribution from the point spread function of the active nucleus. We present our preliminary results here, and we expect that the final results will prove to be quite useful in conjunction with future large imaging surveys, such as LSST, which

  2. Association study of a common variant near IRS1 with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Han, Xueyao; Sun, Xiuqin; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xiaomei; Guo, Wulan; Ren, Qian; Luo, Yingying; Zhang, Xiuying; Zhou, Xianghai; Ji, Linong

    2013-02-01

    The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) plays an important role in insulin signaling. A recent genome-wide association study identified rs2943641C>T as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Caucasian patients. Therefore, we determined whether this common variant near IRS1 is also associated with the risk of T2DM and T2DM-related phenotypes in a Chinese Han population. A total of 2,290 unrelated Chinese Han individuals residing in Beijing were recruited in this study, including 1177 T2DM patients and 1113 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (control group). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped using a MassARRAY iPLEX system. The frequency of risk allele C was 0.929 in the control group and 0.939 in patients with T2DM. We found no association between the C allele of rs2943641 and T2DM in a recessive model [OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.45, P = 0.298], or after adjusting for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 0.85-1.43, P = 0.301). Analysis of the clinical features of the control subjects with normal glucose tolerance revealed that the 30-min plasma glucose level during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was significantly different between the CC and CT+TT genotypes (P = 0.017). Linear regression analysis showed that the 30-min plasma glucose levels was significantly and positively associated with the CC genotype after adjusting for sex, age, and BMI (β = 0.065, 95 % CI 0.009-0.654, P = 0.044). In addition, a potential association between this SNP and increased waist circumference (β = 1.337, 95 % CI -0.179 to 2.853, P = 0.084) was observed with adjustment for the sex and age. Our study was not able to demonstrate the association between rs2943641 near IRS1 and T2DM in a Chinese Han population. However, this SNP may be associated with postprandial hyperglycemia.

  3. Near IR Photocathode Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Electron Photoemission from InP", Appl. Phys. Letters, Vol. 25, No. 11, pp. 645 - 646, (1974). 11 J.S. Escher , R.L. Bell, P.E. Gregory, S.B. Hyder, T.J...Photomultiplier with Fast Time Response”, SPIE Vol. 2022, pp. 64 - 73, (1993). 14 J.S. Escher and R. Sankaran, "Transferred-electron Photoemission to 1.4 µm

  4. Evidence for Interlayer Collapse of Nontronite on Mars from Laboratory Visible and Near-IR Reflective Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.

    2010-01-01

    Dioctahedral smectites (e.g., nontronite and montmorillionite) are interpreted to occupy the optical surface of Mars at a number of locations on the basis of spectral features derived from interlayer H2O and MOH (M=Fe(3+)2, Fe(3+)Al, Al2, etc.) as observed by orbiting MRO-CRISM and MEx-OMEGA hyperspectral imaging spectrometers. At wavelengths shorter than approximately 2.7 micrometers, the strongest bands from interlayer H2O occur at approximately 1.4 and 1.9 micrometers from 2v1 and v1+v2, respectively, where v1 and v2 are the fundamental stretching and bending vibrations of the H2O molecule. Smectite MOH vibrations occur near 1.4 micrometers (stretching overtone) and in the region between 2.1 and 2.7 micrometers (stretching + bending combination). Because interlayer H2O can exchange with the martian environment, a number of studies have examined the strength of the interlayer H2O spectral features under Mars-like environmental conditions. The relationship between spectral properties and the underlying crystal structure of the smectites was not determined, and the extent of interlayer H2O removal was not established. We report combined visible and near-IR (VNIR), Mossbauer (MB), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for samples of the Fe-bearing smectite nontronite where the interlayer was collapsed by complete removal of interlayer H2O.

  5. ZnSe hollow nanospheres in mechanically stable near-IR antireflection coatings for ZnSe substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Luo, Rui-Chun; Mao, Yong-Qiang; Du, Xi-Wen; Yang, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Though possessing low absorption throughout a wide infrared (IR) spectral regime, owing to a high refractive index, zinc selenide substrates are generally covered by antireflection coatings (ARCs) for practical optical uses. However, achieving a high transmission of ZnSe substrates in the near-IR (NIR) region is still challenging. Herein, for the first time, colloidal ZnSe hollow nanospheres (HNSs) smaller than 100 nm were prepared and adopted to assemble ARCs for ZnSe substrates. The voiding kinetics of the HNSs was found to agree well with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, and the self-diffusion of the Zn ion in the core was faster than its diffusion through the ZnSe shell. With single-index ARCs, the transmission of ZnSe substrates was remarkably enhanced in the NIR region, with up to an 18% increase at 840 nm. Besides, the ZnSe HNS-based ARCs showed superior mechanical stability even under violent ultrasonication in organic solutions. We expect that ZnSe HNSs will make it possible to construct graded-index ARCs to realize omnidirectional and broadband antireflection in IR, through further tuning of HNSs’ void fraction.

  6. The 3D Structure of Eta Carinae's Nebula: A Definitive Picture from High-Dispersion Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini South provide our most accurate probe of the 3D structure of the Homunculus Nebula around Eta Carinae. Emission from molecular hydrogen at 2.122 microns traces a very thin outer skin, which contains the vast majority of the more than 10 solar masses of material in the nebula. This emission, in turn, yields our first definitive picture of the exact shape of the nebula, plus the latitude dependence of the mass-loss rate, speed, kinetic energy, shell thickness, and other properties associated with Eta Car's 19th century explosion. This will be critical for testing any models for the outburst mechanism. A preliminary analysis suggests that explosion from a critically rotating star was the dominant mechanism that gave rise to both the bipolar shape of the nebula and the production of its equatorial disk. [Fe II] emission in the near IR traces a geometrically thicker but less massive shell found on the inner surface of the H2 skin --- this is either a reverse shock that decelerates Eta Car's wind or a warm PDR. [Fe Ill emission also clarifies the structure of an inner "Little Homunculus" seen previously in HST/STlS spectra. Comparing these two tracers of cool molecular gas and warm partially-ionized gas resolves some significant confusion about the complex structure noted in previous studies.

  7. Near-IR imaging of interproximal lesions from occlusal surfaces and the influence of stains and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2006-02-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR (NIR). Our previous work demonstrated that NIR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) and that it can also be used to image decay in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth where most new dental decay occurs. Early occlusal lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of lesion development due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. Stains and non-calcified plaque are not visible in the NIR enabling better discrimination of demineralized areas. We also demonstrate that interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above). Moreover, multiple illumination and detector angles can be exploited for optimal contrast between caries and sound tissue. These measurements suggest that NIR imaging offers significant advantages over the conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and other optical caries detection and imaging techniques.

  8. The perturbation of near IR optical features of water ice induced by frozen acids, brines and organic polymers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, T. M.; Grieves, G. A.; McCord, T.

    2007-12-01

    We report the temperature and pH dependencies of the near IR optical signatures of low-temperature ice containing acids, brines or tholins. In the case of flash frozen acids and brines, the 1.5 and 2 micron features shift in wavelength and broaden primarily due to the presence of solvated protons. The role of protons can be seen most dramatically when examining the dissolution of sulfuric acid in ice. Specifically, at temperatures below 135 K, the second pKa of sulfuric acid increases as the temperature decreases due to the increased coupling of the SO42- with the surrounding water molecules. These shifts and broadening are also inherent in the dissolution of MgSO4 or Na2SO4, two candidate materials possibly present in the non-ice regions of Europa. We also compare the optical signatures of organic polymers (tholins) created by discharge devices vs. those created photochemically. The relevance of this work to Titan's surface composition is discussed.

  9. Variability at the Edge: Optical Near/IR Rapid-cadence Monitoring of Newly Outbursting FU Orionis Object HBC 722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; Robertson, Paul; Baek, Giseon; Pooley, David; Pak, Soojong; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Meschiari, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    We present the detection of day-timescale periodic variability in the r-band lightcurve of newly outbursting FU Orionis-type object HBC 722, taken from >42 nights of observation with the CQUEAN instrument on the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m telescope. The optical/near-IR lightcurve of HBC 722 shows a complex array of periodic variability, clustering around 5.8-day (0.044 mag amplitude) and 1.28-day (0.016 mag amplitude) periods, after removal of overall baseline variation. We attribute the unusual number of comparable strength signals to a phenomenon related to the temporary increase in accretion rate associated with FUors. We consider semi-random "flickering," magnetic braking/field compression and rotational asymmetries in the disk instability region as potential sources of variability. Assuming that the 5.8-day period is due to stellar rotation and the 1.28-day period is indicative of Keplerian rotation at the inner radius of the accretion disk (at 2 R sstarf), we derive a B-field strength of 2.2-2.7 kG, slightly larger than typical T Tauri stars. If instead the 5.8-day signal is from a disk asymmetry, the instability region has an outer radius of 5.4 R sstarf, consistent with models of FUor disks. Further exploration of the time domain in this complicated source and related objects will be key to understanding accretion processes.

  10. VARIABILITY AT THE EDGE: OPTICAL NEAR/IR RAPID-CADENCE MONITORING OF NEWLY OUTBURSTING FU ORIONIS OBJECT HBC 722

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Joel D.; Robertson, Paul; Pak, Soojong; Meschiari, Stefano; Baek, Giseon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Pooley, David; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu

    2013-02-10

    We present the detection of day-timescale periodic variability in the r-band lightcurve of newly outbursting FU Orionis-type object HBC 722, taken from >42 nights of observation with the CQUEAN instrument on the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m telescope. The optical/near-IR lightcurve of HBC 722 shows a complex array of periodic variability, clustering around 5.8-day (0.044 mag amplitude) and 1.28-day (0.016 mag amplitude) periods, after removal of overall baseline variation. We attribute the unusual number of comparable strength signals to a phenomenon related to the temporary increase in accretion rate associated with FUors. We consider semi-random 'flickering', magnetic braking/field compression and rotational asymmetries in the disk instability region as potential sources of variability. Assuming that the 5.8-day period is due to stellar rotation and the 1.28-day period is indicative of Keplerian rotation at the inner radius of the accretion disk (at 2 R {sub *}), we derive a B-field strength of 2.2-2.7 kG, slightly larger than typical T Tauri stars. If instead the 5.8-day signal is from a disk asymmetry, the instability region has an outer radius of 5.4 R {sub *}, consistent with models of FUor disks. Further exploration of the time domain in this complicated source and related objects will be key to understanding accretion processes.

  11. Thiocyanate-free asymmetric ruthenium(II) dye sensitizers containing azole chromophores with near-IR light-harvesting capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guohua; Kaneko, Ryuji; Islam, Ashraful; Zhang, Yaohong; Sugawa, Kosuke; Han, Liyuan; Shen, Qing; Bedja, Idriss; Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Otsuki, Joe

    2016-11-01

    A new series of thiocyanate-free bis-tridentate Ru(II) complexes containing azole ligands as well as an organometallic Ru-C bond are synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). CF3-substituted pyrazolyl, CF3-substituted triazolyl, and tetrazolyl derivatives are employed as ligands in the three neutral complexes PYZ, TRZ, and TEZ dyes, respectively. Despite their different structures, all the three complexes exhibit similar absorption features and panchromatic absorption covering the visible and near-IR regions. By switching from a pyrazolyl via triazolyl to tetrazolyl moiety in the ligand, the photocurrent value, open-circuit voltage, and overall efficiency are increased accordingly under the same conditions. Among them, photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ƞ) of TEZ dye reaches the maximum of 6.44% with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 17.8 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.54 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.67 under illumination of an AM1.5G solar simulator. TEZ dye shows a good long term light soaking stability and maintains up to more than 90% of the initial power conversion efficiency after 1000 h.

  12. ESO PR Highlights in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was the year of Physics. It was thus also in part the year of astronomy and this is clearly illustrated by the numerous breakthroughs that were achieved, in particular using ESO's telescopes. One of the highlights was without any doubt the confirmation of the first image of an exoplanet , around the star 2M1207 (see ESO PR 12/05). ESO's telescopes also found a Neptune-mass exoplanet around a small star ( PR 30/05) - a discovery that proves crucial in the census of other planetary systems, and imaged a tiny companion in the close vicinity of the star GQ Lupi, a very young object still surrounded by a disc, with an age between 100,000 and 2 million years ( PR 09/05). Moreover, using a new high-contrast adaptive optics camera on the VLT, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI, astronomers were able for the first time to image a companion 120 times fainter than its star , very near the star AB Doradus A. This companion appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be ( PR 02/05). ESO's telescopes proved very useful in helping to solve a 30-year old puzzle . Astronomers have for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars ( PR 26/05). Additional evidence came from witnessing another event with the VLT ( PR 32/05). Also in this field, astronomers found the farthest known gamma-ray burst with ESO's VLT, observing an object with a redshift 6.3, i.e. that is seen when the Universe was less than 900 million years old ( PR 22/05). On July 4, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface. For two days before and six days after, all major ESO telescopes have been observing the comet, in a coordinated fashion and in

  13. Searching for Correlation Between Neutron Albedo and Near-IR Albedo of Mars Surface Using HEND/Odyssey and MOLA/MGS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, N. E.; Boynton, W. V.; Gilichinsky, D. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A. B.; Saunders, R. S.; Smith, D. E.; Tretykov, V. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2007-03-01

    Strong negative correlation between HEND neutron albedo and MOLA near-IR albedo is found within two broad latitude belts: 40°N-80°N and 40°S-60°S. Interpretation: water ice in these belts is buried below the dry skin layer, which thickness is determined

  14. Effects of Palagonitic Dust Coatings on Visible, Near-IR, and Mossbauer Spectra of Rocks and Minerals: Implication for Mineralogical Remote Sensing of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R.; Graff, T. G.; Shelfer, T. D.; Bell, J. F., III

    2001-01-01

    Visible, near-IR, and Mossbauer measurements on dust coated rocks and minerals show that a 300 5m thick layer is required to obscure the substrate for VNIR measurements and that a greater than 2000-micron-thick layer is required to obscure the substrate for Mossbauer measurements. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR NON-STELLAR REST-FRAME NEAR-IR EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Johannes U.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn

    2016-03-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR (2–5 μm) emission in galaxies at z ∼ 1. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and Hα emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis, together with the IR-colors and Hα profiles, shows that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of excess in the majority of galaxies. Our results suggest that non-stellar near-IR emission is linked to increased SFRs and is ubiquitous among star-forming galaxies. As such, the near-IR emission might be a powerful tool to measure SFRs in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  16. Report on the 2009 ESO Fellows Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Eric; West, Michael; Leibundgut, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    The fourth ESO Fellows Symposium took place in Garching from 8-10 June 2009. This year's symposium brought together 28 ESO Fellows from Chile and Germany to meet their colleagues from across the ocean, discuss their research and provide feedback on ESO's Fellowship programme. This year's symposium also included training workshops to enhance the practical skills of ESO Fellows in today's competitive job market.

  17. Science-Grade Imaging Data for HAWK-I, VIMOS, and VIRCAM: The ESO-UK Pipeline Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeser, M.; Lewis, J.; Madsen, G.; Yoldas, A.; Irwin, M.; Gabasch, A.; Coccato, L.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Romaniello, M.; Freudling, W.; Ballester, P.

    2016-12-01

    A new chapter for ESO science-grade data has begun with the implementa-tion of three new pipelines developed for the HAWK-I, VIMOS and VIRCAM instruments. The HAWK-I and VIMOS image archives at ESO have been completely reprocessed using these new pipelines, and these data are now publicly available. This article introduces the work done to bring these pipelines to the level of science-grade, their use in reprocessing ESO archival data, and their dissemination into ESO science operations and to the ESO community.

  18. Investigation on water content in fresco mock-ups in the microwave and near-IR spectral regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Donata; Cucci, Costanza; Olmi, Roberto; Picollo, Marcello; Riminesi, Cristiano

    2017-02-01

    Water diffusion inside masonry is responsible for the majority of the decay phenomena observed in wall paintings and frescos. Thus, the diagnostics of moisture and water content and their monitoring represent a key issue. In order to preserve the integrity of surfaces of artistic interest, investigations by means of non-destructive techniques (NDT) are preferred over others. The aim of this research is to determine methodologies to quantify the moisture content (MC) of frescos by means of the integrated use of two non-invasive techniques, namely fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) in the near-IR region and evanescent field dielectrometry (EFD) in the microwave range. The FORS technique has been employed in order to assess the amount of water adsorbed from the surface by means of an analysis of the reflectance spectra in the Vis-NIR (350-2200 nm) range. This technique investigates the electronic and vibrational transitions that are characteristic of each compound and enables their identification. The water content is evaluated on the basis of the 1920 nm and 1450 nm absorption bands. The EFD system consists of a resonant probe connected to a network analyzer. The resonance frequency of the cavity under different moisture-content conditions of frescos is in the 1.0-1.5 GHz range. The device makes it possible to compute, in real time, the MC from a measurement of the transmission coefficient (amplitude versus frequency) through the probe. Fresco mock-ups have been prepared in collaboration with the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in order to recreate most of the possible chromatic shades obtained by mixing iron oxides and hydroxide-based pigments. Measurements were performed by employing both techniques on fresco models after wet-dry cycles obtained by means of poultices with a known water content. The results obtained with these two techniques were compared, and cross relationships between the EFD and FORS data were defined.

  19. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Bastian, N.; Smith, L. J.; Seth, A. C.; Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E.; O'Connell, R. W.; Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  20. Near-IR luminescence and field-induced single molecule magnet of four salen-type ytterbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Qi; Yan, Peng-Fei; Luan, Fang; Li, Yu-Xin; Sun, Jing-Wen; Chen, Chuan; Yang, Fan; Chen, Han; Zou, Xiao-Yan; Li, Guang-Ming

    2015-01-05

    A series of rigid hexadentate salen-type (H2L) ytterbium complexes, namely, [Yb2L3(CH3OH)]·3CH3CN (1), [Yb2LL'L″(CH3OH)(H2O)2](ClO4)2·CH3OH·H2O (2), [Yb2L(OAc)4(CH3OH)2]·2CH3OH (3), and {[Yb2L(OAc)4]·3H2O}n (4) (H2L = N,N'-bis(2-oxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine, HL' = 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methyloxy-phenyl)benzimidazole and HL" = 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde) have been synthesized by reactions of H2L with multifarious Yb(3+) salts. X-ray crystallographic analyses demonstrate that complex 1 is of a triple-decker sandwich-type Yb2L3 structure with a ratio of H2L/Yb = 3:2, 2 and 3 possess the unique Yb2 core with a ratio of H2L/Yb = 2:2 and 1:2, respectively, 4 exhibits one dimensional coordination polymers in which the polymeric structures are formed by acetate (OAc(-)) groups. All complexes 1-4 exhibit near-IR luminescence, which can be rationalized on the basis of the disparate structural effects. The magnetic analysis unveils that all complexes 1-4 are of field-induced single-molecule magnet behavior with the energy barriers (Ueff/kB) of 14.5, 2.0, 9.5, and 2.4 K at 3 kOe direct current fields, respectively.

  1. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  2. Specific features of diffuse reflection of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light

    SciTech Connect

    Dolotov, L E; Sinichkin, Yu P; Tuchin, Valerii V; Al'tshuler, G B; Yaroslavskii, I V

    2011-04-30

    The specific features of diffuse reflection from different areas of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light have been investigated to localise the closed-eye (eyelid) region. In the visible spectral range the reflection from the eyelid skin surface can be differentiated by measuring the slope of the spectral dependence of the effective optical density of skin in the wavelength range from 650 to 700nm. In the near-IR spectral range the reflectances of the skin surface at certain wavelengths, normalised to the forehead skin reflectance, can be used as a criterion for differentiating the eyelid skin. In this case, a maximum discrimination is obtained when measuring the skin reflectances at laser wavelengths of 1310 and 1470nm, which correspond to the spectral ranges of maximum and minimum water absorption. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  3. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  4. Near-IR supercontinuum generation based on a telecom single-mode fibre in an all-fibre format, and its power combining

    SciTech Connect

    Rumao Tao; Xiaolin Wang; Xiao, H; Zhou, P; Jing Hou

    2014-04-28

    Near-IR supercontinuum (SC) is generated based on a standard telecommunication single-mode (SM) fibre in an all-fibre format. The observed spectrum covers the spectral range from 1050 nm to 1700 nm. High-efficiency combining of the SC power is demonstrated for the first time, and the spectral SC properties are shown to be maintained after power combining. The results may find applications in sensing, spectroscopy and medicine. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  5. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  6. ESO Director General to Become President of AUI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    scientific awards for his work. Prof. Giacconi is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is the author of books as well as more than 200 scientific publications. Note: [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and AUI (URL: http://www.aui.edu/ ). How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  7. Austria Declares Intent To Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    At a press conference today at the University of Vienna's Observatory, the Austrian Science Minister Johannes Hahn announced the decision by the Austrian Government to seek membership of ESO from 1 July this year. ESO PR Photo 11/08 ESO PR Photo 11/08 Announcing Austria's Intent to Join ESO Said Minister Hahn: "With membership of ESO, Austria's scientists will receive direct access to the world's leading infrastructure in astronomy. This strengthens Austria as a place for research and provides an opportunity for young researchers to continue their work from here. With this move, Austria takes an important step in the reinforcement of Europe's science and research infrastructure." The decision constitutes a major breakthrough for Austrian scientists who have argued for membership of ESO for many years. Seeking membership in ESO also marks a step towards the further development of the European Research and Innovation Area, an important element of Europe's so-called Lisbon Strategy. "ESO welcomes the Austrian bid to join our organisation. I salute the Austrian Government for taking this important step and look forward to working closely with our Austrian friends and colleagues in the years to come," commented the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. For Austrian astronomers, ESO membership means not only unrestricted access to ESO's world-leading observational facilities including the world's most advanced optical telescope, the Very Large Telescope, and full participation in the quasi-global ALMA project, but also the possibility to participate on a par with their European colleagues in the future projects of ESO, including the realisation of ESO's Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), which is currently in the design phase. All these projects require some of the most advanced technologies in key areas such as optics, detectors, lightweight structures, etc. Austrian participation in ESO opens the door for Austrian industry and major research institutes of the

  8. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Smectite Acquired Under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Achilles, Cherie N; Archer, Paul D.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, Dadi C.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the MEx OMEGA and the MRO CRISM hyper-spectral imaging instruments have spectral features associated with the H2O molecule and M OH functional groups (M = Mg, Fe, Al, and Si). Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of laboratory VNIR spectra, which were often acquired under ambient (humid) conditions. Smectites like nontronite, saponite, and montmorillionite have interlayer H2O that is exchangeable with their environment, and we have acquired smectite reflectance spectra under dry environmental conditions for interpretation of martian surface mineralogy. We also obtained chemical, Moessbauer (MB), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) data to understand variations in spectral properties. VNIR spectra were recorded in humid lab air at 25-35C, in a dynamic dry N2 atmosphere (50-150 ppmv H2O) after exposing the smectite samples (5 nontronites, 3 montmorillionites, and 1 saponite) to that atmosphere for up to approximately l000 hr each at 25-35C, approximately 105C, and approximately 215C, and after re-exposure to humid lab air. Heating at 105C and 215C for approximately 1000 hr is taken as a surrogate for geologic time scales at lower temperatures. Upon exposure to dry N2, the position and intensity of spectral features associated with M-OH were relatively insensitive to the dry environment, and the spectral features associated with H2O (e.g., approximately 1.90 micrometers) decreased in intensity and are sometimes not detectable by the end of the 215C heating step. The position and intensity of H2O spectral features recovered upon re-exposure to lab air. XRD data show interlayer collapse for the nontronites and Namontmorillionites, with the interlayer remaining collapsed for the latter after re-exposure to lab air. The interlayer did not collapse for the saponite and Ca-montmorillionite. TG data show that the concentration of H2O derived from structural OH was invariant

  9. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- GOODS-South Field, Non-SNe-Searched Visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.When combined with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young vs. old

  10. Spatial distribution of Io's volcanic activity from near-IR adaptive optics observations on 100 nights in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kleer, Katherine; de Pater, Imke

    2016-12-01

    The extreme and time-variable volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io is the result of periodic tidal forcing. The spatial distribution of Io's surface heat flux provides an important constraint on models for tidal heat dissipation, yielding information on interior properties and on the depth at which the tidal heat is primarily dissipated. We analyze the spatial distribution of 48 hot spots based on more than 400 total hot spot detections in adaptive optics images taken on 100 nights in 2013-2015 (data presented in de Kleer and de Pater [2016] Time variability of Io's volcanic activity from near-IR adaptive optics 13 observations on 100 nights in 2013-2015). We present full surface maps of Io at multiple near-infrared wavelengths for three epochs during this time period, and show that the longitudinal distribution of hot spots has not changed significantly since the Galileo mission. We find that hot spots that are persistently active at moderate intensities tend to occur at different latitudes/longitudes than those that exhibit sudden brightening events characterized by high peak intensities and subsequent decay phases. While persistent hot spots are located primarily between ± 30°N, hot spots exhibiting bright eruption events occur primarily between 40° and 65° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. In addition, while persistent hot spots occur preferentially on the leading hemisphere, all bright eruptions were detected on the trailing hemisphere, despite the comparable longitudinal coverage of our observations to both hemispheres. A subset of the bright hot spots which are not intense enough to qualify as outburst eruptions resemble outbursts in terms of temporal evolution and spatial distribution, and may be outbursts whose peak emission went unobserved, or else scaled-down versions of the same phenomenon. A statistical analysis finds that large eruptions are more spatially clustered and occur at higher latitudes than 95% of simulated datasets that

  11. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  12. The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

    Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

  13. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  14. Comparison of line-by-line and band models of near-IR methane absorption applied to outer planet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; Boudon, V.; Campargue, A.; Nikitin, A.

    2012-03-01

    Recent improvements in high spectral resolution measurements of methane absorption at wavenumbers between 4800 cm-1 and 7919 cm-1 have greatly increased the number of lines with known lower state energies, the number of weak lines, and the number of lines observed at low temperatures (Campargue, A., Wang, L., Kassi, S., Mašát, M., Votava, O. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1141-1151; Campargue, A., Wang, L., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Kassi, S. [2010]. Chem. Phys. 373, 203-210; Mondelain, D., Kassi, S., Wang, L.C. [2011]. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 7985-7996; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2011a]. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 268, 93-106; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 2211-2224; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Campargue, A. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1130-1140; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Campargue, A. [2011]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 112, 937-951), making it possible to fit near-IR spectra of Titan using line-by-line calculations instead of band models (Bailey, J., Ahlsved, L., Meadows, V.S. [2011]. Icarus 213, 218-232; de Bergh, C. et al. [2011]. Planet. Space Sci. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2011.05.003). Using these new results, we compiled an improved line list relative that used by Bailey et al. by updating several spectral regions with either calculated or more recently measured line parameters, revising lower state energy estimates for lines lacking them, and adding room temperature lines to make the list applicable over a wider range of temperatures. We compared current band models with line-by-line calculations using this new line list, both to assess the behavior of band models, and to identify remaining issues with line-by-line calculations when applied to outer planet atmospheres and over a wider range of wavelengths. Comparisons were made for a selection of uniform paths representing outer planet conditions and for representative non-uniform paths within the atmospheres of Uranus, Saturn

  15. The ESO Educational Office Reaches Out towards Europe's Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    ESA/ESO Astronomy Exercises Provide a Taste of Real Astronomy [1] Summary The European Southern Observatory (ESO) has been involved in many Europe-wide educational projects during the past years, in particular within European Science Weeks sponsored by the European Commission (EC). In order to further enhance the significant educational potential inherent in the numerous scientific endeavours now carried out by Europe's astronomers with ESO front-line telescope facilities, it has been decided to set up an Educational Office within the ESO EPR Department. It will from now on work closely with astronomy-oriented teachers, in particular at the high-school level , providing support, inspiration and new materials. Much of this interaction will happen via the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) In this context, and in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) , the first instalments of the "ESA/ESO Astronomy Exercise Series" have just been published, on the web ( http://www.astroex.org ) and in print (6 booklets totalling 100 pages; provided free-of-charge to teachers on request). They allow 16-19 year old students to gain exciting hands-on experience in astronomy, making realistic calculations with data obtained from observations by some of the world's best telescopes, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) . PR Photo 36/01 : The "ESA/ESO Astronomy Exercise Series" . Educational projects at ESO The European Southern Observatory (ESO) , through its Education and Public Relations Department (EPR) , has long been involved in educational activities, in particular by means of Europe-wide projects during successive European Science Weeks , with support from the European Commission (EC) . A most visible outcome has been the creation of the trailblazing European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) - this was first discussed at an international meeting at the ESO Headquarters in November 1994 with the

  16. Assessment of MODIS-Derived Visible and Near-IR Aerosol Optical Properties and their Spatial Variability in the Presence of Mineral Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Zhang, Q.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H.; Remer, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosol is among the most difficult aerosol species to measure quantitatively from space. In this paper, we evaluate MODIS retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the visible to the near-IR off the US West Coast using measurements taken by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer, AATS-14, during the EVE (Extended-MODIS-lambda Validation Experiment, 2004) campaign in April of 2004. In EVE, a total of 35 and 49 coincident over-ocean suborbital measurements at the nominal level-2 retrieval scale of 10 km x 10 km were collected for Terra and Aqua, respectively. For MODIS-Terra about 80% of the AOD retrievals are within the estimated uncertainty, DELTA tau = plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau; this is true for both the visible (here defined to include 466-855 nm) and near-IR (here defined to include 1243-2119 nm) retrievals. For MODIS-Aqua about 45% of the AOD retrievals are within DELTA tau = plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau; the fraction of near-IR retrievals that fall within this uncertainty range is about 27%. We found an rms difference of 0.71 between the sunphotometer snd MODIS-Aqua estimates of the visible (553-855 nm) Angstrom exponent, while the MODIS-Terra visible Angstrom exponents show an rms difference of only 0.29 when compared to AATS. The cause of the differences in performance between MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua could be instrument calibration and needs to be explored further. The spatial variability of AOD between retrieval boxes as derived by MODIS is generally larger than that indicated by the sunphotometer data.

  17. The brown dwarf atmosphere monitoring (BAM) project. I. The largest near-IR monitoring survey of L and T dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, P. A.; Rajan, A.; Patience, J.

    2014-06-01

    Using the SofI instrument on the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope, we have conducted an extensive near-infrared monitoring survey of an unbiased sample of 69 brown dwarfs spanning the L0 to T8 spectral range, with at least one example of each spectral type. Each target was observed for a 2-4 h period in the Js-band, and the median photometric precision of the data is ~0.7%. A total of 14 brown dwarfs were identified as variables with min-to-max amplitudes ranging from 1.7% to 10.8% over the observed duration. All variables satisfy a statistical significance threshold with a p-value ≤5% based on comparison with a median reference star light curve. Approximately half of the variables show pure sinusoidal amplitude variations similar to 2MASSJ2139+0220, and the remainder show multi-component variability in their light curves similar to SIMPJ0136+0933. It has been suggested that the L-T transition should be a region of a higher degree of variability if patchy clouds are present, and this survey was designed to test the patchy cloud model with photometric monitoring of both the L-T transition and non-transition brown dwarfs. The measured frequency of variables is 13+10-4% across the L7-T4 spectral range, indistinguishable from the frequency of variables of the earlier spectral types (30+11-8%), the later spectral types (13+10-4%), or the combination of all non-transition region brown dwarfs (22+7-5%). The variables are not concentrated in the transition, in a specific colour, or in binary systems. Of the brown dwarfs previously monitored for variability, only ~60% maintained the state of variability (variable or constant), with the remaining switching states. The 14 variables include 9 newly identified variables that will provide important systems for follow-up multi-wavelength monitoring to further investigate brown dwarf atmosphere physics. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at La Silla Observatory under programme ID 188.C-0493.Tables 1, 2, and 4 are

  18. Optical and near-IR observations of the faint and fast 2008ha-like supernova 2010ae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Hsiao, E.; Valenti, S.; Taddia, F.; Rivera-Thorsen, T. J.; Leloudas, G.; Maeda, K.; Pastorello, A.; Phillips, M. M.; Pignata, G.; Baron, E.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Hamuy, M.; Höflich, P.; Morrell, N.; Prieto, J. L.; Benetti, S.; Campillay, A.; Haislip, J. B.; LaClutze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Reichart, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive set of optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy is presented for the faint and fast 2008ha-like supernova (SN) 2010ae. Contingent on the adopted value of host extinction, SN 2010ae reached a peak brightness of -13.8 > MV > -15.3 mag, while modeling of the UVOIR light curve suggests it produced 0.003-0.007 M⊙ of 56Ni, ejected 0.30-0.60 M⊙ of material, and had an explosion energy of 0.04-0.30 × 1051 erg. The values of these explosion parameters are similar to the peculiar SN 2008ha -for which we also present previously unpublished early phase optical and NIR light curves - and places these two transients at the faint end of the 2002cx-like SN population. Detailed inspection of the post-maximum NIR spectroscopic sequence indicates the presence of a multitude of spectral features, which are identified through SYNAPPS modeling to be mainly attributed to Co ii. Comparison with a collection of published and unpublished NIR spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe, reveals that a Co ii footprint is ubiquitous to this subclass of transients, providing a link to Type Ia SNe. A visual-wavelength spectrum of SN 2010ae obtained at +252 days past maximum shows a striking resemblance to a similar epoch spectrum of SN 2002cx. However, subtle differences in the strength and ratio of calcium emission features, as well as diversity among similar epoch spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe indicates a range of physical conditions of the ejecta, highlighting the heterogeneous nature of thispeculiar class of transients. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programs 082.A-0526, 084.D-0719, 088.D-0222, 184.D-1140, and 386.D-0966); the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Programs GS-2010A-Q-14 and GS-2010A-Q-38); the Magellan 6.5 m telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; and the SOAR telescope.Tables 1-5 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http

  19. Photographic photometry of 16000 galaxies on ESO blue and red survey plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauberts, A.; Valentijn, E. A.

    An ongoing photometric survey of 16,000 galaxies on ESO red and blue plates is described. The galaxies of the ESO/Uppsala Catalog (Lauberts, 1982) are being PDS scanned, and the results are combined with existing photometry and supplementary observational data obtained at the 1-m ESO telescope to form a catalog for paper, magnetic-tape, and possibly video-disk publication. Details of the plate digitization, photometric calibration, and automatic parameter extraction are discussed, and a flow chart of the extraction operation and graphs of sample data are provided.

  20. Visible and near-IR spectroscopy of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes and their monoanions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareev, I. E.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Dutlov, A. E.; Martynenko, V. M.; Bubnov, V. P.; Laukhina, E.; Veciana, J.; Rovira, C.

    2017-03-01

    Solutions of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes are studied by means of visible and near-IR spectroscopy upon their conversion from neutral to the anionic form via a redox reaction with the electron donor potassium perchlorotriphenylmethide K(18-crown-6)[C(C6Cl5)3]. The concentrations of the studied solutions of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes in o-dichlorobenzene were determined from the spectroscopic data, and their molar extinction coefficients are calculated.

  1. Spectral phase transfer from near IR to deep UV by broadband phase-matched four-wave mixing in an argon-filled hollow core waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, J. P.; Mendonça, C. R.; Zilio, S. C.; Misoguti, L.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the implementation of a spectral phase transfer scheme from near IR to deep UV, in which the frequency conversion step is based on the broadband phase-matched four-wave mixing in a gas-filled hollow core waveguide. Micro joule level femtosecond pulses at 260 nm were generated by nonlinear mixing of a Ti:sapphire laser and its second-harmonic. The transfer of a π-step phase in a controllable manner was proposed and confirmed by a modulation observed in the generated deep UV femtosecond pulse spectrum due to an interference process. Numerical simulations confirmed our results.

  2. Characterization of plasma-enhanced teflon AF for sensing benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water with near-IR surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Tim A; Nijjar, Rajvir; Kipper, Matt J; Lear, Kevin L

    2014-02-01

    Near-IR surface plasmon resonance is used to characterize Teflon AF films for refractive index-based detection of the aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water. The technique requires no sample preparation, and film sensitivity is found to be enhanced by oxygen plasma etching. A diffusion equation model is used to extract the diffusion and partition coefficients, which indicate film enrichment factors exceeding two orders of magnitude, permitting a limit of detection of 183, 105 and 55 ppb for benzene, toluene, and xylenes, respectively. The effect of other potential interfering contaminants is quantified.

  3. Differences in visible and near-IR responses, and derived vegetation indices, for the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 AVHRRs: a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluates the differences in the visible and near-IR responses of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-9 and -10 satellites for coincident sample locations. The study also evaluates the differences in vegetation indices computed from those data. Data were acquired of the southeast portion of the United States for the 6 December 1986 daylight orbits of NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites. The results suggest that, with appropriate gain and offset, the vegetation indices of the two sensor systems may be interchangeable for assessment of land surfaces.

  4. Diode laser-based sensor system for long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric concentration and near-IR molecular spectral parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.; Lee, J.; Adler-Golden, S.M.; Bien, F.

    1993-12-31

    Line-locked near-IR diode lasers and a simple retroreflector/telescope system were used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents over long atmospheric paths. The experimental configuration used in preliminary measurements of atmospheric water vapor and oxygen with AlGaAs diode lasers is presented. A prototype field sensor system currently under development shares the same basic configuration but incorporates interchangeable AlGaAs and InGaAsP diode-laser modules for monitoring a variety of atmospheric gases.

  5. Nonlinear optical properties of thick composite media with vanadium dioxide nanoparticles. I. Self-defocusing of radiation in the visible and near-IR regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrosablina, A. A.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental and theoretical results of a study of the interaction of pulsed laser radiation with thick composite media containing nanoparticles of vanadium dioxide (VO2). It establishes that the reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition that occurs in VO2 nanoparticles under the action of radiation can produce self-defocusing of radiation in the visible and near-IR regions because of the formation of a photoinduced dynamic lens. An analysis is carried out of how the radiation intensity affects the dynamics of these processes. It is shown that photoinduced absorption and scattering play a role in forming the nonlinear optical response.

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey: processing FLAMES-UVES spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, G. G.; Morbidelli, L.; Franciosini, E.; Maiorca, E.; Randich, S.; Modigliani, A.; Gilmore, G.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Hambly, N.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N.; Bergemann, M.; Costado, M. T.; de Laverny, P.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R.; Jofre, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Lardo, C.; Magrini, L.; Masseron, T.; Prisinzano, L.; Worley, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey is a large public spectroscopic survey that aims to derive radial velocities and fundamental parameters of about 105 Milky Way stars in the field and in clusters. Observations are carried out with the multi-object optical spectrograph FLAMES, using simultaneously the medium-resolution (R ~ 20 000) GIRAFFE spectrograph and the high-resolution (R ~ 47 000) UVES spectrograph. In this paper we describe the methods and the software used for the data reduction, the derivation of the radial velocities, and the quality control of the FLAMES-UVES spectra. Data reduction has been performed using a workflow specifically developed for this project. This workflow runs the ESO public pipeline optimizing the data reduction for the Gaia-ESO Survey, automatically performs sky subtraction, barycentric correction and normalisation, and calculates radial velocities and a first guess of the rotational velocities. The quality control is performed using the output parameters from the ESO pipeline, by a visual inspection of the spectra and by the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra. Using the observations of the first 18 months, specifically targets observed multiple times at different epochs, stars observed with both GIRAFFE and UVES, and observations of radial velocity standards, we estimated the precision and the accuracy of the radial velocities. The statistical error on the radial velocities is σ ~ 0.4 km s-1 and is mainly due to uncertainties in the zero point of the wavelength calibration. However, we found a systematic bias with respect to the GIRAFFE spectra (~0.9 km s-1) and to the radial velocities of the standard stars (~0.5 km s-1) retrieved from the literature. This bias will be corrected in the future data releases, when a common zero point for all the set-ups and instruments used for the survey is be established. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under programme 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public

  7. Estimation of cellulose crystallinity of lignocelluloses using near-IR FT-Raman spectroscopy and comparison of the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Umesh P; Reiner, Richard R; Ralph, Sally A

    2013-01-09

    Of the recently developed univariate and multivariate near-IR FT-Raman methods for estimating cellulose crystallinity, the former method was applied to a variety of lignocelluloses: softwoods, hardwoods, wood pulps, and agricultural residues/fibers. The effect of autofluorescence on the crystallinity estimation was minimized by solvent extraction or chemical treatment or both. Additionally, when the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the Raman crystallinity assessment were investigated, it was found that syringyl lignin containing lignocelluloses generated somewhat higher crystallinity, whereas the presence of hemicellulose reduced the crystallinity. Overall, when autofluorescence was minimized and corrections made for hemicellulose and syringyl lignin contributions, the univariate Raman method performed well and estimated cellulose crystallinity accurately. Moreover, when the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods were compared, we observed that in the absence of significant fluorescence, the Raman method was influenced mostly by hemicellulose and syringyl lignin, whereas the Segal-WAXS was affected by various types of lignin and hemicellulose. It was concluded that the near-IR FT-Raman method with corrections for influences of syringyl lignin and hemicellulose can be used to correctly estimate cellulose crystallinity.

  8. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of the Standing Wave Mechanism in the Near-IR Regime in Producing High Energy Backwards Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, William

    2016-10-01

    Laser-plasma interactions involving ultra-short ultra-intense, near IR or IR wavelength lasers represent a novel regime, specifically inducing relativistic dynamics of charges at lower intensities than required for current ultra-intense lasers. We present 2D(3 v) Particle-in-Cell(PIC) simulations using the LSP code that produce super-ponderomotive MeV electron beams from ultra-short ultra-intense IR or Near-IR laser beams incident on targets with significant pre-plasma. We perform simulations across different wavelengths, including 800 nanometer, 3 microns, and 10 microns. We also simulate different pulse energies varying from tens of microjoules to tens of joules, and different scale lengths of pre-plasma. The accelerated electrons energies reach super-ponderomotive energies that scale roughly with the normalized vector potential, in line with the standing wave acceleration mechanism discussed in Orban et al. The angular spectrum of ejected electrons in all cases are similar, displaying preferred angles as suggested by the elaborations on the standing wave mechanism explained in Ngirmang, et al.

  9. CCDs at ESO: A Systematic Testing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, T. M. C.; Warmels, R. H.

    ESO currently offers a stable of 12 CCDs for use by visiting astronomers. It is incumbent upon ESO to ensure that these devices perform according to their advertised specifications (Abbott 1994). We describe a systematic, regular testing program for CCDs which is now being applied at La Silla. These tests are designed to expose failures which may not have catastrophic effects but which may compromise observations. The results of these tests are stored in an archive, accessible to visiting astronomers, and will be subject to trend analysis. The test are integrated in the CCD reduction package of the Munich Image Data Analysis System (ESO-MIDAS).

  10. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Calibration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.; Lardo, C.; Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Ragaini, S.; Cocozza, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Sabbi, E.; Zoccali, M.; Donati, P.; Heiter, U.; Koposov, S. E.; Blomme, R.; Morel, T.; Símon-Díaz, S.; Lobel, A.; Soubiran, C.; Montalban, J.; Valentini, M.; Casey, A. R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jofré, P.; Worley, C. C.; Magrini, L.; Hourihane, A.; François, P.; Feltzing, S.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J. E.; Jeffries, R. D.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Hambly, N.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N. A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Edvardsson, B.; Franciosini, E.; Frasca, A.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.; Koch, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey (GES) is now in its fifth and last year of observations and has produced tens of thousands of high-quality spectra of stars in all Milky Way components. This paper presents the strategy behind the selection of astrophysical calibration targets, ensuring that all GES results on radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and chemical abundance ratios will be both internally consistent and easily comparable with other literature results, especially from other large spectroscopic surveys and from Gaia. The calibration of GES is particularly delicate because of (i) the large space of parameters covered by its targets, ranging from dwarfs to giants, from O to M stars; these targets have a large wide of metallicities and also include fast rotators, emission line objects, and stars affected by veiling; (ii) the variety of observing setups, with different wavelength ranges and resolution; and (iii) the choice of analyzing the data with many different state-of-the-art methods, each stronger in a different region of the parameter space, which ensures a better understanding of systematic uncertainties. An overview of the GES calibration and homogenization strategy is also given, along with some examples of the usage and results of calibrators in GES iDR4, which is the fourth internal GES data release and will form the basis of the next GES public data release. The agreement between GES iDR4 recommended values and reference values for the calibrating objects are very satisfactory. The average offsets and spreads are generally compatible with the GES measurement errors, which in iDR4 data already meet the requirements set by the main GES scientific goals. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 188.B-3002 and 193.B-0936.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  11. ESO Fellowship Programme 2006/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO awards several postdoctoral fellow-ships each year. The goal of these fel-lowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  12. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  13. Report on the ESO Data Simulation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.

    2016-06-01

    The role of simulated data is increasing rapidly across all phases of instrumentation projects, from design to scientific exploitation. The many commonalities among ESO instruments, their reduction software and archival products, makes it especially worthwhile to exchange knowledge between their instrument teams. The data simulation workshop was the first of its kind to bring together the ESO instrument simulator community and a brief overview of the workshop is presented. The participants expressed strong interest in continuing to exchange knowledge in this area.

  14. Two-photon sensitized visible and near-IR luminescence of lanthanide complexes using a fluorene-based donor-π-acceptor diketonate.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Adam W; Frazer, Andrew; Morales, Alma R; Yu, Jin; Moore, Anthony F; Campiglia, Andres D; Jucov, Evgheni V; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Belfield, Kevin D

    2014-11-28

    A fluorene-based donor-acceptor ligand was successfully employed to sensitize visible and near-IR emitting lanthanide centers. The ligand construct is based on a donor-π-acceptor architecture with diphenylamino acting as the donor and a fluorenyl π bridge derivatized with a trifluoroacetonate moiety acting as both a strong acceptor and the classic bidentate scaffold for complexing metals. (1)H NMR analysis in the polar solvents THF and CDCl3 revealed the enolic form of the diketone dominant in solution equilibria at room temperature. This preferred cis-enol form binds strongly to the lanthanide(III) ions (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Tb, Yb, Nd, Er, and Gd) in the presence of phenanthroline affording the resulting ternary tris(diketonates) complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline. Detailed characterization of these complexes was conducted, with particular emphasis on linear and nonlinear photophysical properties. Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy and overall photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) measurements were performed on all the complexes. Sizeable visible and near-IR efficiency for europium (room temperature, visible), samarium (low temperature, visible) and ytterbium, neodymium and erbium (room temperature, near-IR) was displayed, with long luminescent lifetimes for the europium and samarium complexes of 85 and 70 μs, respectively Measurement of the luminescence decay for the Yb complex at 976 nm, Nd complex at 874 nm, and Er complex at 1335 nm yielded mono-exponential decay curves, with lifetimes of ~13 μs, ~1.6 μs, and ~2.5 μs, respectively, inferring that the emission was generated by a single species. In addition, fluorescence anisotropy and two-photon absorption (2PA) spectra (via Z-scan) were obtained for the ligand and europium complex, revealing a maximum 2PA cross section of 340 GM for the latter upon excitation at 760 nm. A quadratic relationship was found by varying laser excitation power vs. luminescence intensity of the europium complex

  15. Using ESO Reflex with Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järveläinen, P.; Savolainen, V.; Oittinen, T.; Maisala, S.; Ullgrén, M. Hook, R.

    2008-08-01

    ESO Reflex is a prototype graphical workflow system, based on Taverna, and primarily intended to be a flexible way of running ESO data reduction recipes along with other legacy applications and user-written tools. ESO Reflex can also readily use the Taverna Web Services features that are based on the Apache Axis SOAP implementation. Taverna is a general purpose Web Service client, and requires no programming to use such services. However, Taverna also has some restrictions: for example, no numerical types such integers. In addition the preferred binding style is document/literal wrapped, but most astronomical services publish the Axis default WSDL using RPC/encoded style. Despite these minor limitations we have created simple but very promising test VO workflow using the Sesame name resolver service at CDS Strasbourg, the Hubble SIAP server at the Multi-Mission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST) and the WESIX image cataloging and catalogue cross-referencing service at the University of Pittsburgh. ESO Reflex can also pass files and URIs via the PLASTIC protocol to visualisation tools and has its own viewer for VOTables. We picked these three Web Services to try to set up a realistic and useful ESO Reflex workflow. They also demonstrate ESO Reflex abilities to use many kind of Web Services because each of them requires a different interface. We describe each of these services in turn and comment on how it was used

  16. Third harmonic generation from mid-IR to near-IR regions in a phase-matched silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Shum, Perry Ping; Shao, Xuguang; Huang, Tianye; Sun, Yunxu

    2014-10-06

    The conversion efficiency of third harmonic generation (THG) from mid-IR (3600 nm) to near-IR (1200 nm) regions in a silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide (SSHPW) was calculated. The required modal phase-matching condition (PMC) between the 0-th mode at fundamental wave (FW) and the 2-nd mode at third harmonic (TH) is achieved by carefully designing the waveguide geometry. Benefiting from the hybridized surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nature of the two guided modes, the SSHPW is capable of achieving both high THG nonlinear coefficient |I₆| and reasonable linear propagation loss, thereby resulting in large figure-of-merits (FOMs) for both FW and TH. According to our simulation, THG conversion efficiency up to 0.823% is achieved at 62.9 ����m SSHPW with pump power of 1 W.

  17. APPLICATION OF LASERS AND LASER-OPTICAL METHODS IN LIFE SCIENCES Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvoja H. S., S.; Myllylä, T. S.; Kirillin, M. Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Myllylä, Risto A.; Elseoud, A. A.; Nikkinen, J.; Tervonen, O.; Kiviniemi, V.

    2011-01-01

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source — detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable.

  18. Palagonitic Mars from Rock Rinds to Dust: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectra of Poorly Crystalline Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Mertzman, S. A.; Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for Martian bright regions are characterized by a general shape consisting of a ferric absorption edge extending from about 400 to 750 nm and relatively constant reflectivity extending from about 750 nm to beyond 2000 nm . Among terrestrial geologic materials, the best spectral analogues are certain palagonic tephras from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). By definition, palagonite is a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass. The ferric pigment in palagonite is nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout the hydrated basaltic glass matrix. The hydration state of the np-Ox particles is not known, and the best Martian spectral analogues contain allophane-like materials and not crystalline phyllosilicates. We show here that laboratory VNIR and TES spectra of palagonitic alteration rinds developed on basaltic rocks are spectral endmembers that provide a consistent explanation for both VNIR and TES data of Martian dark regions.

  19. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  20. ESO and Australia to Discuss Future Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    For some time, the astronomical community in Australia has expressed interest in closer ties to ESO. One of the main reasons is the construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), of which the first 8.2 m unit telescope is scheduled for completion less than 2 years from now. The science of astronomy and astrophysics is highly developed in Australia and researchers in this country already have access to several excellent observational facilities, notably the 3.9 m optical telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory, the 64 m Parkes radio telescope and the Australia Telescope, one of the largest radio interferometric instruments in the world. On this important background, it is understandable that there is now an expressed desire among Australian scientists to participate in the VLT project and thus to partake in the front-line science and technology at the world's largest optical telescope. The related moves have been channelled through the Australian National Committee for Astronomy and the first formal contacts between Australia and ESO were made 1/2 year ago, cf. ESO Press Release 07/95 of 8 June 1995. ESO has welcomed the prospects of a closer, future collaboration with Australia, in particular because of the acknowledged expertise in that country within the important field of optical interferometry, a main feature of the VLT project. The Australian Government recently announced a new master plan 'Innovate Australia' which aims at updating and further development of science and technology in this country. It incorporates important support towards the modernization of the Australia Telescope, and certain funds are also foreseen for participation in international projects within the field of astronomy and astrophysics. At the request of the Australian Government, a high-ranking Australian delegation will visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) in order to explore with ESO in some detail possible modes of future collaboration. This visit will take place

  1. Centralized FITS Metadata Handling Framework at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Dobrzycki, A.; Vuong, M.-H.; Brion, A.

    2011-07-01

    The European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) headquartered in Garching, Germany, operates three state-of-the-art observatories in Chile: at La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. The observatories produce huge amounts of data, which are transferred to the ESO headquarters and stored in the ESO Archive. The archive also stores the products generated by pipeline processing of raw data by the ESO Quality Control (QC) group. In addition, the Archive also stores science products delivered by the principal investigators. Historically, these three processes were independent from one another which resulted in different metadata handling frameworks for each kind of product. This architecture led to duplicate efforts for building metadata-based services as well as creating challenging scenarios for integrating metadata from different processes. We present the metadata handling framework recently implemented at the European Southern Observatory, in which all metadata from FITS compliant sources are stored in a centralized repository database. The framework allows building metadata-based services in a descriptive way, transparently propagating any modifications/updates performed in the central repository. In addition, through a set of common functions, the framework allows for enrichment of FITS-based metadata with derived values and/or with metadata from other ESO operational databases.

  2. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  3. Report on the ''ESO Python Boot Camp — Pilot Version''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, B.; Milli, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Python programming language is becoming very popular within the astronomical community. Python is a high-level language with multiple applications including database management, handling FITS images and tables, statistical analysis, and more advanced topics. Python is a very powerful tool both for astronomical publications and for observatory operations. Since the best way to learn a new programming language is through practice, we therefore organised a two-day hands-on workshop to share expertise among ESO colleagues. We report here the outcome and feedback from this pilot event.

  4. ESO and Fokker Space Sign Contract about VLTI Delay Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    variations due to atmospheric disturbances and/or mechanical vibrations along the optical path length. The VLTI Delay Line system consists of a retro-reflector mounted on a moving base. The optical design of this `Cat's Eye' is of the Ritchey-Chretien type that reflects the light very effectively. For this particular application, the `Cat's Eye' is not a corner cube with 3 perpendicular mirrors as is the case in the reflectors on cars and bicycles; it is in fact a telescope with a mirror at the focus that sends a light beam back in a direction parallel to the one it came from. The moving base enables the Cat's Eye to travel along a 60 metres long rail track, thereby providing optical path difference corrections of up to 120 metres, as required for the VLT telescope configurations at Paranal. The necessary, rapid path length corrections are performed by a fine positioning loop in which a piezo crystal (mounted on the backside of the Variable Curvature Mirror M3) is used to correct the fast optical path variations as measured by a Fringe Sensing Unit (FSU). The latter provides a signal to the Delay Line system via a fast link to the Delay Line Local Control Unit. An optical datalink to the Cat's Eye on the carriage ensures the transfer of data to the Piezo controller. The carriage is driven by a Linear Induction Motor. The coils for the motor are mounted on the floor of the Delay Line Long Support Bench and the magnets are mounted on the bottom of the carriage. The metrology system (to measure the carriage position) consists of a laser-interferometer whose beam follows the same path as the light beams from the telescopes via the Cat's Eye. The main design parameters are shown here: Optical Path range above 120 m Optical Path resolution better than 20 nm Optical Path stability better than 14 nm over any 0.01 sec (in the visible spectral range) better than 50 nm over any 0.05 sec (in Near-IR spectral range) better than 225 nm over any 0.3 sec (in Thermal-IR spectral range

  5. Habitable Earth-like Planet Surveys with Next Generation Extremely High Resolution and High Doppler Precision Optical and Near IR Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Powell, S.; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Fletcher, A.; Chang, L.; Groot, J.; Wan, X.; Jakeman, H.; Myers, D.; Grafer, E.; Liu, J.; Varosi, F.; Schofield, S.; Moore, A.; van Olphen, M.; Katz, J.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Barnes, R.; Blake, C.

    2013-01-01

    Two major high precision Doppler surveys for habitable Earth-like planets are about to launch in 2013 using next generation extremely high spectral resolution and high Doppler precision optical and near infrared (NIR) spectrographs developed at UF in 2009-2012. The optical spectrograph, called EXtremely high Precision ExtrasolaR planet Tracker (EXPERT) III (EXPERT-III), produces a spectral resolution over R=100,000 and simultaneously covers 0.38-0.9 mm with a 4kx4k back-illuminated Fairchild CCD detector in a single exposure. It will be coupled to the KPNO 2.1-m telescope. The near IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST), produces R=70,000 at 1.4-1.8 mm or R=60,000 at 0.8-1.35 mm in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array. It will be coupled with the Tennessee State University 2-m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. Our rocky planet survey with EXPERT-III will primarily target habitable zone (HZ) rocky planets around nearby ~300 bright K0-M4 dwarfs with V<8.5. Our NIR M dwarf survey is the first large-scale NIR high precision Doppler survey dedicated to detecting and characterizing planets around ~200 nearby M dwarfs with J< 10. A combination of the EXPERT-III HZ planet survey in the optical wavelengths with the FIRST HZ planet survey around M4-M9 dwarfs in the near IR wavelengths will give us a broad view of HZ planets around low-mass stars for the first time. The overall planet sample will substantially increase the power for the statistical study of planet occurrence and properties and constraining planet formation models and physical conditions around low mass (0.2-0.8 M ) stars. We will report the early Doppler performance of both survey instruments on the telescopes.

  6. Phobos Near-IR Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erard, S.; Poulet, F.

    2002-01-01

    Unusual values of the opposition effect on Phobos derived by Simonelli et al. are tested using ISM observations in the NIR, and do not appear consistent. A Deimos-like opposition surge provides acceptable values for the other Hapke parameters. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) redshift survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G.; Zamorani, G.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey over about 30 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude bj = 19.4 and consists of more than three thousands galaxies with reliable redshift determination.

  8. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  9. ESO Helps Antofagasta Region after the Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    On November 14 at 12:41 local time, a major earthquake with magnitude 7.7 on the Richter scale affected the north of Chile. The epicentre was located 35 km from the city of Tocopilla and 170 km of Antofagasta. Two persons died and tens were injured, while buildings were damaged in several cities. In the Maria Elena-Tocopilla area, several thousand homes were destroyed or damaged. In an act of solidarity with the local community and its authorities, ESO immediately announced a donation of 30 millions Chilean pesos (around 40,000 euros) to Antofagasta's Regional Government to support reconstruction in the Region II. ESO and its staff have been shocked by the earthquake and its impact on local communities, especially on the people of Tocopilla. The ESO Representation in Chile formally contacted the regional authorities to explore with them possible ways to collaborate in this difficult moment. In addition, many of ESO staff are personally cooperating with the victims, under the coordination of Cruz Roja, the organisation currently in charge of implementing individual efforts.

  10. Non-Destructive and Discriminating Identification of Illegal Drugs by Transient Absorption Spectroscopy in the Visible and Near-IR Wavelength Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Chie; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    We have tested the possibility of identifying illegal drugs by means of nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with a 10-ns UV-laser pulse for the excitation light and visible-to-near-IR light for the probe light. We measured the transient absorption spectra of acetonitrile solutions of d-methamphetamine, dl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (MDMA), and dl-N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine hydrochloride (MBDB), which are illegal drugs widely consumed in Japan. Transient absorption signals of these drugs were observed between 400 and 950 nm, a range in which they are transparent in the ground state. By analyzing the spectra in terms of exponential and Gaussian functions, we could identify the drugs and discriminate them from chemical substances having similar structures. We propose that transient absorption spectroscopy will be a useful, non-destructive method of inspecting for illegal drugs, especially when they are dissolved in liquids. Such a method may even be used for drugs packed in opaque materials if it is further extended to utilize intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  11. a Theoretical Characterization of Electronic States of CH2IOO and CH2OO Radicals Relevant to the Near IR Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, Richard; Lolur, Phalgun; Huang, Meng; Kline, Neal; Miller, Terry A.

    2015-06-01

    Criegee intermediates (R1R2COO or CIs) arise from ozonolysis of biogenic and anthropogenic alkenes, which is an important process in the atmosphere. Recent breakthroughs in producing them in the gas phase have resulted in a flurry of experimental and theoretical studies. Producing the simplest CI (CH2OO) in the lab via photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of O2 yields both CH2OO and CH2IOO with pressure dependent branching. As discussed in the preceding talk, both species might be expected to have electronic transitions in the near IR (NIR). Here we discuss electronic structure calculations used to characterize the electronic states of both systems in the relevant energy range. Using explicitly-correlated multireference configuration interaction (MRCI-F12) and coupled-cluster (UCCSD(T)-F12b) calculations we were first able to exclude CH2OO as the carrier of the observed NIR spectrum. Next, by computing frequencies and relaxed full torsional scans for the ~A and ~X states, we were able to aid in analysis and assignment of the NIR spectrum attributed to CH2IOO.

  12. Optimization of the electric arc discharge synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the basis of near-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. E.; Perea, D. E.; Niyogi, S.; Love, J.; Tang, J.; Yu, A.; Kang, C.; Haddon, R. C.

    2004-03-01

    The metal catalyst plays an important role in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). It was originally reported that nickel and yttrium provide the optimum yield for bulk production of SWNTs by the electric arc discharge technique, at a catalyst composition of 4.0/ at. percent of Ni and 1.0 atomic percent of Y.[1] More recent work suggested a much lower concentration of Ni and Y for optimum SWNT generation: 0.6 atomic percent of Ni and 0.1 atomic percent of Y.[2] Both results were based on TGA, SEM and Raman analysis of milligrams quantities of SWNT soot. Recently we developed a quantitative technique to reliably assess the carbonaceous purity of bulk (10g scale) quantities of SWNTs, based on near-IR spectroscopy.[3] In this presentation we report the utilization of this technique for the determination of the purity of SWNT soot as a function of the catalyst composition. We present the range of optimum concentrations of Ni and Y for the bulk synthesis of the SWNTs. [1] C.Journet et al., Nature 388 (1997) 756; [2] M.Takizawa et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 326 (2000) 351; [3] M.E. Itkis et al., Nano Lett. 3 (2003) 309.

  13. Probing ultrafast photochemistry of retinal proteins in the near-IR: bacteriorhodopsin and anabaena sensory rhodopsin vs retinal protonated Schiff base in solution.

    PubMed

    Wand, Amir; Loevsky, Boris; Friedman, Noga; Sheves, Mordechai; Ruhman, Sanford

    2013-04-25

    Photochemistry of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), and all-trans retinal protonated Schiff base (RPSB) in ethanol is followed with femtosecond pump-hyperspectral near-IR (NIR) probe spectroscopy. This is the first systematic probing of retinal protein photochemistry in this spectral range. Stimulated emission of the proteins is demonstrated to extend deep into the NIR, and to decay on the same characteristic time scales previously determined by visible probing. No signs of a transient NIR absorption band above λpr > 1.3 μm, which was recently reported and is verified here for the RPSB in solution, is observed in either protein. This discrepancy demonstrates that the protein surroundings change photochemical traits of the chromophore significantly, inducing changes either in the energies or couplings of photochemically relevant electronic excited states. In addition, low-frequency and heavily damped spectral modulations are observed in the NIR signals of all three systems up to 1.4 μm. By background subtraction and Fourier analysis they are shown to resemble wave packet signatures in the visible, stemming from multiple vibrational modes and by analogy are assigned to torsional wave packets in the excited state of the retinal chromophore. Differences in the vibrational frequencies between the three samples and the said discrepancy in transient spectra are discussed in terms of opsin effects on the RPSB electronic structure.

  14. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra for Smectite, Sulfate And Perchlorate under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R.V.; Ming, W.; Golden, D.C.; Arvidson, R.E.; Wiseman, S.M.; Lichtenberg, K.A.; Cull, S.; Graff, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for the martian surface obtained from orbit by the MRO-CRISM and OMEGA instruments are interpreted as having spectral signatures of H2O/OH-bearing phases, including smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases [e.g., 1-4]. Interpretations of martian spectral signatures are based on and constrained by spectra that are obtained in the laboratory on samples with known mineralogical compositions and other physicochemical characteristics under, as appropriate, Mars-like environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and humidity). With respect to environmental conditions, differences in the absolute concentration of atmospheric H2O can effect the hydration state and therefore the spectra signatures of smectite phyllosilicates (solvation H2O) and certain sulfates (hydration H2O) [e.g., 5-7]. We report VNIR spectral data acquired under humid (laboratory air) and dry (dry N2 gas) environments for two natural smectites (nontronite API-33A and saponite SapCa-1) to characterize the effect of solvation H2O on spectral properties. We also report spectral data for the thermal dehydration products of (1) melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O) in both air and dry N2 gas and (2) Mg-perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2.6H2O) in dry N2 environments. Spectral measurements for samples dehydrated in dry N2 were made without exposing them to humid laboratory air.

  15. PPy@MIL-100 Nanoparticles as a pH- and Near-IR-Irradiation-Responsive Drug Carrier for Simultaneous Photothermal Therapy and Chemotherapy of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Da; Chen, Su-Ping; Zhao, Huan; Yang, You; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Jing; Fan, Hong-Song; Zhang, Xing-Dong

    2016-12-21

    A medical nanoplatform with small size, low cost, biocompatibility, good biodegradability, and, in particular, multifunctionality has attracted much attention in the exploration of novel therapeutic methodologies. As an emerging material of self-assembled porous structure, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have high expectations because of their special properties compared to traditional porous materials. Therefore, integration of MOFs and functional materials is leading to the creation of new multifunctional composites/hybrids. Photothermal therapy (PTT), using near-IR (NIR) laser-absorbing nanomaterials as PTT agents, has shown encouraging therapeutic effects to photothermally ablate tumors. However, the most of widely used PTT agents are inorganic materials and nonbiodegradable. Herein, uniform polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (NPs) with good biodegradability were synthesized by a microemulsion method. The PPy NPs were further coated with the mesoporous iron-based MOF structure MIL-100 by interaction between PPy NPs and MIL-100 precursors at room temperature. As a multifunctional nanoplatform, an anticancer drug could easily be loaded into the mesopores of the MIL-100 shell. The PPy core, as an organic photothermal agent, is able to photothermally ablate cancer cells and improve the efficacy of chemotherapy under NIR irradiation. The composites showed an outstanding in vivo synergistic anticancer capacity. Our work could encourage further study in the construction of a synergetic system using MOFs and organic PTT agents.

  16. The near-IR spectrum of NO(X˜ 2Π )-Ne detected through excitation into the Östate continuum: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłos, J.; Zhang, S. G.; Meyer, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present new measurements of the near IR spectrum of NO-Ne in the region of the first NO overtone transition. The IR absorption is detected by exciting the vibrationally excited complex to the A ˜ -state dissociation continuum. The resulting NO(A) fragment is subsequently ionized in the same laser pulse. Spectra of the two lowest bands, A and B, are recorded. The spectra are compared with calculated spectra based on bound states derived from a new set of high level ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs). For the calculation, the PESs are used with either fixed NO intermolecular distance or averaged for the vibrational states of NO (X ˜ , v = 0 or 2). Spectra based on the new PESs reproduce the experimental spectra better than theoretical spectra based on the older PESs of M. H. Alexander et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5588 (2001)]. Especially, spectra based on the two different vibrationally averaged PESs show a marked improvement in comparison to the one based on the fixed internuclear NO-distance. A fitted set of spectroscopic constants allows to reproduce most of the finer details of the measured spectra. Monitoring simultaneously the NO fragment ion and the parent ion channels while scanning the UV wavelength through the NO A-X hot-band region enabled us to confirm the NO-Ne A ˜ -state dissociation limit of 44233 ± 5 cm-1. These measurements also confirm the absence of a structured NO-Ne spectrum involving the A ˜ -state.

  17. Relaxation dynamics of the LH2 complex from a photosynthetic purple bacterium Thiorhodospira sibirica studied by the near-IR femtosecond pump-probe method

    SciTech Connect

    Razjivin, A P; Pishchal'nikov, R Yu; Kozlovskii, V S; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Moskalenko, A A; Makhneva, Z K

    2005-01-31

    Photoinduced changes in the absorption spectrum of the LH2 (B800-830-850) complex from a Thiorhodospira sibirica (Trs. sibirica) bacterium are studied by the pump-probe method. The complex has the anomalous absorption spectrum exhibiting three bands in the near-IR region at 793, 826.5, and 846.5 nm. At room temperature, the excitation energy transfer from the B800, B830, and B859 bands was detected with the time constants {tau}{sub 1{approx}}0.5 ps, {tau}{sub 2{approx}}2.5 ps, and {tau}{sub 3} of the order of a few hundreds of picoseconds, respectively. A rapid energy transfer from the B830 band compared to energy transfer from the B850 band ({tau}{sub 2}||{tau}{sub 3}) suggests that all the three bands belong to the same complex (i.e., that the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica is homogeneous). A slower energy transfer (by three - five times) from the B830 band of the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica compared to energy transfer from the B800 band of the LH2 complexes (B800-850 and especially B800-820) from other purple bacteria suggests that the electronic structures of ensembles of bacteriochlorophyll molecules in these complexes are substantially different. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Methylene blue encapsulation in cucurbit[7]uril: laser flash photolysis and near-IR luminescence studies of the interaction with oxygen.

    PubMed

    González-Béjar, María; Montes-Navajas, Pedro; García, Hermenegildo; Scaiano, J C

    2009-09-15

    The effect of methylene blue (MB) encapsulation in cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) on triplet excited-state behavior and singlet oxygen (1O2) generation has been studied by using laser flash photolysis (LFP) and time-resolved near-IR luminescence spectroscopy. The lifetime of the triplet excited state of MB is longer in the CB[7] cavity (140 micros for MB-CB[7] vs 79.5 micros for aqueous MB). Cucurbituril also protects the dye triplets from quenching by oxygen, reducing the quenching rate constant [kq(O2)] from 2.6x10(9) M(-1) s(-1) to 0.2x10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The quantum yield of 1O2 production in the air-equilibrated D2O solutions is similar for free MB and for MB-CB[7], and the singlet oxygen lifetime is approximately 70 micros, suggesting its decay occurs in the aqueous (D2O) phase. The generation of singlet oxygen is delayed by CB[7]; this is attributed to the time required for oxygen to access the CB[7] nanocavity and react with the MB triplet. Thus, the rate-limiting step for sensitization is the entry of oxygen into the CB[7] cavity. Encapsulation inside CB[7] increases the relative efficiency of photoinduced MB2+* dication-radical generation, for which a modest yield is observed.

  19. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep high-resolution optical and near-IR spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Sterling, N. C.; Luridiana, V.

    2017-03-01

    We have done a spectroscopical analysis of the type I planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R ˜ 40000) optical spectroscopy with UVES at the 8.2m Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R ˜ 4800) near-IR spectroscopy with FIRE at the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 μm to 2.50μm. The main aim of this work is to investigate the slow neutron(n)-capture process (the s-process) in the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star progenitor of a type I PNe. We detected and identified about 700 features, including lines from the n-capture elements Kr, Se, and possibly Br and Xe. We compute physical conditions using line ratios of common ions. Ionic abundances are computed for the species with available atomic data. We calculate total abundances using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Our results for common elements are in good agreement with previous works on the same object. We do not find a substantial s-process enrichment in NGC 5315, which is typical for type I PNe.

  20. All-solid-state electrochromic device integrated with near-IR blocking layer for image sensor and energy-saving glass application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Hao; Chen, Yung-Chih; Wang, Jen-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) integrated with near-IR (NIR) blocking layer fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique has been developed for image sensor and energy-saving glass applications. The all-solid-state ECD with the single-substrate structure of glass/NIR-blocking transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/NiO/Ta2O5/WO3/ITO could potentially modulate the optical transmittance between 81.9% and 17.5% at 550 nm in the visible region and between 38.0% and 9.5% at the NIR wavelength larger than 1100 nm. The better energy-saving and light blocking performance, including the larger optical density difference (ΔOD) and lower solar heat-gain coefficient (SHGC) could be achieved in the NIR-blocking ECD structure, even with the general criteria SHGC(bleach)/SHGC(colored) < 3. With the application of ECDs, it is possible to directly apply the device onto an image sensor and energy-saving glass with the NIR rejection function even in the bleached state. Furthermore, the NIR-blocking TCO with the low sheet resistance and high transparency characteristics also provides the lower power consumption in the switching cycle at voltages as low as 5 V, and makes ECDs the ideal components for applications of large area and battery powered devices.

  1. A Red to Near-IR Fluorogen: Aggregation-Induced Emission, Large Stokes Shift, High Solid Efficiency and Application in Cell-Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi Jia; Shi, Yang; Wang, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Xinyuan; Nie, Han; Qian, Jun; Qin, Anjun; Sun, Jing Zhi; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2016-07-04

    A tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivative modified with the strong electron acceptor 2-dicyano-methylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF) was obtained in high yield by a simple two-step reaction. The resultant TPE-TCF showed evident aggregation-induced emission (AIE) features and pronounced solvatochromic behavior. Changing the solvent from apolar cyclohexane to highly polar acetonitrile, the emission peak shifted from 560 to 680 nm (120 nm redshift). In an acetonitrile solution and in the solid powder, the Stokes shifts are as large as 230 and 190 nm, respectively. The solid film emits red to near-IR (red-NIR) fluorescence with an emission peak at 670 nm and a quantum efficiency of 24.8 %. Taking the advantages of red-NIR emission and high efficiency, nanoparticles (NPs) of TPE-TCF were fabricated by using tat-modified 1,2-distearoylsn-glycero-3-phosphor-ethanol-amine-N-[methoxy-(polyethyl-eneglycol)-2000] as the encapsulation matrix. The obtained NPs showed perfect membrane penetrability and high fluorescent imaging quality of cell cytoplasm. Upon co-incubation with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in the presence of tritons, the capsulated TPE-TCF nanoparticles could enter into the nucleus and displayed similar staining properties to those of DAPI.

  2. ESO Phase 3 automatic data validation: groovy-based tool to assure the compliance of the reduced data with the Science Data Product Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Forchı, V.; Arnaboldi, M.; Delmotte, N.; Micol, A.; Retzlaff, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Phase 3 infrastructure provides a channel to submit reduced data products for publication to the astronomical community and long-term data preservation in the ESO Science Archive Facility. To be integrated into Phase 3, data must comply to the ESO Science Data Product Standard regarding format (one unique standard data format is associated to each type of product, like image, spectrum, IFU cube, etc.) and required metadata. ESO has developed a Groovy based tool that carries out an automatic validation of the submitted reduced products that is triggered when data are uploaded and then submitted. Here we present how the tool is structured and which checks are implemented.

  3. Relaxation mechanism of β-carotene from S2 (1Bu(+)) state to S1 (2Ag(-)) state: femtosecond time-resolved near-IR absorption and stimulated resonance Raman studies in 900-1550 nm region.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Tomohisa; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-06-12

    Carotenoids have two major low-lying excited states, the second lowest (S2 (1Bu(+))) and the lowest (S1 (2Ag(-))) excited singlet states, both of which are suggested to be involved in the energy transfer processes in light-harvesting complexes. Studying vibrational dynamics of S2 carotenoids requires ultrafast time-resolved near-IR Raman spectroscopy, although it has much less sensitivity than visible Raman spectroscopy. In this study, the relaxation mechanism of β-carotene from the S2 state to the S1 state is investigated by femtosecond time-resolved multiplex near-IR absorption and stimulated Raman spectroscopy. The energy gap between the S2 and S1 states is estimated to be 6780 cm(-1) from near-IR transient absorption spectra. The near-IR stimulated Raman spectrum of S2 β-carotene show three bands at 1580, 1240, and 1050 cm(-1). When excess energy of 4000 cm(-1) is added, the S1 C═C stretch band shows a large upshift with a time constant of 0.2 ps. The fast upshift is explained by a model that excess energy generated by internal conversion from the S2 state to the S1 state is selectively accepted by one of the vibronic levels of the S1 state and is redistributed among all the vibrational modes.

  4. Next Generation Bibliometrics and the Evolution of the ESO Telescope Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.; Grothkopf, U.

    2010-10-01

    Bibliometric studies typically focus on citation and publication analysis. Due to recent advances in web technology along with greater access to web content, bibliometric research can include statistics and measures that were once difficult to obtain. The European Southern Observatory's Telescope Bibliography (ESO telbib), a content management system for refereed articles containing ESO data, provides an excellent test-bed for exploring next generation bibliometrics. Through web services provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Abstract Service among others, previously unavailable information can be imported into telbib where it can be analyzed in further detail. Though some telbib features are still in their infancy, some interesting trends can already be derived.

  5. First detection of Mars atmospheric hydroxyl: CRISM Near-IR measurement versus LMD GCM simulation of OH Meinel band emission in the Mars polar winter atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; García-Muñoz, Antonio; Lefèvre, Franck; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Montmessin, Franck; Murchie, Scott L.; Nair, Hari

    2013-09-01

    Visible and near-IR Meinel band emissions originate from excited OH in the terrestrial upper atmosphere (Meinel, I.A.B. [1950]. Astrophys. J. 111, 555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/145296), and have recently been detected in the Venus nightside upper mesosphere (Piccioni, G. et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 483, L29-L33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:200809761). Meinel band observations support key studies of transport and photochemistry in both of these atmospheres. In the case of Mars, OH regulates the basic stability of the CO2 atmosphere to photolytic decomposition (to CO and O2, e.g. Parkinson, T.D., Hunten, D.M. [1972]. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380-1390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<1380:SAAOOO>2.0.CO;2), and yet has never been measured. We present the first detection of Mars atmospheric OH, associated with CRISM near-IR spectral limb observations of polar night Meinel band emissions centered at 1.45 and 2.9 μm. Meinel band (1-0), (2-1), and (2-0) average limb intensities of 990 ± 280, 1060 ± 480, and 200 ± 100 kiloRayleighs (kR), respectively, are determined for 70-90 NS polar winter latitudes over altitudes of 40-56 km. Additional OH bands, such as (3-2), (3-1), and (4-2), present ⩽1σ measurements. Uncertainty in the (4-2) band emission rate contributes to increased uncertainty in the determination of the O2(1Δg) (0-0)/(0-1) band emission ratio A00/A01=47-12+26. An average profile retrieval for Mars OH polar nightglow indicates 45-55 km altitude levels for volume emission rates (VER) of 0.4 (2-0) to 2 (1-0, 2-1) × 104 photons/(cm3 s). Similar to polar night O2(1Δg) emission (e.g. Clancy, R.T. et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 117, E00J10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018), Meinel OH band emission is supported by upper level, winter poleward transport of O and H in the deep Hadley solsticial circulations of Mars. The retrieved OH emission rates are compared to polar winter OH nightglow simulated by the LMD (Laboratoire

  6. First detection of Mars atmospheric hydroxyl: CRISM Near-IR measurement versus LMD GCM simulation of OH Meinel band emission in the Mars polar winter atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Sandor, Brad J.; García-Muñoz, Antonio; Lefèvre, Franck; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Montmessin, Franck; Murchie, Scott L.; Nair, Hari

    2013-09-01

    Visible and near-IR Meinel band emissions originate from excited OH in the terrestrial upper atmosphere (Meinel, I.A.B. [1950]. Astrophys. J. 111, 555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/145296), and have recently been detected in the Venus nightside upper mesosphere (Piccioni, G. et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 483, L29-L33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:200809761). Meinel band observations support key studies of transport and photochemistry in both of these atmospheres. In the case of Mars, OH regulates the basic stability of the CO2 atmosphere to photolytic decomposition (to CO and O2, e.g. Parkinson, T.D., Hunten, D.M. [1972]. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380-1390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<1380:SAAOOO>2.0.CO;2), and yet has never been measured. We present the first detection of Mars atmospheric OH, associated with CRISM near-IR spectral limb observations of polar night Meinel band emissions centered at 1.45 and 2.9 μm. Meinel band (1-0), (2-1), and (2-0) average limb intensities of 990 ± 280, 1060 ± 480, and 200 ± 100 kiloRayleighs (kR), respectively, are determined for 70-90 NS polar winter latitudes over altitudes of 40-56 km. Additional OH bands, such as (3-2), (3-1), and (4-2), present ⩽1σ measurements. Uncertainty in the (4-2) band emission rate contributes to increased uncertainty in the determination of the O2(1Δg) (0-0)/(0-1) band emission ratio A00/A01=47-12+26. An average profile retrieval for Mars OH polar nightglow indicates 45-55 km altitude levels for volume emission rates (VER) of 0.4 (2-0) to 2 (1-0, 2-1) × 104 photons/(cm3 s). Similar to polar night O2(1Δg) emission (e.g. Clancy, R.T. et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 117, E00J10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018), Meinel OH band emission is supported by upper level, winter poleward transport of O and H in the deep Hadley solsticial circulations of Mars. The retrieved OH emission rates are compared to polar winter OH nightglow simulated by the LMD (Laboratoire

  7. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  8. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. II. Rest-frame Near-IR Luminosity Distribution and Evidence for a Near-solar Metallicity Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Chary, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T.; Levan, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Schulze, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ˜ 0.5 and z ˜ 1.5, but little variation between z ˜ 1.5 and z ˜ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass-metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2 metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  9. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  10. Citrate-hydrazine hydrogen-bonding driven single-step synthesis of tunable near-IR plasmonic, anisotropic silver nanocrystals: implications for SERS spectroscopy of inorganic oxoanions.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Satarupa; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Priyam, Amiya; Bhalerao, Gopal M

    2014-08-21

    A simplified, single-step aqueous synthesis route to tunable anisotropic silver nanocrystals (NCs) has been developed by tailoring the hydrogen-bonding interactions between a mild stabilizer, sodium citrate, and a mild reductant, hydrazine hydrate. The structure directing ability of the H-bonding interaction was harnessed by keeping a stoichiometric excess of hydrazine under ambient conditions (pH 7, 25 °C). Decreasing the synthesis temperature to 5 °C imparts rigidity to the citrate-hydrazine H-bonding network, and the plasmon peak moves from 500 to 550 nm (using 40 mM hydrazine). On lowering the pH from 7 to 5, the H-bonding is further strengthened due to partial protonation of citrate and the plasmon peak is tuned to 790 nm. Further, we found that, at 5 °C and pH 5, there also exists a sub-stoichiometric regime in which maximum tunability of the plasmon peak (790→1010 nm) is achieved with 1 mM hydrazine. HR-TEM reveals that the near-IR plasmonic NCs are nanopyramids having a pentagonal base with edge length varying from 15 nm to 30 nm. Through second derivative FTIR analysis, a correlation between hydrogen-bonded molecular vibrations and the plasmon tunability has been established. The anisotropic NCs exhibit significant Raman enhancement on the citrate molecules. Further, a solution-phase, non-resonant SERS spectroscopic detection method for an inorganic contaminant of ground water, arsenite, has also been developed.

  11. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured in the Ground Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond George; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-06-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2/CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 2015/2016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. In this work we focus on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test.The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements will be compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI.Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters/source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.The data, the reduction steps and the resulting cross calibration are presented.

  12. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Chary, R.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Michałowski, M. J.; Schulze, S.

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  13. Mergers as triggers for nuclear activity: a near-IR study of the close environment of AGN in the VISTA-VIDEO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D.

    2014-03-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the driver of nuclear activity in galaxies, with active galactic nuclei (AGN) either being triggered by major or minor galactic mergers or, alternatively, through secular processes like cold gas accretion and/or formation of bars. We investigate the close environment of active galaxies selected in the X-ray, the radio and the mid-IR. We utilize the first data release of the new near-IR VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey of the XMM-Large Scale Structure field. We use two measures of environment density, namely counts within a given aperture and a finite redshift slice (pseudo-3D density) and closest neighbour density measures Σ2 and Σ5. We select both AGN and control samples, matching them in redshift and apparent Ks-band magnitude. We find that AGN are found in a range of environments, with a subset of the AGN samples residing in overdense environments. Seyfert-like X-ray AGN and flat-spectrum radio-AGN are found to inhabit significantly overdense environments compared to their control sample. The relation between overdensities and AGN luminosity does not however reveal any positive correlation. Given the absence of an environment density-AGN luminosity relation, we find no support for a scheme where high-luminosity AGN are preferentially triggered by mergers. On the contrary, we find that AGN likely trace over dense environments at high redshift due to the fact that they inhabit the most massive galaxies, rather than being an AGN.

  14. Data products in the ESO Science Archive Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retzlaff, Jörg; Arnaboldi, Magda; Romaniello, Martino; Ballester, Pascal; Carson, Paul; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Forchi, Vincenzo; Freudling, Wolfram; Gabasch, Armin; Garcia-Dabo, Cesar Enrique; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Hummel, Wolfgang; Klein Gebbinck, Maurice; Lockhart, John; Micol, Alberto; Modigliani, Andrea; Percheron, Isabelle; Szostak, Artur; Vera Sequeiros, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory Science Archive Facility is evolving from an archive containing predominantly raw data into a resource also offering science-grade data products for immediate analysis and prompt interpretation. New products originate from two different sources. On the one hand Principal Investigators of Public Surveys and other programmes reduce the raw observational data and return their products using the so-called Phase 3 - a process that extends the Data Flow System after proposal submission (Phase 1) and detailed specification of the observations (Phase 2). On the other hand raw data of selected instruments and modes are uniformly processed in-house, independently of the original science goal. Current data products assets in the ESO science archive facility include calibrated images and spectra, as well as catalogues, for a total volume in excess of 16 TB and increasing. Images alone cover more than 4500 square degrees in the NIR bands and 2400 square degrees in the optical bands; over 85000 individually searchable spectra are already available in the spectroscopic data collection. In this paper we review the evolution of the ESO science archive facility content, illustrate the data access by the community, give an overview of the implemented processes and the role of the associated data standard.

  15. Unifying access to services: ESO's user portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Peron, M.; Sogni, F.; Canavan, T.; Nass, P.

    2006-06-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is in the process of creating a central access point for all services offered to its user community via the Web. That gateway, called the User Portal, will provide registered users with a personalized set of service access points, the actual set depending on each user's privileges. Correspondence between users and ESO will take place by way of "profiles", that is, contact information. Each user may have several active profiles, so that an investigator may choose, for instance, whether their data should be delivered to their own address or to a collaborator. To application developers, the portal will offer authentication and authorization services, either via database queries or an LDAP server. The User Portal is being developed as a Web application using Java-based technology, including servlets and JSPs.

  16. Deformable mirrors development program at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Brinkmann, Martin; Jakob, Gerd; Lilley, Paul; Casali, Mark; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kasper, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.

  17. ESO's Telescopes In memoriam Daniel Enard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The contributions of ESO to the art of telescope-making have come a long way since the early years, placing it, by the turn of the millennium, among the acknowledged leaders in the field. In this article I will give a brief history of what are, in my view, the highlights among these developments, from the 3.6-metre telescope through the NTT and VLT/I to the E-ELT.

  18. ESO VLT laser guide star facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccini, Domenico; Hackenberg, Wolfgang K.; Cullum, Martin J.; Brunetto, Enzo; Ott, Thomas; Quattri, Marco; Allaert, Eric; Dimmler, Martin; Tarenghi, Massimo; Van Kersteren, A.; Di Chirico, C.; Buzzoni, Bernard; Gray, Peter; Tamai, R.; Tapia, M.

    2002-02-01

    We report in this paper on the design and progress of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility. The project will create a user facility embedded in UT4, to produce in the Earth's Mesosphere Laser Guide Stars, which extend the sky coverage of Adaptive Optics systems on the VLT UT4 telescope. Embedded into the project are provisions for multiple LGS to cope with second generation MCAO instruments.

  19. Near-ir spectroscopy of Jupiter at the time of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts: Emissions of CH4, H3 + and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Th.; Schulz, R.; Stüwe, J. A.; Wiedemann, G.; Drossart, P.; Crovisier, J.

    Near-infrared emissions of the SL9 impact sites of Jupiter have been recorded on July 16-18, 1994, at ESO (La Silla, Chile). A very strong emission of methane was recorded between 3.50 and 3.56 µm, shortly after impact H, showing evidence for a temporary increase of the Jovian stratospheric temperature. Emissions of H2 (2.12 µm) and H3+ (3.53 µm) were also detected above some of the impact sites, several hours after the impacts. The observed H3+ emissions, however, seem to be at least partly contaminated by the southern aurora. A strong continuum was also detected at 2.12 µm over most of the impact sites, presumably due to intense scattering of reflected sunlight by stratospheric haze.

  20. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2014-10-01

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N-H...O=C, type II by a strong O-H...N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N-H...O-H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O...H-C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O-H...N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm-1, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG undergoes facile photofragmentation

  1. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    SciTech Connect

    Borba, Ana Fausto, Rui; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-10-21

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N–H···O=C, type II by a strong O–H···N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N–H···O–H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O···H–C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O–H···N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N{sub 2} matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm{sup −1}, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that

  2. Long-term monitoring of the archetype Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15: X-ray, optical and near-IR variability of the corona, disc and torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Arévalo, P.; Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M. M.; Videla, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present long-term monitoring of MCG-6-30-15 in X-rays, optical and near-IR wavelengths, collected over 5 yr of monitoring. We determine the power spectrum density of all the observed bands and show that after taking into account the host contamination similar power is observed in the optical and near-IR bands. There is evidence for a correlation between the light curves of the X-ray photon flux and the optical B band, but it is not possible to determine a lag with certainty, with the most likely value being around 0 d. Strong correlation is seen between the optical and near-IR bands. Cross-correlation analysis shows some complex probability distributions and lags that range from 10 to 20 d, with the near-IR following the optical variations. Filtering the light curves in frequency space shows that the strongest correlations are those corresponding to the shortest time-scales. We discuss the nature of the X-ray variability and conclude that this is intrinsic and cannot be accounted for by absorption episodes due to material intervening in the line of sight. It is also found that the lags agree with the relation τ ∝ λ4/3, as expected for an optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc, although for a larger disc than that predicted by the estimated black hole mass and accretion rate in MCG-6-30-15. The cross-correlation analysis suggests that the torus is located at ˜20 light-days from the central source and at most at ˜50 light-days from the central region. This implies an active galactic nucleus bolometric luminosity of ˜3 × 1043 erg s-1 cm-2.

  3. OmegaCAM: ESO's Newest Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijken, K.

    2011-12-01

    OmegaCAM, the 300-megapixel wide-field optical camera on the new VLT Survey Telescope (VST), was commissioned between March and August of this year. This new capability in ESO's arsenal takes images of 1 degree by 1° patches of the sky, at 0.2 arcseconds per pixel resolution and of image quality well-matched to the natural seeing on Paranal. The commissioning and OmegaCAM's scientific niche as a high image quality, ultra-violet- sensitive wide-field survey instrument are briefly discussed.

  4. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    The 22nd James Bond adventure is due for release tomorrow, 31 October 2008, in the UK and a week later in the rest of the world. A key location in the movie is the Residencia, the hotel for astronomers and staff at ESO's Paranal Observatory. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow ESO PR Photo 38/08 The James Bond "Quantum of Solace" filmmakers Quantum of Solace is the latest film in one of most successful movie franchises -- that of renowned 007 Agent James Bond of the British Secret Service MI6. The agent "on Her Majesty's secret service" is once again played by Daniel Craig. Key scenes of the movie were filmed at Paranal, the home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, and the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Usually occupied by no more than 100 astronomers, engineers and technicians, Paranal welcomed the 300-strong film crew for several days of shooting at the end of March 2008. The crew travelled from their hotel base in Antofagasta for up to two hours each morning to reach the filming locations. "We are delighted to have a movie like this filmed at Paranal and it was extremely good to see how careful the crew were with the surroundings and how mindful they were of the fact that they were in an operating, working observatory", says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO Director General. "Paranal is a unique observatory in a unique setting and it is no real surprise that it plays a major part in a James Bond movie", he adds. The filmmakers were mostly interested in filming exterior scenes at the Paranal Residencia, the accommodation for staff operating the Very Large Telescope. In the movie, the Residencia is supposedly the "Perla de Las Dunas", a unique hotel in the desert. Cerro Paranal is a 2600 m high mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, perhaps the driest on Earth. The high altitude site and extreme dryness make excellent conditions for astronomical observations. To make it possible for people to live and work here, a hotel, or Residencia, was built at the

  5. Validation of ESO Phase 3 data submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmotte, N.; Arnaboldi, M.; Mascetti, L.; Micol, A.; Retzlaff, J.

    2016-07-01

    The data validation phase is an essential step of the Phase 3 process at ESO that is defining and providing an infrastructure to deal with interactions between the data producers and the archive. We are using a controlled process to systematically review all Phase 3 data submissions to ensure a homogeneous and consistent science archive with well traceable and characterised data products, to the benefits of archive users. How the Phase 3 data validation plan is defined and how its results are subsequently managed will be described in the presentation. For a description of its technical implementation, please refer to the contribution by L. Mascetti.

  6. ESO 50th Anniversary Gala Dinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirey, R.

    2012-12-01

    To formally mark the 50th anniversary of the signing of the ESO Convention, a gala dinner was held in the Munich Residenz. A brief report of the event is presented and the speeches are reproduced. The speakers were the President of the Council, Xavier Barcons; the German Minister for Education and Research, Prof. Dr Annette Schavan; the Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research and the Arts, Dr Wolfgang Heubisch; physics Nobel Laureate, Brian Schmidt; the current Director General, Tim de Zeeuw and the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alfredo Moreno Charme.

  7. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  8. Europe's Astronomy Teachers Meet at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-12-01

    European Association for Astronomy Education Formed A joint EU/ESO Workshop (1) on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe was held at the ESO Headquarters from November 25-30, 1994, under the auspices of the 1994 European Week for Scientific Culture. More than 100 teachers from secondary schools in 17 European countries participated together with representatives of national ministries and local authorities, as well as professional astronomers. This meeting was the first of its kind ever held and was very successful. As a most visible and immediate outcome, the participants agreed to form the "European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE)", uniting astronomy educators all over Europe into one network. A provisional Executive Committee of the EAAE was elected which will work towards the organisation of a constitutional conference within the next year. The participants unanimously adopted a "Declaration on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe", specifying the overall aims and initial actions needed to achieve them. Astronomy: Science, Technology and Culture At the beginning of the Workshop the participants listened to lectures by several specialists about some of the most active fields of astronomy. The scientific sessions included topics as diverse as minor bodies in the solar system, nucleosynthesis, interstellar chemistry and cosmology. Then followed overviews of various recent advances in astronomical technology, some of which are already having direct impact on highly specialized sectors of European industry. They included the advanced use of computers in astronomy, for instance within image processing and data archiving, as well as a demonstration of remote observing. Discussing the cultural aspects, Nigel Calder (UK) and Hubert Reeves (France) emphasized the important role of astronomy in modern society, in particular its continuing influence on our perceptions of mankind's unique location in time and space. Teaching of Astronomy in European Countries

  9. The System ESO 296-IG 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.; Gunthardt, G.

    1998-11-01

    We present here photometric and spectroscopic observations ofthe system ESO 296-IG 11, composed of two galaxies, as well as observations of a small galaxy 1'.3 distant. Colors through the whole system show little variations and reflect about the same young stellar composition. The quite blue colors of the observed regions in both galaxies of the system indicate star formation activity, and the distribution of the regions through their bodies suggests that a quite generalized starburst has taken place. The spectra of these regions are characteristic of H II regions of comparatively high excitation; their oxygen and nitrogen abundances are low, and their N(N)/N(O) ratios are comparable to those of the Magellanic Clouds and late type spiral galaxies. The low abundances of the regions would be consistent with the ages derived for the burts of star formation in their interiors. The high equivalent widths of the Halfa + [N II] emission lines of the integrated spectra of both galaxies indicate enhanced star formation compared with isolated ones, and are compatible with those observed in mergers of two disk galaxies. The velocities indicate that the two galaxies are a physical pair, and they are linked with the small nearby galaxy. The derived information suggests that ESO 296-IG 11 is composed of two advanced late type galaxies with similar general properties, and constitutes a triple system together with the small galaxy.

  10. Report on the First ESO-EAAE Astronomy Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce-Price, Douglas; Ros, Rosa Maria; Madsen, Claus

    2007-12-01

    The 1st ESO-EAAE Astronomy Summer School for teachers took place in the ESO Headquarters in Garching from 19th to 23rd July 2007. This summer school was based on ten years of successful schools organised around Europe by the EAAE (European Association for Astronomy Education), but 2007 marked increased involvement by ESO. In addition, the summer school was recognised as a Socrates course, allowing teachers to apply for funding through the Socrates programme, while some additional support for delegates was made available through ESO.

  11. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  12. VLT instrumentation control: the collaboration of OATs with ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, P.

    The collaboration of the Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) of the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste with ESO will be presented. It may be considered as an example of a good practice in the collaboration of a peripheral Institute with ESO. Started in 1985, it spans almost all the time since Italy joined ESO in 1982. The Trieste Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) participated in many technological enterprise of ESO, from Remote Observing to VLT instrumentation and to ALMA ACS, and is now looking for the challenging E-ELT.

  13. Post-perihelion coma monitoring of comet Hale-Bopp at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Bonfils, X.; Petit, Y.; Hainaut, O.; Delahodde, C.; Jorda, L.; Rauer, H.; Colas, F.; Manfroid, J.; Marchis, F.; Schulz, R.; Tanabe, R.; Tozzi, G. P.

    2002-11-01

    The post-perihelion coma activity of Comet C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp is monitored at ESO telescopes in La Silla and Paranal since Sept. 1997. Imaging through broadband filters in the visible and near-IR wavelength ranges allows to investigate the evolution of the dust coma, namely the appearance of jets, fans, shells and clouds. Long-term evolution: the comet had a porcupine-like embedded fan coma in autumn 1997 that evolved into a northern fan plus shell pattern in 1998 and remains like this since. Thus, the evolution of the coma structure post-perihelion was similar to that pre-perihelion at about the same heliocentric distances, but is occurred in reversed order. This long-term evolution can be characterized by quasi-continuous dust emission from a few (minimum 4) active regions (producing the fan structures) on the nucleus that is modulated by occasional, repetitive and short-term activity increases (generating shell features in the coma). Outbursts: a number of outbursts and unusual activity patterns occurred in the coma of the comet post-perihelion that are documented through the appearance of complex "palm-tree-like" structures of temporary nature in association with outbursts in the visual lightcurve of the comet and a series of 3 dust clouds resembling "mini-comets" and passing through the northern coma at projected velocities of 30-50m/s. The similarity of coma patterns and cometary viewing geometry from Earth before and after perihelion suggests that some nuclear regions had enhanced long-term activity, possibly driven by super-volatile ices at larger (>10AU) heliocentric distances and that the orientation of the rotation axis of the nucleus did not change much over the past 7 years.

  14. Professor Tim de Zeeuw Takes Up Duty as New ESO Director General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    On 1 September, Tim de Zeeuw became the new ESO Director General, succeeding Catherine Cesarsky. In his first day in office, he kindly agreed to answer a few questions. ESO PR Photo 38/07 ESO PR Video 38/07 Watch the Video! How would you describe the current period for astronomy? Tim de Zeeuw: We are in an extremely exciting time for astronomy and I think this is understood worldwide and not just by astronomers. The technology is now available to look not only at the farthest objects in the Universe, where the light left a long time ago, allowing us to see how the Universe evolved and developed, but we can even detect signatures of planets around other stars, and that answers an age-old question which is a fundamental question in all of science, and really excites the general public. How do you see the role of ESO in this context? Tim de Zeeuw: ESO has a very important role in the context of European and worldwide astronomy because it is one of the leading organisations for ground-based astronomy. You may even say it is the pre-eminent organisation. Therefore, we have both an opportunity and a responsibility to lead the further developments in astronomy. Where do you see ESO developing in the coming years? Tim de Zeeuw: I see three main goals for ESO in the coming years. The first one is to get the best possible science out of the Very Large Telescope, the interferometer and the survey telescopes, all of them on Paranal. The second is to build ALMA, the new observatory at 5 000 metres in the high Andes. Together with our North American and East Asian partners, we need to deliver this on budget and on time, and prepare the European astronomers for leading the science. The third main goal is to design a world-leading Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), which may have a main mirror with a diameter larger than 40 metres and will enable wonderful science. And of course, we don't only want to design it, we also want to construct it. And what about La Silla? Tim de Zeeuw: La

  15. The Gaia-ESO Survey Astrophysical Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.; Gaia-ESO Survey Consortium

    2016-05-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey is a wide field spectroscopic survey recently started with the FLAMES@VLT in Cerro Paranal, Chile. It will produce radial velocities more accurate than Gaia's for faint stars (down to V ≃ 18), and astrophysical parameters and abundances for approximately 100 000 stars, belonging to all Galactic populations. 300 nights were assigned in 5 years (with the last year subject to approval after a detailed report). In particular, to connect with other ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, a detailed calibration program — for the astrophysical parameters derivation — is planned, including well known clusters, Gaia benchmark stars, and special equatorial calibration fields designed for wide field/multifiber spectrographs.

  16. Manufacturing of the ESO adaptive optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.,; Madec, P.-Y.; Hubin, N.; Stroebele, S.; Paufique, J.; Vernet, E.; Hackenberg, W.; Pirard, J.-F.; Jochum, L.; Glindemann, A.; Jost, A.; Conzelmann, R.; Kiekebusch, M.; Tordo, S.; Lizon, J.-L.; Donaldson, R.; Fedrigo, E.; Soenke, C.; Duchateau, M.; Bruton, A.; Delabre, B.; Downing, M.; Reyes, J.; Kolb, J.; Bechet, C.; Lelouarn, M.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Quattri, M.; Guidolin, I.; Buzzoni, B.; Dupuy, C.; Guzman, R.; Comin, M.; Silber, A.; Quentin, J.; La Penna, P.; Manescau, A.; Jolley, P.; Heinz, V.; Duhoux, P.; Argomedo, J.; Gallieni, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Pescoller, D.; Stuik, R.,; Deep, A.

    2010-07-01

    The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) consists in an evolution of one of the ESO VLT unit telescopes to a laser driven adaptive telescope with a deformable mirror in its optical train, in this case the secondary 1.1m mirror, and four Laser Guide Stars (LGSs). This evolution implements many challenging technologies like the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) including a thin shell mirror (1.1 m diameter and 2mm thin), the high power Na lasers (20W), the low Read-Out Noise (RON) WaveFront Sensor (WFS) camera (< 1e-) and SPARTA the new generation of Real Time Computers (RTC) for adaptive control. It also faces many problematic similar to any Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and as such, will validate many technologies and solutions needed for the European ELT (E-ELT) 42m telescope. The AOF will offer a very large (7 arcmin) Field Of View (FOV) GLAO correction in J, H and K bands (GRAAL+Hawk-I), a visible integral field spectrograph with a 1 arcmin GLAO corrected FOV (GALACSI-MUSE WFM) and finally a LTAO 7.5" FOV (GALACSI-MUSE NFM). Most systems of the AOF have completed final design and are in manufacturing phase. Specific activities are linked to the modification of the 8m telescope in order to accommodate the new DSM and the 4 LGS Units assembled on its Center-Piece. A one year test period in Europe is planned to test and validate all modes and their performance followed by a commissioning phase in Paranal scheduled for 2014.

  17. ESO adaptive optics facility progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Paufique, Jerome; La Penna, Paolo; Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Pirard, Jean-Francois; Hackenberg, Wolfgang; Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Kolb, Johann; Muller, Nicolas; Le Louarn, Miska; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Ridings, Rob; Abad, Jose A.; Fischer, Gert; Heinz, Volker; Kiekebusch, Mario; Argomedo, Javier; Conzelmann, Ralf; Tordo, Sebastien; Donaldson, Robert; Soenke, Christian; Duhoux, Philippe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Delabre, Bernard; Jost, Andreas; Duchateau, Michel; Downing, Mark; Moreno, Javier R.; Dorn, Reinhold; Manescau, Antonio; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Quattri, Marco; Dupuy, Christophe; Guidolin, Ivan M.; Comin, Mauro; Guzman, Ronald; Buzzoni, Bernard; Quentin, Jutta; Lewis, Steffan; Jolley, Paul; Kraus, Maximilian; Pfrommer, Thomas; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Bechet, Clementine; Stuik, Remko

    2012-07-01

    The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) consists in an evolution of one of the ESO VLT unit telescopes to a laser driven adaptive telescope with a deformable mirror in its optical train. The project has completed the procurement phase and several large structures have been delivered to Garching (Germany) and are being integrated (the AO modules GRAAL and GALACSI and the ASSIST test bench). The 4LGSF Laser (TOPTICA) has undergone final design review and a pre-production unit has been built and successfully tested. The Deformable Secondary Mirror is fully integrated and system tests have started with the first science grade thin shell mirror delivered by SAGEM. The integrated modules will be tested in stand-alone mode in 2012 and upon delivery of the DSM in late 2012, the system test phase will start. A commissioning strategy has been developed and will be updated before delivery to Paranal. A substantial effort has been spent in 2011-2012 to prepare the unit telescope to receive the AOF by preparing the mechanical interfaces and upgrading the cooling and electrical network. This preparation will also simplify the final installation of the facility on the telescope. A lot of attention is given to the system calibration, how to record and correct any misalignment and control the whole facility. A plan is being developed to efficiently operate the AOF after commissioning. This includes monitoring a relevant set of atmospheric parameters for scheduling and a Laser Traffic control system to assist the operator during the night and help/support the observing block preparation.

  18. ESO Strategy to Promote Astronomy and Science Culture in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argandona, G.

    2006-08-01

    With three astronomical sites operating in Chile (La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor), the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, ESO, has developed multiple approaches to foster astronomy and science culture in the country, implemented both nationally and locally. At the national level, it was established an annual fund to provide grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. This has been complemented by multiple partnerships and formal collaborations with relevant actors, like the Chilean Ministry of Education, the National Science and Technology Commission (CONICYT), science museums and national mass media. At the local level, the education and outreach program includes traditional public visits to the observatories, support to science teaching at local schools, promotion of astronomy clubs, organisation of a mobile observatory, among other actions. An overview of these national and local projects will be given, along with a review of the development of Chilean astronomy in last years, including recent statistics on the number of professional astronomers, science productivity and percentage of access to international observatories by Chilean community.

  19. Fe I oscillator strengths for the Gaia-ESO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R.; Lind, K.; Nave, G.; Pickering, J. C.

    2014-07-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey (GES) is conducting a large-scale study of multi-element chemical abundances of some 100 000 stars in the Milky Way with the ultimate aim of quantifying the formation history and evolution of young, mature and ancient Galactic populations. However, in preparing for the analysis of GES spectra, it has been noted that atomic oscillator strengths of important Fe I lines required to correctly model stellar line intensities are missing from the atomic data base. Here, we present new experimental oscillator strengths derived from branching fractions and level lifetimes, for 142 transitions of Fe I between 3526 and 10 864 Å, of which at least 38 are urgently needed by GES. We also assess the impact of these new data on solar spectral synthesis and demonstrate that for 36 lines that appear unblended in the Sun, Fe abundance measurements yield a small line-by-line scatter (0.08 dex) with a mean abundance of 7.44 dex in good agreement with recent publications.

  20. ESO Observations of New Moon of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    Two astronomers, both specialists in minor bodies in the solar system, have performed observations with ESO telescopes that provide important information about a small moon, recently discovered in orbit around the solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Brett Gladman (of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and working at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, France) and Hermann Boehnhardt ( ESO-Paranal) obtained detailed data on the object S/1999 J 1 , definitively confirming it as a natural satellite of Jupiter. Seventeen Jovian moons are now known. The S/1999 J 1 object On July 20, 2000, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced on IAU Circular 7460 that orbital computations had shown a small moving object, first seen in the sky in 1999, to be a new candidate satellite of Jupiter. The conclusion was based on several positional observations of that object made in October and November 1999 with the Spacewatch Telescope of the University of Arizona (USA). In particular, the object's motion in the sky was compatible with that of an object in orbit around Jupiter. Following the official IAU procedure, the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams designated the new object as S/1999 J 1 (the 1st candidate Satellite of Jupiter to be discovered in 1999). Details about the exciting detective story of this object's discovery can be found in an MPC press release and the corresponding Spacewatch News Note. Unfortunately, Jupiter and S/1999 J 1 were on the opposite side of the Sun as seen from the Earth during the spring of 2000. The faint object remained lost in the glare of the Sun in this period and, as expected, a search in July 2000 through all available astronomical data archives confirmed that it had not been seen since November 1999, nor before that time. With time, the extrapolated sky position of S/1999 J 1 was getting progressively less accurate. New observations were thus urgently needed to "recover

  1. NY-ESO-1 specific antibody and cellular responses in melanoma patients primed with NY-ESO-1 protein in ISCOMATRIX and boosted with recombinant NY-ESO-1 fowlpox virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Li; Dawoodji, Amina; Tarlton, Andrea; Gnjatic, Sacha; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Karydis, Ioannis; Browning, Judy; Pratap, Sarah; Verfaille, Christian; Venhaus, Ralph R; Pan, Linda; Altman, Douglas G; Cebon, Jonathan S; Old, Lloyd L; Nathan, Paul; Ottensmeier, Christian; Middleton, Mark; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-15

    Vaccination strategies based on repeated injections of NY-ESO-1 protein formulated in ISCOMATRIX particles (NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX) have shown to elicit combined NY-ESO-1 specific antibody and T cell responses. However, it remains unclear whether heterologous prime-boost strategies based on the combination with NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX with different NY-ESO-1 boosting reagents could be used to increase NY-ESO-1 CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cell responses. To address this question, we carried out a randomized clinical trial in 39 high-risk, resected melanoma patients vaccinated with NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX, and then boosted with repeated injections of either recombinant fowlpox virus encoding full length NY-ESO-1 (rF-NY-ESO-1) (Arm A) or NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX alone (Arm B). We have comprehensively analyzed NY-ESO-1 specific T cells and B cells response in all patients before and after vaccination for a total of seven time points per patient. NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX alone elicited a strong NY-ESO-1 specific CD4(+) T cell and antibody response, which was maintained by both regiments at similar levels. However, CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly boosted in 3 out of 18 patients in Arm A after the first rF-NY-ESO-1 injection and such responses were maintained until the end of the trial, while no patients in Arm B showed similar CD8(+) T cell responses. In addition, our results clearly identified immunodominant regions in the NY-ESO-1 protein: NY-ESO-179-102 and NY-ESO-1115-138 for CD4+ T cells and NY-ESO-185-108 for CD8+ T cells in a large proportion of vaccinated patients. These regions of NY-ESO-1 protein should be considered in future clinical trials as immunodominant epitopes.

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Kinematics of seven Galactic globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardo, C.; Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; de Laverny, P.; Marconi, G.; Masseron, T.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey is a large public spectroscopic survey aimed at investigating the origin and formation history of our Galaxy by collecting spectroscopy of representative samples (about 105 Milky Way stars) of all Galactic stellar populations, in the field and in clusters. The survey uses globular clusters as intra- and inter-survey calibrators, deriving stellar atmospheric parameters and abundances of a significant number of stars in clusters, along with radial velocity determinations. We used precise radial velocities of a large number of stars in seven globular clusters (NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 4833, NGC 5927, NGC 6752, and NGC 7078) to validate pipeline results and to preliminarily investigate the cluster internal kinematics. Radial velocity measurements were extracted from FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra processed by the survey pipeline as part of the second internal data release of data products to ESO. We complemented our sample with ESO archival data obtained with different instrument configurations. Reliable radial velocity measurements for 1513 bona fide cluster star members were obtained in total. We measured systemic rotation, estimated central velocity dispersions, and present velocity dispersion profiles of all the selected clusters, providing the first velocity dispersion curve and the first estimate of the central velocitydispersion for the cluster NGC 5927. Finally, we explore the possible link between cluster kinematics and other physical parameters. The analysis we present here demonstrates that Gaia-ESO survey data are sufficiently accurate to be used in studies of kinematics of stellar systems and stellar populations in the Milky Way. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A115Based on data products from observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme 188.B-3002 (the

  3. El sistema ESO 296-IG 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.

    El objeto ESO 296-IG 11 que se presenta en forma de ``V'' y posee destacadas condensaciones a lo largo de cada una de sus dos ramas, las que son de igual extensión (~ 1'), es estudiado en base a material espectroscópico obtenido en el CASLEO. Así se establecen las principales características espectrales, las condiciones físicas y los mecanismos de excitación dominantes de las zonas más notables de su estructura, como así también la distribución de su extinción interna y la variación del grado de excitación de las mismas. Del análisis de las velocidades radiales se determina que se trata de dos galaxias de tipo disco que se están interpenetrando y que conforman un sistema triple junto con una galaxia de contorno elíptico y tamaño considerablemente menor (0.2') que se encuentra a ~ 1.3' del punto de intersección de las dos primeras, ubicada sobre la dirección que contiene a una de éstas y hacia la que se extienden unas débiles y largas prolongaciones de la otra.

  4. The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility under Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Paufique, Jerome; La Penna, Paolo; Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Pirard, Jean-François; Hackenberg, Wolfgang; Kuntschner, Harald; Kolb, Johann; Muller, Nicolas; Le Louarn, Miska; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Ridings, Rob; Abad, Jose; Fischer, Gert; Heinz, Volker; Kiekebusch, Mario; Argomedo, Javier; Conzelmann, Ralf; Tordo, Sebastien; Donaldson, Rob; Soenke, Christian; Duhoux, Philippe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Delabre, Bernard; Jost, Andrea; Duchateau, Michel; Downing, Mark; Moreno, Javier; Manescau, Antonio; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Quattri, Marco; Dupuy, Christophe; Guidolin, Ivan; Comin, Mauro; Guzman, Ronald; Buzzoni, Bernard; Quentin, Jutta; Lewis, Steffan; Jolley, Paul; Kraus, Max; Pfrommer, Thomas; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Stuik, Remko

    2013-12-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility project has received most of its subsystems in Garching and the ESO Integration Hall has become the central operation location for the next phase of the project. The main test bench ASSIST and the 2nd Generation M2-Unit (hosting the Deformable Secondary Mirror) have been granted acceptance late 2012. The DSM will now undergo a series of tests on ASSIST to qualify its optical performance which launches the System Test Phase of the AOF. The tests will validate the AO modules operation with the DSM: first the GRAAL adaptive optics module for Hawk-I in natural guide star AO mode on-axis and then its Ground Layer AO mode. This will be followed by the GALACSI (for MUSE) Wide-Field-Mode (GLAO) and then the more challenging Narrow-Field-Mode (LTAO). We will report on the status of the subsystems at the time of the conference but also on the performance of the delivered ASSIST test bench, the DSM and the 20 Watt Sodium fiber Laser pre-production unit which has validated all specifications before final manufacturing of the serial units. We will also present some considerations and tools to ensure an efficient operation of the Facility in Paranal.

  5. The Inauguration of the ESO Headquarters Building at Garching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, P.

    1981-06-01

    The European Southern Observatory was lormally founded on 5 October 1962 when the Convention was signed by Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, soon to be followed by Denmark. For many years, ESO was located partly in Geneva and partly in Hamburg. This split of the organization made the management difficult. About five years ago, the German government offered to construct a building for ESO on the campus of the Max-Planck Society at Garching near Munich. The administration immediately moved from Hamburg into provisional offices at Garching and about six months ago, after completion 01 the new building, the European centre of ESO found its final home.

  6. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  7. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Today, forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers are concluding a one-week, educational `working visit' to the ESO Headquarters in Garching (See ESO Press Release 14/95 of 8 November 1995). They are the winners of the Europe-wide contest `Europe Towards the Stars', organised by ESO with the support of the European Union, under the auspices of the Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. From November 14-20, they have worked with professional ESO astronomers in order to get insight into the methods and principles of modern astronomy and astrophysics, as carried out at one of the world's foremost international centres. This included very successful remote observations with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the 1.4-m Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) via a satellite link between the ESO Headquarters and the La Silla observatory in Chile, 12,000 kilometres away. After a general introduction to modern astronomy on the first day of the visit, the participants divided into six teams, according to their interests. Some chose to observe distant galaxies, others prefered to have a closer look on binary stars, and one team decided to investigate a star which is thought to be surrounded by a proto-planetary system. Each team was supported by an experienced ESO astronomer. Then followed the observations at the remote consoles during three nights, the first at the NTT and the following at the CAT. Each team had access to the telescope during half a night. Although the work schedule - exactly as in `real' science - was quite hard, especially during the following data reduction and interpretative phase, all teams managed extremely well and in high spirits. The young astronomers' observations were favoured by excellent atmospheric conditions. At the NTT, the seeing was better than 0.5 arcsecond during several hours, an exceptional value that allows very good images to be obtained. All observations represent solid and interesting science, and

  8. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    papers in peer-reviewed journals, ESO is now one of the leading astronomical facilities in the world. Coupled with cutting edge optical telescopes and astronomical instruments at the Chile sites, the DFS has contributed to this success by providing the fundamental IT infrastructure for observation and data management." The case study about ESO, together with the case studies from the other winners and laureates of the 2005 Collection, is available on the Computerworld Honors Program Archives On-Line, www.cwheroes.org, and also distributed to more than 134 members of the Computerworld Honors Global Archives. According to Dan Morrow, a founding director and chief historian for the Honors Program, "This year's award recipients exemplify the very best in the creative use of IT in service to mankind. Their work and their stories are outstanding contributions to the history of the information technology revolution in every sense of the word, and, for the archives we serve all over the world, they are, truly, priceless." From more than 250 nominations submitted this year by the industry chairmen and CEO's who serve on the program's Chairmen's Committee, 162 were honoured as laureates at ceremonies in San Francisco, on April 3, 2005, when their case studies officially became part of the Computerworld Honors 2005 Collection. Of these, 48 finalists were chosen by an academy of distinguished judges to attend the June 6 gala in Washington, D.C., at which 10 were announced recipients of the award, one in each of the following categories: Business and Related Services; Education and Academia; Environment, Energy and Agriculture; Finance, Insurance and Real Estate; Government and Non-Profit Organizations; Manufacturing; Media, Arts and Entertainment; Medicine; Science; and Transportation. Additional information about the 2005 Collection is available at www.cwheroes.org, where the entire collection is available to scholars, researchers and the general public. The ESO Data Management and

  9. The ESO astronomical site monitor upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Sommer, Heiko; Sarazin, Marc; Bierwirth, Thomas; Dorigo, Dario; Vera Sequeiros, Ignacio; Navarrete, Julio; Del Valle, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and prediction of astronomical observing conditions are essential for planning and optimizing observations. For this purpose, ESO, in the 90s, developed the concept of an Astronomical Site Monitor (ASM), as a facility fully integrated in the operations of the VLT observatory[1]. Identical systems were installed at Paranal and La Silla, providing comprehensive local weather information. By now, we had very good reasons for a major upgrade: • The need of introducing new features to satisfy the requirements of observing with the Adaptive Optics Facility and to benefit other Adaptive Optics systems. • Managing hardware and software obsolescence. • Making the system more maintainable and expandable by integrating off-the-shelf hardware solutions. The new ASM integrates: • A new Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) paired with a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) to measure the vertical distribution of turbulence in the high atmosphere and its characteristic velocity. • A new SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) telescope, for measuring the altitude and intensity of turbulent layers in the low atmosphere. • A water vapour radiometer to monitor the water vapour content of the atmosphere. • The old weather tower, which is being refurbished with new sensors. The telescopes and the devices integrated are commercial products and we have used as much as possible the control system from the vendors. The existing external interfaces, based on the VLT standards, have been maintained for full backward compatibility. All data produced by the system are directly fed in real time into a relational database. A completely new web-based display replaces the obsolete plots based on HP-UX RTAP. We analyse here the architectural and technological choices and discuss the motivations and trade-offs.

  10. Preliminary Results from the ESO Slice Project (ESP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G.; Zamorani, G.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Alimi, J.; Blanchard, A.; Cayatte, V.; Felenbock, P.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Ramella, M.

    We present the first results of a galaxy redshift survey, ESO Slice Project (ESP), we are accomplishing as an ESO Key-Project over about 30 square degrees in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The limiting magnitude is b_J = 19.4. Observations have been almost completed and about 90% of the data obtained so far has been reduced providing about 3000 galaxy redshifts. We present some preliminary results concerning the large scale galaxy distribution and their luminosity function.

  11. Science data management for ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    Providing the best science data is at the core of ESO's mission to enable major science discoveries from its science community. We describe here the steps that ESO undertakes to fulfill this, namely ensuring that instruments are working properly, that the science content can be extracted from the data and, finally, delivering the science data to our users, PIs and archive researchers alike. Metrics and statistics that gauge the results and impact of these efforts are discussed.

  12. Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Hayward, Thomas L. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c and others

    2014-05-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (Y{sub S} , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10{sup –5}. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH {sub 4S,1%} (1.58 μm), K{sub S} (2.18 μm), and K {sub cont} (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L {sub bol}/L {sub ☉}) = –3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M {sub Jup} for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L {sub bol}-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T {sub eff} = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R {sub Jup}, this T {sub eff} is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

  13. ESO Council Resolves to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    The ESO Council has just met at the ESO Headquarters in Garching during two days of intensive consultations. Among the important items on the agenda were the recent developments around the Very Large Telescope Project at Paranal, and also the possible membership of other countries. RELATIONS WITH CHILE The ESO Council appreciated the continued efforts by the Government of the Republic of Chile to bring to a successful conclusion the various pending matters concerning the relations between the Republic of Chile and this Organisation. It noted the solution of serious problems which have interfered with ESO's operations in its host country, and now awaits formal confirmation from the Chilean Government that also the legal proceedings around the land dispute around the Paranal site are cleared. Council expects that the ratification of the "Intermediate, Supplementary and Amending Agreement" will occur without undue delay and it reiterates its intention to approve this Agreement at the same time as the Chilean Parliament. Meanwhile, Council expressed its pleasure to welcome those Chilean scientists now nominated by the Chilean Government as observers to the ESO committees. Council instructed the ESO Management to continue work at Paranal. Although the delegates were increasingly optimistic that the VLT project can ultimately remain at Paranal, they nevertheless also requested the Management to pursue, until further notice, the ongoing comparative study of first-class astronomical sites in the world. In connection with the pending issues in the relationship with Chile, Council remained preoccupied about the recognition of ESO's immunities by the Chilean judiciary and it requested from the Management that the assessment of the financial and other implications of the recent events which have interfered with the VLT construction work at Paranal be completed. Finally, in order to provide additional avenues for frequent contacts, the ESO Council invited the Chilean Government

  14. Austria to join ESO on 1 July 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at a ceremony in Vienna, the Austrian Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, signed the formal Accession Agreement between Austria and ESO, paving the way for Austria to join ESO as its 14th member state by 1 July this year. Signing Austria Agreement ESO PR Photo 20a/08 The Signing Ceremony "This will not only give the high-quality Austrian astronomical community full access to ESO's facilities, it will give Austrian scientists a say, together with their colleagues from the other member-states, in shaping the future of our science," said Tim de Zeeuw. The signing of the Agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during its meeting in Prague on 3 June and the decision by the Austrian Government on 25 June. At the ceremony, Minister Hahn emphasised that the accession of Austria to ESO is a strong commitment to fundamental research and particularly to astronomy. "This sustainable investment enables Austrian science to gain access to a leading, international research infrastructure, and provides an important impulse for the attractiveness of Austria as a place for research," he said. "With the signature of the agreement today we bring a long discussion to a happy end and Austrian astronomy to new horizons." Since the Agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Austrian Parliament for ratification. "It is not possible to plan for radical changes, but ideal conditions will be created by this accession, which will strengthen Austrian and European astronomy. It is now for the scientists to use this opportunity," concluded the Austrian Minister.

  15. Global Near-IR Maps of Io from Gemini-N and Keck Observations in 2010, with a Specific Emphasis on Kanehekili Fluctus, Janus Patera, and Loki Patera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pater, I.; Davies, A. G.; Adamkovics, M.; McGregor, A.; Observing Team, G.

    2013-12-01

    We have constructed global maps of Io from observations obtained at 1-5 μm in 2010 using the adaptive optics systems on the Keck and Gemini telescopes. We compare these maps with those obtained in 2001 [1]. Although the total emission from all hot spots combined at each wavelength is similar for the two years, the spatial brightness distribution is very different, a reflection of evolving style and magnitude of volcanic activity. In 2010 thermal emission in the near-infrared was dominated by Loki Patera and Kanehekili Fluctus. We also present new timelines of thermal emission from Kanehekili Fluctus and Loki and Janus Paterae, updating timelines in recent publications [2, 3] with additional Keck adaptive optics data obtained between 2003 and 2010. These new timelines are the most comprehensive plots ever produced of the volcanic thermal emission variability for these or any other locations on Io, utilizing data from multiple ground- and space-based assets. The timeline plot shows that in 2010 Kanehekili Fluctus (as seen by Gemini) was briefly exceptionally brighter than ever seen before, evidence of a short-lived but highly-energetic eruption episode. Acknowledgements: AGD is supported by a grant from the NASA OPR Program. References: [1] Marchis et al. (2005) Icarus, 176, 96-122. [2] Davies et al. (2012) Icarus, 221, 466-470. [3] Rathbun and Spencer (2010) Icarus, 209, 625-630.

  16. 1–2.4 μm Near-IR Spectrum of the Giant Planet β Pictoris b Obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey; Pueyo, Laurent; De Rosa, Robert J.; Vargas, Jeffrey; Macintosh, Bruce; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Bulger, Joanna; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine H.; Cotten, Tara; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2017-04-01

    Using the Gemini Planet Imager located at Gemini South, we measured the near-infrared (1.0–2.4 μm) spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby, young star β Pictoris. We compare the spectrum obtained with currently published model grids and with known substellar objects and present the best matching models as well as the best matching observed objects. Comparing the empirical measurement of the bolometric luminosity to evolutionary models, we find a mass of 12.9 ± 0.2 {{ M }}{Jup}, an effective temperature of 1724 ± 15 K, a radius of 1.46 ± 0.01 {{ R }}{Jup}, and a surface gravity of {log}g=4.18+/- 0.01 [dex] (cgs). The stated uncertainties are statistical errors only, and do not incorporate any uncertainty on the evolutionary models. Using atmospheric models, we find an effective temperature of 1700–1800 K and a surface gravity of {log}g=3.5–4.0 [dex] depending upon the model. These values agree well with other publications and with “hot-start” predictions from planetary evolution models. Further, we find that the spectrum of β Pic b best matches a low surface gravity L2 ± 1 brown dwarf. Finally, comparing the spectrum to field brown dwarfs, we find the the spectrum best matches 2MASS J04062677–381210 and 2MASS J03552337+1133437.

  17. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  18. ESO Council Decides to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    The Council [1] of the European Southern Observatory has met in extraordinary session at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich on August 8 and 9, 1994. The main agenda items were concerned with the recent developments around ESO's relations with the host state, the Republic of Chile, as well as the status of the organisation's main project, the 16-metre equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will become the world's largest optical telescope. Council had decided to hold this special meeting [2] because of various uncertainties that have arisen in connection with the implementation of the VLT Project at Cerro Paranal, approx. 130 kilometres south of Antofagasta, capital of the II Region in Chile. Following continued consultations at different levels within the ESO member states and after careful consideration of all aspects of the current situation - including various supportive actions by the Chilean Government as well as the incessive attacks against this international organisation from certain sides reported in the media in that country - Council took the important decision to continue the construction of the VLT Observatory at Paranal, while at the same time requesting the ESO Management to pursue the ongoing studies of alternative solutions. THE COUNCIL DECISIONS In particular, the ESO Council took note of recent positive developments which have occurred since the May 1994 round of discussions with the Chilean authorities in Santiago. The confirmation of ESO's immunities as an International Organization in Chile, contained in a number of important statements and documents, is considered a significant step by the Chilean Government to insure to ESO the unhindered erection and later operation of the VLT on Paranal. Under these circumstances and in order to maintain progress on the VLT project, the ESO Council authorized the ESO Management to continue the on-site work at Paranal. Council also took note of the desire expressed by the Chilean Government

  19. United Kingdom to Join ESO on July 1, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    ESO and PPARC Councils Endorse Terms of Accession [1] The Councils of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , at their respective meetings on December 3 and 5, 2001, have endorsed the terms for UK membership of ESO, as recently agreed by their Negotiating Teams. All members of the Councils - the governing bodies of the two organisations - welcomed the positive spirit in which the extensive negotiations had been conducted and expressed great satisfaction at the successful outcome of a complex process. The formal procedure of accession will now commence in the UK and is expected to be achieved in good time to allow accession from July 2002. The European Southern Observatory is the main European organisation for astronomy and the United Kingdom will become its tenth member state [2]. ESO operates two major observatories in the Chilean Atacama desert where the conditions for astronomical observations are second-to-none on earth and it has recently put into operation the world's foremost optical/infrared telescope, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal. With UK membership, British astronomers will join their European colleagues in preparing new projects now being planned on a global scale. They will also be able to pursue their research on some of the most powerful astronomical instruments available. The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , is "delighted that we have come this far after the lengthy negotiations needed to prepare properly the admission of another major European country to our organisation. When ESO was created nearly 40 years ago, the UK was planning for its own facilities in the southern hemisphere, in collaboration with Australia, and decided not to join. However, the impressive scientific and technological advances since then and ESOs emergence as a prime player on the European research scene have convinced our UK colleagues of the great advantages of presenting a

  20. 6th ESO/OHP Summer School in Astrophysical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, M.-P.; Meylan, G.

    1998-09-01

    The 6th ESO/OHP Summer School was hosted again at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) from 15 to 25 July 1998. The school, held only every second years, selects 18 of Europe's most promising young doctoral students in astronomy. Courses of lectures, observations, and analysis form the intellectual menu which is aimed at teaching the process of extracting astrophysically digestible results from the photons harvested at the telescopes, such as the ESO VLT, whose four telescopes will become available to the community in turn during the next few years.

  1. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  2. NGC 3293 revisited by the Gaia-ESO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semaan, Thierry; Morel, Thierry; Gosset, Eric; Zorec, Juan; Frémat, Yves; Blomme, Ronny; Lobel, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the Gaia-ESO survey we have determined the fundamental parameters of a large number of B-type stars in the Galactic, young open cluster NGC 3293. The determination of the stellar parameters is based on medium-resolution spectra obtained with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO-VLT. As a second step, we adopted the accurate parameters to determine the chemical abundances of these hot stars. We present a comparison of our results with those obtained by the 'VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars' (Evans et al. 2005). Our study increases the number of objects analysed and provides an extended view of this cluster.

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: membership and initial mass function of the γ Velorum cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisinzano, L.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonito, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Caramazza, M.; Vallenari, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Understanding the properties of young open clusters, such as the initial mass function (IMF), star formation history, and dynamic evolution, is crucial for obtaining reliable theoretical predictions of the mechanisms involved in the star formation process. Aims: We want to obtain a list that is as complete as possible of confirmed members of the young open cluster γ Velorum, with the aim of deriving general cluster properties such as the IMF. Methods: We used all available spectroscopic membership indicators within the Gaia-ESO public archive, together with literature photometry and X-ray data, and for each method, we derived the most complete list of candidate cluster members. Then, we considered photometry, gravity, and radial velocities as necessary conditions for selecting a subsample of candidates whose membership was confirmed by using the lithium and Hα lines and X-rays as youth indicators. Results: We found 242 confirmed and 4 possible cluster members for which we derived masses using very recent stellar evolutionary models. The cluster IMF in the mass range investigated in this study shows a slope of α = 2.6 ± 0.5 for 0.5 ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A70

  4. Science with ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator - MAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Marchetti, Enrico; Amico, Paola

    2012-07-01

    ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator (MAD) was a prototype designed and built to demonstrate wide-field adaptive optics science on large telescopes. The outstanding results obtained during commissioning and guaranteed time observations (GTO) prompted ESO to issue and open call to the community for 23 science demonstration (SD) observing nights distributed in three runs (in order to provide access to the summer an winter skies). Thus, in total MAD was used for science for 33 nights including the 10 nights of GTO time. date, 19 articles in refereed journals (including one in Nature) have been published based fully or partially o MAD data. To the best of our knowledge, these are not only the first, but also the only scientific publication from MCAO instruments world-wide to date (at least in Astronomy). The scientific impact of these publication, as measured by the h-index, is comparable to that of other AO instruments on the VLT, although over the years these instruments have been allocated many more nights than MAD. In this contribution we present an overview of the scientific results from MAD and a more detailed discussion of the most cited papers.

  5. Elaborated Student Talk in an Elementary ESoL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Maureen P.; Rubin, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the discourse in an English as a second or other language (ESoL) classroom in a best-case scenario that contrasted dramatically with more typical school settings. Samples student critical turns (SCTs) across a six-week literature-rich science unit. Shows that the teacher played a crucial role in extended dialogue among students. (SG)

  6. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  7. ESO Ultra HD Expedition: New clarity for astronomy outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, R. J. M.; Christensen, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 2014 a team of ESO Photo Ambassadors embarked on a pioneering expedition to the European Southern Observatory's observing sites in Chile. Their mission was to capture time-lapses, stills, videos and panoramas in crisp Ultra High Definition from some of the darkest night skies on Earth.

  8. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories III: Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Nesvorný, D.; Davies, R.

    2016-06-01

    The zodiacal light is often seen at the ESO observatories in the hours after sunset and before sunrise. The origin of the zodiacal light is described and recent research briefly summarised. Some fine images of the zodiacal light from Paranal and La Silla, including the full extent of the night sky are presented.

  9. Materials for near-IR light modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, Alexander M.; Robertson, Neil

    2016-10-01

    The work reported outlines the synthesis, film formation and application of NIR-absorbing metal dithiolene and metal diimine molecules suitable for film formation with varying ligands and central metals. Formation of an electroactive film on conducting glass or mesoporous TiO2 support can be achieved through electropolymerisation, electrodeposition, spin/drop coating or chemical attachment. In this context, we will outline the synthesis, characterisation and properties of a new family of NIR-absorbing aromatic metal diimine complexes. These complexes are shown to give rise to planar, delocalised structures with small HOMO-LUMO gaps, through the use of extended non-innocent ligands o-semibenzoquinonediimines. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of metal diimine complexes, modified to extend the electronic conjugation and shift the intense low-energy absorption from the visible to the NIR region. This study extends the range of available NIR absorping metal-complex chromophores and opens up new possibilities for wavelength tuning and application.

  10. Novel Wavelength Standards in the Near IR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-15

    and Kansas Technology En- terprise Corporation. K. Corwin’s email address is corwin@phys.ksu.edu. References 1. T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003...definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103 (2003). [8] F.-L. Hong...the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia , 40, 103 (2003). [5] F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J

  11. Nova Cephei 2014; Near-IR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, N. M.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Venkataraman, V.; Joshi, Vishal

    2014-03-01

    Spectra of Nova Cephei 2014, discovered on 9 March 2014 (CBET 2825) were obtained on 13, 15 and 20 March at R ~ 1000 (0.85 to 2.4 micron range) with the 1.2m Mount Abu Telescope + the recently commissioned Near-Infrared Camera Spectrograph (NICS). The spectra show P Cygni features and are typical of the Fe II class of novae which in the NIR show prominent HI and OI lines but are distinguished from the He/N class by displaying numerous strong lines of Carbon (see Banerjee and Ashok, 2012, BASI, for the NIR templates of both classes).

  12. Broadband Near IR Laser Hazard Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    the first quarter of this program, we procured high quality gelatin and ammonium dichromate . It is well known that there are several kinds of...composition of gelatin, ammonium dichromate and water. We attempted to find the optimum coating thickness for 50 nm and 90 nm bandwidth range filters. Annual...fabrication is based on volume Bragg holography using photopolymers and dichromated gelatins. The successful performance of broad- band IR filters

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: A globular cluster escapee in the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, K.; Koposov, S. E.; Battistini, C.; Marino, A. F.; Ruchti, G.; Serenelli, A.; Worley, C. C.; Alves-Brito, A.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Bensby, T.; Bergemann, M.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Bragaglia, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Feltzing, S.; Gruyters, P.; Heiter, U.; Jofre, P.; Korn, A. J.; Nordlander, T.; Ryde, N.; Soubiran, C.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Romano, D.; Smiljanic, R.; Bellazzini, M.; Damiani, F.; Hill, V.; de Laverny, P.; Jackson, R. J.; Lardo, C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-03-01

    A small fraction of the halo field is made up of stars that share the light element (Z ≤ 13) anomalies characteristic of second generation globular cluster (GC) stars. The ejected stars shed light on the formation of the Galactic halo by tracing the dynamical history of the clusters, which are believed to have once been more massive. Some of these ejected stars are expected to show strong Al enhancement at the expense of shortage of Mg, but until now no such star has been found. We search for outliers in the Mg and Al abundances of the few hundreds of halo field stars observed in the first eighteen months of the Gaia-ESO public spectroscopic survey. One halo star at the base of the red giant branch, here referred to as 22593757-4648029 is found to have [ Mg/Fe ] = -0.36 ± 0.04 and [ Al/Fe ] = 0.99 ± 0.08, which is compatible with the most extreme ratios detected in GCs so far. We compare the orbit of 22593757-4648029 to GCs of similar metallicity andfind it unlikely that this star has been tidally stripped with low ejection velocity from any of the clusters. However, both chemical and kinematic arguments render it plausible that the star has been ejected at high velocity from the anomalous GC ω Centauri within the last few billion years. We cannot rule out other progenitor GCs, because some may have disrupted fully, and the abundance and orbital data are inadequate for many of those that are still intact. Based on data acquired by the Gaia-ESO Survey, programme ID 188.B-3002. Observations were made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo

  15. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  16. ESO Future Facilities to Probe Fundamental Physical Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo; Liske, Jochen

    Following HARPS, two ESO projects are aimed at the ambitious goal of trying to reach the highest possible precision in measuring the radial velocity of astronomical sources. ESPRESSO spectrograph, located at the incoherent combined 4VLT focus, but able to work either with one or all VLT units, and CODEX for E-ELT will mark ESO roadmap towards the cm s - 1level of precision and possibly to an unlimited temporal baseline. By providing photon noise limited measures their promise is to improve the present limits in the variability of fundamental physical constants by one and two orders of magnitude, respectively, thus allowing for instance to verify the claim discussed at this conference by John Webb of a possible spatial dipole in the variation of the fine structure constant.

  17. PIONIER: from a Expert mode to an ESO facility instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percheron, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The PIONIER (Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment) at the VLT Interferometer instrument was originally a visitor instrument from IPAG (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble). It is now offered to the ESO community as a facility instrument. As a Visitor monde instrument, it was operated on selected nights by the instrument team/consortium, the goal is now for the Paranal staff to run and monitor the instrument as any other VLT/VLTI instrument. This is done by fully integrating PIONIER in the ESO scheme. I will present here how this was done for the data reduction and the quality assurance of the science data and their related calibrations.

  18. Therapeutical solutions for non-malignant eso-bronchial fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Galie, N; Grigorie, V

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of surgical treatment for the patients with eso-respiratory fistulas. The following cases revealed the anesthesic and surgical difficulties, and also intraoperative and postoperative complications that can occur when the esophageal contents get into the respiratory system. In these situations, therapy must be adapted according to fistula’s topography and etiology, and also to patients’ biological conditions. PMID:20108499

  19. If we build it, will they come? Curation and use of the ESO telescope bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta; Meakins, Silvia; Bordelon, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    The ESO Telescope Bibliography (telbib) is a database of refereed papers published by the ESO users community. It links data in the ESO Science Archive with the published literature, and vice versa. Developed and maintained by the ESO library, telbib also provides insights into the organization's research output and impact as measured through bibliometric studies. Curating telbib is a multi-step process that involves extensive tagging of the database records. Based on selected use cases, this talk will explain how the rich metadata provide parameters for reports and statistics in order to investigate the performance of ESO's facilities and to understand trends and developments in the publishing behaviour of the user community.

  20. Earthquake in Antofagasta - Eso's Solidarity with the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    The Antofagasta Earthquake of last Sunday, July 30, 1:15 hours, violently shook Cerro Paranal, the site where ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is building the VLT, the world's largest optical telescope. The quake's intensity in Paranal was estimated at grade 8 on the Richter scale. Fortunately no casualties or victims occurred at the site. Studies are under way to assess possible displacements of the concrete and steel structures of the telescope units. The contractor for the construction of the telescope enclosure structures has reported damages which are not yet quantified. The filled-in area on the South East side of the Telescope Platform shows large settlement cracks and considerable damages have been reported inside the Base Camps. In these difficult moments, ESO wants to express its solidarity with the local community and its authorities and has made 25 million Chilean pesos (US $66,000) available for the reconstruction of the Region. Addition on August 22, 1995: Fortunately, only minor damages were found at Paranal; they have been repaired in the meantime. For the most recent information, see ESO Press Photos 16-20/95, issued on August 22,1995.

  1. Reaching New Heights in Astronomy - ESO Long Term Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw, T.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive description of ESO in the current global astronomical context, and its plans for the next decade and beyond, are presented. This survey covers all aspects of the Organisation, including the optical-infrared programme at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, the submillimetre facilities ALMA and APEX, the construction of the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope and the science operation of these facilities. An extension of the current optical/infrared/submillimetre facilities into multi-messenger astronomy has been made with the decision to host the southern Cherenkov Telescope Array at Paranal. The structure of the Organisation is presented and the further development of the staff is described within the scope of the long-range financial planning. The role of Chile is highlighted and expansion of the number of Member States beyond the current 15 is discussed. The strengths of the ESO model, together with challenges as well as possible new opportunities and initiatives, are examined and a strategy for the future of ESO is outlined.

  2. First Giant Mirror for the ESO VLT Ready at REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    The REOSC Contract In 1989, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the European Organisation for Astronomy, awarded to REOSC, a subsidiary of the SFIM Group and located in Saint Pierre du Perray (France), a comprehensive contract for the polishing of four 8.2-metre diameter mirrors for the unit telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) project. These mirrors are the largest ever manufactured and polished. This contract comprises not only the polishing and high-precision optical testing of each giant mirror, but also the safe condition of transportation of the blanks which were manufactured by Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). In order to fulfill the contract, REOSC conceived, built and equipped a novel, high-tech workshop which would allow to polish and test the mirrors, each of which has a surface area of more than 50 square metres. First 8.2-Metre Mirror is Ready and within Specifications The REOSC polishing facility for giant mirrors was built in Saint Pierre du Perray, just south of Paris. It is equipped with two machines: one for grinding and the other for polishing the mirrors, and both with 150-actuator systems that support the thin and flexible mirrors. All equipment is computer controlled. State-of-the-art interferometers probe the accuracy of the mirror surface as the polishing proceeds; they are installed at the top level of the facility in a 30-metre high tower, at the centre of the mirror's radius of curvature. The success of the work at REOSC is now evident by the fact that careful measurements of the first mirror earlier this month have shown that the final optical surface is correct to within 0.00005 millimetres. For illustration, this corresponds to an accuracy of only 1 millimetre deviation over a surface with a diameter of 165 kilometres (equivalent to the entire Paris area)! ESO Receives the First VLT Mirror After having been carefully placed in a special transport box designed by REOSC, the first mirror blank, weighing 23.5 tons and

  3. Vaccination with NY-ESO-1 overlapping peptides mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and montanide ISA-51 in patients with cancers expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Mizote, Yu; Eikawa, Shingo; Sato, Eiichi; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Udono, Heiichiro; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Oka, Mikio; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial of an NY-ESO-1 cancer vaccine using 4 synthetic overlapping long peptides (OLP; peptides #1, 79-108; #2, 100-129; #3, 121-150; and #4, 142-173) that include a highly immunogenic region of the NY-ESO-1 molecule. Nine patients were immunized with 0.25 mg each of three 30-mer and a 32-mer long NY-ESO-1 OLP mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 mL Montanide ISA-51. The primary endpoints of this study were safety and NY-ESO-1 immune responses. Five to 18 injections of the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine were well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection site reaction (grade 1 and 2). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. An NY-ESO-1-specific humoral immune response was observed in all patients and an antibody against peptide #3 (121-150) was detected firstly and strongly after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in these patients and their epitopes were identified. Using a multifunctional cytokine assay, the number of single or double cytokine-producing cells was increased in NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after vaccination. Multiple cytokine-producing cells were observed in PD-1 (-) and PD-1 (+) CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 was well tolerated and elicited NY-ESO-1-specific humoral and CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in immunized patients.

  4. Plans for a fast image recording system at ESO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosboel, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A 256 diode-array will be installed as detector on the ESO OPTRONICS S-3000 measuring machine in order to increase the acquisition rate. A high intensity LED will be used as light source in a pulse mode. The data will be stored on a random access mass storage device as density values for later education. The scanning time for a 30 cm x 30 cm plate with a step size of 10 micron will be less than 10 hours while the dynamic range of the data is expected to be 2.5 density units with an offset of at least 1 unit.

  5. Turbulence profiling methods applied to ESO's adaptive optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Javier; Béchet, Clémentine; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Gonté, Frédéric; Kolb, Johann; Le Louarn, Miska; Neichel, Benoît; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Guesalaga, Andrés.

    2014-07-01

    Two algorithms were recently studied for C2n profiling from wide-field Adaptive Optics (AO) measurements on GeMS (Gemini Multi-Conjugate AO system). They both rely on the Slope Detection and Ranging (SLODAR) approach, using spatial covariances of the measurements issued from various wavefront sensors. The first algorithm estimates the C2n profile by applying the truncated least-squares inverse of a matrix modeling the response of slopes covariances to various turbulent layer heights. In the second method, the profile is estimated by deconvolution of these spatial cross-covariances of slopes. We compare these methods in the new configuration of ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF), a high-order multiple laser system under integration. For this, we use measurements simulated by the AO cluster of ESO. The impact of the measurement noise and of the outer scale of the atmospheric turbulence is analyzed. The important influence of the outer scale on the results leads to the development of a new step for outer scale fitting included in each algorithm. This increases the reliability and robustness of the turbulence strength and profile estimations.

  6. CUBES: cassegrain U-band Brazil-ESO spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Bawden Macanhan, V.; Bristow, P.; Castilho, B.; Dekker, H.; Delabre, B.; Diaz, M.; Gneiding, C.; Kerber, F.; Kuntschner, H.; La Mura, G.; Maciel, W.; Meléndez, J.; Pasquini, L.; Pereira, C. B.; Petitjean, P.; Reiss, R.; Siqueira-Mello, C.; Smiljanic, R.; Vernet, J.

    2014-11-01

    CUBES is a high-efficiency, medium-resolution ( R˜20,000) ground based UV (300-400 nm) spectrograph, to be installed in the cassegrain focus of one of ESO's VLT unit telescopes in 2017/18. The CUBES project is a joint venture between ESO and IAG/USP, and LNA/MCTI. CUBES will provide access to a wealth of new and relevant information for stellar as well as extragalactic sources. Main science cases include the study of beryllium and heavy elements in metal-poor stars, the direct determination of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances by study of molecular bands in the UV range, as well as the study of active galactic nuclei and the quasar absorption lines. With a streamlined modern instrument design, high efficiency dispersing elements and UV-sensitive detectors, it will give a significant gain in sensitivity over existing ground based medium-high resolution spectrographs, enabling vastly increased sample sizes accessible to the astronomical community. We present here a brief overview of the project including the status, science cases and a discussion of the design options.

  7. Towards the cryogenic sliding mechanism for MOONS-ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Oliva, T.; Iuzzolino, M.; Strachan, J.; Rees, P.

    2016-08-01

    The Multi-Object Optical and Near-Infrared Spectrograph (MOONS) shall be installed at one of the Very Large Telescopes (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Paranal Chile. The instrument is being designed and built by an international consortium on behalf of ESO. The design is based on a three arms configuration, RI, YJ and H band, where RI and H have two possible resolutions. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to implement a sliding mechanism changing the dispersers, the filters and the cross dispersion prisms. This article describes the cryogenic exchanger mechanism that is under realization and the preliminary mechanical and optical tests that we have done at the cryogenic facility of Arcetri observatory of Florence. Parts of these test are based on interferometric measurements of the optics to study the behaviour of the mechanical supporting structure, and part are based on the cryogenic sliding system that will be used to move approximately 200 Kg of mass for 350 mm of travel range. The cryogenic sliding system, rails, screws, motors, is based on commercial components as the position measurement device that is based on commercial potentiometers. The results of the tests and performances at cryogenic temperature are reported in this paper.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia-ESO Survey iDR4 calibrators (Pancino+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.; Lardo, C.; Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Ragaini, S.; Cocozza, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Sabbi, E.; Zoccali, M.; Donati, P.; Heiter, U.; Koposov, S. E.; Blomme, R.; Morel, T.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Lobel, A.; Soubiran, C.; Montalban, J.; Valentini, M.; Casey, A. R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jofre, P.; Worley, C. C.; Magrini, L.; Hourihane, A.; Francois, P.; Feltzing, S.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J. E.; Jeffries, R. D.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Hambly, N.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Smiljanic, R.; van Eck, S.; Walton, N. A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Edvardsson, B.; Franciosini, E.; Frasca, A.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.; Koch, A.; Gaia-ESO Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    List of GES iDR4 calibrators. It can be used to select the iDR4 calibrators from the upcoming ESO Phase 3 public release. The columns contain: the GES unique identifier of each star (the CName), based on the object sexagesimal coordinates; the calibration type, which can be GC or OC for clusters, RV for radial velocity standards, BM for benchmark stars, or CR for CoRoT targets; the field name; and the 2MASS J and K magnitudes, when available. (1 data file).

  9. Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction. I. Method and application to ESO instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smette, A.; Sana, H.; Noll, S.; Horst, H.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Barden, M.; Szyszka, C.; Jones, A. M.; Gallenne, A.; Vinther, J.; Ballester, P.; Taylor, J.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The interaction of the light from astronomical objects with the constituents of the Earth's atmosphere leads to the formation of telluric absorption lines in ground-based collected spectra. Correcting for these lines, mostly affecting the red and infrared region of the spectrum, usually relies on observations of specific stars obtained close in time and airmass to the science targets, therefore using precious observing time. Aims: We present molecfit, a tool to correct for telluric absorption lines based on synthetic modelling of the Earth's atmospheric transmission. Molecfit is versatile and can be used with data obtained with various ground-based telescopes and instruments. Methods: Molecfit combines a publicly available radiative transfer code, a molecular line database, atmospheric profiles, and various kernels to model the instrument line spread function. The atmospheric profiles are created by merging a standard atmospheric profile representative of a given observatory's climate, of local meteorological data, and of dynamically retrieved altitude profiles for temperature, pressure, and humidity. We discuss the various ingredients of the method, its applicability, and its limitations. We also show examples of telluric line correction on spectra obtained with a suite of ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) instruments. Results: Compared to previous similar tools, molecfit takes the best results for temperature, pressure, and humidity in the atmosphere above the observatory into account. As a result, the standard deviation of the residuals after correction of unsaturated telluric lines is frequently better than 2% of the continuum. Conclusions: Molecfit is able to accurately model and correct for telluric lines over a broad range of wavelengths and spectral resolutions. The accuracy reached is comparable to or better than the typical accuracy achieved using a telluric standard star observation. The availability of such a general tool for telluric absorption

  10. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Kinematic structure in the Gamma Velorum cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, R. D.; Jackson, R. J.; Cottaar, M.; Koposov, S. E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Meyer, M. R.; Prisinzano, L.; Randich, S.; Sacco, G. G.; Brugaletta, E.; Caramazza, M.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Frasca, A.; Gilmore, G.; Feltzing, S.; Micela, G.; Alfaro, E.; Bensby, T.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Costado, M. T.; Jofré, P.; Klutsch, A.; Lind, K.; Maiorca, E.

    2014-03-01

    -mass stars. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia- ESO Large Public Survey (188.B-3002).Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A94

  11. Gaia-ESO Survey: Gas dynamics in the Carina nebula through optical emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Mapelli, M.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Dorda, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Gaia-ESO Survey in the lines of Hα, [N II], [S II], and He I of nebular emission in the central part of the Carina nebula. Methods: We investigate the properties of the two already known kinematic components (approaching and receding), which account for the bulk of emission. Moreover, we investigate the features of the much less known low-intensity high-velocity (absolute RV >50 km s-1) gas emission. Results: We show that gas giving rise to Hα and He I emission is dynamically well correlated with but not identical to gas seen through forbidden-line emission. Gas temperatures are derived from line-width ratios, and densities from [S II] doublet ratios. The spatial variation of N ionization is also studied, and found to differ between the approaching and receding components. The main result is that the bulk of the emission lines in the central part of Carina arise from several distinct shell-like expanding regions, the most evident found around η Car, the Trumpler 14 core, and the star WR25. These "shells" are non-spherical and show distortions probably caused by collisions with other shells or colder, higher-density gas. Some of them are also partially obscured by foreground dust lanes, while very little dust is found in their interior. Preferential directions, parallel to the dark dust lanes, are found in the shell geometries and physical properties, probably related to strong density gradients in the studied region. We also find evidence that the ionizing flux emerging from η Car and the surrounding Homunculus nebula varies with polar angle. The high-velocity components in the wings of Hα are found to arise from expanding dust reflecting the η Car spectrum. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey (program 188.B-3002).Full Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  12. NY-ESO-1 expression in synovial sarcoma and other mesenchymal tumors: significance for NY-ESO-1-based targeted therapy and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Ping; Robbins, Paul F; Raffeld, Mark; Aung, Phyu Phyu; Tsokos, Maria; Rosenberg, Steven A; Miettinen, Markku M; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard

    2012-06-01

    A promising targeted therapy against NY-ESO-1 (CTAG 1B) using genetically modified T-cells in synovial sarcomas was recently demonstrated in a clinical trial at the NCI. To investigate the role of NY-ESO-1 immunohistochemistry in patient selection and gain better insight into the incidence of NY-ESO-1 expression in synovial sarcomas and other mesenchymal tumors, we evaluated NY-ESO-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 417 tumors. This collection of samples included: 50 SS18/SSX1/2 fusion positive synovial sarcomas, 155 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), 135 other spindle cell sarcomas as well as 77 other sarcomas (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, malignant mesothelioma, and Ewing's sarcoma). We report that 76% of synovial sarcomas expressed NY-ESO-1 in a strong and diffuse pattern (2-3+, >50-70% of tumor cells). In contrast, only rare cases of other spindle cell mesenchymal tumor expressed NY-ESO-1 (GIST (2/155), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (1/34), and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (2/20)). Individual cases of other sarcomas (angiosarcoma, malignant mesothelioma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma) were positive for NY-ESO-1. However, no positive cases were identified amongst our cohort of leiomyosarcomas (0/24), hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumors (0/40), and cellular schwannomas (0/17). In summary, we find that NY-ESO-1 is strongly and diffusely expressed in a majority of synovial sarcomas, but only rarely in other mesenchymal lesions. Beyond its role in patient selection for targeted therapy, immunohistochemistry for NY-ESO-1 may be diagnostically useful for the distinction of synovial sarcoma from other spindle cell neoplasms.

  13. NY-ESO-1 protein glycosylated by yeast induces enhanced immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wadle, Andreas; Mischo, Axel; Strahl, Sabine; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Held, Gerhard; Neumann, Frank; Wullner, Beate; Fischer, Eliane; Kleber, Sascha; Karbach, Julia; Jager, Elke; Shiku, Hiroshi; Odunsi, Kunle; Shrikant, Protul A; Knuth, Alexander; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Renner, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Vaccine strategies that target dendritic cells to elicit potent cellular immunity are the subject of intense research. Here we report that the genetically engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing the full-length tumour-associated antigen NY-ESO-1, is a versatile host for protein production. Exposing dendritic cells (DCs) to soluble NY-ESO-1 protein linked to the yeast a-agglutinin 2 protein (Aga2p) protein resulted in protein uptake, processing and MHC class I cross-presentation of NY-ESO-1-derived peptides. The process of antigen uptake and cross-presentation was dependent on the glycosylation pattern of NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein and the presence of accessible mannose receptors. In addition, NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein uptake by dendritic cells resulted in recognition by HLA-DP4 NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells, indicating MHC class II presentation. Finally, vaccination of mice with yeast-derived NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein led to an enhanced humoral and cellular immune response, when compared to the bacterially expressed NY-ESO-1 protein. Together, these data demonstrate that yeast-derived full-length NY-ESO-1-Aga2p protein is processed and presented efficiently by MHC class I and II complexes and warrants clinical trials to determine the potential value of S. cerevisiae as a host for cancer vaccine development.

  14. Increased NY-ESO-1 expression and reduced infiltrating CD3+ T cells in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Giavina-Bianchi, Mara; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Muzikansky, Alona; Kalil, Jorge; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79), rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10) and not in benign nevi (0/20). Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P = 0.007) and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P < 0.02). NY-ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.017). When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P = 0.010) or as isolated cells (P = 0.002) than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  15. Live Webcasts from CERN and ESO for European Science and Technology Week

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    Visit http://www.cern.ch/sci-tech on 7 - 8 November to find out what modern Europeans can't live without. Seven of Europe's leading Research Organizations [1] are presenting three live Webcasts from CERN in a joint outreach programme for the European Science and Technology Week . The aim of Sci-Tech... couldn't be without it! is to show how today's society couldn't be without cutting-edge scientific research. See also ESO Press Release 05/02. Northern Europeans can't imagine their households without ovens, whereas Southern Europeans identify the refrigerator as the most essential household appliance. In the area of communications, cars and motorbikes are clearly the technologies of choice in Italy, but are regarded as less important in countries like Norway and Germany. For entertainment, the personal computer is a clear winner as the device is considered most essential by all Europeans, followed by the TV and the Internet. This hit parade of technological marvels is the result of a phone and online survey conducted by the Sci-Tech... couldn't be without it! team for this year's European Science and Technology Week on 4-10 November. The technologies Europeans could not be without, form the starting point of three entertaining and informative Webcast shows in Italian (Thursday 7 November at 10:00 CET), French (Thursday 7 November at 15:00 CET) and English (Friday 8 November at 15:00 CET), broadcast live on the Internet from a studio at CERN. During these Webcasts scientists from the seven research Organizations and their industrial partners Sun Microsystems, Siemens, L'Oreal and Luminex will engage - from the CERN studio or from remote locations through teleconference links - an audience of Internauts all over the world. The public will be taken inside their most popular gadgets to discover the science that made them possible and how vital fundamental research has been in the creation of modern technology. Fundamental science will be brought as close as possible to

  16. Fault diagnosis for a class of nonlinear systems via ESO.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bingyong; Tian, Zuohua; Shi, Songjiao; Weng, Zhengxin

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a novel fault detection and identification (FDI) scheme for a class of nonlinear systems is presented. First of all, an augment system is constructed by making the unknown system faults as an extended system state. Then based on the ESO theory, a novel fault diagnosis filter is constructed to diagnose the nonlinear system faults. An extension to a class of nonlinear uncertain systems is then made. An outstanding feature of this scheme is that it can simultaneously detect and identify the shape and magnitude of the system faults in real time without training the network compared with the neural network-based FDI schemes. Finally, simulation examples are given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. ESO 255-IG 07, a compact group of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergvall, N.; Ekman, A.; Lauberts, A.

    1981-03-01

    Photographic, photometric, and spectroscopic properties are studied for the galaxy system ESO 255-IG 07 = 0626-471. The system is composed of four main galaxies of normal sizes and luminosities in what looks like a common halo. It is suggested that the halo consists of stars being torn out from the individual galaxies as a consequence of the interaction. Although the galaxies morphologically seem to be of early Hubble types, ionized gas is found to extend over a significant part of all four galaxies and also in a bridge connecting the two northernmost galaxies. Indications of enhanced nuclear activity are found in the northernmost galaxy; it is suggested that cloud-cloud collisions are frequent and could trigger the star formation and enhanced nuclear activity observed.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyrae variables in ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 (Yang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.-C.; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, A.; Kim, S. C.; Kyeong, J.

    2016-08-01

    The science images of ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 used in this study were taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel (ACS/WFC) on board Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as a part of GO-10503 (PI: Da Costa). ESO294-G010 (R.A.=00:26:33.40 (J2000), Decl.=-41:51:19.0 (J2000)) was observed on the HJD (+2453000) range 859.27358-861.13659 with the F606W filter, and on the HJD (+2453000) range 859.40613-861.00342 with the F814W filter. ESO410-G005 (R.A.=00:15:31.40 (J2000), Decl.=-32:10:47.0 (J2000)) was observed on the HJD (+2453000) range 861.40425-863.21702 with the F606W filter, and on the HJD (+2453000) range 861.53711-866.08158 with the filter F814W. The central regions of each galaxy were placed on one of WFC chips so that the imaging covers almost the entire visual extent of the targets. ESO294-G010 was imaged 12 times in the F606W and 24 times in the F814W filter with an exposure time of 1160s during the observing baseline of ~1.86days. The same number of exposures were obtained for the observations of ESO410-G005 with an exposure time of 1120s over the observing baseline of 4.55days. The basic properties of each of these RRL candidates are summarized in Tables 2 and 3. We have also uncovered a significant number of Luminous Variable (LV) candidates in both transition-type dwarf galaxies (22 in ESO294-G010; 19 in ESO410-G005). Their photometric and pulsation properties are summarized in Table4. (4 data files).

  19. System analysis tools for an ELT at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Koch, Franz

    2006-06-01

    Engineering of complex, large scale systems like the ELT designs currently investigated and developed in Europe and Northern America require powerful and sophisticated tools within specific technical disciplines such as mechanics, optics and control engineering. However, even analyzing a certain component of the telescope like the telescope structure necessitates a system approach to evaluate the structural effects onto the optical performance. This paper shows several software tools developed by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) which focus onto the system approach in the analyses: Using modal results of a finite element analysis the SMI-toolbox allows an easy generation of structural models with different sizes and levels of accuracy for the control design and closed-loop simulations. The optical modeling code BeamWarrior was developed by ESO and Astrium GmbH, Germany) especially for integrated modeling and interfering with a structural model. Within BeamWarrior displacements and deformations can be applied in an arbitrary coordinate system, and hence also in the global coordinates of the FE model avoiding error prone transformations. In addition to this, a sparse state space model object was developed for Matlab to gain in computational efficiency and reduced memory requirements due to the sparsity pattern of both the structural models and the control architecture. As one result these tools allow building an integrated model in order to reliably simulate interactions, cross-coupling effects, system responses, and to evaluate global performance. In order to evaluate disturbance effects on the optical performance in openloop more efficiently, an optical evaluation toolbox was built in the FE software ANSYS which performs Zernike decomposition and best-fit computation of the deformations directly in the FE analysis.

  20. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the Galactic thick to thin disc transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Wyse, R.; Adibekyan, V.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Pancino, E.; Smiljanic, R.; Jackson, R.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G.; Worley, C. C.; Hourihane, A.; Bergemann, M.; Costado, M. T.; Heiter, U.; Joffre, P.; Lardo, C.; Lind, K.; Maiorca, E.

    2014-07-01

    and, possibly, the azimuthal velocity dispersion decreased. At [M/H] ≈ -0.25 dex and [α/Fe]≈ 0.1 dex, the mean characteristics of the thick disc in vertical distance to the Galactic plane, rotation, rotational dispersion, and stellar orbits' eccentricity agree with that of the thin disc stars of the same metallicity, suggesting a possible connection between these two populations at a certain epoch of the disc evolution. Finally, the results presented here, based only on the first months of the Gaia ESO Survey observations, confirm how crucial large high-resolution spectroscopic surveys outside the solar neighbourhood are today for our understanding of the Milky Way history. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey, programme 188.B-3002.Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A5

  1. Epigenetic potentiation of NY-ESO-1 vaccine therapy in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Odunsi, Kunle; Matsuzaki, Junko; James, Smitha R; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Tsuji, Takemasa; Miller, Austin; Zhang, Wa; Akers, Stacey N; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Miliotto, Anthony; Beck, Amy; Batt, Carl A; Ritter, Gerd; Lele, Shashikant; Gnjatic, Sacha; Karpf, Adam R

    2014-01-01

    The cancer-testis/cancer-germline antigen NY-ESO-1 is a vaccine target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but its limited expression is a barrier to vaccine efficacy. As NY-ESO-1 is regulated by DNA methylation, we hypothesized that DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors may augment NY-ESO-1 vaccine therapy. In agreement, global DNA hypomethylation in EOC was associated with the presence of circulating antibodies to NY-ESO-1. Pre-clinical studies using EOC cell lines showed that decitabine treatment enhanced both NY-ESO-1 expression and NY-ESO-1-specific CTL-mediated responses. Based on these observations, we performed a phase I dose-escalation trial of decitabine, as an addition to NY-ESO-1 vaccine and doxorubicin liposome (doxorubicin) chemotherapy, in 12 patients with relapsed EOC. The regimen was safe, with limited and clinically manageable toxicities. Both global and promoter-specific DNA hypomethylation occurred in blood and circulating DNAs, the latter of which may reflect tumor cell responses. Increased NY-ESO-1 serum antibodies and T cell responses were observed in the majority of patients, and antibody spreading to additional tumor antigens was also observed. Finally, disease stabilization or partial clinical response occurred in 6/10 evaluable patients. Based on these encouraging results, evaluation of similar combinatorial chemo-immunotherapy regimens in EOC and other tumor types is warranted.

  2. NY-ESO-1-specific immunological pressure and escape in a patient with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    von Boehmer, Lotta; Mattle, Muriel; Bode, Peter; Landshammer, Alexandro; Schäfer, Carolin; Nuber, Natko; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Moch, Holger; Schäfer, Niklaus; Jäger, Elke; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-01-01

    During cancer progression, malignant cells may evade immunosurveillance. However, evidence for immunological escape in humans is scarce. We report here the clinical course of a melanoma patient whose initial tumor was positive for the antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-C1, and Melan-A. Upon immunization with a recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox NY-ESO-1 construct, the patient experienced a mixed clinical response and spreading of the NY-ESO-1 epitopes in the CD4+ T cell compartment. After NY-ESO-1 protein + CpG immunization, the patient's anti-NY-ESO-1 IgG response increased. Over the following years, progressing lesions were resected and found to be NY-ESO-1-negative while being positive for MAGE-C1, Melan-A, and MHC-I. The fatal, inoperable brain metastasis was analyzed after his death and also proved to be NY-ESO-1-negative, while being positive for MAGE-C1 and Melan-A, as well as MHC-I. We propose that cancer control and cancer escape in this patient were governed by NY-ESO-1-specific immunological pressure. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of immunoediting and immunoescape in this cancer patient.

  3. Antibody responses to NY-ESO-1 in primary breast cancer identify a subtype target for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hamaï, Ahmed; Duperrier-Amouriaux, Karine; Pignon, Pascale; Raimbaud, Isabelle; Memeo, Lorenzo; Colarossi, Cristina; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Perin, Tiziana; Classe, Jean-Marc; Campone, Mario; Jézéquel, Pascal; Campion, Loïc; Ayyoub, Maha; Valmori, Danila

    2011-01-01

    The highly immunogenic human tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 (ESO) is a target of choice for anti-cancer immune therapy. In this study, we assessed spontaneous antibody (Ab) responses to ESO in a large cohort of patients with primary breast cancer (BC) and addressed the correlation between the presence of anti-ESO Ab, the expression of ESO in the tumors and their characteristics. We found detectable Ab responses to ESO in 1% of the patients. Tumors from patients with circulating Ab to ESO exhibited common characteristics, being mainly hormone receptor (HR)⁻ invasive ductal carcinomas of high grade, including both HER2⁻ and HER2⁺ tumors. In line with these results, we detected ESO expression in 20% of primary HR⁻ BC, including both ESO Ab⁺ and Ab⁻ patients, but not in HR⁺ BC. Interestingly, whereas expression levels in ESO⁺ BC were not significantly different between ESO Ab⁺ and Ab⁻ patients, the former had, in average, significantly higher numbers of tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes, indicating that lymph node invasion may be required for the development of spontaneous anti-tumor immune responses. Thus, the presence of ESO Ab identifies a tumor subtype of HR⁻ (HER2⁻ or HER2⁺) primary BC with frequent ESO expression and, together with the assessment of antigen expression in the tumor, may be instrumental for the selection of patients for whom ESO-based immunotherapy may complement standard therapy.

  4. New Method for Data Treatment Developed at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-08-01

    How Future Astronomical Observations Will be Done The past four centuries have seen dramatic improvements in astronomical equipment, in terms of better and larger telescopes, more accurate and sensitive detectors and, not the least, by advanced space instruments with access to new spectral regions. However, until recently there has been little progress on another equally important front, that of quantifying the unavoidable influence of this equipment on the astronomical data they produce . For a long time, astronomers have desired to remove efficiently these `instrumental effects' from their data, in order to give them a clearer understanding of the objects in the Universe and their properties. But it is only now that this fundamental problem can finally be tackled efficiently, with the advent of digital imaging techniques and powerful computers. Two researchers at the ESO Headquarters, Michael R. Rosa of the Space Telescope European Co-ordinating Facility (ST/ECF [1]) and Pascal Ballester of the Data Management Division (DMD) are now developing a new approach to this age-old problem. These results are important for the future use of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and other large facilities as well [2]. The observational process Observations are crucial to the progress of all natural sciences, including astronomy. Nevertheless, the properties of the observed objects are rarely revealed directly. First, observational data are gathered at the telescopes with instruments such as cameras and spectrophotometers. Then these `raw' data are processed with advanced computer programmes to produce scientifically meaningful data which are finally scrutinized by the astronomers in order to learn more about the observed celestial objects. A basic problem in this chain is the influence of the telescopes and instruments on the data they produce. The `raw' observational data carries the marks, not only of the celestial objects that are

  5. ESO089-G018 and ESO089-G019: long-slit spectroscopy of emission-line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha-Poppe, P. C.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Fernandes-Martin, V. A.; Fernandes, I. F.; de Oliveira-Abans, M.; Rodrígues-Ardila, A.

    2010-03-01

    We present the first spectroscopic observations for the galaxies ESO089-G018 (hereafter G18, an Sb(?)-type galaxy seen nearly edge-on) and ESO089-G019 (hereafter G19, an SA(s): a peculiar galaxy), extracted from the sample of ring-shaped galaxies compiled in Faúndez-Abans & de Oliveira-Abans. The main goal of this work is to investigate the spectral classification using the three line-ratio diagrams, called diagnostic diagrams, of Veilleux & Osterbrock. However, in order to separate the different types of galaxies [HII galaxies, Seyfert 2 galaxies and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies (LINERs)] we have to used empirical boundaries between them. Based on the observed spectra, we suggest G18 is a `weak-[OI] LINER' or even a `transition object' or LINER/HII. In the case of G19, we see Hβ in absorption and no [OIII] lines, impeding the [OIII]/Hβ ratio to be estimated. However, other lines ratios have been evaluated for the discussion. We classify the nature of G19 as ambiguous, because of the difficulty in determining its ionizing source (narrow-line active galactic nuclei or HII galaxies) in different diagnostic diagrams. The errors in the fluxes were mostly caused by uncertainties in the placement of the continuum level. We have estimated nuclear redshift of z = 0.034 (G18) and z = 0.039 (G19), corresponding to a heliocentric velocity of 10246 and 11734kms-1, respectively. Some other physical parameters have been derived whenever possible. All spectra were reduced and analysed in a homogeneous way with the standard IRAF procedures. Based on observations carried out at Observatório do Pico dos Dias (OPD), which operated by the LNA/MCT, Brazil-MG. E-mail: paulopoppe@gmail.com

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Inhibited extra mixing in two giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R.; Franciosini, E.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; Bragaglia, A.; Pasquini, L.; Vallenari, A.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; Donati, P.; Delgado Mena, E.; Casey, A. R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Tang, B.; Sousa, S. G.; Gilmore, G.; Bensby, T.; François, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Costado, M. T.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Martell, S.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of two Li-rich giants, with A(Li) ~ 1.50, in an analysis of a sample of 40 giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20 (with turnoff mass ~1.8 M⊙). The cluster was observed in the context of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Methods: The atmospheric parameters and Li abundances were derived using high-resolution UVES spectra. The Li abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) effects. Results: Only upper limits of the Li abundance could be determined for the majority of the sample. Two giants with detected Li turned out to be Li rich: star MG 340 has A(Li)non-LTE = 1.54 ± 0.21 dex and star MG 591 has A(Li)non-LTE = 1.60 ± 0.21 dex. Star MG 340 is on average ~0.30 dex more rich in Li than stars of similar temperature, while for star MG 591 this difference is on average ~0.80 dex. Carbon and nitrogen abundances indicate that all stars in the sample have completed the first dredge-up. Conclusions: The Li abundances in this unique sample of 40 giants in one open cluster clearly show that extra mixing is the norm in this mass range. Giants with Li abundances in agreement with the predictions of standard models are the exception. To explain the two Li-rich giants, we suggest that all events of extra mixing have been inhibited. This includes rotation-induced mixing during the main sequence and the extra mixing at the red giant branch luminosity bump. Such inhibition has been suggested in the literature to occur because of fossil magnetic fields in red giants that are descendants of main-sequence Ap-type stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).

  7. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the first abundance determination of the pre-main-sequence cluster gamma Velorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, L.; Randich, S.; Palla, F.; Sacco, G. G.; Magrini, L.; Franciosini, E.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Alfaro, E. J.; Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; González Hernández, J. I.; Sousa, S. G.; Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Montes, D.; Tabernero, H.; Klutsch, A.; Gilmore, G.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; de Laverny, P.; Masseron, T.; Worley, C.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Knowledge of the abundance distribution of star forming regions and young clusters is critical to investigate a variety of issues, from triggered star formation and chemical enrichment by nearby supernova explosions to the ability to form planetary systems. In spite of this, detailed abundance studies are currently available for relatively few regions. Aims: In this context, we present the analysis of the metallicity of the gamma Velorum cluster, based on the products distributed in the first internal release of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Methods: The gamma Velorum candidate members have been observed with FLAMES, using both UVES and Giraffe, depending on the target brightness and spectral type. In order to derive a solid metallicity determination for the cluster, membership of the observed stars must be first assessed. To this aim, we use several membership criteria including radial velocities, surface gravity estimates, and the detection of the photospheric lithium line. Results: Out of the 80 targets observed with UVES, we identify 14 high-probability members. We find that the metallicity of the cluster is slightly subsolar, with a mean [ Fe/H ] = -0.057 ± 0.018 dex. Although J08095427-4721419 is one of the high-probability members, its metallicity is significantly larger than the cluster average. We speculate about its origin as the result of recent accretion episodes of rocky bodies of ~60 M⊕ hydrogen-depleted material from the circumstellar disk. Based on observations collected at the ESO telescopes under programme 188.B3002, the Gaia-ESO large public spectroscopic survey.Full Tables 1-4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A55

  8. NY-ESO-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: A potential new marker for early recurrence after surgery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Gu, Na; Liu, Zhao-Bo; Zheng, Min; Xiong, Fang; Wang, Si-Ying; Li, Ning; Lu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer testis antigens (CTA) family, and is identified in a variety of tumors. Certain studies have demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 predicts tumor recurrence and treatment response. No reports are currently available regarding the correlation between NY-ESO-1 and the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between NY-ESO-1 and relapse of HCC and to explore the possible mechanisms for this correlation. A total of 120 HCC patients were analyzed for the expression of NY-ESO-1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A stable NY-ESO-1 over-expressed HepG2 cell line (ESO-HepG2) was established to determine the biological effects of NY-ESO-1 on cell proliferation, cell cycle and migration by using the xCELLigence DP system, flow cytometry and xCELLigence SP system. NY-ESO-1 was positive in 28 of 120 (23.3%) HCC tumor tissues. NY-ESO-1 was not detectable in adjacent normal liver tissues. A close correlation was found between NY-ESO-1 expression and the recurrence of HCC following surgery (P=0.007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) for patients positive for NY-ESO-1 (log-rank test, P=0.003). The Cox regression model demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 expression was a significant independent predictor for the recurrence of HCC following curative surgery (P=0.022). Compared with HepG2 cells, ESO-HepG2 cells have increased migration but not proliferation ability. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 expression is associated with worse HCC outcome following surgery, and the mechanism for this finding may be that NY-ESO-1 increases tumor cell migration.

  9. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Catalogue of Hα emission stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traven, G.; Zwitter, T.; Van Eck, S.; Klutsch, A.; Bonito, R.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bayo, A.; Bragaglia, A.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Flaccomio, E.; Frasca, A.; Hourihane, A.; Jimenez-Esteban, F.; Lardo, C.; Morbidelli, L.; Pancino, E.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the properties of Hα emission stars across the sample of 22035 spectra from the Gaia-ESO Survey internal data release, observed with the GIRAFFE instrument and largely belonging to stars in young open clusters. Automated fits using two independent Gaussian profiles and a third component that accounts for the nebular emission allow us to discern distinct morphological types of Hα line profiles with the introduction of a simplified classification scheme. All in all, we find 3765 stars with intrinsic emission and sort their spectra into eight distinct morphological categories: single-component emission, emission blend, sharp emission peaks, double emission, P-Cygni, inverted P-Cygni, self-absorption, and emission in absorption. We have more than one observation for 1430 stars in our sample, thus allowing a quantitative discussion of the degree of variability of Hα emission profiles, which is expected for young, active objects. We present a catalogue of stars with properties of their Hα emission line profiles, morphological classification, analysis of variability with time and the supplementary information from the SIMBAD, VizieR, and ADS databases. The records in SIMBAD indicate the presence of Hα emission for roughly 25% of all stars in our catalogue, while at least 305 of them have already been more thoroughly investigated according to the references in ADS. The most frequently identified morphological categories in our sample of spectra are emission blend (23%), emission in absorption (22%), and self-absorption (16%). Objects with repeated observations demonstrate that our classification into discrete categories is generally stable through time, but categories P-Cygni and self-absorption seem less stable, which is the consequence of discrete classification rules, as well as of the fundamental change in profile shape. Such records of emission stars can be valuable for automatic pipelines in large surveys, where it may prove very useful for

  10. T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nathan; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Barrett, David M; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Jakobsen, Bent; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael D; Grupp, Stephan A

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastoma samples and demonstrated that 23% express NY-ESO-1. After confirming antigen-specific activity of T cells genetically engineered to express an NY-ESO-1 directed high-affinity transgenic T cell receptor in vitro, we performed xenograft mouse studies assessing the efficacy of NY-ESO-1-targeted T cells in both localized and disseminated models of neuroblastoma. Disease responses were monitored by tumor volume measurement and in vivo bioluminescence. After delivery of NY-ESO-1 transgenic TCR T cells, we observed significant delay of tumor progression in mice bearing localized and disseminated neuroblastoma, as well as enhanced animal survival. These data demonstrate that NY-ESO-1 is an antigen target in neuroblastoma and that targeted T cells represent a potential therapeutic option for patients with neuroblastoma.

  11. Expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 in Primary and Metastatic Cancers.

    PubMed

    Park, Tristen S; Groh, Eric M; Patel, Krishna; Kerkar, Sid P; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) and New York esophageal squamous cell cancer-1 (NY-ESO-1) are 2 cancer testis antigens (CTA) demonstrating potential for use in targeted immunotherapy. Clinical trials in melanoma and synovial sarcomas targeting these antigens in immune-based therapies have demonstrated durable tumor regression. Although protein expression of NY-ESO-1 has been assessed in a variety of cancer types, the expression of MAGE-A has not been studied in depth. In this study we analyzed MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in 314 melanoma specimens from 301 melanoma patients, 38 patients with squamous cell cancers and 111 patients with adenocarcinomas. Our results demonstrated higher expression of MAGE-A compared with NY-ESO-1 in melanomas (32% vs. 13%) and squamous cell carcinomas (45% vs. 7.9%), and higher expression of both CTAs in metastatic versus primary tumors. CTA expression in adenocarcinomas was low (MAGE-A: 10%, NY-ESO-1: 0.9%). In addition, we looked at concordance of expression among metastatic melanoma lesions within the same patient and found concordant expression in 38 of 47 patients for MAGE-A and 43 of 47 patients for NY-ESO-1. Our study demonstrated that the MAGE-A family may be of greater utility than NY-ESO-1 for targeted immunotherapy in a variety of cancer histologies, in particular metastatic melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

  12. Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke: Consensus statement by ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update 2014/2015, supported by ESO, ESMINT, ESNR and EAN.

    PubMed

    Wahlgren, Nils; Moreira, Tiago; Michel, Patrik; Steiner, Thorsten; Jansen, Olav; Cognard, Christophe; Mattle, Heinrich P; van Zwam, Wim; Holmin, Staffan; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Petersson, Jesper; Caso, Valeria; Hacke, Werner; Mazighi, Mikael; Arnold, Marcel; Fischer, Urs; Szikora, Istvan; Pierot, Laurent; Fiehler, Jens; Gralla, Jan; Fazekas, Franz; Lees, Kennedy R

    2016-01-01

    The original version of this consensus statement on mechanical thrombectomy was approved at the European Stroke Organisation (ESO)-Karolinska Stroke Update conference in Stockholm, 16-18 November 2014. The statement has later, during 2015, been updated with new clinical trials data in accordance with a decision made at the conference. Revisions have been made at a face-to-face meeting during the ESO Winter School in Berne in February, through email exchanges and the final version has then been approved by each society. The recommendations are identical to the original version with evidence level upgraded by 20 February 2015 and confirmed by 15 May 2015. The purpose of the ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update meetings is to provide updates on recent stroke therapy research and to discuss how the results may be implemented into clinical routine. Selected topics are discussed at consensus sessions, for which a consensus statement is prepared and discussed by the participants at the meeting. The statements are advisory to the ESO guidelines committee. This consensus statement includes recommendations on mechanical thrombectomy after acute stroke. The statement is supported by ESO, European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR), and European Academy of Neurology (EAN).

  13. A novel human-derived antibody against NY-ESO-1 improves the efficacy of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anurag; Nuber, Natko; Esslinger, Christoph; Wittenbrink, Mareike; Treder, Martin; Landshammer, Alexandro; Noguchi, Takuro; Kelly, Marcus; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Erika; von Boehmer, Lotta; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Shiku, Hiroshi; Old, Lloyd; Ritter, Gerd; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether antibodies against intracellular tumor-associated antigens support tumor-specific immunity when administered together with a treatment that destroys the tumor. We propose that released antigens form immune complexes with the antibodies, which are then efficiently taken up by dendritic cells. We cloned the first human monoclonal antibodies against the Cancer/Testis (CT) antigen, NY-ESO-1. We tested whether the monoclonal anti-NY-ESO-1 antibody (12D7) facilitates cross-presentation of a NY-ESO-1-derived epitope by dendritic cells to human CD8+ T cells, and whether this results in the maturation of dendritic cells in vitro. We investigated the efficacy of 12D7 in combination with chemotherapy using BALB/c mice bearing syngeneic CT26 tumors that express intracellular NY-ESO-1. Human dendritic cells that were incubated with NY-ESO-1:12D7 immune complexes efficiently stimulated NY-ESO-1(157-165)/HLA-A2-specific human CD8+ T cells to produce interferon-γ, whereas NY-ESO-1 alone did not. Furthermore, the incubation of dendritic cells with NY-ESO-1:12D7 immune complexes resulted in the maturation of dendritic cells. Treatment of BALB/c mice that bear CT26/NY-ESO-1 tumors with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus 12D7 was significantly more effective than chemotherapy alone. We propose systemic injection of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens plus a treatment that promotes the local release of those antigens resulting in immune complex formation as a novel therapeutic modality for cancer.

  14. A novel human-derived antibody against NY-ESO-1 improves the efficacy of chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anurag; Nuber, Natko; Esslinger, Christoph; Wittenbrink, Mareike; Treder, Martin; Landshammer, Alexandro; Noguchi, Takuro; Kelly, Marcus; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Erika; von Boehmer, Lotta; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Shiku, Hiroshi; Old, Lloyd; Ritter, Gerd; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether antibodies against intracellular tumor-associated antigens support tumor-specific immunity when administered together with a treatment that destroys the tumor. We propose that released antigens form immune complexes with the antibodies, which are then efficiently taken up by dendritic cells. We cloned the first human monoclonal antibodies against the Cancer/Testis (CT) antigen, NY-ESO-1. We tested whether the monoclonal anti-NY-ESO-1 antibody (12D7) facilitates cross-presentation of a NY-ESO-1-derived epitope by dendritic cells to human CD8+ T cells, and whether this results in the maturation of dendritic cells in vitro. We investigated the efficacy of 12D7 in combination with chemotherapy using BALB/c mice bearing syngeneic CT26 tumors that express intracellular NY-ESO-1. Human dendritic cells that were incubated with NY-ESO-1:12D7 immune complexes efficiently stimulated NY-ESO-1157–165/HLA-A2-specific human CD8+ T cells to produce interferon-γ, whereas NY-ESO-1 alone did not. Furthermore, the incubation of dendritic cells with NY-ESO-1:12D7 immune complexes resulted in the maturation of dendritic cells. Treatment of BALB/c mice that bear CT26/NY-ESO-1 tumors with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus 12D7 was significantly more effective than chemotherapy alone. We propose systemic injection of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens plus a treatment that promotes the local release of those antigens resulting in immune complex formation as a novel therapeutic modality for cancer. PMID:23390374

  15. The Spanish in-kind contribution to ESO - Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bilbao, L.; Ballester, P.

    2011-11-01

    Ever since entering ESO in 2006, Spain has made an in-kind contribution invarious fields. In the Pipeline Systems Department (PSD), this contribution hasbeen made to a number of projects, in particular to the CPL (Common Pipeline Library), to the pipelines of the instruments ISAAC, SofI and FORS, and to theintegration of the pipeline for the new VISTA telescope into the DFS (Data FlowSystem) at Paranal. Some of these projects started with the VLT a decade ago, and have experiencedan evolution since, as a consequence of standardization processes, of thesearch of elements in common and, especially in the last couple of years, ofthe efforts to provide the astronomy community with 'science-ready' dataproducts. At the same time, the PSD faces new challenges today, as the dramatic increase in the data volume of the Paranal Observatory since the start of operations of VISTA, or the needs of the pipelines of the future instruments of the E-ELT. In the latter, more concretely, the current status of the CPL is being analyzed, with the goal of establishing the necessary changes to meet those future needs.In this article we introduce briefly these projects and detail the Spanish in-kind contribution to them.

  16. Gender Systematics in Telescope Time Allocation at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patat, F.

    2016-09-01

    The results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of gender systematics in the time allocation process at ESO are presented. The sample on which the study is based includes more than 13 000 Normal and Short proposals, submitted by about 3000 principal investigators (PI) over eight years. The genders of PIs, and of the panel members of the Observing Programmes Committee (OPC), were used, together with their career level, to analyse the grade distributions and the proposal success rates. Proposals submitted by female PIs show a significantly lower probability of being allocated time. The proposal success rates (defined as number of top ranked runs over requested runs) are 16.0 ± 0.6% and 22.0 ± 0.4% for females and males, respectively. To a significant extent the disparity is related to different input distributions in terms of career level. The seniority of male PIs is significantly higher than that of female PIs, with only 34% of the female PIs being professionally employed astronomers (compared to 53% for male PIs). A small, but statistically significant, gender-dependent behaviour is measured for the OPC referees: both genders show the same systematics, but they are larger for males than females. The PI female/male fraction is very close to 30/70; although far from parity, the fraction is higher than that observed, for instance, among IAU membership.

  17. ESO adaptive optics facility progress and first laboratory test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Paufique, Jérome; La Penna, Paolo; Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Pirard, Jean-Francois; Hackenberg, Wolfgang; Kuntschner, Harald; Kolb, Johann; Muller, Nicolas; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Le Louarn, Miska; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Ridings, Rob; Haguenauer, Pierre; Abad, Jose A.; Fischer, Gerhard; Heinz, Volker; Kiekebusch, Mario; Argomedo, Javier; Conzelmann, Ralf; Tordo, Sebastien; Donaldson, Rob; Soenke, Christian; Duhoux, Philippe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Delabre, Bernard; Jost, Andrea; Duchateau, Michel; Downing, Mark; Reyes Moreno, Javier; Manescau, Antonio; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Quattri, Marco; Dupuy, Christophe; Guidolin, Ivan M.; Comin, Mauro; Guzman, Ronald; Buzzoni, Bernard; Quentin, Jutta; Lewis, Steffan; Jolley, Paul; Kraus, Max; Pfrommer, Thomas; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Stuik, Remko; Kaenders, Wilhelm; Ernstberger, Bernhard; Friedenauer, Axel

    2014-07-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility project is completing the integration of its systems at ESO Headquarters in Garching. The main test bench ASSIST and the 2nd Generation M2-Unit (hosting the Deformable Secondary Mirror) have been granted acceptance late 2012. The DSM has undergone a series of tests on ASSIST in 2013 which have validated its optical performance and launched the System Test Phase of the AOF. This has been followed by the performance evaluation of the GRAAL natural guide star mode on-axis and will continue in 2014 with its Ground Layer AO mode. The GALACSI module (for MUSE) Wide-Field-Mode (GLAO) and the more challenging Narrow-Field-Mode (LTAO) will then be tested. The AOF has also taken delivery of the second scientific thin shell mirror and the first 22 Watt Sodium laser Unit. We will report on the system tests status, the performances evaluated on the ASSIST bench and advancement of the 4Laser Guide Star Facility. We will also present the near future plans for commissioning on the telescope and some considerations on tools to ensure an efficient operation of the Facility in Paranal.

  18. Scisoft -- A Collection of Astronomical Software for ESO Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Richard N.; Maguire, Kevin; Pirzkal, Norbert; Filippi, Giorgio

    The European Southern Observatory operates four geographically separated sites, the headquarters in Germany and an office and two observatories at separate remote locations in Chile. Staff astronomers, fellows, students and visitors are active at all four sites and need appropriate software tools. In the past these requirements were addressed by local computer management staff in response to requests. This resulted in different tools being available at different sites, often in different versions and with different levels of support. These differences often resulted in inconvenience, particularly for visitors. In an attempt to address these problems a project called ``Scisoft" was established within ESO. Scisoft has put together a standardized collection of software in three versions covering the supported computer platforms within the organization - Solaris, HP-UX and Linux. The contents of the collection are determined by the demands of users at all sites and standardized for each release which occurs at intervals of about 6 months. External releases of a slightly restricted collection are now also available.

  19. The Gaia-ESO Survey: New constraints on the Galactic disc velocity dispersion and its chemical dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiglion, G.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Minchev, I.; Chiappini, C.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Bensby, T.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Ruchti, G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-11-01

    interval and a larger spatial volume. Conclusions: Thanks to the Gaia-ESO Survey data, we confirm the existence of [Mg/Fe]-rich thick-disc stars with cool kinematics in the generally turbulent context of the primitive Galactic disc. This is discussed in the framework of the different disc formation and evolution scenarios. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey, programme 188.B-3002

  20. Report on the ESO/IAG/USP Workshop ''Circumstellar Dynamics at High Resolution''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivinius, T.; Carciofi, A.; Baade, D.

    2012-06-01

    The workshop was jointly sponsored by ESO, the Brazilian National and São Paulo state agencies CAPES and FAPESP, and the University of São Paulo. Nearly 70 participants gathered to discuss the immediate surroundings of stars, mostly those more massive and hotter than the Sun. The venue, near the spectacular Iguaçu waterfalls, and topic proved to be well chosen to attract a balanced crowd: about one third of the participants came from each of Brazil, other ESO member states and Chile, and ESO non-member states.

  1. The Gaia-ESO Survey: The analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra of FGK-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R.; Korn, A. J.; Bergemann, M.; Frasca, A.; Magrini, L.; Masseron, T.; Pancino, E.; Ruchti, G.; San Roman, I.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Valentini, M.; Weber, M.; Worley, C. C.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Allende Prieto, C.; Barisevičius, G.; Biazzo, K.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Bonifacio, P.; Bragaglia, A.; Caffau, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Chorniy, Y.; de Laverny, P.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Donati, P.; Duffau, S.; Franciosini, E.; Friel, E.; Geisler, D.; González Hernández, J. I.; Gruyters, P.; Guiglion, G.; Hansen, C. J.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Jacobson, H. R.; Jofre, P.; Jönsson, H.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lardo, C.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Maiorca, E.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Montes, D.; Morel, T.; Mucciarelli, A.; Muñoz, C.; Nordlander, T.; Pasquini, L.; Puzeras, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Ryde, N.; Sacco, G.; Santos, N. C.; Serenelli, A. M.; Sordo, R.; Soubiran, C.; Spina, L.; Steffen, M.; Vallenari, A.; Van Eck, S.; Villanova, S.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Drew, J.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Alfaro, E.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Flaccomio, E.; François, P.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S.; Walton, N.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Edvardsson, B.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Marconi, G.; Martayan, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The ongoing Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to obtain high-quality medium-resolution Giraffe spectra for about 105 stars and high-resolution UVES spectra for about 5000 stars. With UVES, the Survey has already observed 1447 FGK-type stars. Aims: These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO second internal release and will be part of its first public release of advanced data products. Methods: The final parameter scale is tied to the scale defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. In addition, a set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each of the implemented methodologies is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted medians of those from the individual methods. Results: The recommended results successfully reproduce the atmospheric parameters of the benchmark stars and the expected Teff-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55 K for Teff, 0.13 dex for log g and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for Teff, 0.10-0.25 dex for log g and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method

  2. Gaia-ESO Survey: Analysis of pre-main sequence stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, A. C.; Frasca, A.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Cottaar, M.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H. M.; Klutsch, A.; Spina, L.; Biazzo, K.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Randich, S.; Brugaletta, E.; Delgado Mena, E.; Adibekyan, V.; Montes, D.; Bonito, R.; Gameiro, J. F.; Alcalá, J. M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Jeffries, R.; Messina, S.; Meyer, M.; Gilmore, G.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J. E.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Hambly, N.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A. J.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N.; Bayo, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Edvardsson, B.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R. J.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Marconi, G.; Martayan, C.; Masseron, T.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sbordone, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is obtaining high-quality spectroscopy of some 100 000 Milky Way stars using the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT, down to V = 19 mag, systematically covering all the main components of the Milky Way and providing the first homogeneous overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. Observations of young open clusters, in particular, are giving new insights into their initial structure, kinematics, and their subsequent evolution. Aims: This paper describes the analysis of UVES and GIRAFFE spectra acquired in the fields of young clusters whose population includes pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. The analysis is applied to all stars in such fields, regardless of any prior information on membership, and provides fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters, elemental abundances, and PMS-specific parameters such as veiling, accretion, and chromospheric activity. Methods: When feasible, different methods were used to derive raw parameters (e.g. line equivalent widths) fundamental atmospheric parameters and derived parameters (e.g. abundances). To derive some of these parameters, we used methods that have been extensively used in the past and new ones developed in the context of the Gaia-ESO survey enterprise. The internal precision of these quantities was estimated by inter-comparing the results obtained by these different methods, while the accuracy was estimated by comparison with independent external data, such as effective temperature and surface gravity derived from angular diameter measurements, on a sample of benchmarks stars. A validation procedure based on these comparisons was applied to discard spurious or doubtful results and produce recommended parameters. Specific strategies were implemented to resolve problems of fast rotation, accretion signatures, chromospheric activity, and veiling. Results: The analysis carried out on spectra acquired in young cluster fields during

  3. Automated data reduction workflows for astronomy. The ESO Reflex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudling, W.; Romaniello, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Ballester, P.; Forchi, V.; García-Dabló, C. E.; Moehler, S.; Neeser, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Data from complex modern astronomical instruments often consist of a large number of different science and calibration files, and their reduction requires a variety of software tools. The execution chain of the tools represents a complex workflow that needs to be tuned and supervised, often by individual researchers that are not necessarily experts for any specific instrument. Aims: The efficiency of data reduction can be improved by using automatic workflows to organise data and execute a sequence of data reduction steps. To realize such efficiency gains, we designed a system that allows intuitive representation, execution and modification of the data reduction workflow, and has facilities for inspection and interaction with the data. Methods: The European Southern Observatory (ESO) has developed Reflex, an environment to automate data reduction workflows. Reflex is implemented as a package of customized components for the Kepler workflow engine. Kepler provides the graphical user interface to create an executable flowchart-like representation of the data reduction process. Key features of Reflex are a rule-based data organiser, infrastructure to re-use results, thorough book-keeping, data progeny tracking, interactive user interfaces, and a novel concept to exploit information created during data organisation for the workflow execution. Results: Automated workflows can greatly increase the efficiency of astronomical data reduction. In Reflex, workflows can be run non-interactively as a first step. Subsequent optimization can then be carried out while transparently re-using all unchanged intermediate products. We found that such workflows enable the reduction of complex data by non-expert users and minimizes mistakes due to book-keeping errors. Conclusions: Reflex includes novel concepts to increase the efficiency of astronomical data processing. While Reflex is a specific implementation of astronomical scientific workflows within the Kepler workflow

  4. The big comet crash of 1994. Intensive observational campaign at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    at shorter wavelengths than those at TIMMI, they will show higher layers of the atmosphere and the possible changes (streaming motions, new whirls and eddies ?) which may result from the impacts. These programmes will therefore complement eachother. A total of no less than 13 half-nights have been allocated at the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope. They will be shared between two groups which will both use the IRSPEC instrument to obtain detailed infrared spectra of the impact sites. One team is headed by Rita Schulz, the other by Therese Encrenaz from Observatoire de Paris. Among many others, they hope to observe some of the molecules which may be present in the deeper layers of the Jovian atmosphere, e.g., water, ammonium and phosphine (PH3). HOW WILL THE MEDIA LEARN ABOUT THE RESULTS FROM ESO ? Together, these programmes add up to a very significant observational effort at ESO in connection with this astronomical event. Although it is difficult to predict at this moment whether all of the above mentioned phenomena will actually be observed, there is an obvious and great interest in these programmes from all sides. To support the public information about the outcome, it is the intention of the ESO Information Service to provide the media with regular and rapid updates about the observational progress at the La Silla telescopes. For this, a special ESO news service will be activated some days before the series of impacts begin - it will be accessible for all interested parties during the critical period. More details about this service will be announced in a later Press Release.

  5. First results from the ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, E.; Vettolani, G.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G.; Zamorani, G.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Alimi, J.; Cayatte, V.; Felenbok, P.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    1997-12-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey initiated as an ESO Key-Project over about 30 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The limiting magnitude is bJ = 19.4. The observations were completed in October 1994 and all the obtained data were reduced, providing 3348 galaxy redshifts. The authors present some preliminary results concerning the large scale galaxy distribution and the luminosity function.

  6. Report on the ''2017 ESO Calibration Workshop: The Second-Generation VLT Instruments and Friends''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smette, A.; Kerber, F.; Kaufer, A.

    2017-03-01

    The participants at the 2017 ESO Calibration Workshop shared their experiences and the challenges encountered in calibrating VLT second-generation instruments and the upgraded first-generation instruments, and discussed improvements in the characterisation of the atmosphere and data reduction. A small group of ESO participants held a follow-up retreat and identified possible game changers in the future operations of the La Silla Paranal Observatory: feedback on the proposals is encouraged.

  7. NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) expression in mesenchymal tumors.

    PubMed

    Endo, Makoto; de Graaff, Marieke A; Ingram, Davis R; Lim, Simin; Lev, Dina C; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Somaiah, Neeta; Bovée, Judith V M G; Lazar, Alexander J; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2015-04-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1, CTAG1B) is a cancer-testis antigen and currently a focus of several targeted immunotherapeutic strategies. We performed a large-scale immunohistochemical expression study of NY-ESO-1 using tissue microarrays of mesenchymal tumors from three institutions in an international collaboration. A total of 1132 intermediate and malignant and 175 benign mesenchymal lesions were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on tissue microarrays using a monoclonal antibody for NY-ESO-1. Among mesenchymal tumors, myxoid liposarcomas showed the highest positivity for NY-ESO-1 (88%), followed by synovial sarcomas (49%), myxofibrosarcomas (35%), and conventional chondrosarcomas (28%). Positivity of NY-ESO-1 in the remaining mesenchymal tumors was consistently low, and no immunoreactivity was observed in benign mesenchymal lesions. On the basis of these findings, nearly 90% of myxoid liposarcomas, as well as a significant proportion of synovial sarcomas, myxofibrosarcomas, and conventional chondrosarcomas are good candidates for immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1.

  8. Blasting away a dwarf galaxy: the `tail' of ESO 324-G024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Megan C.; Kamphuis, Peter; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Wang, Jing; Oh, Se-Heon; Hill, Alex S.; O'Sullivan, Shane; Haan, Sebastian; Serra, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    We present Australia Telescope Compact Array radio data of the dwarf irregular galaxy ESO 324-G024 which is seen in projection against the giant, northern lobe of the radio galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A, NGC 5128). The distorted morphology and kinematics of ESO 324-G024, as observed in the 21 cm spectral line emission of neutral hydrogen, indicate disruptions by external forces. We investigate whether tidal interactions and/or ram pressure stripping are responsible for the formation of the H I tail stretching to the north-east of ESO 324-G024 with the latter being most probable. Furthermore, we closely analyse the sub-structure of Cen A's polarized radio lobes to ascertain whether ESO 324-G024 is located in front, within or behind the northern lobe. Our multiwavelength, multicomponent approach allows us to determine that ESO 324-G024 is most likely behind the northern radio lobe of Cen A. This result helps to constrain the orientation of the lobe, which is likely inclined to our line of sight by approximately 60° if NGC 5128 and ESO 324-G024 are at the same distance.

  9. Three novel NY-ESO-1 epitopes bound to DRB1*0803, DQB1*0401 and DRB1*0901 recognized by CD4 T cells from CHP-NY-ESO-1-vaccinated patients.

    PubMed

    Mizote, Yu; Taniguchi, Taku; Tanaka, Kei; Isobe, Midori; Wada, Hisashi; Saika, Takashi; Kita, Shoichi; Koide, Yukari; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2010-07-19

    Three novel NY-ESO-1 CD4 T cell epitopes were identified using PBMC obtained from patients who were vaccinated with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1). The restriction molecules were determined by antibody blocking and using various EBV-B cells with different HLA alleles as APC to present peptides to CD4 T cells. The minimal epitope peptides were determined using various N- and C-termini truncated peptides deduced from 18-mer overlapping peptides originally identified for recognition. Those epitopes were DRB1*0901-restricted NY-ESO-1 87-100, DQB1*0401-restricted NY-ESO-1 95-107 and DRB1*0803-restricted NY-ESO-1 124-134. CD4 T cells used to determine those epitope peptides recognized EBV-B cells or DC that were treated with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein or NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lysate, suggesting that the epitope peptides are naturally processed. These CD4 T cells showed a cytokine profile with Th1 characteristics. Furthermore, NY-ESO-1 87-100 peptide/HLA-DRB1*0901 tetramer staining was observed. Multiple Th1-type CD4 T cell responses are beneficial for inducing effective anti-tumor responses after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination.

  10. NY-ESO-1 expression in meningioma suggests a rationale for new immunotherapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Baia, Gilson S; Caballero, Otavia L; Ho, Janelle S Y; Zhao, Qi; Cohen, Tzeela; Binder, Zev A; Salmasi, Vafi; Gallia, Gary L; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Olivi, Alessandro; Brem, Henry; Burger, Peter; Strausberg, Robert L; Simpson, Andrew J G; Eberhart, Charles G; Riggins, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice for these tumors. However, a significant number of tumors are not surgically accessible, recur, or become malignant, necessitating the repetition of surgery and sometimes radiation. Chemotherapy is rarely used and is generally not recognized as an effective treatment. Cancer/testis (CT) genes represent a unique class of genes, which are expressed by germ cells, normally silenced in somatic cells, but activated in various cancers. CT proteins can elicit spontaneous immune responses in patients with cancer and this feature makes them attractive targets for immunotherapy-based approaches. We analyzed mRNA expression of 37 testis-restricted CT genes in a discovery set of 18 meningiomas by reverse transcription PCR. The overall frequency of expression of CT genes ranged from 5.6% to 27.8%. The most frequently expressed was NY-ESO-1, in 5 patients (27.8%). We subsequently analyzed NY-ESO-1 protein expression in a larger set of meningiomas by immunohistochemistry and found expression in 108 of 110 cases. In some cases, NY-ESO-1 expression was diffused and homogenous, but in most instances it was heterogeneous. Importantly, NY-ESO-1 expression was positively correlated with higher grade and patients presenting with higher levels of NY-ESO-1 staining had significantly worse disease-free and overall survival. We have also shown that NY-ESO-1 expression may lead to humoral immune response in patients with meningioma. Considering the limited treatment options for patients with meningioma, the potential of NY-ESO-1-based immunotherapy should be explored.

  11. Heteroclitic serological response in esophageal and prostate cancer patients after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Junji; Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Gnjatic, Sacha; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Jungbluth, Achim A; Okazaki, Nami; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Yurika; Fujiwara, Shinichi; Mizuno, Naoaki; Saika, Takashi; Ritter, Erika; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Ritter, Gerd; Murphy, Roger; Venhaus, Ralph; Pan, Linda; Old, Lloyd J; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2012-02-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a prototypic cancer/testis antigen. In a recent phase I clinical trial, we vaccinated 13 patients bearing NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1) and showed efficient induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody, and CD4 and CD8 T cell responses using peripheral blood from the patients. In our study, we analyzed heteroclitic serological responses in those patients after vaccination. Serological response against 11 tumor antigens including MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, CT7/MAGEC1, CT10/MAGEC2, CT45, CT46/HORMAD1, SOX2, SSX2, XAGE1B and p53 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sera from ten vaccinated patients. Expression of tumor antigens was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry. Eight of nine patients who showed antibody responses against NY-ESO-1 also showed an antibody response against at least 1 of these 11 tumor antigens after vaccination. In one patient, seven tumor antigens were recognized. Specificity analysis of the antibody response by ELISA using control recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides and by Western blot showed that the response was not against His6-tag and/or bacterial products included in a preparation of CHP-NY-ESO-1 used for vaccination. Thus, heteroclitic serological responses appear to be indicative of the overall immune response against the tumor, and their analysis could be useful for immune monitoring in cancer vaccine.

  12. Efficacy of systemic adoptive transfer immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Richard G.; Antonios, Joseph P.; Lisiero, Dominique N.; Soto, Horacio; Scharnweber, Rudi; Garrett, Matthew C.; Yong, William H.; Li, Ning; Li, Gang; Kruse, Carol A.; Liau, Linda M.; Prins, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy is an ideal treatment modality to specifically target the diffusely infiltrative tumor cells of malignant gliomas while sparing the normal brain parenchyma. However, progress in the development of these therapies for glioblastoma has been slow due to the lack of immunogenic antigen targets that are expressed uniformly and selectively by gliomas. Methods We utilized human glioblastoma cell cultures to induce expression of New York–esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (NY-ESO-1) following in vitro treatment with the demethylating agent decitabine. We then investigated the phenotype of lymphocytes specific for NY-ESO-1 using flow cytometry analysis and cytotoxicity against cells treated with decitabine using the xCelligence real-time cytotoxicity assay. Finally, we examined the in vivo application of this immune therapy using an intracranially implanted xenograft model for in situ T cell trafficking, survival, and tissue studies. Results Our studies showed that treatment of intracranial glioma–bearing mice with decitabine reliably and consistently induced the expression of an immunogenic tumor-rejection antigen, NY-ESO-1, specifically in glioma cells and not in normal brain tissue. The upregulation of NY-ESO-1 by intracranial gliomas was associated with the migration of adoptively transferred NY-ESO-1–specific lymphocytes along white matter tracts to these tumors in the brain. Similarly, NY-ESO-1–specific adoptive T cell therapy demonstrated antitumor activity after decitabine treatment and conferred a highly significant survival benefit to mice bearing established intracranial human glioma xenografts. Transfer of NY-ESO-1–specific T cells systemically was superior to intracranial administration and resulted in significantly extended and long-term survival of animals. Conclusion These results reveal an innovative, clinically feasible strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26330563

  13. Early Type Galaxies and Structural Parameters from ESO Public Survey KiDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, N.; Napolitano, N. R.; La Barbera, F.; Tortora, C.; Getman, F.; Radovich, M.; Capaccioli, M.

    The Kilo Degree survey (KiDS) is a large-scale optical imaging survey carried out with the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), which is the ideal tool for galaxy evolution studies. We expect to observe millions of galaxies for which we extract the structural parameters in four wavebands (u, g, r and i). This sample will represent the largest dataset with measured structural parameters up to a redshift z = 0. 5. In this paper we will introduce the sample, and describe the 2D fitting procedure using the 2DPHOT environment and the validation of the parameters with an external catalog.

  14. ESO Telescope Designer Raymond Wilson Wins Prestigious Kavli Award for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    Raymond Wilson, whose pioneering optics research at ESO made today's giant telescopes possible thanks to "active optics" technology, has been awarded the 2010 Kavli Prize in astrophysics. The founder and original leader of the Optics and Telescopes Group at ESO, Wilson shares the million-dollar prize with two American scientists, Jerry Nelson and Roger Angel. The biennial prize, presented by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Kavli Foundation, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, was instituted in 2008 and is given to researchers who significantly advance knowledge in the fields of nanoscience, neuroscience, and astrophysics, acting as a complement to the Nobel Prize. The award is named for and funded by Fred Kavli, the Norwegian entrepreneur and phi­lanthropist who later founded the Kavlico Corpora­tion in the US - today one of the world's largest suppliers of sensors for aeronautic, automotive and industrial applications. Wilson, who joined ESO in 1972, strived to achieve optical perfection, developing the concept of active optics as a way to enhance the size of telescopic primary mirrors. It is the size of these mirrors that determines the ability of a telescope to gather light and study faint and distant objects. Before active optics, mirrors over six metres in diameter were impossible, being too heavy, costly, and likely to bend from gravity and temperature changes. The use of active optics, which preserves optimal image quality by continually adjusting the mirror's shape during observations, made lighter, thinner so-called "meniscus mirrors" possible. Wilson first led the implementation of active optics in the revolutionary New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, and continued to develop and improve the technology until his retirement in 1993. Since then, active optics have become a standard part of modern astronomy, applied in every big telescope including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), a telescope array

  15. An acetyltransferase-independent function of Eso1 regulates centromere cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Su-Jiun; Tapia-Alveal, Claudia; Jabado, Omar J.; Germain, Doris; O’Connell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotes contain three essential Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes: cohesin, condensin, and Smc5/6. Cohesin forms a ring-shaped structure that embraces sister chromatids to promote their cohesion. The cohesiveness of cohesin is promoted by acetylation of N-terminal lysines of the Smc3 subunit by the acetyltransferases Eco1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the homologue, Eso1, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In both yeasts, these acetyltransferases are essential for cell viability. However, whereas nonacetylatable Smc3 mutants are lethal in S. cerevisiae, they are not in S. pombe. We show that the lethality of a temperature-sensitive allele of eso1 (eso1-H17) is due to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and is associated with premature centromere separation. The lack of cohesion at the centromeres does not correlate with Psm3 acetylation or cohesin levels at the centromeres, but is associated ith significantly reduced recruitment of the cohesin regulator Pds5. The SAC activation in this context is dependent on Smc5/6 function, which is required to remove cohesin from chromosome arms but not centromeres. The mitotic defects caused by Smc5/6 and Eso1 dysfunction are cosuppressed in double mutants. This identifies a novel function (or functions) for Eso1 and Smc5/6 at centromeres and extends the functional relationships between these SMC complexes. PMID:27798241

  16. REOSC Delivers the Best Astronomical Mirror in the World to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    On December 14, 1999, REOSC , the Optical Department of the SAGEM Group , finished the polishing of the fourth 8.2-m main mirror for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory. The mirror was today delivered to ESO at a ceremony at the REOSC factory in Saint Pierre du Perray, just south of Paris. The precision of the form of the mirror that was achieved during the polishing process is 8.5 nanometer (1 nanometer = 1 millionth of a millimetre) over the optical surface. This exceptional value corresponds to an optical resolution (theoretical image sharpness) of 0.03 arcseconds in the visible spectrum. This corresponds to distinguishing two objects separated by only 15 cm at a distance of 1000 km and will allow to detect astronomical objects that are 10,000 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye. This impressive measure of quality, achieved by the REOSC teams during much painstaking work, implies that this VLT mirror is the most accurate in the world. In fact, all four 8.2-m VLT main mirrors polished by REOSC are well within the very strict specifications set by ESO, but this is the best of them all. The celebration today is the successful highlight of a contract initiated more than ten years ago, during which REOSC has perfected new polishing and control techniques - innovations improved and developed in a unique workshop dedicated to these giant mirrors. These methods and means are directly applicable to the new generations of segmented mirrors that are now being developed for astronomy and space observations. They are, in this sense, at the foremost front of optical technology. REOSC, the Optical Department of the SAGEM Group , is specialised in the study and realisation of high-precision optics for astronomy, space, defence, science and industry. For earlier information about the work on the VLT mirrors, cf. ESO Press Release 15/95 (13 November 1995). The SAGEM Group is a French high-technology group. It

  17. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. IV. A discussion of systematic biases in galaxy redshift determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, A.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Vettolani, G.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Chincarini, G.; Maccagni, D.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Bardelli, S.; Ramella, M.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; MacGillivray, H.

    1998-08-01

    We present a detailed discussion of the redshift errors associated to the ESO Slice Project measurements. For a subsample of 742 galaxies with redshifts determined both from the absorption lines (Vabs) and from the emission lines (Vemi), we find an average difference =~ +100 km/s. We find that a similar effect is present in another, deeper redshift survey, the Durham/Anglo-Australian Telescope faint galaxy redshift survey (Broadhurst et al. 1988), while is absent in surveys at brighter magnitude limits. We have investigated in detail many possible sources of such a discrepancy, and we can exclude possible zero-point shifts or calibration problems. We have detected and measured systematic velocity differences produced by the different templates used in the cross-correlation. We conclude that such differences can in principle explain the effect, but in this case the non-trivial implication would be that the best-fitting template does not necessarily give the best velocity estimate. As we do not have any a priori reason to select a template different from the best-fitting one, we did not apply any correction to the ESO Slice Project velocities. However, as for a small number of galaxies the effect is so large that it is likely to have a physical explanation, we have also taken into account the possibility that the discrepancy can be partly real: in this case, it might help to understand the role of gas outflows in the process of galaxy evolution. In view of the future large spectroscopic surveys, we stress the importance of using different templates and making them publicly available, in order to assess the amplitude of systematic effects, and to allow a direct comparison of different catalogues. based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  18. A phase I study of vaccination with NY-ESO-1f peptide mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 in patients with cancers expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Midori; Uenaka, Akiko; Wada, Hisashi; Sato, Eiichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Jun; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Naomoto, Yoshio; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Oka, Mikio; Pan, Linda; Hoffman, Eric W; Old, Lloyd J; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2011-12-15

    We conducted a phase I clinical trial of a cancer vaccine using a 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide (NY-ESO-1 91-110) that includes multiple epitopes recognized by antibodies, and CD4 and CD8 T cells. Ten patients were immunized with 600 μg of NY-ESO-1f peptide mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 ml Montanide ISA-51. Primary end points of the study were safety and immune response. Subcutaneous injection of the NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine was well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever (Grade 1), injection-site reaction (Grade 1 or 2) and induration (Grade 2). Vaccination with the NY-ESO-1f peptide resulted in an increase or induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody responses in nine of ten patients. The sera reacted with recombinant NY-ESO-1 whole protein as well as the NY-ESO-1f peptide. An increase in CD4 and CD8 T cell responses was observed in nine of ten patients. Vaccine-induced CD4 and CD8 T cells responded to NY-ESO-1 91-108 in all patients with various HLA types with a less frequent response to neighboring peptides. The findings indicate that the 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide includes multiple epitopes recognized by CD4 and CD8 T cells with distinct specificity. Of ten patients, two with lung cancer and one with esophageal cancer showed stable disease. Our study shows that the NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine was well tolerated and elicited humoral, CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in immunized patients.

  19. South America Delegation of the European Parliament Visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    Chaired by Dr. Rolf Linkohr , Members of the European Parliament Delegation for Relations with the Countries of South America and MERCOSUR visited ESO's Paranal Observatory on October 29-30, 2003. As the world's most advanced optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal is the flagship of European astronomy and a powerful expression of Europe's ambitions in this important area of fundamental research. It is also an outstanding example of the capabilities of Europe's high-technology industries. At the same time, the Paranal Observatory provides a model for international, scientific co-operation between Europe and Latin America, based on agreements between ESO and the Republic of Chile. The deputies were accompanied by the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt . Upon arrival Wednesday afternoon, the Delegation was welcomed by Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi , Director of ESO Paranal. The distinguished visitors were impressed by the instrumentation park available to astronomical research at Paranal. During a nightly visit to the Control Centre of the observatory, they met with visiting astronomers and ESO staff and experienced some of the exciting research programmes now being carried out with the VLT at the front line of human knowledge. For Dr. Linkohr , Astrophysics means high-tech today and it has many ramifications in other areas of Science and Technology. "Europe cannot be better represented in Latin America - and in Chile in particular - than by such an outstanding scientific and technical achievement as the VLT" , he said. ESO has received support from EU programmes. "Current interactions between ESO and the EU have shown that first-rate windows of opportunities exist in high-tech developments, indispensable for our continued exploration of the unknown" , indicated Dr. Gilmozzi . The deputies are leaving Paranal today (Thursday October 30th), continuing to La Serena before travelling back to Santiago de Chile. The

  20. Three Good Reasons for Celebrating at the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    Great Demand for Data from New "Virtual Observatory" Summary Due to a happy coincidence, the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility is celebrating three different milestones at the same time: * its 10th anniversary since the establishment in 1991 * the 10,000th request for data , and * the signing-up of active user number 2000 . This Archive contains over 8 Terabytes (1 Terabyte = 1 million million bytes) of valuable observational data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and other ESO telescopes . Its success paves the way for the establishment of "Virtual Observatories" from which first-class data can be obtained by astronomers all over the world. This greatly enhances the opportunities for more (young) scientists to participate in front-line research. PR Photo 34/00 : Front-page of a new brochure, describing the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility. Just 10 years ago, on the 1st of January 1991, the ESO/ST-ECF (European Southern Observatory/Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility) Science Archive Facility opened. It has since served the astronomical community with gigabyte after gigabyte of high-quality astronomical data from some of the world's leading telescopes. The Archive, which is located in Garching, just outside Munich (Germany), contains data from the 2.4-m NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope , as well as from several ESO telescopes: the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory , and the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) , the 3.6-m telescope and the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. The Archive is a continuously developing project - in terms of amounts of data stored, the number of users and in particular because of the current dramatic development of innovative techniques for data handling and storage. In the year 2000 more than 2 Terabytes (2000 Gigabytes) of data were distributed to users worldwide. The archiving of VLT data has been described in ESO PR

  1. Heritability of strabismus: genetic influence is specific to eso-deviation and independent of refractive error.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hammond, Christopher J; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Melissa Liew, S H; Barbour, Julie M; Hewitt, Alex W; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Lorenz, Birgit; Spector, Tim D; Martin, Nicholas G; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Mackey, David A

    2012-10-01

    Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent ('phoria') and manifest ('tropia') strabismus using cover-uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50-0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and

  2. The study of rotation curve with MOND for ESO138-G014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N.; Salucci, P.; Abidin, Z. Z.

    2013-05-01

    This paper is devoted to solve the galactic rotation problem based on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). It addresses a new fundamental constant a0, called the acceleration constant, at which acceleration scale of Newton's second law fails to hold. It is an indication of a breakdown of classical Newtonian dynamics. In this respect, we choose the HI observations of a late type galaxy, ESO138-G014, to test the rotation curve within the MOND framework which leads to "MOND RC". We ask whether ESO138-G014 is compatible with MOND or dark matter is still favorable for the galactic rotation problem.

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Sodium and aluminium abundances in giants and dwarfs. Implications for stellar and Galactic chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R.; Romano, D.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Magrini, L.; Friel, E.; Jacobson, H.; Randich, S.; Ventura, P.; Lind, K.; Bergemann, M.; Nordlander, T.; Morel, T.; Pancino, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Tosi, M.; Vallenari, A.; Gilmore, G.; Bensby, T.; François, P.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-05-01

    cannot simultaneously explain the run of [Al/Fe] with [Fe/H], and vice versa. The comparison with stellar ages is hampered by severe uncertainties. Indeed, reliable age estimates are available for only a half of the stars of the sample. We conclude that Al is underproduced by the models, except for stellar ages younger than about 7 Gyr. In addition, some significant source of late Na production seems to be missing in the models. Either current Na and Al yields are affected by large uncertainties, and/or some important Galactic source(s) of these elements has as yet not been taken into account. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey), and on data obtained from the ESO Archive originally observed under programs 60.A-9143, 076.B-0263 and 082.D-0726.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A115

  4. NY-ESO-1–specific immunological pressure and escape in a patient with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    von Boehmer, Lotta; Mattle, Muriel; Bode, Peter; Landshammer, Alexandro; Schäfer, Carolin; Nuber, Natko; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Moch, Holger; Schäfer, Niklaus; Jäger, Elke; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2013-01-01

    During cancer progression, malignant cells may evade immunosurveillance. However, evidence for immunological escape in humans is scarce. We report here the clinical course of a melanoma patient whose initial tumor was positive for the antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-C1, and Melan-A. Upon immunization with a recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox NY-ESO-1 construct, the patient experienced a mixed clinical response and spreading of the NY-ESO-1 epitopes in the CD4+ T cell compartment. After NY-ESO-1 protein + CpG immunization, the patient’s anti-NY-ESO-1 IgG response increased. Over the following years, progressing lesions were resected and found to be NY-ESO-1-negative while being positive for MAGE-C1, Melan-A, and MHC-I. The fatal, inoperable brain metastasis was analyzed after his death and also proved to be NY-ESO-1-negative, while being positive for MAGE-C1 and Melan-A, as well as MHC-I. We propose that cancer control and cancer escape in this patient were governed by NY-ESO-1-specific immunological pressure. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of immunoediting and immunoescape in this cancer patient. PMID:23882157

  5. Tim de Zeeuw to Become the Next Director General of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Council has just appointed Tim de Zeeuw, 50, as the next Director General of ESO, effective as of 1 September 2007, when the current Director General, Catherine Cesarsky will complete her mandate. ESO PR Photo 02/07 ESO PR Photo 03/07 Professor Tim de Zeeuw "ESO is Europe's flagship organisation for ground-based astronomy," said, Richard Wade, President of the ESO Council. "The ESO Council is very pleased that Professor de Zeeuw has accepted the task as its next Director General. He has played a key role over the last few years in developing a strategic vision for ESO, and I have every confidence that he will now lead the organisation in the realisation of that exciting vision." Tim de Zeeuw has an excellent record, both as a highly respected scientist and as a leader of an internationally recognised science institute in the Netherlands. He is Scientific Director of the Leiden Observatory, a research institute in the College of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Leiden University. Tim de Zeeuw also has considerable experience as regards science policy issues. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's current Director General commented: "Over the recent years, ESO has developed considerably with more activities and new member states, and with its ambitious project portfolio, ESO is clearly facing an exciting future. I shall be delighted to pass the baton to Tim de Zeeuw, who as a recent Council member is very familiar with our Organisation." "It is a great honour and an exciting challenge to lead this world-class organisation in the years to come in support of one of the most dynamic areas of science today," said de Zeeuw. "I look forward to overseeing the continued upgrading of the Very Large Telescope with the second-generation instrumentation and the completion of the ALMA project, and in particular to help developing the future European Extremely Large Telescope." Tim de Zeeuw's main research interests embrace the formation, structure and dynamics of galaxies

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia-ESO Survey: NGC6705 (Cantat-Gaudin+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Vallenari, A.; Zaggia, S.; Bragaglia, A.; Sordo, R.; Drew, J. E.; Eisloeffel, J.; Farnhill, H. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Greimel, R.; Irwin, M. J.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Jordi, C.; Blomme, R.; Sampedro, L.; Costado, M. T.; Alfaro, E.; Smiljanic, R.; Magrini, L.; Donati, P.; Friel, E. D.; Jacobson, H.; Abbas, U.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Spagna, A.; Vecchiato, A.; Balaguer-Nunez, L.; Lardo, C.; Tosi, M.; Pancino, E.; Klutsch, A.; Tautvaisiene, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Puzeras, E.; Jimenez-Esteban, F.; Maiorca, E.; Geisler, D.; San, I.; Villanova, S.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Flaccomio, E.; Lanzafame, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Jofre, P.; Delaverny, P.; Masseron, T.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.; Worley, C. C.

    2014-07-01

    We combine new BV photometry with the spectroscopic observations of the Gaia-ESO Survey to study the open cluster NGC6 705. 1028 stars were observed with the HR15n grating of the GIRAFFE instrument at VLT/UT2. The radial velocities obtained for those stars were used to derive membership probabilities. (1 data file).

  7. The ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator 3: Have your say on new features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L. H.; Christensen, L. L.; Hurt, R. L.; Nielsen, K.; Johansen, T.

    2008-06-01

    The popular, free ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator image processing software (a plugin for Adobe Photoshop) is about to get simpler, faster and more user-friendly! Here we would like to solicit inputs from the community of users.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FeI oscillator strengths for Gaia-ESO (Ruffoni+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.; den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R.; Lind, K.; Nave, G.; Pickering, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey (GES) is conducting a large-scale study of multi-element chemical abundances of some 100000 stars in the Milky Way with the ultimate aim of quantifying the formation history and evolution of young, mature and ancient Galactic populations. However, in preparing for the analysis of GES spectra, it has been noted that atomic oscillator strengths of important FeI lines required to correctly model stellar line intensities are missing from the atomic data base. Here, we present new experimental oscillator strengths derived from branching fractions and level lifetimes, for 142 transitions of FeI between 3526 and 10864Å, of which at least 38 are urgently needed by GES. We also assess the impact of these new data on solar spectral synthesis and demonstrate that for 36 lines that appear unblended in the Sun, Fe abundance measurements yield a small line-by-line scatter (0.08dex) with a mean abundance of 7.44dex in good agreement with recent publications. (3 data files).

  9. Visual and near-IR spectrophotometry of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    We have been continuing our studies of the spectral properties of dark asteroids in the solar system. From these studies we expect to learn about the distribution of volatile materials, such as water in clay materials (water of hydration) and how the asteroids may relate to the comets. Our most recent work has been concentrating on simultaneous visual and near infrared photometry near Earth, main belt, and trojan asteroids. We have made observations of some unusual asteroids such as Chiron, which has recently shown cometary activity, and 944 Hidalgo, which has a comet-like orbit. We have also begun studies of the small, dark satellites of Mars and Jupiter in order to understand better how they may relate to the steroids. Could they actually be captured asteroids or comets?

  10. Deoxyribonucleoside-modified squaraines as near-IR viscosity sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Yao, Sheng; Belfield, Kevin D

    2014-06-10

    Deoxyribonucleoside-modified squaraines were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions using an unsymmetrical, terminal alkynylated benzothiazolium squaraine dye. These non-natural nucleosides exhibited fluorescent 'turn-on' properties in viscous conditions with an enhancement of >300-fold. The viscosity-dependent fluorescence enhancement was attributed to a combination of hampering both molecular aggregation and intramolecular bond rotation of the squaraine probe. Fluorescence microscopy allowed visualization of highly viscous regions during various stages of cellular mitosis.

  11. Groundbased near-IR observations of the surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, V. S.; Crisp, D.; Allen, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    We present images of the nightside of Venus taken in the near-infrared windows at 1.0, 1.1, 1.18, 1.28, 1.31, and 2.3 microns with the new infrared camera/spectrometer IRIS on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. These data were taken in spectral-mapping mode. This technique involves scanning the telescope perpendicular to the slit, while collecting spectra at successive slit positions across the planet. We produce data cubes with one spectral and two spatial dimensions. Images can be extracted over any wavelength regions. Each image has square pixels of 0.8 inch resolution. We reduced the scattered light from the sunlit crescent in images extracted from each window by subtracting images taken on either side of the window, where the Venus atmosphere is opaque. Unlike the short wavelength windows, which reveal thermal contrasts that originate primarily from the surface and deep atmosphere, the emission in the 2.3 microns window is produced at much higher altitudes (30-40 km). Emission contrasts seen near 2.3 microns are associated with horizontal variations in the cloud optical depths, and have rotation periods of about six days. We detect large contrasts in infrared emission (20-40 percent) across the disc of Venus in the 1.0-, 1.1-, 1.18-, 1.28-, and 1.31-micron images. Contrasts at these wavelengths may be due to a combination of variations in the optical depths of the overlying sulfuric acid clouds and differences in surface emission. Comparison with the 2.3-micron images show that the patterns seen in the 1.28- and 1.31-micron windows are consistent with cloud optical depth variations alone and require no contribution from the surface. However, images at 1.0, 1.1, and 1.8 microns from July 1991 show a dark feature having a contrast that increases with decreasing wavelength. This behavior is contrary to that expected of cloud absorption. Images taken on three successive days in October show another dark feature that is stationary with respect to the surface. These regions of lower emission correspond closely to the high-altitude surface regions of Beta Regio and Aphrodite Terra. The images can potentially reveal the near-infrared emissiveity of the surface of Venus, thereby complementing Magellan radar reflectivity and ground based radio emissivity measurements. The contrast ratio between highlands and plains is much smaller than would be expected for blackbody radiation from the surface along. Unlike at radio wavelengths, where the atmosphere is essentially transparent, at near-infrared wavelengths the atmosphere emits, absorbs, and scatters radiation, and can modify the observed topographically induced contrasts. The additional radiation from the atmosphere reduces the contrast, and further modification would be expected if terrain at different altitudes has different emissivities. A fit to our data therefore requires, and may constrain, a model of the lowest scale height of the atmosphere.

  12. Composition of the Martian aerosols through near-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erard, Stephane; Cerroni, Priscilla; Coradini, Angioletta

    1993-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the composition of planetary surfaces, as the main minerals exhibit absorption bands in this spectral range. It gave important information on the mineralogy and petrology of Mars in the past twenty years although in this case it is well known that a large fraction of light is scattered by the airborne particles before reaching the surface. The measured signal is thus the sum of two different contributions that should be studied separately: One from the surface and one from the aerosols that depends on their density, size distribution and composition. Data from the ISM imaging spectrometer are used here to derive the aerosols spectrum. They consist in sets of spectra (from 0.76 to 3.16 microns) of approximately 3000 pixels approximately 25x25 sq km in size. The resulting spectrum exhibits both water-ice and clay mineral features superimposed on a scattering continuum.

  13. Near-IR Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer obtains spectral images in the wavelength range 0.7 to 5.2 um with a special resolving power of approximately 200. This spectral range allows NIMS to sense cloud-reflected solar radiation, thermal emission from the deep atmosphere, and auroral bands from the thermosphere of Jupiter.

  14. Thin hollow glass waveguide for near IR radiation delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Šulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Katsumasa; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2008-02-01

    The delivery of the radiation by thin fiber is required for some application, especially in medical internals treatment. Therefore a new 100 μm and 250 μm inner diameter hollow glass waveguides were developed and investigated for the possibility to transport high power near infrared laser radiation without damage of these delivery systems. As laser sources two Nd:YAG laser systems working in Q-switched regime at wavelength 1.06 μm and 1.34 μm were utilized. Delivered radiation characterization was performed. By Alexandrite laser (755 nm) pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been generating 1.06 μm wavelength radiation with 6 ns length of pulse and maximum output energy 0.7 mJ (116.7 kW). The laser was Q-switched using LiF:F 2- saturable absorber. Second laser system was Nd:YAG/V:YAG microchip pumped by laser diode operating at 808 nm. The radiation at 1.3 μm wavelength has been generated with 250 Hz repetition rate. Pulse length was 6 ns and mean output power 25 mW. Corresponding pulse energy and peak power was 0.1 mJ and 16.7 kW, respectively. Both lasers were operating in fundamental TEM 00 mode (M2 ~ 1). For delivery a special cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguides with the inner/outer diameters 100/190 μm and 250/360 μm were used. The delivery system was consisted of lens, protector, and waveguide. As results the transmission more than 55% and reasonable spatial profile of laser output radiation were found. From these measurements it can be recommended using of this system for near infrared powerful radiation delivery as well as for medical treatment.

  15. Broadband Near IR Laser Hazard Filters. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-02

    material that is sensitive to the red part of the spectrum by choosing a methylene blue and ammonium dichromate as a dye and a sensitizer, respectively...Excellent Thermal Stability Gelatin Potassium Chromate Methylene TMG High Diffraction Efficiency Blue Moderate Stability GPG Ammonium Dichromate Methylene...TMG High Diffraction Efficiency Blue Moderate Stability Gelatin Ammonium Dichromate High Diffraction EfficiencyGelatin Ammonium__DichromateModerate

  16. Tunable Single-Frequency Near IR Lasers for DIAL Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Marquardt, John H.; Carrig, Timothy J.; Gatt, Phil; Smith, Duane D.; Hale, Charley P.

    2000-01-01

    Tunable single-frequency sources in the 2-4 micron wavelength region are useful for remote DIAL measurements of chemicals and pollutants. We are developing tunable single-frequency transmitters and receivers for both direct and coherent detection lidar measurement applications. We have demonstrated a direct-diode-pumped PPLN-based OPO that operates single frequency, produces greater than 10 mW cw and is tunable over the 2.5 - 3.9 micron wavelength region. This laser has been used to injection seed a pulsed PPLN OPO, pumped by a 1.064 micron Nd:YAG laser, producing 50-100 microJoule single-frequency pulses at 100 Hz PRF near 3.6 micron wavelength. In addition, we have demonstrated a cw Cr:ZnSe laser that is tunable over the 2.1 - 2.8 micron wavelength region. This laser is pumped by a cw diode-pumped Tm:YALO laser and has produced over 1.8 W cw. Tm- and Tm, Ho-doped single-frequency solid-state lasers that produce over 50 mW cw and are tunable over approximately 10 nm in the 2 -2.1 micron band with fast PZT tuning have also been demonstrated. A fast PZT-tunable Tm, Ho:YLF laser was used for a direct-detection column content DIAL measurement of atmospheric CO2. Modeling shows that that all these cw and pulsed sources are useful for column-content coherent DIAL measurements at several km range using topographic targets.

  17. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The first of three images of ESO's GigaGalaxy Zoom project - a new magnificent 800-million-pixel panorama of the entire sky as seen from ESO's observing sites in Chile - has just been released online. The project allows stargazers to explore and experience the Universe as it is seen with the unaided eye from the darkest and best viewing locations in the world. This 360-degree panoramic image, covering the entire celestial sphere, reveals the cosmic landscape that surrounds our tiny blue planet. This gorgeous starscape serves as the first of three extremely high-resolution images featured in the GigaGalaxy Zoom project, launched by ESO within the framework of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). GigaGalaxy Zoom features a web tool that allows users to take a breathtaking dive into our Milky Way. With this tool users can learn more about many different and exciting objects in the image, such as multicoloured nebulae and exploding stars, just by clicking on them. In this way, the project seeks to link the sky we can all see with the deep, "hidden" cosmos that astronomers study on a daily basis. The wonderful quality of the images is a testament to the splendour of the night sky at ESO's sites in Chile, which are the most productive astronomical observatories in the world. The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, which we see edge-on from our perspective on Earth, cuts a luminous swath across the image. The projection used in GigaGalaxy Zoom place the viewer in front of our Galaxy with the Galactic Plane running horizontally through the image - almost as if we were looking at the Milky Way from the outside. From this vantage point, the general components of our spiral galaxy come clearly into view, including its disc, marbled with both dark and glowing nebulae, which harbours bright, young stars, as well as the Galaxy's central bulge and its satellite galaxies. The painstaking production of this image came about as a collaboration between ESO, the renowned

  18. Polymeric structure and host Toll-like receptor 4 dictate immunogenicity of NY-ESO-1 antigen in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanan; Tian, Xiaoli; Leitner, Wolfgang W; Aldridge, Michael E; Zheng, Junying; Yu, Zhiya; Restifo, Nicholas P; Weiss, Richard; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Xie, Chong; Sun, Ren; Cheng, Genhong; Zeng, Gang

    2011-10-28

    In search of intrinsic factors that contribute to the distinctively strong immunogenicity of a non-mutated cancer/testis antigen, we found that NY-ESO-1 forms polymeric structures through disulfide bonds. NY-ESO-1 binding to immature dendritic cells was dependent on its polymeric structure and involved Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) on the surface of immature dendritic cells in mouse and human. Gene gun-delivered plasmid encoding the wild-type NY-ESO-1 readily induced T cell-dependent antibody (Ab) responses in wild-type C57BL/10 mice but not TLR4-knock-out C57BL/10ScNJ mice. Disrupting polymeric structures of NY-ESO-1 by cysteine-to-serine (Cys-to-Ser) substitutions lead to diminished immunogenicity and altered TLR4-dependence in the induced Ab response. To demonstrate its adjuvant effect, NY-ESO-1 was fused with a major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 and a tumor-associated antigen, carbonic anhydrase 9. Plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the fusion genes generated robust immune responses against otherwise non-immunogenic targets in mice. Polymeric structure and TLR4 may play important roles in rendering NY-ESO-1 immunogenic and thus serve as a potent molecular adjuvant. NY-ESO-1 thus represents the first example of a cancer/testis antigen that is a also damage-associated molecular pattern.

  19. Enhancing whole-tumor cell vaccination by engaging innate immune system through NY-ESO-1/dendritic cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Le; Zheng, Junying; Nguyen, David H; Luong, Quang T; Zeng, Gang

    2013-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer/germline antigen (Ag) with distinctively strong immunogenicity. We have previously demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 serves as an endogenous adjuvant by engaging dendritic cell (DC)-surface receptors of calreticulin (CRT) and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. In the present study, NY-ESO-1 was investigated for its immunomodulatory roles as a molecular adjuvant in whole-tumor cell vaccines using the Renca kidney cancer model. Renca cells were genetically engineered to express NY-ESO-1 on the cell surface to enhance direct interactions with DC. The effect of ectopic cell-surface expression of NY-ESO-1 was investigated on tumor immunogenicity, DC activation, cytotoxic T lymphocytes against model tumor-associated Ags, and the effectiveness of the modified tumor cells as a therapeutic whole-cell vaccine. Cell-surface expression of NY-ESO-1 was able to reduce the tumor growth of Renca cells in BALB/c mice, although the modification did not alter cell proliferation rate in vitro. Directly engaging the innate immune system through NY-ESO-1 facilitated the interaction of tumor cells with DC, leading to enhanced DC activation and subsequent tumor-specific T-cell priming. When used as a therapeutic whole-cell vaccine, Renca cells with NY-ESO-1 on the surface mediated stronger inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis compared with parental Renca or Renca cells expressing a control protein GFP on the surface. Augmented antitumor efficacy correlated with increased CD8 T-cell infiltration into tumors and decreased myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in the spleen. As a cancer/germline Ag and as an immunomodulatory adjuvant through engaging innate immune receptors, NY-ESO-1 offers a unique opportunity for improved whole-tumor cell vaccinations upon the classic GM-CSF-engineered cell vaccines.

  20. Effector memory and central memory NY-ESO-1-specific re-directed T cells for treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schuberth, P C; Jakka, G; Jensen, S M; Wadle, A; Gautschi, F; Haley, D; Haile, S; Mischo, A; Held, G; Thiel, M; Tinguely, M; Bifulco, C B; Fox, B A; Renner, C; Petrausch, U

    2013-04-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is a potential target antigen for immune therapy expressed in a subset of patients with multiple myeloma. We generated chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) recognizing the immunodominant NY-ESO-1 peptide 157-165 in the context of HLA-A*02:01 to re-direct autologous CD8(+) T cells towards NY-ESO-1(+) myeloma cells. These re-directed T cells specifically lysed NY-ESO-1(157-165)/HLA-A*02:01-positive cells and secreted IFNγ. A total of 40% of CCR7(-) re-directed T cells had an effector memory phenotype and 5% a central memory phenotype. Based on CCR7 cell sorting, effector and memory CAR-positive T cells were separated and CCR7(+) memory cells demonstrated after antigen-specific re-stimulation downregulation of CCR7 as sign of differentiation towards effector cells accompanied by an increased secretion of memory signature cytokines such as IL-2. To evaluate NY-ESO-1 as potential target antigen, we screened 78 bone marrow biopsies of multiple myeloma patients where NY-ESO-1 protein was found to be expressed by immunohistochemistry in 9.7% of samples. Adoptively transferred NY-ESO-1-specific re-directed T cells protected mice against challenge with endogenously NY-ESO-1-positive myeloma cells in a xenograft model. In conclusion, re-directed effector- and central memory T cells specifically recognized NY-ESO-1(157-165)/ HLA-A*02:01-positive cells resulting in antigen-specific functionality in vitro and in vivo.

  1. MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 antigens expression in metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bujas, T; Marusic, Z; Peric Balja, M; Mijic, A; Kruslin, B; Tomas, D

    2011-03-21

    In the present study we analyzed immunohistochemical expression of MAGE-A 3/4 and NY-ESO-1 in 55 samples of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and their respective lymph node metastases. To our knowledge this is the first study to assess and compare the expression of these antigens in ESCC lymph node metastases. Fifty (90.9%) primary ESCC were positive for MAGE-A 3/4 and 53 (96.6%) were positive for NY-ESO-1. MAGE-A 3/4 was expressed in all lymph node metastases and the intensity of expression was high in a majority of cases. NY-ESO-1 was negative in 2 (7.1%) lymph nodes metastases, while the reaction was predominantly moderate in the positive group. In primary tumors MAGE-A 3/4 showed a significantly higher intensity of expression compared to NY-ESO-1 (P=0.047), while in lymph node metastases the intensity of expression was not significantly different (P=0.387). Primary tumors with and without lymph node metastases showed no significant differences in MAGE-A 3/4 (P=0.672) and NY-ESO-1 (P=0.444) expression. Intensity of MAGE-A 3/4 (P=0.461) and NY-ESO-1 (P=0.414) expression in primary tumors was not significantly different compared to the expression in their respective lymph nodes metastases. Expression of MAGE-A 3/4 in primary tumors showed significant positive correlation with primary tumor expression of NY-ESO-1 (P=0.021) but no significant correlation with the expression of MAGE-A 3/4 in lymph node metastases (P=0.056). Expression of NY-ESO-1 in primary tumors showed significant positive correlation with the expression of NY-ESO-1 in lymph node metastases (P=0.001) and significant negative correlation with patients’ age (P<0.001). Expression of MAGE-A 3/4 and NY-ESO-1 in primary tumors and lymph node metastases showed no significant correlation with prognostic parameters such as tumor grade and TNM stage (P>0.05). We have shown different levels of MAGE-A 3/4 and NY-ESO-1 expression in almost all specimens of primary tumor and lymph node metastases

  2. Early-type massive stars in Carina Nebula within the Gaia-ESO Survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlanas, S. R.; Herrero, A.; Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Mahy, L.; Blomme, R.; GES WG-13

    2017-03-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) is obtaining high quality spectra of ˜ 10^5 stars in our Galaxy, providing an homogeneous and unique overview of all the main components of the Milky Way, its formation history and the evolution of young, mature and ancient Galactic populations. Our group is in charge of the early-type massive stars that define the youngest population in the survey. In this contribution, we present the results of the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of O-type stars in the Carina Nebula within the Gaia-ESO Survey. For this aim, we have used FASTWIND and CMFGEN stellar atmosphere codes, providing stellar parameters for the current sample (GES data release iDR4).

  3. The MATISSE analysis of large spectral datasets from the ESO Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, C.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Hill, V.; Vernisse, Y.; Ordenovic, C.; Bijaoui, A.

    2010-12-01

    The automated stellar classification algorithm, MATISSE, has been developed at the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA) in order to determine stellar temperatures, gravities and chemical abundances for large datasets of stellar spectra. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has selected MATISSE as one of the key programmes to be used in the analysis of the Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) spectra. MATISSE is currently being used to analyse large datasets of spectra from the ESO archive with the primary goal of producing advanced data products to be made available in the ESO database via the Virtual Observatory. This is also an invaluable opportunity to identify and address issues that can be encountered with the analysis large samples of real spectra prior to the launch of Gaia in 2012. The analysis of the archived spectra of the FEROS spectrograph is currently underway and preliminary results are presented.

  4. ESO 103-G35 - A new Seyfert galaxy and possible X-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. M.; Feldman, F. R.; Marshall, F. E.; Wamsteker, W.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an objective prism plate, two emission-line galaxies have been identified within the 0.7-sq deg HEAO-A2 error box for the X-ray source H1834-653. Optical spectrophotometric observations are reported for both objects as well as the galaxy NGC 6684, which also lies near the position of H1834-653. These data show that one of the emission-line galaxies, ESO 103-G35, is a Seyfert galaxy with a high-excitation forbidden-line spectrum and weak broad emission wings at H-alpha. Further measurements of this galaxy reveal an infrared excess at wavelengths longer than 2.2 microns. The H-alpha luminosity of ESO 103-G35 is consistent with the X-ray luminosity estimated from the HEAO-A2 data, thus strengthening the likelihood of association of this galaxy with the X-ray emission.

  5. Speeches to mark the accession of the UK to ESO: Lord Sainsbury, Arno Freytag, Catherine Cesarsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    To mark the occasion of the the tenth member state joining ESO, the UK invited ESO to hold its 98th Council meeting in London on 8-9 July 2002. The hosts provided a wonderful venue for the meeting in Trinity House, overlooking the Tower of London. An excursion to the historic Greenwich Observatory and a banquet at Lancaster House helped to make it an especially memorable occasion. A landmark decision made at the meeting was the approval for the construction and operation of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The speeches given at the banquet by Lord Sainsbury, A. Freytag and C. Cesarsky are printed below, followed by an article by Prof. Gerry Gilmore on the British astronomers' perspective.

  6. Britain Approaches ESO about Installation of Major New Telescope at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    The Executive Board of the UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) project announced today [1] that it is aiming at the installation of a new and powerful astronomical telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). This 4-metre telescope is a specialised wide-angle facility equipped with powerful cameras and efficient detectors that will enable it to obtain deep images of large sky areas in short time. These survey observations will be made in several wavebands in the optical and, in particular, the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. VISTA will become the largest and most effective telescope of its type when it enters into operation in 2004. It is a project of a consortium of 18 UK universities [2]. Construction is expected to start in spring 2000. Funding of the project was announced in May 1999, as one of the first allocations from the "Joint Infrastructure Fund (JIF)", an initiative of the UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry, the Wellcome Trust, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , is very pleased with this decision. She received a mandate from the ESO Council in December 1999 to negotiate a contract with the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , acting on behalf of the VISTA Executive Board, for the installation of VISTA at Paranal and now looks forward to settle the associated legal and operational details with her British counterparts at good pace. "The installation of VISTA at Paranal will be of great benefit to all European astronomers", she says. "The placement of a survey telescope of this size next to ESO's VLT, the world's largest optical telescope, opens a plethora of exciting opportunities for joint research projects. Deep observations with VISTA, especially in infrared wavebands, will provide a most valuable, first census of large regions of space. This will most certainly lead to the discoveries of many new and

  7. Galactic archaeology of a thick disc: Excavating ESO 533-4 with VIMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Yoachim, P.

    2015-12-01

    The disc of galaxies is made of the superposition of a thin and a thick disc. Star formation is hosted in the thin discs and contributes to their growth. Thick discs are formed of old stars. The formation mechanisms of thick discs are under discussion. Thick discs might have formed either at high redshift on a short timescale or might have been built slowly over a Hubble-Lemaître time. They may have an internal or an external origin. Here we adopt a galactic archaeology approach to study the thick disc of ESO 533-4, i.e. we study the kinematics and the stellar populations of this galaxy in detail. ESO 533-4 is a Southern, nearby, and almost bulgeless galaxy. We present the first ever Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of an edge-on galaxy with enough depth and quality to study the thick disc. We exposed ESO 533-4 with the blue grism of the VIMOS instrument of the VLT for 6.5 h. The field of view covered an axial extent from ~ 0.1 r25 to ~ 0.7 r25, where r25 is the 25 mag arcsec-2 isophotal radius. This corresponds to the range from ~1 kpc to ~7 kpc. We used pPXF and the MILES library to obtain velocity and stellar population maps. We compared our kinematic data with simple GADGET-2 models. The apparent rotational lag of the thick disc of ESO 533-4 is compatible with that expected from the combinations of two effects: differential asymmetric drift and the projection effects arising from studying a disc a few degrees (2-3°) away from edge-on. Thus, ESO 533-4 contains little or no counter-rotating material. This is compatible with three formation scenarios: the secular dynamical heating of an initially thin disc, the formation of the thick disc at high redshift in an early turbulent disc phase, and the creation of a thick disc in a major merger event. If this last mechanism occurred in all galaxies, it would cause retrograde thick discs in half of them. These retrograde discs have not been observed in the five massive disc galaxies (circular velocity vc ≳ 120 km s-1

  8. The AMBRE Project: Stellar parameterisation of the ESO:UVES archived spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, C. C.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Hill, V.; Bijaoui, A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The AMBRE Project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA) that has been established to determine the stellar atmospheric parameters for the archived spectra of four ESO spectrographs. Aims: The analysis of the UVES archived spectra for their stellar parameters was completed in the third phase of the AMBRE Project. From the complete ESO:UVES archive dataset that was received covering the period 2000 to 2010, 51 921 spectra for the six standard setups were analysed. These correspond to approximately 8014 distinct targets (that comprise stellar and non-stellar objects) by radial coordinate search. Methods: The AMBRE analysis pipeline integrates spectral normalisation, cleaning and radial velocity correction procedures in order that the UVES spectra can then be analysed automatically with the stellar parameterisation algorithm MATISSE to obtain the stellar atmospheric parameters. The synthetic grid against which the MATISSE analysis is carried out is currently constrained to parameters of FGKM stars only. Results: Stellar atmospheric parameters are reported for 12 403 of the 51 921 UVES archived spectra analysed in AMBRE:UVES. This equates to ~23.9% of the sample and ~3708 stars. Effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and alpha element to iron ratio abundances are provided for 10 212 spectra (~19.7%), while effective temperature at least is provided for the remaining 2191 spectra. Radial velocities are reported for 36 881 (~71.0%) of the analysed archive spectra. While parameters were determined for 32 306 (62.2%) spectra these parameters were not considered reliable (and thus not reported to ESO) for reasons such as very low S/N, too poor radial velocity determination, spectral features too broad for analysis, and technical issues from the reduction. Similarly the parameters of a further 7212 spectra (13.9%) were also not reported to ESO based on quality criteria and error

  9. Observing facilities at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile for cometary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnur, G. F. O.; Kohoutek, L.; Rahe, J.

    1981-01-01

    The (ESO) is located on the mountain La Silla (geographical coordinates: 4h42m55s10 west, -29 deg 15' 25".8 south, 2400 m elevation. The size of the telescopes ranges from a 40 cm Astrograph to the 3.6 m Richey-Chretien telescope. Future telescopes are discussed: a 2.2 m RC-Telescope which will be identical with the German 2.2 m telescope on Calor Alto in SE-Spain, and a 3.5 m telescope, the New Technology Telescope. In addition to these telescopes, a great number of auxiliary instrumentation are operational. Because ESO has to serve all requests of the visiting astronomers these instruments are designed for very different applications. The telescopes and auxiliary instruments that are especially suited for cometary observations are discussed. The dicussion is divided into three parts: photography, photometry-polarimetry and spectroscopy.

  10. Machine-learning-based photometric redshifts for galaxies of the ESO Kilo-Degree Survey data release 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.; Napolitano, N. R.; Radovich, M.; Barbera, F. La; Capaccioli, M.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Paolillo, M.

    2015-09-01

    We have estimated photometric redshifts (zphot) for more than 1.1 million galaxies of the public European Southern Observatory (ESO) Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) data release 2. KiDS is an optical wide-field imaging survey carried out with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Survey Telescope (VST) and the OmegaCAM camera, which aims to tackle open questions in cosmology and galaxy evolution, such as the origin of dark energy and the channel of galaxy mass growth. We present a catalogue of photometric redshifts obtained using the Multi-Layer Perceptron with Quasi-Newton Algorithm (MLPQNA) model, provided within the framework of the DAta Mining and Exploration Web Application REsource (DAMEWARE). These photometric redshifts are based on a spectroscopic knowledge base that was obtained by merging spectroscopic data sets from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) data release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) data release 9. The overall 1σ uncertainty on Δz = (zspec - zphot)/(1 + zspec) is ˜0.03, with a very small average bias of ˜0.001, a normalized median absolute deviation of ˜0.02 and a fraction of catastrophic outliers (|Δz| > 0.15) of ˜0.4 per cent.

  11. Assembly and test results of the AOF laser guide star units at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenberg, W.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Dupuy, C.; Gago, F.; Guidolin, I. M.; Guzman, R.; Holzloehner, R.; Kern, L.; Kirchbauer, J.-.; Lewis, S.; Lizon, J.-.; McLay, S.; Pfrommer, T.; Quattri, M.; Quentin, J.; Ridings, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) is part of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility, in which one of the VLT telescopes, UT4, is transformed in an adaptive telescope-equipped with a deformable secondary mirror, two adaptive optics systems at the Nasmyth focii and four sodium laser guide star modular units. In this paper we present the design, the assembly and validation test performed so far in Europe on the first laser guide star unit.

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: detailed abundances for thousands of FGK-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to observe more than 10^{5} stars. Giraffe medium-resolution spectra is being obtained for ˜ 10^{5} stars and high-resolution UVES spectra is being obtained for ˜ 5000 stars. Here I present a short summary of the Survey with emphasis on the sample of FGK-type stars being observed with UVES.

  13. Radio Detection of SN 2016bas in ESO 163-G011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, S. D.; Kool, E. C.; Stockdale, C. J.; Kotak, R.

    2016-03-01

    The nearby Type IIb supernova SN 2016bas (ATel #8814) in ESO 163-G011 has been observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) on 2016 March 17.4 UT. We detected a radio source at a position consistent with that measured optically, and fluxes of 0.56+/-0.03 mJy and 0.21+/-0.02 mJy at 9.0 and 5.5 GHz, respectively.

  14. Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Community Days Report on the ESO Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibundgut, B.; Kasper, M.; Kuntschner, H.

    2016-12-01

    The future of adaptive optics (AO) instruments at the VLT was discussed during a two-day workshop. Three major directions emerged from these discussions: adaptive optics in the optical; multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO); and extreme adaptive optics (XAO). The science cases for these three options were presented and the discussions are summarised. ESO is now planning to provide detailed science cases for an optical AO system and to prepare upgrade plans for XAO and MOAO.

  15. SPARTA: the ESO standard platform for adaptive optics real time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedrigo, Enrico; Donaldson, Robert; Soenke, Christian; Myers, Richard; Goodsell, Stephen; Geng, Deli; Saunter, Chris; Dipper, Nigel

    2006-06-01

    ESO is starting a number of new projects collectively called Second Generation VLT instrumentation. Several of them will use Adaptive Optics (AO). In comparison with today's ESO AO systems, the 2nd Generation VLT AO systems will be much bigger (in terms of degrees of freedom) and faster (in terms of loop frequency). Consequently the Real-Time Computer controlling these AO systems will be significantly bigger and more challenging to build compared with today's AO systems in operation. To support the new requirements ESO started the development of a common flexible platform called SPARTA for Standard Platform for Adaptive optics Real Time Applications. The guidelines along which SPARTA is developed recognize the importance of industry standards over custom development to lower the development costs, ease the maintenance and make the system upgradeable thus delivering the performance required. SPARTA is based on a hybrid architecture that comprises all the major computing architectures available today: the high computational throughput is achieved through the combination of FPGA and DSP usage, where DSP are used as fast coprocessors and FPGA are used as front and as communication infrastructure, thus guaranteeing also the low latency. The flexibility is spread between the usage of both high-end CPUs and again the DSPs. All three technologies are organized in a parallel system interconnected by fast serial fabrics based on standard protocols. External input / output interfaces are also based on industry standard protocols, thus enabling the usage of commercially available tools for development and testing.

  16. Integration of the instrument control electronics for the ESPRESSO spectrograph at ESO-VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, V.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mégevand, D.; Riva, M.; Santin, P.

    2016-07-01

    ESPRESSO, the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and Stable Spectroscopic Observations of the ESO - Very Large Telescope site, is now in its integration phase. The large number of functions of this complex instrument are fully controlled by a Beckhoff PLC based control electronics architecture. Four small and one large cabinets host the main electronic parts to control all the sensors, motorized stages and other analogue and digital functions of ESPRESSO. The Instrument Control Electronics (ICE) is built following the latest ESO standards and requirements. Two main PLC CPUs are used and are programmed through the TwinCAT Beckhoff dedicated software. The assembly, integration and verification phase of ESPRESSO, due to its distributed nature and different geographical locations of the consortium partners, is quite challenging. After the preliminary assembling and test of the electronic components at the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste and the test of some electronics and software parts at ESO (Garching), the complete system for the control of the four Front End Unit (FEU) arms of ESPRESSO has been fully assembled and tested in Merate (Italy) at the beginning of 2016. After these first tests, the system will be located at the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland) until the Preliminary Acceptance Europe (PAE) and finally shipped to Chile for the commissioning. This paper describes the integration strategy of the ICE workpackage of ESPRESSO, the hardware and software tests that have been performed, with an overall view of the experience gained during these project's phases.

  17. TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS OF THE EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXY ESO 379-006

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R. F.; Repetto, P.; Martos, M.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.; Amram, P.; Hernandez, O.

    2013-05-15

    We present a kinematical study of the nearly edge-on galaxy ESO 379-006 that shows the existence of extraplanar ionized gas. With Fabry-Perot spectroscopy at H{alpha}, we study the kinematics of ESO 379-006 using velocity maps and position-velocity diagrams parallel to the major and to the minor axis of the galaxy. We build the rotation curve of the disk and discuss the role of projection effects due to the fact of viewing this galaxy nearly edge-on. The twisting of the isovelocities in the radial velocity field of the disk of ESO 379-006 as well as the kinematical asymmetries found in some position-velocity diagrams parallel to the minor axis of the galaxy suggest the existence of deviations to circular motions in the disk that can be modeled and explained with the inclusion of a radial inflow probably generated by a bar or by spiral arms. We succeeded in detecting extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in this galaxy. At the same time, from the analysis of position-velocity diagrams, we found some evidence that the extraplanar gas could lag in rotation velocity with respect to the midplane rotation.

  18. TCS and peripheral robotization and upgrade on the ESO 1-meter telescope at La Silla Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropert, S.; Suc, V.; Jordán, A.; Tala, M.; Liedtke, P.; Royo, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we describe the robotization and upgrade of the ESO 1m telescope located at La Silla Observatory. The ESO 1m telescope was the first telescope installed in La Silla, in 1966. It now hosts as a main instrument the FIber Dual EchellE Optical Spectrograph (FIDEOS), a high resolution spectrograph designed for precise Radial Velocity (RV) measurements on bright stars. In order to meet this project's requirements, the Telescope Control System (TCS) and some of its mechanical peripherals needed to be upgraded. The TCS was also upgraded into a modern and robust software running on a group of single board computers interacting together as a network with the CoolObs TCS developed by ObsTech. One of the particularities of the CoolObs TCS is that it allows to fuse the input signals of 2 encoders per axis in order to achieve high precision and resolution of the tracking with moderate cost encoders. One encoder is installed on axis at the telescope and the other on axis at the motor. The TCS was also integrated with the FIDEOS instrument system so that all the system can be controlled through the same remote user interface. Our modern TCS unit allows the user to run observations remotely through a secured internet web interface, minimizing the need of an on-site observer and opening a new age in robotic astronomy for the ESO 1m telescope.

  19. NY-ESO-1 Protein Cancer Vaccine With Poly-ICLC and OK-432: Rapid and Strong Induction of NY-ESO-1-specific Immune Responses by Poly-ICLC.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Tomohira; Nagase, Hirotsugu; Kurose, Koji; Ohue, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Sato, Eiichi; Isobe, Midori; Kanazawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Mitsunobu; Iwahori, Kota; Kawashima, Atsunari; Morimoto-Okazawa, Akiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Oka, Mikio; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Nakayama, Eiichi; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Wada, Hisashi

    2017-03-23

    We conducted a clinical trial of a cancer vaccine using NY-ESO-1 protein with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) and/or OK-432 against solid tumors. A total of 15 patients were sequentially enrolled in 4 cohorts. Patients in cohort 1 received NY-ESO-1 protein; cohort 2a received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432; cohort 2b received NY-ESO-1 protein+poly-ICLC; cohort 3 received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432+poly-ICLC with Montanide ISA-51. The endpoints of this trial were safety, NY-ESO-1 immune responses, and clinical response. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection-site reaction (grade 1). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 antibodies were observed in 4 patients at the baseline (sero-positive) and augmented in all patients after vaccination. Eleven patients showed a conversion of negative antibody responses at baseline to positive after vaccination (seroconversion). The seroconversions were observed in all 11 sero-negative patients by the fourth immunization; in particular, it was observed by the second immunization in patients with poly-ICLC, and these induced antibody responses were stronger than those in patients immunized without poly-ICLC. The number of NY-ESO-1-specific interferon (IFN)γ-producing T cells was increased in patients immunized with poly-ICLC and/or OK-432, and furthermore, the increase of IFNγ-producing CD8 T cells in patients immunized with poly-ICLC was significantly higher than that in patients without poly-ICLC. Nonspecific activations of T-cell or antigen presenting cells were not observed. Our present study showed that poly-ICLC is a promising adjuvant for cancer vaccines.

  20. The Gaia-ESO Survey: characterisation of the [α/Fe] sequences in the Milky Way discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordopatis, G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Gilmore, G.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Hill, V.; Adibekyan, V.; Heiter, U.; Minchev, I.; Famaey, B.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Guiglion, G.; Korn, A. J.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Schultheis, M.; Vallenari, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-10-01

    -resolution spectroscopic surveys. Conclusions: The small variations in the spatial [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] paths of the thin disc do not allow us to distinguish between formation models of this structure. On the other hand, the lack of radial gradients and [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] variations for the thick disc indicate that the mechanism responsible for the mixing of metals in the young Galaxy (e.g. radial stellar migration or turbulent gaseous disc) was more efficient before the (present) thin disc started forming. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey, programme 188.B-3002.

  1. ESO 243-49 HLX-1: scaling of X-ray spectral properties and black hole mass determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of Swift/XRT observations (2008-2015) of a hyper-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We demonstrate a strong observational evidence that ESO 243-49 HLX-1 undergoes spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index (Γ) saturation level, Γsat = 3.0 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ-Ṁ correlation allows us to estimate black hole (BH) mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 to be MBH 7 × 104 M⊙ assuming the distance to ESO 243-49 of 95 Mpc. For the BH mass estimate we use the scaling method taking Galactic BHs XTE J1550-564, H 1743-322 and 4U 1630-472, and an extragalactic BH source, M101 ULX-1 as reference sources. The Γ versus Ṁ correlation revealed in ESO 243-49 HLX-1 is similar to those in a number of Galactic and extragalactic BHs and it clearly shows the correlation along with the strong Γ saturation at ≈3. This is a robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We also find that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are quite low, of order of 50-140 eV which are consistent with high BH mass in ESO 243-49 HLX-1.

  2. A cancer vaccine induces expansion of NY-ESO-1-specific regulatory T cells in patients with advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lisa M; MacRaild, Sarah E; Zanker, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan; Chen, Weisan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to expand tumor antigen-specific T cells with effector function. However, they may also inadvertently expand regulatory T cells (Treg), which could seriously hamper clinical efficacy. To address this possibility, we developed a novel assay to detect antigen-specific Treg based on down-regulation of surface CD3 following TCR engagement, and used this approach to screen for Treg specific to the NY-ESO-1 tumor antigen in melanoma patients treated with the NY-ESO-1/ISCOMATRIX™ cancer vaccine. All patients tested had Treg (CD25(bright) FoxP3(+) CD127(neg)) specific for at least one NY-ESO-1 epitope in the blood. Strikingly, comparison with pre-treatment samples revealed that many of these responses were induced or boosted by vaccination. The most frequently detected response was toward the HLA-DP4-restricted NY-ESO-1(157-170) epitope, which is also recognized by effector T cells. Notably, functional Treg specific for an HLA-DR-restricted epitope within the NY-ESO-1(115-132) peptide were also identified at high frequency in tumor tissue, suggesting that NY-ESO-1-specific Treg may suppress local anti-tumor immune responses. Together, our data provide compelling evidence for the ability of a cancer vaccine to expand tumor antigen-specific Treg in the setting of advanced cancer, a finding which should be given serious consideration in the design of future cancer vaccine clinical trials.

  3. Immune escape from NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell therapy via loss of heterozygosity in the MHC.

    PubMed

    Klippel, Z K; Chou, J; Towlerton, A M; Voong, L N; Robbins, P; Bensinger, W I; Warren, E H

    2014-03-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy of tumors with T cells specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has shown great promise in preclinical models and in early stage clinical trials. Tumor persistence or recurrence after NY-ESO-1-specific therapy occurs, however, and the mechanisms of recurrence remain poorly defined. In a murine xenograft model of NY-ESO-1(+) multiple myeloma, we observed tumor recurrence after adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells genetically redirected to the prototypic NY-ESO-1157-165 peptide presented by HLA-A*02:01. Analysis of the myeloma cells that had escaped from T-cell control revealed intact expression of NY-ESO-1 and B2M, but selective, complete loss of HLA-A*02:01 expression from the cell surface. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) involving the HLA-A locus was identified in the tumor cells, and further analysis revealed selective loss of the allele encoding HLA-A*02:01. Although LOH involving the MHC has not been described in myeloma patients with persistent or recurrent disease after immune therapies such as allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), it has been described in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who relapsed after allogeneic HCT. These results suggest that MHC loss should be evaluated in patients with myeloma and other cancers who relapse after adoptive NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell therapy.

  4. Induction of CD8 T-cell responses restricted to multiple HLA class I alleles in a cancer patient by immunization with a 20-mer NY-ESO-1f (NY-ESO-1 91-110) peptide.

    PubMed

    Eikawa, Shingo; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Midori; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Luescher, Immanuel; Ohue, Yoshihiro; Ikeuchi, Kazuhiro; Uenaka, Akiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Udono, Heiichiro; Oka, Mikio; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2013-01-15

    Immunogenicity of a long 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide vaccine was evaluated in a lung cancer patient TK-f01, immunized with the peptide with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51. We showed that internalization of the peptide was necessary to present CD8 T-cell epitopes on APC, contrasting with the direct presentation of the short epitope. CD8 T-cell responses restricted to all five HLA class I alleles were induced in the patient after the peptide vaccination. Clonal analysis showed that B*35:01 and B*52:01-restricted CD8 T-cell responses were the two dominant responses. The minimal epitopes recognized by A*24:02, B*35:01, B*52:01 and C*12:02-restricted CD8 T-cell clones were defined and peptide/HLA tetramers were produced. NY-ESO-1 91-101 on A*24:02, NY-ESO-1 92-102 on B*35:01, NY-ESO-1 96-104 on B*52:01 and NY-ESO-1 96-104 on C*12:02 were new epitopes first defined in this study. Identification of the A*24:02 epitope is highly relevant for studying the Japanese population because of its high expression frequency (60%). High affinity CD8 T-cells recognizing tumor cells naturally expressing the epitopes and matched HLA were induced at a significant level. The findings suggest the usefulness of a long 20-mer NY-ESO-1f peptide harboring multiple CD8 T-cell epitopes as an NY-ESO-1 vaccine. Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in immunomonitoring using peptide/HLA tetramers revealed that multiple CD8 T-cell responses comprised the dominant response.

  5. MHC class II/ESO tetramer-based generation of in vitro primed anti-tumor T-helper lines for adoptive cell therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Poli, Caroline; Raffin, Caroline; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Luescher, Immanuel; Ayyoub, Maha; Valmori, Danila

    2013-02-01

    Generation of tumor-antigen specific CD4(+) T-helper (T(H)) lines through in vitro priming is of interest for adoptive cell therapy of cancer, but the development of this approach has been limited by the lack of appropriate tools to identify and isolate low frequency tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Here, we have used recently developed MHC class II/peptide tetramers incorporating an immunodominant peptide from NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor antigen frequently expressed in different human solid and hematologic cancers, to implement an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO-specific T(H) lines. We isolated phenotypically defined CD4(+) T-cell subpopulations from circulating lymphocytes of DR52b(+) healthy donors by flow cytometry cell sorting and stimulated them in vitro with peptide ESO(119-143), autologous APC and IL-2. We assessed the frequency of ESO-specific cells in the cultures by staining with DR52b/ESO(119-143) tetramers (ESO-tetramers) and TCR repertoire of ESO-tetramer(+) cells by co-staining with TCR variable β chain (BV) specific antibodies. We isolated ESO-tetramer(+) cells by flow cytometry cell sorting and expanded them with PHA, APC and IL-2 to generate ESO-specific T(H) lines. We characterized the lines for antigen recognition, by stimulation with ESO peptide or recombinant protein, cytokine production, by intracellular staining using specific antibodies, and alloreactivity, by stimulation with allo-APC. Using this approach, we could consistently generate ESO-tetramer(+) T(H) lines from conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) naïve and central memory populations, but not from effector memory populations or CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg. In vitro primed T(H) lines recognized ESO with affinities comparable to ESO-tetramer(+) cells from patients immunized with an ESO vaccine and used a similar TCR repertoire. In this study, using MHC class II/ESO tetramers, we have implemented an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO

  6. ESA/ESO collaboration to track potentially threatening near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Koschny, D.; Micheli, M.

    2014-07-01

    A collaboration has been set up between ESA and ESO, within the global effort by the United Nations and its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS). The UN-COPUOS Action Team 14 put forward recommendations for an international response to the near-Earth-object (NEO) impact threat to form an International Asteroid Warning Network, which the UN General Assembly approved in October 2013. The NEO Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) aims to coordinate and combine information from different sources, and analyse them to predict possible impacts with the Earth, and assess danger, and analyse possible mitigations, including the deflection of a menacing asteroid. With the VLT, ESO's capabilities to observe very faint (but still threatening) NEOs complement ESA's efforts to discover and track these objects. The ESA/ESO campaign focuses on faint objects, with a high value on the Palermo scale, which cannot be observed with smaller telescopes, and on recently discovered NEOs, which are rapidly fading below the detection threshold for smaller telescopes before their orbit can be secured. Technically, the campaign is implemented as a 'Target of Opportunity'' program, in which observations can be queued on VLT's UT1 with FORS at short notice. The first observations targeted 2009 FD, which had been ranked among the top five objects on the NEODyS Risk List. The VLT observations, processed by the European NEODyS system and the JPL-based Sentry system, decreased its Palermo index from -1.8 to -2.6. The campaign currently has a telescope time credit corresponding to 15--20 recoveries per year.

  7. Cancer-testis antigen expression in synovial sarcoma: NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1.

    PubMed

    Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Harimaya, Katsumi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-03-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is regarded as a relatively chemosensitive sarcoma, but the prognosis of advanced SSs remains poor. Here we identified highly expressed cancer-testis antigens that could be promising immunotherapy targets for SS, using a previously conducted cDNA microarray, and we assessed the clinicopathological or prognostic relationships of these antigens in SS. We compared the gene expression profiles of 11 SSs with those of 3 normal adipose tissues. Among the up-regulated cancer-testis antigens, we analyzed PRAME, MAGEA1, and MAGEA4 and another cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) together, by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction in 108 SSs. Immunohistochemically, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1 were positive in 66 (61%), 93 (86%), 89 (82%), and 16 (15%) of 108 SSs, respectively, and 104 (96%) of 108 SSs showed the immunohistochemical expression of at least 1 of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4. Moreover, the high expression of at least 1 of these 3 antigens was observed in 83% of the SSs. High expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA4 was significantly correlated with the presence of necrosis and advanced clinical stage. The immunohistochemical expression of these cancer-testis antigens was not correlated with prognosis, but the coexpression of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 was significantly associated with adverse prognosis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results were closely related to the immunohistochemical results: NY-ESO-1 (P = .0019), PRAME (P = .039), MAGEA4 (P = .0149), and MAGEA1 (P = .0766). These data support the potential utility of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 as immunotherapy targets and ancillary prognostic parameters, suggesting the possible benefit of the combined use of these cancer-testis antigens as an SS immunotherapy target.

  8. Combination of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin A for improved detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Hui; Xu, Yi-Wei; Qiu, Si-Qi; Hong, Chao-Qun; Zhai, Tian-Tian; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2014-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in Southern China and Southeast Asia, and early detection remains a challenge. Autoantibodies have been found to precede the manifestations of symptomatic cancer by several months to years, making their identification of particular relevance for early detection. In the present study, the diagnostic value of serum autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 in NPC patients was evaluated. The study included 112 patients with NPC and 138 normal controls. Serum levels of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and classical Epstein-Barr virus marker, viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin A (VCA-IgA), were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Measurement of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and VCA-IgA demonstrated a sensitivity/specificity of 42.9/94.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33.7-52.6/89.4-97.8%] and 55.4/95.7% (95% CI, 45.7-64.7/90.4-98.2%), respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 (0.821; 95% CI, 0.771-0.871) was marginally lower than that for VCA-IgA (0.860; 95% CI, 0.810-0.910) in NPC. The combination of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 and VCA-IgA yielded an enhanced sensitivity of 80.4% (95% CI, 71.6-87.0%) and a specificity of 90.6% (95% CI, 84.1-94.7%). Moreover, detection of autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 could differentiate early-stage NPC patients from normal controls. Our results suggest that autoantibodies against NY-ESO-1 may serve as a potential biomarker, as a supplement to VCA-IgA, for the screening and diagnosis of NPC.

  9. Definition of key variables for the induction of optimal NY-ESO-1-specific T cells in HLA transgene mice.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Alexandre; Genolet, Raphaël; Legler, Daniel F; Luther, Sanjiv A; Luescher, Immanuel F

    2010-09-15

    An attractive treatment of cancer consists in inducing tumor-eradicating CD8(+) CTL specific for tumor-associated Ags, such as NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a strongly immunogenic cancer germ line gene-encoded tumor-associated Ag, widely expressed on diverse tumors. To establish optimal priming of ESO-specific CTL and to define critical vaccine variables and mechanisms, we used HLA-A2/DR1 H-2(-/-) transgenic mice and sequential immunization with immunodominant DR1- and A2-restricted ESO peptides. Immunization of mice first with the DR1-restricted ESO(123-137) peptide and subsequently with mature dendritic cells (DCs) presenting this and the A2-restriced ESO(157-165) epitope generated abundant, circulating, high-avidity primary and memory CD8(+) T cells that efficiently killed A2/ESO(157-165)(+) tumor cells. This prime boost regimen was superior to other vaccine regimes and required strong Th1 cell responses, copresentation of MHC class I and MHC class II peptides by the same DC, and resulted in upregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1, and thus egress of freshly primed CD8(+) T cells from the draining lymph nodes into circulation. This well-defined system allowed detailed mechanistic analysis, which revealed that 1) the Th1 cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-2 played key roles in CTL priming, namely by upregulating on naive CD8(+) T cells the chemokine receptor CCR5; 2) the inflammatory chemokines CCL4 (MIP-1beta) and CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) chemoattracted primed CD4(+) T cells to mature DCs and activated, naive CD8(+) T cells to DC-CD4 conjugates, respectively; and 3) blockade of these chemokines or their common receptor CCR5 ablated priming of CD8(+) T cells and upregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1. These findings provide new opportunities for improving T cell cancer vaccines.

  10. Chemical tagging with Gaia-ESO Survey and Gaia-RVS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiglion, G.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method devoted to chemical tagging for Galactic Archeology. In the context of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) and the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), we aim at preparing the Gaia-Radial Velocity Spectrograph analysis, which will provide ~ 2×106 spectra covering the IR CaII triplet domain (R ~ 11 500), with sufficient SNR to perform chemical tagging. Our method will be integrated in the Gaia DPAC Apsis pipeline (CU8, Astrophysical Parameters) and we test it with GES GIRAFFE spectra (MEDUSA mode, HR10 & HR21) deriving abundances of MgI in 168 stars.

  11. Announcement - Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at Infrared and Optical Wavelengths - ESO Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    The European Southern Observatory is organizing an international conference on the subject "SCIENTIFIC IMPORTANCE OF HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION AT INFRARED AND OPTICAL WAVELENGTHS", to be held in the ESO building at Garching bei München during the period of 24-27 March 1981. The purpose of this conference is to discuss, on the one hand, the systems in use or under construction and possible future developments to achieve high angular resolution and, on the other hand, to discuss the areas of astrophysics which, in the next decades, will most benefit from observations at high angular resolution.

  12. Highlights from the CERN/ESO/NordForsk ''Gender in Physics Day''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Guinot, G.; Strandberg, L.

    2017-03-01

    In their role as observers on the EU Gender Equality Network in the European Research Area (GENERA) project, funded under the Horizon 2020 framework, CERN, ESO and NordForsk joined forces and organised a Gender in Physics Day at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation. The one-day conference aimed to examine innovative activities promoting gender equality, and to discuss gender-oriented policies and best practice in the European Research Area (with special emphasis on intergovernmental organisations), as well as the importance of building solid networks. The event was very well attended and was declared a success. The main highlights of the meeting are reported.

  13. Gaia benchmark stars and their twins in the Gaia-ESO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofré, P.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia benchmark stars are stars with very precise stellar parameters that cover a wide range in the HR diagram at various metallicities. They are meant to be good representative of typical FGK stars in the Milky Way. Currently, they are used by several spectroscopic surveys to validate and calibrate the methods that analyse the data. I review our recent activities done for these stars. Additionally, by applying our new method to find stellar twins on the Gaia-ESO Survey, I discuss how good representatives of Milky Way stars the benchmark stars are and how they distribute in space.

  14. PSN J17484870-6042193 a supernova candidate by TAROT in ESO 139-28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, A.

    2012-06-01

    From images taken on 2012 June 21.27 with the TAROT La Silla telescope we report the discovery of a supernova candidate located at R.A. = 17h48m48.7s, Decl. = -60o42'19.3" (equinox 2000.0), which is offset of 17" W and 4" N from the nucleus of ESO 139-28. The image was R filtered and magnitude was R=14.7. The presence of the candidate is confirmed on images taken on 2012 June 24.27 with the same telescope.

  15. ASASSN-17bu: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in ESO 375-G 018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, G.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.; Cruz, I.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Krannich, G.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.

    2017-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy ESO 375-G 018. ASASSN-17bu (AT 2017yv) was discovered in images obtained on UT 2017-01-31.19 at V 16.6 mag. We also detect the object in images obtained on UT 2017-01-29.21 (V 17.1).

  16. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mobergslien, Anne; Vasovic, Vlada; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Westby, Phuong; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Peng, Qian; Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-01-01

    Given their safe use in humans and inherent adjuvanticity, Lactic Acid Bacteria may offer several advantages over other mucosal delivery strategies for cancer vaccines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immune responses in mice after oral immunization with Lactobacillus (L) plantarum WCFS1 expressing a cell-wall anchored tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. And to investigate the immunostimulatory potency of this new candidate vaccine on human dendritic cells (DCs). L. plantarum displaying NY-ESO-1 induced NY-ESO-1 specific antibodies and T-cell responses in mice. By contrast, L. plantarum displaying conserved proteins such as heat shock protein-27 and galectin-1, did not induce immunity, suggesting that immune tolerance to self-proteins cannot be broken by oral administration of L. plantarum. With respect to immunomodulation, immature DCs incubated with wild type or L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secreted a large amount of interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-α, but not IL-4. Moreover, they upregulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors such as IL-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Although L. plantarum-matured DCs expressed inhibitory molecules, they stimulated allogeneic T cells in-vitro. Collectively, the data indicate that L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 can evoke antigen-specific immunity upon oral administration and induce DC maturation, raising the potential of its use in cancer immunotherapies.

  17. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. I. Description and first results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    1997-09-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey we have recently completed as an ESO Key-Project. The ESP covers 23.3 square degrees in a region close to the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete (85%) to the limiting magnitude b_J_=19.4 and consists of 3342 galaxies with reliable redshift determination. In this paper, the first in a series that will present the results of the ESP survey, we describe the main characteristics of the survey and briefly discuss the properties of the galaxy sample. From a preliminary spectral analysis of a large sub-sample of 2550 galaxies we find that the fraction of actively star-forming galaxies increases from a few percent for the brightest galaxies up to about 40% for the galaxies fainter than M=-16.5+5logh . The most outstanding feature in the ESP redshift distribution is a very significant peak at z=~0.1. The detection of similar peaks, at the same distance, in other surveys in the same region of the sky, suggests the presence of a large bidimensional structure perpendicular to the line of sight. The minimum size of this structure would be of the order of 100x50h^-1^Mpc , comparable with the size of the Great Wall.

  18. Operational metrics for the ESO Very Large Telescope: lessons learned and future steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Marteau, S.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Mainieri, V.; Mysore, S.; Rejkuba, M.; Hilker, M.; Patat, F.; Sterzik, M.; Kaufer, A.; Mieske, S.

    2016-07-01

    When ESO's Very Large Telescope opened its first dome in April 1999 it was the first ground-based facility to offer to the scientific community access to an 8-10m class telescope with both classical and queue observing. The latter was considered to be the most promising way to ensure the observing flexibility necessary to execute the most demanding scientific programmes under the required, usually very well defined, conditions. Since then new instruments have become operational and 1st generation ones replaced, filling the 12 VLT foci and feeding the VLT Interferometer and its four Auxiliary Telescopes. Operating efficiently such a broad range of instruments installed and available every night of the year on four 8-metre telescopes offers many challenges. Although it may appear that little has changed since 1999, the underlying VLT operational model has evolved in order to accommodate different requirements from the user community and features of new instruments. Did it fulfil its original goal and, if so, how well? How did it evolve? What are the lessons learned after more than 15 years of operations? A careful analysis and monitoring of statistics and trends in Phase 1 and Phase 2 has been deployed under the DOME (Dashboard for Operational Metrics at ESO) project. The main goal of DOME is to provide robust metrics that can be followed with time in a user-friendly manner. Here, we summarize the main findings on the handling of service mode observations and present the most recent developments.

  19. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Metal-rich Bananas in the Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Angus A.; Evans, N. W.; Molloy, Matthew; Kordopatis, Georges; Smith, M. C.; Shen, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Francois, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A.; Costado, T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Mikolaitis, Š.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the kinematics of ˜2000 giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region -10^\\circ ≲ {\\ell }≲ 10^\\circ and -11^\\circ ≲ b≲ -3^\\circ . We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal-rich ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\gt 0) and metal-poor ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\\lt 0) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy-peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal-rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line of sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy-peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison of the minor axis data with the velocity histograms of resonant orbits generated in simulations of buckled bars. The “banana” or 2:1:2 orbits provide strongly bimodal histograms with narrow velocity peaks that resemble the Gaia-ESO metal-rich data.

  20. AO WFS detector developments at ESO to prepare for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, Mark; Casali, Mark; Finger, Gert; Lewis, Steffan; Marchetti, Enrico; Mehrgan, Leander; Ramsay, Suzanne; Reyes, Javier

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a very active on-going AO WFS detector development program to not only meet the needs of the current crop of instruments for the VLT, but also has been actively involved in gathering requirements, planning, and developing detectors and controllers/cameras for the instruments in design and being proposed for the E-ELT. This paper provides an overall summary of the AO WFS Detector requirements of the E-ELT instruments currently in design and telescope focal units. This is followed by a description of the many interesting detector, controller, and camera developments underway at ESO to meet these needs; a) the rationale behind and plan to upgrade the 240x240 pixels, 2000fps, "zero noise", L3Vision CCD220 sensor based AONGC camera; b) status of the LGSD/NGSD High QE, 3e- RoN, fast 700fps, 1760x1680 pixels, Visible CMOS Imager and camera development; c) status of and development plans for the Selex SAPHIRA NIR eAPD and controller. Most of the instruments and detector/camera developments are described in more detail in other papers at this conference.

  1. Introducing CUBES: the Cassegrain U-band Brazil-ESO spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Paul; Barbuy, Beatriz; Macanhan, Vanessa B.; Castilho, Bruno; Dekker, Hans; Delabre, Bernard; Diaz, Marcos; Gneiding, Clemens; Kerber, Florian; Kuntschner, Harald; La Mura, Giovanni; Reiss, Roland; Vernet, J.

    2014-07-01

    CUBES is a high-efficiency, medium-resolution (R ≃ 20, 000) spectrograph dedicated to the "ground based UV" (approximately the wavelength range from 300 to 400nm) destined for the Cassegrain focus of one of ESO's VLT unit telescopes in 2018/19. The CUBES project is a joint venture between ESO and Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas (IAG) at the Universidade de São Paulo and the Brazilian Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA). CUBES will provide access to a wealth of new and relevant information for stellar as well as extra-galactic sources. Principle science cases include the study of heavy elements in metal-poor stars, the direct determination of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances by study of molecular bands in the UV range and the determination of the Beryllium abundance as well as the study of active galactic nuclei and the inter-galactic medium. With a streamlined modern instrument design, high efficiency dispersing elements and UV-sensitive detectors, it will enable a significant gain in sensitivity over existing ground based medium-high resolution spectrographs enabling vastly increased sample sizes accessible to the astronomical community. We present here a brief overview of the project, introducing the science cases that drive the design and discussing the design options and technological challenges.

  2. Calibrating the lithium-age relation with open clusters observed with GES (Gaia-ESO Survey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Albarrán, M. L.; Montes, D.; Gómez Garrido, M.; Tabernero, H. M..; González Hernández, J. I.; GES Survey Builders

    2017-03-01

    Li depletion is strongly age-dependent but currently available data have shown a complex pattern of Li depletion on the pre- and main-sequence stars that is not yet understood. The lithium abundance observed in late-type stars depend not only of the age and the temperature but also on metallicity, mixing mechanisms, convection structure, rotation and magnetic activity. The large number of stars observed within the Gaia-ESO survey (GES - https://www.gaia-eso.eu/) for many open clusters and associations can be used to calibrate the lithium-age relation and its dependence with other parameters that can be derived from the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. We present here the preliminary results of the analysis of membership and Li abundance of the young clusters and associations, as well as of the intermediate-age and old open clusters, observed until now in GES (iDR4) in order to conduct a comparative study. All this information allowed us to characterize the properties of the members of these clusters and identify a series of field contaminant stars, both lithium-rich giants and non-giant outliers.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Surface Photometry of ESO-Uppsala Galaxies (Lauberts+ 1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauberts, A.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2006-04-01

    The 15467 southern galaxies in this catalog were scanned from 407 blue and 407 red original ESO-Schmidt plates using a PDS microdensitometer. The galaxies were selected from the ESO-Uppsala Catalogue (VII/34). The original selection criterion was a minimum visual angular diameter of 1arcmin. The plates were calibrated using a catalog of photo- electric standards of 1700 standard galaxies transformed to a photometric standard system (Cousins) created by the authors. The result is a catalog acquired in a homogeneous fashion for all types of galaxies in various environments. The extracted parameters include radial surface brightness profiles, magnitudes at several isophotal levels, colors, color gradients, effective radius parameters, structural parameters such as axial ratios, position angles, and profile gradients. The full version of the catalog, made of 190 columns, is available as the file "esolv.fit" in FITS table format. The ascii file "esolv1.dat" contains a subset of these columns which includes those parameters listed in the printed book version. Detailed discussion of the catalog creation is given in the published book version (ISBN 3-923524-31-5) (2 data files).

  4. Measurement of serum antibodies against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA: A guide for the treatment of specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu; Huang, Qian-Rong; Zheng, Guang-Shun; Jiao, Shun-Chang

    2014-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been identified as one of the most immunogenic antigens; thus, is a highly attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. The present study analyzed the expression of serum antibodies (Abs) against NY-ESO-1 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), with the aim of guiding the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific-immunotherapy for these patients. Furthermore, the present study was the first to evaluate the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 239 serum samples from 155 pathologically confirmed patients with advanced CRC (stages III and IV) were collected. The presence of spontaneous Abs against NY-ESO-1 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that 24.5% (38/155) of the investigated patients were positive for NY-ESO-1-specific Abs. No statistically significant correlations were identified between the expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and clinicopathological parameters, including age and gender, location, grading, local infiltration, lymph node status, metastatic status and K-ras mutation status (P>0.05). In 59 patients, the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs was analyzed, of which 14 patients were initially positive and 45 patients were initially negative. Notably, 16/59 (27.1%) patients changed their expression status during the study period, and the initially positive patients were more likely to change compared with the initially negative patients (85.7 vs. 8.8%; P<0.001). Therefore, monitoring serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA is an easy and feasible method. The high expression rate of NY-ESO-1-specific Abs in CRC patients indicates that measuring the levels of serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 may guide the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced CRC.

  5. Quantifying and imaging NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-derived epitopes on tumor cells using high affinity T cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Purbhoo, Marco A; Sutton, Deborah H; Brewer, Joanna E; Mullings, Rebecca E; Hill, Maxine E; Mahon, Tara M; Karbach, Julia; Jäger, Elke; Cameron, Brian J; Lissin, Nikolai; Vyas, Paresh; Chen, Ji-Li; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2006-06-15

    Presentation of intracellular tumor-associated Ags (TAAs) in the context of HLA class I molecules offers unique cancer-specific cell surface markers for the identification and targeting of tumor cells. For most peptide Ags, the levels of and variations in cell surface presentation remain unknown, yet these parameters are of crucial importance when considering specific TAAs as targets for anticancer therapy. Here we use a soluble TCR with picomolar affinity for the HLA-A2-restricted 157-165 epitope of the NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 TAAs to investigate presentation of this immunodominant epitope on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. By single molecule fluorescence microscopy, we directly visualize HLA-peptide presentation for the first time, demonstrating that NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-positive tumor cells present 10-50 NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1(157-165) epitopes per cell.

  6. ESO Astronomers Detect a Galaxy at the Edge of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    Starlight from the Depths of Time Four European astronomers [1] have taken advantage of the superb imaging quality of the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla observatory, to detect a galaxy at an extremely large distance. They conclude that its redshift [2] is z = 4.4; thus, this galaxy is by far the most remote ever detected. In fact, it has taken its light about 90 percent of the age of the Universe to reach us, and we now observe this early object as it appeared, only 1 - 2 billion years [3] after the Universe was created in the Big Bang. Still, the galaxy contains a considerable amount of elements that must have been produced in stars. This proves that stars were formed in normal galaxies, already before this very early epoch. Galaxies in the Very Early Universe Astronomical observations during the past decade indicate that the age of the Universe is probably somewhere between 13 and 17 billion years. It is expected that further studies at the limit of available telescopes during the next years will make it possible to determine this fundamental parameter more accurately. But whatever the actual age, one of the central questions which must answered in order to understand the evolution of the Universe is the time of formation of the first stars and galaxies; its determination is accordingly a prime goal of current cosmological observations. This early process was crucial for the distribution of matter now observed, but how long after the Big Bang did it actually happen? We do not know yet. In order to cast more light on this important question, we must look back to this very early epoch by detecting and measuring objects at the largest possible distances, i.e. at the highest redshifts. However, this is extremely difficult because of the faintness of such objects and so far, progress in this fundamental research field has been slow. An Enriched Hydrogen Cloud at z = 4.4 In 1994, the ESO team obtained a high-resolution, detailed spectrum

  7. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  8. Comet Halley passes the halfway mark. Very distant image obtained with the ESO NTT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    Eight years after the passage of Comet Halley in early 1986, astronomers at the European Southern Observatory have succeeded in obtaining an image [1] of this famous object at a distance of no less than 2,820 million km from the Sun. The comet is now about as far away as giant planet Uranus. It recently passed the halfway mark towards the most distant point of its very elongated 76-year orbit. The image shows the 6 x 15 km avocado-shaped nucleus as an extremely faint point of light without any surrounding dust cloud. It appears that the surface is now completely frozen and the comet has ceased to emit dust and gas. This observation was made with the ESO 3.58 metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). It is by far the faintest and most distant image ever recorded of this comet. A DIFFICULT OBSERVATION The new Halley image was obtained in the course of an observational programme by a small group of astronomers [2], aimed at the investigation of distant solar system objects. The observation was difficult to perform and is close to the limit of what is possible, even with the NTT, one of the technologically most advanced astronomical telescopes. In fact, this observation may be compared to viewing a black golfball, used during a late evening game, from a distance of 12,000 km. At Halley's present, very large distance from the Sun, the intensity of the solar light is over 350 times fainter than here on Earth. The surface of the cometary nucleus is very dark; it reflects only 4 % of the infalling sunlight. The amount of light received from Halley is therefore extremely small: the recorded star-like image of the nucleus is about 160 million times fainter than the faintest star that can be seen with the unaided eye. A long exposure was needed to catch enough light to show the object; even with the very sensitive SuSI CCD camera at the NTT, the shutter had to be kept open for a total of 3 hours 45 minutes. During this time, of the order of 9000 photons from Comet Halley were

  9. Resiquimod as an immunologic adjuvant for NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination in patients with high-risk melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sabado, Rachel Lubong; Pavlick, Anna; Gnjatic, Sacha; Cruz, Crystal M; Vengco, Isabelita; Hasan, Farah; Spadaccia, Meredith; Darvishian, Farbod; Chiriboga, Luis; Holman, Rose Marie; Escalon, Juliet; Muren, Caroline; Escano, Crystal; Yepes, Ethel; Sharpe, Dunbar; Vasilakos, John P; Rolnitzsky, Linda; Goldberg, Judith D; Mandeli, John; Adams, Sylvia; Jungbluth, Achim; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Ott, Patrick A; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2015-03-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist resiquimod has been used as an immune adjuvant in cancer vaccines. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 given in combination with Montanide (Seppic) with or without resiquimod in patients with high-risk melanoma. In part I of the study, patients received 100 μg of full-length NY-ESO-1 protein emulsified in 1.25 mL of Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of 1,000 mg of 0.2% resiquimod gel on days 1 and 3 (cohort 1) versus days 1, 3, and 5 (cohort 2) of a 21-day cycle. In part II, patients were randomized to receive 100-μg NY-ESO-1 protein plus Montanide (day 1) followed by topical application of placebo gel [(arm A; n = 8) or 1,000 mg of 0.2% resiquimod gel (arm B; n = 12)] using the dosing regimen established in part I. The vaccine regimens were generally well tolerated. NY-ESO-1-specific humoral responses were induced or boosted in all patients, many of whom had high titer antibodies. In part II, 16 of 20 patients in both arms had NY-ESO-1-specific CD4⁺ T-cell responses. CD8⁺ T-cell responses were only seen in 3 of 12 patients in arm B. Patients with TLR7 SNP rs179008 had a greater likelihood of developing NY-ESO-1-specific CD8⁺ responses. In conclusion, NY-ESO-1 protein in combination with Montanide with or without topical resiquimod is safe and induces both antibody and CD4⁺ T-cell responses in the majority of patients; the small proportion of CD8⁺ T-cell responses suggests that the addition of topical resiquimod to Montanide is not sufficient to induce consistent NY-ESO-1-specific CD8⁺ T-cell responses.

  10. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Probes of the inner disk abundance gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, H. R.; Friel, E. D.; Jílková, L.; Magrini, L.; Bragaglia, A.; Vallenari, A.; Tosi, M.; Randich, S.; Donati, P.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Sordo, R.; Smiljanic, R.; Overbeek, J. C.; Carraro, G.; Tautvaišienė, G.; San Roman, I.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Muñoz, C.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Tang, B.; Gilmore, G.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A. J.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The nature of the metallicity gradient inside the solar circle (RGC < 8 kpc) is poorly understood, but studies of Cepheids and a small sample of open clusters suggest that it steepens in the inner disk. Aims: We investigate the metallicity gradient of the inner disk using a sample of inner disk open clusters that is three times larger than has previously been studied in the literature to better characterize the gradient in this part of the disk. Methods: We used the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) [Fe/H] values and stellar parameters for stars in 12 open clusters in the inner disk from GES-UVES data. Cluster mean [Fe/H] values were determined based on a membership analysis for each cluster. Where necessary, distances and ages to clusters were determined via comparison to theoretical isochrones. Results: The GES open clusters exhibit a radial metallicity gradient of -0.10 ± 0.02 dex kpc-1, consistent with the gradient measured by other literature studies of field red giant stars and open clusters in the range RGC ~ 6-12 kpc. We also measure a trend of increasing [Fe/H] with increasing cluster age, as has also been found in the literature. Conclusions: We find no evidence for a steepening of the inner disk metallicity gradient inside the solar circle as earlier studies indicated. The age-metallicity relation shown by the clusters is consistent with that predicted by chemical evolution models that include the effects of radial migration, but a more detailed comparison between cluster observations and models would be premature. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002 and 193.B-0936. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive

  11. A new mix of power for the ESO installations in Chile: greener, more reliable, cheaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, G.; Tamai, R.; Kalaitzoglou, D.; Wild, W.; Delorme, A.; Rioseco, D.

    2016-07-01

    The highest sky quality demands for astronomical research impose to locate observatories often in areas not easily reached by the existing power infrastructures. At the same time, availability and cost of power is a primary factor for sustainable operations. Power may also be a potential source for CO2 pollution. As part of its green initiatives, ESO is in the process of replacing the power sources for its own, La Silla and Paranal-Armazones, and shared, ALMA, installations in Chile in order to provide them with more reliable, affordable, and smaller CO2 footprint power solutions. The connectivity to the Chilean interconnected power systems (grid) which is to extensively use Non-Conventional Renewable Energy (NCRE) as well as the use of less polluting fuels wherever self-generation cannot be avoided are key building blocks for the solutions selected for every site. In addition, considerations such as the environmental impact and - if required - the partnership with other entities have also to be taken into account. After years of preparatory work to which the Chilean Authorities provided great help and support, ESO has now launched an articulated program to upgrade the existing agreements/facilities in i) the La Silla Observatory, from free to regulated grid client status due to an agreement with a Solar Farm private initiative, in ii) the Paranal-Armazones Observatory, from local generation using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to connection to the grid which is to extensively use NCRE, and last but not least, in iii) the ALMA Observatory where ESO participates together with North American and East Asian partners, from replacing the LPG as fuel for the turbine local generation system with the use of less polluting natural gas (NG) supplied by a pipe connection to eliminate the pollution caused by the LPG trucks (currently 1 LPG truck from the VIII region, Bio Bio, to the II region, ALMA and back every day, for a total of 3000km). The technologies used and the status

  12. Evaluation of LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 expression in multiple myeloma patients to explore possible benefits of their homology for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fabricio; Vettore, Andre L; Inaoka, Riguel J; Karia, Bruno; Andrade, Valéria C C; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jungbluth, Achim A; Colleoni, Gisele W B

    2011-01-20

    Due to the high homology between the LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 proteins, we hypothesized that an anti-NY-ESO-1 vaccine might elicit LAGE-1 immunity and hence may be effective in multiple myeloma (MM) patients with LAGE-1-positive/NY-ESO-1-negative tumors. Therefore, we set out to evaluate LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 mRNA and protein expression in MM patients in a bid to evaluate possible benefits of their homology for immunotherapy. LAGE-1 (a and b isoforms) and NY-ESO-1 mRNA expression was studied in 18 normal tissues and 50 bone marrow MM samples by RT-PCR. LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 27 MM specimens using mAbs 219-510-23 and E978. Spontaneous serological immune response against both antigens was analyzed by ELISA in sera from 33 MM patients. LAGE-1 (a and b isoforms) was positive in 42% and NY-ESO-1 in 26% of the MM samples analyzed by RT-PCR. Both genes were found to be expressed in 18% of the cases, while at least one of the genes was found to be expressed in 50% of the cases. In LAGE-1 positive samples, 81% were positive for LAGE-1a and 19% were positive for both LAGE-1a and -1b. LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression could only be detected in two cases by IHC and there was a clear strong spontaneous antibody response to LAGE-1 and NY-ESO-1 in only one MM patient. In conclusion, LAGE-1a and NY-ESO-1 homology cannot be easily exploited in an anti-NY-ESO-1 vaccine given the low frequency of protein expression detected by IHC or serum analysis.

  13. Integrated NY-ESO-1 antibody and CD8+ T-cell responses correlate with clinical benefit in advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianda; Adamow, Matthew; Ginsberg, Brian A; Rasalan, Teresa S; Ritter, Erika; Gallardo, Humilidad F; Xu, Yinyan; Pogoriler, Evelina; Terzulli, Stephanie L; Kuk, Deborah; Panageas, Katherine S; Ritter, Gerd; Sznol, Mario; Halaban, Ruth; Jungbluth, Achim A; Allison, James P; Old, Lloyd J; Wolchok, Jedd D; Gnjatic, Sacha

    2011-10-04

    Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), has been shown to improve survival in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. It also enhances immunity to NY-ESO-1, a cancer/testis antigen expressed in a subset of patients with melanoma. To characterize the association between immune response and clinical outcome, we first analyzed NY-ESO-1 serum antibody by ELISA in 144 ipilimumab-treated patients with melanoma and found 22 of 140 (16%) seropositive at baseline and 31 of 144 (22%) seropositive following treatment. These NY-ESO-1-seropositive patients had a greater likelihood of experiencing clinical benefit 24 wk after ipilimumab treatment than NY-ESO-1-seronegative patients (P = 0.02, relative risk = 1.8, two-tailed Fisher test). To understand why some patients with NY-ESO-1 antibody failed to experience clinical benefit, we analyzed NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses by intracellular multicytokine staining in 20 NY-ESO-1-seropositive patients and found a surprising dissociation between NY-ESO-1 antibody and CD8 responses in some patients. NY-ESO-1-seropositive patients with associated CD8(+) T cells experienced more frequent clinical benefit (10 of 13; 77%) than those with undetectable CD8(+) T-cell response (one of seven; 14%; P = 0.02; relative risk = 5.4, two-tailed Fisher test), as well as a significant survival advantage (P = 0.01; hazard ratio = 0.2, time-dependent Cox model). Together, our data suggest that integrated NY-ESO-1 immune responses may have predictive value for ipilimumab treatment and argue for prospective studies in patients with established NY-ESO-1 immunity. The current findings provide a strong rationale for the clinical use of modulators of immunosuppression with concurrent approaches to favor tumor antigen-specific immune responses, such as vaccines or adoptive transfer, in patients with cancer.

  14. ESO observations of the Nucleus of Rosetta Target 67P/C-G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, S. C.; Duddy, S.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Hsieh, H.; Hainaut, O.

    2011-10-01

    Rosetta is ESA's new comet orbiter mission, launched in March 2004 and currently en route to Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The probe will rendezvous with the comet in 2014 and remain in orbit around the nucleus for on-going detailed physical and compositional analysis. Pre-encounter observations of the target are important for characterization of the heliocentric light-curve behaviour and the physical properties of the nucleus, information that is critical for mission planning. The nucleus was first characterized using HST observations in 2003 (Lamy et al. 2006) and observed directly in May 2005 by ground based telescopes (Lowry et al. 2006) when it was at 5.6 AU from the Sun. An extensive database of nucleus observations have since been acquired, not only from large ground-based telescopes like the ESO VLT (Tubiana et al. 2008 & 2011), but also from Spitzer (Kelley et al. 2006 & 2009; Lamy et al. 2008).

  15. A close-look to the photoionisation mechanisms in ESO138-G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinucci, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    We propose a 120 ks observation of ESO138-G1 to exploit the full range of XMM-Newton capabilities by studying the properties of the different materials found in the nucleus of this object. It is one of the brightest Compton thick AGN, thus being one of the few sources which presently permit this kind of analysis. The proposed 120 ks EPIC spectrum will allow us to analyse in detail the properties of the obscuring torus. On the other hand, the RGS high resolution spectrum will allow us to take advantage of several diagnostic tools to understand the nature of the soft X-ray spectrum. The comparison with the other few bright Compton-thick Seyfert 2s will permit to search for differencies and commonalities in the physical properties of their circumnuclear environments.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia-ESO Survey: Halpha emission stars catalogue (Traven+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traven, G.; Zwitter, T.; van Eck, S.; Klutsch, A.; Bonito, R.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bayo, A.; Bragaglia, A.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Flaccomio, E.; Frasca, A.; Hourihane, A.; Jimenez-Esteban, F.; Lardo, C.; Morbidelli, L.; Pancino, E.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.

    2015-07-01

    The GES employs the VLT-UT2 FLAMES high-resolution multiobject spectrograph . FLAMES has two instruments, the higher-resolution UVES, fed by 8 fibres, and GIRAFFE, with about 130 fibres. In the present paper we concentrate on the much more numerous GIRAFFE spectra to thoroughly test our classification scheme; a similar analysis of the UVES spectra will follow later. We use only spectra obtained in the wavelength range with Hα line - HR15N setting (6470-6790Å, R=17000), for which the majority of targets selected by GES are open cluster stars. Along with ongoing GES observations, we also use all relevant ESO archive data, which are included to be analysed as part of GES. (3 data files).

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ESO Slice Project (Vettolani+ 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Proust, D.; Zamorani, G.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Ramella, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; Blanchard, A.; Cayatte, V.; Collins, C.; McGillivray, H.; Maurogordato, S.; Scaramella, R.; Balkowski, C.; Chincarini, G.; Felenbok, P.

    1998-03-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey in a region near the South Galactic Pole (see Vettolani et al., 1997A&A...325..954V; Zucca et al., 1997A&A...326..477Z). It extends over a strip 22(RA)x1(DEC) square degrees, plus a nearby area of 5x1 square degrees, 5 degrees west of the main strip. The right ascension limits are 22h30m and 01h20m, at a mean declination of -40°15' (B1950). We have covered this region with a regular grid of adjacent circular fields, with a diameter of 32arcmin each, corresponding to the field of view of the multifiber spectrograph OPTOPUS at the 3.6m ESO telescope. The total solid angle of the spectroscopic survey is 23.2 square degrees. The galaxy catalogue has been extracted from the Edinburgh-Durham Southern Galaxy catalogue (Heydon-Dumbleton et al., 1989MNRAS.238..379H) which has been obtained from COSMOS (MacGillivray & Stobie, 1984VA.....27..433M) scans of SERC J survey plates. The number of objects in the photometric ESP sample is 4487. The spectroscopic survey is about 85% complete to the limiting magnitude bJ=19.4, and consists of 3342 galaxies + 1 QSO with redshift determination. The ESP survey is intermediate between shallow, wide angle samples and very deep, one--dimensional pencil beams. Table 2 lists the fields observed with OPTOPUS and their properties: the numbers listed in this table can be used to compute the redshift completeness of each fields, following eq.(2) of the paper. Table 3 provides the catalogue, with galaxies sorted in right ascension. The catalogue with additional information and updates can also be found at the following URL: http://boas5.bo.astro.it/~cappi/esokp.html (2 data files).

  18. Polarimetric view of the changing type Seyfert galaxy ESO 362-G018.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agís-González, B.; Bagnulo, S.; Hutsemékers, D.; Montesinos, B.; Miniutti, G.; Sanfrutos, M.

    2017-03-01

    ESO362-G018 is an active galactic nucleus (AGN) which is classified as a Seyfert 1.5 galaxy e.g. by Bennert et al. (2006), (black data set on figure 1). However, Parisi et. al (2009) found an optical spectrum of this source which was taken during the 6dF Galaxy Survey, but it does not show the broad Balmer lines required to classify it as Seyfert 1 galaxy (red data set on figure 1). On the other hand, the results obtained by Agis-Gonzalez et al. (2014❩ in a X-ray analysis of this same source reveal that the inclination of ESO362- G018 i = 53° ± 5° is consistent with the picture of an AGN looked through the upper layers of a clumpy, dusty torus. Thus, according to the Unification Models of AGN and the clumpy nature of the torus, our interpretation of the different spectra is the following one. On 30th of January of 2003 (when the spectrum belonging to the 6dF survey was obtained), our line of sight intercepted a (or several aligned) torus clump(s) with much greater column density than its environment. Accordingly, the nucleus and the broad line region (❨BLR)❩ would be obscured. This allowed only the narrow emission lines to emerge from the narrow line region (NRL). Otherwise, on 18th of September of 2004 (when the spectrum by Bennert et al. 2006 was obtained) there is no clump to intercept and the BLR is not obscured so that the broad Balmer emission lines could be detected.

  19. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the inner disk, intermediate-age open cluster Trumpler 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeek, J. C.; Friel, E. D.; Donati, P.; Smiljanic, R.; Jacobson, H. R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Held, E. V.; Magrini, L.; Bragaglia, A.; Randich, S.; Vallenari, A.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Frasca, A.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Tang, B.; Muñoz, C.; Marconi, G.; Carraro, G.; San Roman, I.; Drazdauskas, A.; Ženovienė, R.; Gilmore, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Flaccomio, E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Jofré, P.; Monaco, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Trumpler 23 is a moderately populated, intermediate-age open cluster within the solar circle at a RGC 6 kpc. It is in a crowded field very close to the Galactic plane and the color-magnitude diagram shows significant field contamination and possible differential reddening; it is a relatively understudied cluster for these reasons, but its location makes it a key object for determining Galactic abundance distributions. Aims: New data from the Gaia-ESO Survey enable the first ever radial velocity and spectroscopic metallicity measurements for this cluster. We aim to use velocities to isolate cluster members, providing more leverage for determining cluster parameters. Methods: Gaia-ESO Survey data for 167 potential members have yielded radial velocity measurements, which were used to determine the systemic velocity of the cluster and membership of individual stars. Atmospheric parameters were also used as a check on membership when available. Literature photometry was used to re-determine cluster parameters based on radial velocity member stars only; theoretical isochrones are fit in the V, V-I diagram. Cluster abundance measurements of ten radial-velocity member stars with high-resolution spectroscopy are presented for 24 elements. These abundances have been compared to local disk stars, and where possible placed within the context of literature gradient studies. Results: We find Trumpler 23 to have an age of 0.80 ± 0.10 Gyr, significant differential reddening with an estimated mean cluster E(V-I) of 1.02, and an apparent distance modulus of 14.15 ± 0.20. We find an average cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.14 ± 0.03 dex, a solar [α/Fe] abundance, and notably subsolar [s-process/Fe] abundances.

  20. Spectroscopy of the open cluster remnant candidate ESO429-SC02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, M. S.; Corradi, W. J. B.; Santos, J. F. C., Jr.; Maia, F. F. S.

    2014-10-01

    In this study we intend to assess the physical nature of the open cluster remnant (OCR) candidate ESO429-SC02. In a previous work, the method of characterization devised by Pavani & Bica (2007) failed to characterize the object as an OCR or as an asterism, classifying it as a possible OCR. We carried out multi-object spectroscopy of 31 stars in its inner area (r lesssim 4^{'}) using GMOS/GEMINI-S (resolution R≍ 2000). We cross-correlated (IRAF's FXCOR task) our science spectra with all templates from ELODIE and PHOENIX libraries to obtain radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. We also employed 2MASS photometric data and proper motions from UCAC4. Individual distances via spectroscopic parallax and reddening values were derived for our science stars. In order to identify candidate member stars, we performed a 5-dimensional sigma-clipping routine using positional an kinematical data to interactively reject outliers and selected those stars well fitted by a Padova isochrone in K_{s} × (J-K_{s}) and (J-H) × (H-K_{s}) diagrams. Although a isochrone fitting solution was found, individual distances of stars close to the turnoff point or to the RGB range from 1.5 kpc to 4.4 kpc; E(B-V) values range from 0.0 to 0.46; [Fe/H] from -0.95 to 0.61 dex and radial velocities from 9 to 64 km/s. Besides, spectral types distribution of candidate member stars along the main sequence and the high dispersion in the parameters derived for them are inconsistent with what is expected for a coeval system. Our results suggest that ESO429-SC02 is a random overdensity of field stars along the line of sight.

  1. Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.

    2003-08-01

    ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

  2. Publicity and public relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  3. Allorestricted T lymphocytes with a high avidity T-cell receptor towards NY-ESO-1 have potent anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Krönig, Holger; Hofer, Kathrin; Conrad, Heinke; Guilaume, Philippe; Müller, Julia; Schiemann, Matthias; Lennerz, Volker; Cosma, Antonio; Peschel, Christian; Busch, Dirk H; Romero, Pedro; Bernhard, Helga

    2009-08-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has been targeted as a tumor-associated antigen by immunotherapeutical strategies, such as cancer vaccines. The prerequisite for a T-cell-based therapy is the induction of T cells capable of recognizing the NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells. In this study, we generated human T lymphocytes directed against the immunodominant NY-ESO-1(157-165) epitope known to be naturally presented with HLA-A*0201. We succeeded to isolate autorestricted and allorestricted T lymphocytes with low, intermediate or high avidity TCRs against the NY-ESO-1 peptide. The avidity of the established CTL populations correlated with their capacity of lysing HLA-A2-positive, NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cell lines derived from different origins, e.g. melanoma and myeloma. The allorestricted NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes displayed TCRs with the highest avidity and best anti-tumor recognition activity. TCRs derived from allorestricted, NY-ESO-1-specific T cells may be useful reagents for redirecting primary T cells by TCR gene transfer and, therefore, may facilitate the development of adoptive transfer regimens based on TCR-transduced T cells for the treatment of NY-ESO-1-expressing hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

  4. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for establishing a new centre for observation in Chile - ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new centre for astronomical observation in Chile.

  5. Back-stepping active disturbance rejection control design for integrated missile guidance and control system via reduced-order ESO.

    PubMed

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel composite integrated guidance and control (IGC) law for missile intercepting against unknown maneuvering target with multiple uncertainties and control constraint. First, by using back-stepping technique, the proposed IGC law design is separated into guidance loop and control loop. The unknown target maneuvers and variations of aerodynamics parameters in guidance and control loop are viewed as uncertainties, which are estimated and compensated by designed model-assisted reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). Second, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC), enhanced feedback linearization (FL) based control law is implemented for the IGC model using the estimates generated by reduced-order ESO. In addition, performance analysis and comparisons between ESO and reduced-order ESO are examined. Nonlinear tracking differentiator is employed to construct the derivative of virtual control command in the control loop. Third, the closed-loop stability for the considered system is established. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed IGC law in enhanced interception performance such as smooth interception course, improved robustness against multiple uncertainties as well as reduced control consumption during initial phase are demonstrated through simulations.

  6. Concurrent Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection and High-Grade Anterior Mediastinal Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma (ESOS): Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Faz, Gabriel T.; Eltorky, Mahmoud; Karnath, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 59 Final Diagnosis: High-grade anterior mediastinal extraskeletal osteosarcoma Symptoms: Dyspnea • hemoptysis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Biopsy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS) of the mediastinum are extremely rare and may present with concurrent nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. Case Report: We present the second documented case of high-grade anterior mediastinal extraskeletal osteosarcoma in a 59-year-old man with a history of treated, latent tuberculosis (TB). Sputum samples grew Mycoplasma avium complex and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Imaging showed a right-sided 7.6 cm mass with compression of the main bronchus. Subsequent biopsy with vimentin staining established the diagnosis of ESOS. Due to the patient’s rapidly declining performance status, he was not deemed a candidate for surgery or chemotherapy. He subsequently expired within one month of presentation. Conclusions: We present a unique case of high-grade anterior mediastinum ESOS and a review of the literature regarding all documented cases of ESOS to date. We suggest there is a possible link between mediastinal masses and nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. PMID:27539718

  7. Cancer-testis antigens PRAME and NY-ESO-1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-07-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer-testis antigen PRAME was up-regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well-differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well-differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY-ESO-1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round-cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY-ESO-1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high-level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our results support the potential use of PRAME and NY-ESO

  8. Comprehensive adipocytic and neurogenic tissue microarray analysis of NY-ESO-1 expression - a promising immunotherapy target in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shurell, Elizabeth; Vergara-Lluri, Maria E.; Li, Yunfeng; Crompton, Joseph G.; Singh, Arun; Bernthal, Nicholas; Wu, Hong; Eilber, Fritz C.; Dry, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy targeting cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 shows promise for tumors with poor response to chemoradiation. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) and liposarcomas (LPS) are chemoresistant and have few effective treatment options. Materials Methods Using a comprehensive tissue microarray (TMA) of both benign and malignant tumors in primary, recurrent, and metastatic samples, we examined NY-ESO-1 expression in peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) and adipocytic tumors. The PNST TMA included 42 MPNSTs (spontaneous n = 26, NF1-associated n = 16), 35 neurofibromas (spontaneous n = 22, NF-1 associated n = 13), 11 schwannomas, and 18 normal nerves. The LPS TMA included 48 well-differentiated/dedifferentiated (WD/DD) LPS, 13 myxoid/round cell LPS, 3 pleomorphic LPS, 8 lipomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 3 normal adipocytic tissue samples. Stained in triplicate, NY-ESO-1 intensity and density were scored. Results NY-ESO-1 expression was exclusive to malignant tumors. 100% of myxoid/round cell LPS demonstrated NY-ESO-1 expression, while only 6% of WD/DD LPS showed protein expression, one of which was WD LPS. Of MPNST, 4/26 (15%) spontaneous and 2/16 (12%) NF1-associated MPNSTs demonstrated NY-ESO-1 expression. Strong NY-ESO-1 expression was observed in myxoid/round cell and dedifferentiated LPS, and MPNST in primary, neoadjuvant, and metastatic settings. Conclusions We found higher prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression in MPNSTs than previously reported, highlighting a subset of MPNST patients who may benefit from immunotherapy. This study expands our understanding of NY-ESO-1 in WD/DD LPS and is the first demonstration of staining in a WD LPS and metastatic/recurrent myxoid/round cell LPS. These results suggest immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 may benefit patients with aggressive tumors resistant to conventional therapy. PMID:27655679

  9. VLT/X-shooter observations of blue compact galaxies Haro 11 and ESO 338-IG 004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, N. G.; Izotov, Y. I.; Fricke, K. J.; Henkel, C.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Strongly star-forming galaxies of subsolar metallicities are typical of the high-redshift universe. Here we therefore provide accurate data for two low-z analogs, the well-known low-metallicity emission-line galaxies Haro 11 and ESO 338-IG 004. Aims: Our main goal is to derive their spectroscopic properties and to examine whether a previously reported near-infrared (NIR) excess in Haro 11 can be confirmed. Methods: On the basis of Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range ~λλ3000-24 000 Å, we use standard direct methods to derive physical conditions and element abundances. Furthermore, we use X-shooter data together with Spitzer observations in the mid-infrared range to attempt to find hidden star formation. Results: We derive interstellar oxygen abundances of 12 + log O/H = 8.33 ± 0.01, 8.10 ± 0.04, and 7.89 ± 0.01 in the two H ii regions B and C of Haro 11 and in ESO 338-IG 004, respectively. The observed fluxes of the hydrogen lines correspond to the theoretical recombination values after correction for extinction with a single value of the extinction coefficient C(Hβ) across the entire wavelength range from the near-ultraviolet to the NIR and mid-infrared for each of the studied H ii regions. Thus, we confirm our previous findings obtained for several low-metallicity emission-line galaxies (Mrk 59, II Zw 40, Mrk 71, Mrk 996, SBS 0335-052E, PHL 293B, and GRB HG 031203) that the extinction coefficient C(Hβ) is not higher in the NIR than in the optical range and therefore that there are no emission-line regions contributing to the line emission in the NIR range, which are hidden in the optical range. The agreement between the extinction-corrected and CLOUDY-predicted fluxes implies that a H ii region model including only stellar photoionisation is able to account for the observed fluxes, in both the optical and NIR ranges. No additional excitation mechanism such as shocks from stellar winds and supernova

  10. The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is highly expressed in myxoid and round cell subset of liposarcomas.

    PubMed

    Hemminger, Jessica A; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Scharschmidt, Thomas J; Mayerson, Joel L; Kraybill, William G; Guttridge, Denis C; Iwenofu, O Hans

    2013-02-01

    Liposarcomas are a heterogenous group of fat-derived sarcomas, and surgery with or without chemoradiation therapy remains the main stay of treatment. NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen expressed in various cancers where it can induce both cellular and humoral immunity. Immunotherapy has shown promise in clinical trials involving NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors. Gene expression studies have shown upregulation of the gene for NY-ESO-1, CTAG1B, in myxoid and round cell liposarcomas. Herein, we evaluated the expression of NY-ESO-1 among liposarcoma subtypes by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Frozen tissue for quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis was obtained for the following liposarcoma subtypes (n=15): myxoid and round cell (n=8); well-differentiated (n=4), and dedifferentiated (n=3). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks were obtained for the following liposarcoma subtypes (n=44): myxoid and round cell (n=18); well-differentiated (n=10); dedifferentiated (n=10); and pleomorphic (n=6). Full sections were stained with monoclonal antibody NY-ESO-1, and staining was assessed for intensity (1-3+), percentage of tumor positivity, and location. In all, 7/8 (88%) and 16/18 (89%) myxoid and round cell expressed CTAG1B and NY-ESO-1 by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Western blot correlated with mRNA expression levels. By immunohistochemistry, 94% (15/16) of positive cases stained homogenously with 2-3+ intensity. Also, 3/6 (50%) pleomorphic liposarcomas demonstrated a range of staining: 1+ intensity in 50% of cells; 2+ intensity in 5% of cells; and 3+ intensity in 90% of cells. One case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma showed strong, diffuse staining (3+ intensity in 75% of cells). Our study shows that both CTAG1B mRNA and protein are overexpressed with high frequency in myxoid and round cell liposarcoma, enabling the potential use of targeted immunotherapy in the treatment of this

  11. Fine-mapping naturally occurring NY-ESO-1 antibody epitopes in melanoma patients' sera using short overlapping peptides and full-length recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Nobukazu; Jackson, Heather M; Chan, Kok-fei; Oveissi, Sara; Cebon, Jonathan; Itoh, Kyogo; Chen, Weisan

    2013-07-01

    The tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 is one of the most antigenic cancer-testis antigens, first identified by serologic analysis of a recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX). NY-ESO-1 is expressed in different types of cancers including melanoma. NY-ESO-1-specific spontaneous humoral and cellular immune responses are detected in a large proportion of patients with advanced NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. Therefore NY-ESO-1 is a good candidate antigen for immunotherapy. Although cellular immune responses to NY-ESO-1 are well characterized, much less is known about the humoral immune responses. In this study, we finely mapped linear antibody epitopes using sera from melanoma patients and shorter overlapping peptide sets. We have shown that melanoma patients' humoral immune systems responded to NY-ESO-1 differently in each individual with widely differing antibody specificity, intensity and antibody subtypes. This knowledge will help us further understand anti-tumor immunity and may also help us to monitor cancer progress and cancer vaccine efficacy in the future.

  12. Keeping Public Information Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Wayne P.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward the transfer of federal government information from the public domain to the private sector. Topics include free access, privatization, information-policy revision, accountability, copyright issues, costs, pricing, and market needs versus public needs. (LRW)

  13. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. III. The sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Proust, D.; Zamorani, G.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Ramella, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; Blanchard, A.; Cayatte, V.; Collins, C.; MacGillivray, H.; Maurogordato, S.; Scaramella, R.; Balkowski, C.; Chincarini, G.; Felenbok, P.

    1998-06-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey extending over about 23 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is ~ 85% complete to the limiting magnitude b_J=19.4 and consists of 3342 galaxies with redshift determination. The ESP survey is intermediate between shallow, wide angle samples and very deep, one-dimensional pencil beams; the spanned volume is ~ 5 \\ 10(4) \\htre at the sensitivity peak (z ~ 0.1). In this paper we present the description of the observations and of the data reduction, the ESP redshift catalogue and the analysis of the quality of the velocity determinations. based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 3 is only available (and Table 2 is also available) in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  14. Detailed studies om three open clusters from Gaia ESO Survey (GES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguer-Núnez, L.; Casamiquela, L.; Jordana, N.; Massana, P.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.

    2017-03-01

    We present results for the intermediate-age and old open clusters NGC 6633, NGC 6705 (M 11) and NGC 2682 (M 67). We have used new Str ̈omgren-Crawford photometry, proper motions from ROA observations and spectral information from Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), to study the physical parameters of the stars in the three cluster's areas. The astrometric studies cover an area of about 1°x2° and down to r' ˜ 17 while our INT-WFC CCD intermediate-band photometry covers an area of about 40'x40' down to V ˜ 19. The stars of those areas selected as cluster members from their proper motions, are classified into photometric regions and their physical parameters determined, using uvbyHβ photometry and standard relations among colour indices for each of the photometric regions of the HR diagram. That allows us to determine reddening, distances, absolute magnitudes, spectral types, effective temperatures, gravities and metallicities, thus providing an astrophysical characterization of the clusters. These results are compared with the physical parameters obtained from GES spectral data as well as radial velocities to confirm membership. All these data lead us to a comparison of photometric and spectroscopic physical parameters.

  15. The super star cluster driven feedback in ESO338-IG04 and Haro 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bik, A.; Östlin, G.; Menacho, V.; Adamo, A.; Hayes, M.; Melinder, J.; Amram, P.

    2017-03-01

    The stellar content of young massive star clusters emit large amounts of Lyman continuum photons and inject momentum into the inter stellar medium (ISM) by the strong stellar winds of the most massive stars in the cluster. When the most massive stars explode as supernovae, large amounts of mechanical energy are injected in the ISM. A detailed study of the ISM around these massive cluster provides insights on the effect of cluster feedback. We present high quality integral field spectroscopy taken with VLT/MUSE of two starburst galaxies: ESO 338-IG04 and Haro 11. Both galaxies contain a significant number of super star clusters. The MUSE data provide us with an unprecedented view of the state and kinematics of the ionized gas in the galaxy allowing us to study the effect of stellar feedback on small and large spatial scales. We present our recent results on studying the ISM state of these two galaxies. The data of both galaxies show that the mechanical and ionization feedback of the super star clusters in the galaxy modify the state and kinematics of the ISM substancially by creating highly ionized bubbles around the cluster, making the central part of the galaxy highly ionized. This shows that the HII regions around the individual clusters are density bounded, allowing the ionizing photons to escape and ionize the ISM further out.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: revisiting the Li-rich giant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, A. R.; Ruchti, G.; Masseron, T.; Randich, S.; Gilmore, G.; Lind, K.; Kennedy, G. M.; Koposov, S. E.; Hourihane, A.; Franciosini, E.; Lewis, J. R.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Frasca, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Monaco, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Delgado Mena, E.; Chorniy, Y.; Martell, S. L.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Miglio, A.; Chiappini, C.; Montalban, J.; Morel, T.; Valentini, M.

    2016-09-01

    The discovery of lithium-rich giants contradicts expectations from canonical stellar evolution. Here we report on the serendipitous discovery of 20 Li-rich giants observed during the Gaia-ESO Survey, which includes the first nine Li-rich giant stars known towards the CoRoT fields. Most of our Li-rich giants have near-solar metallicities and stellar parameters consistent with being before the luminosity bump. This is difficult to reconcile with deep mixing models proposed to explain lithium enrichment, because these models can only operate at later evolutionary stages: at or past the luminosity bump. In an effort to shed light on the Li-rich phenomenon, we highlight recent evidence of the tidal destruction of close-in hot Jupiters at the sub-giant phase. We note that when coupled with models of planet accretion, the observed destruction of hot Jupiters actually predicts the existence of Li-rich giant stars, and suggests that Li-rich stars should be found early on the giant branch and occur more frequently with increasing metallicity. A comprehensive review of all known Li-rich giant stars reveals that this scenario is consistent with the data. However, more evolved or metal-poor stars are less likely to host close-in giant planets, implying that their Li-rich origin requires an alternative explanation, likely related to mixing scenarios rather than external phenomena.

  17. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN THE ESO DISTANT CLUSTER SURVEY (EDisCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'onofrio, M.; Vulcani, B.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fritz, J.; Moretti, A.; Saglia, R. P.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Simard, L.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.

    2010-09-20

    We find a significant number of massive and compact galaxies in clusters from the ESO Distant Clusters Survey (EDisCS) at 0.4 < z < 1. They have similar stellar masses, ages, sizes, and axial ratios to local z {approx} 0.04 compact galaxies in WIde field Nearby Galaxy clusters Survey (WINGS) clusters, and to z = 1.4-2 massive and passive galaxies found in the general field. If non-brightest cluster galaxies of all densities, morphologies, and spectral types are considered, the median size of EDisCS galaxies is only a factor 1.18 smaller than in WINGS. We show that for morphologically selected samples, the morphological evolution taking place in a significant fraction of galaxies during the last Gyr may introduce an apparent, spurious evolution of size with redshift, which is actually due to intrinsic differences in the selected samples. We conclude that the median mass-size relation of cluster galaxies does not evolve significantly from z {approx} 0.7 to z {approx} 0.04. In contrast, the masses and sizes of BCGs and galaxies with M {sub *}>4 x 10{sup 11} M {sub sun} have significantly increased by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively, confirming the results of a number of recent works on the subject. Our findings show that progenitor bias effects play an important role in the size-growth paradigm of massive and passive galaxies.

  18. A psf-fitting pipeline for VVV-ESO: The star cluster Pismis 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, R. A. G.; Bonatto, C.

    2014-10-01

    Este trabalho apresenta um algoritmo para a extração de dados fotométricos do catálogo "VISTA Variables in the Via Láctea" (VVV) do ESO. A principal característica do algoritmo é evitar a interação com o usuário mantendo precisão e profundidade fotométrica, de fato o algoritmo foi capaz de gerar dados mais precisos para as estrelas menos brilhantes (J gtrsim 16, H gtrsim 15,5 e H gtrsim 15) e confiável fotometria para estrelas mais de uma magnitude mais fracas do que as detectáveis com outras técnicas. Embora o algoritmo obtenha resultados menos precisos para as estrelas mais brilhantes, este provou ser o método mais adequado, uma vez que queremos trabalhar com aglomerados abertos jovens, onde a pré-sequência principal é de maior importância. Além disso, podemos combinar 2MASS e VVV para substituir as estrelas saturadas do VVV.

  19. Deep X-ray spectroscopy and imaging of the Seyfert 2 galaxy, ESO 138-G001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, M.; Marinucci, A.; Bianchi, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Violino, G.; Vignali, C.; Nicastro, F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a spectral and imaging analysis of the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy ESO138-G001, with the aim of characterizing the circumnuclear material responsible for the soft (0.3-2.0 keV) and hard (5-10 keV) X-ray emission. We confirm that the source is absorbed by Compton-thick gas. However, if a self-consistent model of reprocessing from cold toroidal material is used (MYTORUS), a possible scenario requires the absorber to be inhomogenous, its column density along the line of sight being larger than the average column density integrated over all lines of sight through the torus. The iron emission line may be produced by moderately ionized iron (Fe XII-Fe XIII), as suggested by the shifted centroid energy and the low K β/K α flux ratio. The soft X-ray emission is dominated by emission features, whose main excitation mechanism appears to be photoionization, as confirmed by line diagnostics and the use of self-consistent models (CLOUDY).

  20. Final binary star results from the ESO VLT Lunar occultations program

    SciTech Connect

    Richichi, A.; Fors, O.; Cusano, F.; Ivanov, V. D.

    2014-03-01

    We report on 13 subarcsecond binaries, detected by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). They are all first-time detections except for the visual binary HD 158122, which we resolved for the first time in the near-infrared. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 4.5-10.0, and companions in the range K = 6.8-11.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.4, with the largest being 4.6. The projected separations are in the range of 4-168 mas, with a median of 13 mas. We discuss and compare our results with the available literature. With this paper, we conclude the mining for binary star detections in the 1226 occultations recorded at the VLT with the ISAAC instrument. We expect that the majority of these binaries may be unresolvable by adaptive optics on current telescopes, and they might be challenging for long-baseline interferometry. However, they constitute an interesting sample for future larger telescopes and for astrometric missions such as GAIA.

  1. ESO adaptive optics NGSD/LGSD detector and camera controller for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Moreno, Javier; Downing, Mark; Di Lieto, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the development of the ESO prototype detector controller for the Adaptive Optics imager on the E-ELT which is based on the e2v Natural Guide Star Detector (NGSD) and Laser Guide Star Detector (LGSD). Both NGSD and LGSD are prototype detectors aiming at proving the CMOS technology in the context of the requirement for a Large Visible AO WFS Detector for the E-ELT. NGSD is a custom design CMOS array detector of 880×840 pixels organized as 44×42 sub-apertures of 20×20 pixel each. NGSD is exactly 1/4 of the LGSD and therefore it is considered a scaled down demonstrator for the LGSD. The detector controller requirements present important challenges in the design of the electronics due to the low-power, low-noise and high parallel data rate of the detectors involved. The general architecture of the controller, the front-end electronics to drive and read-out the detector along with the camera design are described here. This electronics is based on advanced Xilinx FPGAs.

  2. Awesome Universe: an exhibition with images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories and associated activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Farrona, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    In September 2013, an ESO exhibition was shown in Santander: ``Awesome Universe -- the Cosmos through the eyes of the European Southern Observatory". Around the exhibition, were proposed several activities: guide tours for children, younger and adults, workshops, film projections... In this way, the exhibition was visited by more than two thousand persons. We must keep in mind that Santander is a small city and its population does not usually take part in outreach activity. With this contribution, we want to teach the way in which it is possible to take advantage of science exhibitions. It made possible to show stunning images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories to the great majority of Santander population, and to awaken their interest in or enthusiasm for science.

  3. Rapid generation of NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) THELPER1 cells for adoptive T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Simone; Boβ, Cristina; Feucht, Judith; Witte, Kai-Erik; Scheu, Alexander; Bülow, Hans-Jörg; Joachim, Stefanie; Stevanović, Stefan; Schumm, Michael; Rit