Science.gov

Sample records for public eso near-ir

  1. Visible and near-IR observations of transneptunian objects. Results from ESO and Calar Alto Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Birkle, K.; Hainaut, O.; Sekiguchi, T.; Vair, M.; Watanabe, J.; Rupprecht, G.; FORS Instrument Team

    2001-11-01

    We present visible (BVRI) and near-IR (JHKs) broadband photometry and visible low-dispersion spectroscopy of Transneptunian Objects (TNOs) and Centaurs. In total, 16 TNOs and 1 Centaur were observed over the past two years at ESO telescopes in La Silla and Paranal in Chile as well as at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. The sample consists of objects measured for the first time and those for which comparison data is available from literature. The targets were: 1992QB1, 1993RO, 1994EV3, 1995HM5, 1995SM55, 1996RQ20, 1996TL66, 1996TO66, 1996TP66, 1997CQ29, 1997CS29, 1998HK151, 1998TF35, 1998VG44, 1998WH24, 1998XY95, 1999TC36. The spectra of 5 TNOs (1995SM55, 1996TO66, 1997CQ29, 1997CS29, 1998HK151) show almost constant gradients over the visible wavelength range with only marginal indication for a flatter slope beyond 750-800 nm. The photometric colour gradients obtained quasi-simultaneously are in good agreement with the spectral data. This suggests that in general photometric colour gradients are a valuable diagnostic tool for spectral type classification of TNOs. The photometric study revealed a number of new objects with neutral and red colours. For re-measured objects the published broadband colours were - in general - confirmed, although a few remarkable exceptions exist. Two TNOs appear to be outlyers according to the available broadband colours: 1993EV3 and 1995HM5. 1995SM55 is the bluest TNO measured so far. No clear global correlation between V-I colour and absolute R filter brightness of our TNO targets is found. However, the data for the 5 brightest TNOs (brighter than 5 mag absolute magnitude) could also be interpreted with a linear increase of V-I colour by about 0.75 mag per brightness magnitude. The colour-colour diagrams show continuous reddening of the TNOs in V-R vs. B-V, R-I vs. B-V and R-I vs. V-R. The bimodality suggested from earlier measurements of Tegler & Romanishin (\\cite{Tegler98}) is not confirmed. According to our colour gradient

  2. Public surveys at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Hilker, Michael; Hussain, Gaitee; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rejkuba, Marina; Retzlaff, Jörg; Mieske, Steffen; Szeifert, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Leibundgut, Bruno; Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a strong mandate to survey the Southern Sky. In this article, we describe the ESO telescopes and instruments that are currently used for ESO Public Surveys, and the future plans of the community with the new wide-field-spectroscopic instruments. We summarize the ESO policies governing the management of these projects on behalf of the community. The on-going ESO Public Surveys and their science goals, their status of completion, and the new projects selected during the second ESO VISTA call in 2015/2016 are discussed. We then present the impact of these projects in terms of current numbers of refereed publications and the scientific data products published through the ESO Science Archive Facility by the survey teams, including the independent access and scientific use of the published survey data products by the astronomical community.

  3. Linking Publications and Observations: The ESO Telescope Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meakins, S.; Grothkopf, U.

    2012-09-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. In this context, the ESO Library has developed and maintains two tools: FUSE, a full-text search tool, and the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a content management system that is used to classify and annotate ESO-related scientific papers. The new public telbib interface provides faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. It is available at www.eso.org/libraries/telbib.html.

  4. Swift J174510.8-262411: GROND discovery of a candidate near-IR counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Arne; Knust, Fabian; Kann, D. Alexander; Greiner, Jochen

    2012-09-01

    We observed the new transient Swift J174510.8-262411 / Swift trigger #533836 (Cummings et al. 2012, GCN 13744; Cummings et al. 2012, GCN #13745) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) at the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile). Observations were obtained on September 17th 01:40 UT and 03:49 UT for ~20min each and were compared to publicly available deep near-IR images obtained on June 24th 2011 as part of the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea Survey (Minniti et al.

  5. Publication of science data products through the ESO archive: lessons learned and future evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retzlaff, Jörg; Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa A. R.; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Phase 3 denotes the process of preparation, submission, validation and ingestion of science data products for storage in the ESO Science Archive Facility and subsequent publication to the scientific community. In this paper we will review more than four years of Phase 3 operations at ESO and we will discuss the future evolution of the Phase 3 system.

  6. Near-IR Photoluminescence of C60().

    PubMed

    Strelnikov, Dmitry V; Kern, Bastian; Kappes, Manfred M

    2017-10-05

    We have observed that C60(+) ions isolated in cryogenic matrices show distinct near-IR photoluminescence upon excitation in the near-IR range. By contrast, UV photoexcitation does not lead to measurable luminescence. Near-IR C60(+) photoluminescence is a one-photon process. The emission is mainly concentrated in one band and corresponds to (2)A1u ← (2)E1g relaxation. We present experimental data for the Stokes shift, power, and temperature dependencies as well as the quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence. Our findings may be relevant for astronomy, considering recent unequivocal assignment of five diffuse interstellar bands to near-IR absorption bands of C60(+).

  7. NY-ESO-1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    NY-ESO-1, official name CTAG1B, is an antigen that is expressed in normal testis and ovary and overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. The CTAG1B gene is found in a duplicated region of the X-chromosome and therefore has a neighboring gene of identical sequence. CTAG1B is expressed from 18 weeks until birth in human fetal testis. In the adult testis, is strongly expressed in spermatogonia and in primary spermatocytes, but not in post-meiotic cells or in testicular somatic cells (at protein level).

  8. Report on the ESO Workshop ''Rainbows on the Southern Sky: Science and Legacy Value of the ESO Public Surveys and Large Programmes''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Leibundgut, B.; Beccari, G.

    2015-12-01

    This was the third ESO workshop on the science from Large Programmes and the second on Public Surveys. By design, this workshop covered all areas of research in observational astronomy, providing a forum for the presentation of the most recent scientific results from these programmes and fostering discussions on the planned developments enabled by large and coherent time allocations on ESO telescopes. Several aspects of the legacy value of such programmes —technological, archival content, access to data, time domain and sociological — were evaluated and set a reference for future developments of ESO services to the community.

  9. OHANA: Eta Carinae's Variability in the Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, Andrea; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Rivinius, Thomas; Rivinius

    2015-01-01

    Near-IR photometry of η Car since 1972 revealed a long-term trend towards hotter temperatures and a cycloidal behavior of its near-IR colors around periastron passages. Both effects are likely triggered by the companion. We used VLTI AMBER observations from 2004-2014 to investigate η Car's variabilities in the near-IR.

  10. The ESO-MIM Star Trek: A broadbased public oriented short interactive exhibition for an introduction to contemporary astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, O.; Miranda, F.

    2005-12-01

    In the course of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Public Relations work in Chile, we have created a permanent exhibition of astronomy for a broad section of the public in the Museo Interactivo Mirador-MIM (Interactive Museum of science, Chile), a collaboration between ESO and MIM. This Museum is mostly directed towards schoolchildren (7-14 years old), with adult visits at weekends. It is funded by public money and is unique in Chile. We decided to present the most recent questions relative to astronomy, based on pictures taken mostly at ESO observatories, and to skip the basics of astronomy that are taught at school.

  11. ESO takes the public on an astronomical journey "Around the World in 80 Telescopes"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    A live 24-hour free public video webcast, "Around the World in 80 Telescopes", will take place from 3 April 09:00 UT/GMT to 4 April 09:00 UT/GMT, chasing day and night around the globe to let viewers "visit" some of the most advanced astronomical telescopes on and off the planet. The webcast, organised by ESO for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), is the first time that so many large observatories have been linked together for a public event. ESO PR Photo 13a/09 Map of Participating Observatories ESO PR Photo 13b/09 100 Hours of Astronomy logo Viewers will see new images of the cosmos, find out what observatories in their home countries or on the other side of the planet are discovering, send in questions and messages, and discover what astronomers are doing right now. Participating telescopes include those at observatories in Chile such as ESO's Very Large Telescope and La Silla, the Hawaii-based telescopes Gemini North and Keck, the Anglo-Australian Telescope, telescopes in the Canary Islands, the Southern African Large Telescope, space-based telescopes such as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, ESA XMM-Newton and Integral, and many more. "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" will take viewers to every continent, including Antarctica! The webcast production will be hosted at ESO's headquarters near Munich, Germany, with live internet streaming by Ustream.tv. Anyone with a web browser supporting Adobe Flash will be able to follow the show, free of charge, from the website www.100hoursofastronomy.org and be a part of the project by sending messages and questions. The video player can be freely embedded on other websites. TV stations, web portals and science centres can also use the high quality feed. Representatives of the media who wish to report from the "front-line" and interview the team should get in touch. "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" is a major component of the 100 Hours of Astronomy (100HA), a Cornerstone project of the International

  12. The jet of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0521-365 in the near-IR: MAD adaptive optics observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falomo, R.; Pian, E.; Treves, A.; Giovannini, G.; Venturi, T.; Moretti, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Farinato, J.; Ragazzoni, R.; Diolaiti, E.; Lombini, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Brast, R.; Donaldson, R.; Kolb, J.; Marchetti, E.; Tordo, S.

    2009-07-01

    Context: BL Lac objects are low-power active nuclei exhibiting a variety of peculiar properties caused by the presence of a relativistic jet and orientation effects. Aims: We present adaptive optics near-IR images at high spatial resolution of the nearby BL Lac object PKS 0521-365, which is known to display a prominent jet both at radio and optical frequencies. Methods: The observations were obtained in Ks-band using the ESO multi-conjugated adaptive optics demonstrator at the Very Large Telescope. This allowed us to obtain images with 0.1 arcsec effective resolution. We performed a detailed analysis of the jet and its related features from the near-IR images, and combined them with images previously obtained with HST in the R band and by a re-analysis of VLA radio maps. Results: We find a remarkable similarity in the structure of the jet at radio, near-IR, and optical wavelengths. The broad-band emission of the jet knots is dominated by synchrotron radiation, while the nucleus also exhibits a significant inverse Compton component. We discovered the near-IR counterpart of the radio hotspot and found that the near-IR flux is consistent with being a synchrotron emission from radio to X-ray wavelengths. The bright red object (red-tip), detached but well aligned with the jet, is well resolved in the near-IR and has a linear light profile. Since it has no radio counterpart, we propose that it is a background galaxy not associated with the jet. Conclusions: The new adaptive optics near-IR images and previous observations at other frequencies allow us to study the complex environment around the remarkable BL Lac object PKS 0521-365. These data exemplify the capabilities of multi conjugate adaptive optics observations of extragalactic extended sources. Based on observations collected at ESO, Paranal, Chile, as part of MAD Guaranteed Time Observations.

  13. Strong Lens Search in the ESO Public Survey KiDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Covone, G.; Roy, N.; Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Radovich, M.; Getman, F.; Capaccioli, M.; Colonna, A.; Paolillo, M.; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    We have started a systematic search for strong lens candidates in the ESO public survey KiDS based on the visual inspection of massive galaxies in the redshift range 0. 1 < z < 0. 5. As a pilot program we have inspected 100 deg2, which overlap with SDSS and where there are known lenses to use as a control sample. Taking advantage of the superb image quality of VST/OmegaCAM, the colour information and accurate model subtracted images, we have found 18 new lens candidates, for which spectroscopic confirmation will be needed to confirm their lensing nature and study the mass profile of the lensing galaxies.

  14. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 - 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The highest contrast for near- IR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 - 1700 nm. These near-IR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either co-polarization or crosspolarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500-1700-nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for near-IR reflectance measurements.

  15. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants.

    PubMed

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-18

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum near-IR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using near-IR reflectance and near-IR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1500 - 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for comparison. The highest contrast for near-IR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 - 1700 nm. These near-IR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either co-polarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500-1700-nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for near-IR reflectance measurements.

  16. Near-IR imaging of occlusal dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Christopher M.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains and pigmentation. Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  17. A Near-IR Uncaging Strategy Based on Cyanine Photochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of photocaging groups activated by near-IR light would enable new approaches for basic research and allow for spatial and temporal control of drug delivery. Here we report a near-IR light-initiated uncaging reaction sequence based on readily synthesized C4′-dialkylamine-substituted heptamethine cyanines. Phenol-containing small molecules are uncaged through sequential release of the C4′-amine and intramolecular cyclization. The release sequence is initiated by a previously unexploited photochemical reaction of the cyanine fluorophore scaffold. The uncaging process is compatible with biological milieu and is initiated with low intensity 690 nm light. We show that cell viability can be inhibited through light-dependent release of the estrogen receptor antagonist, 4-hydroxycyclofen. In addition, through uncaging of the same compound, gene expression is controlled with near-IR light in a ligand-dependent CreERT/LoxP-reporter cell line derived from transgenic mice. These studies provide a chemical foundation that we expect will enable specific delivery of small molecules using cytocompatible, tissue penetrant near-IR light. PMID:25211609

  18. A near-IR uncaging strategy based on cyanine photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Alexander P; Nani, Roger R; Zhu, Jianjian; Mackem, Susan; Schnermann, Martin J

    2014-10-08

    The development of photocaging groups activated by near-IR light would enable new approaches for basic research and allow for spatial and temporal control of drug delivery. Here we report a near-IR light-initiated uncaging reaction sequence based on readily synthesized C4'-dialkylamine-substituted heptamethine cyanines. Phenol-containing small molecules are uncaged through sequential release of the C4'-amine and intramolecular cyclization. The release sequence is initiated by a previously unexploited photochemical reaction of the cyanine fluorophore scaffold. The uncaging process is compatible with biological milieu and is initiated with low intensity 690 nm light. We show that cell viability can be inhibited through light-dependent release of the estrogen receptor antagonist, 4-hydroxycyclofen. In addition, through uncaging of the same compound, gene expression is controlled with near-IR light in a ligand-dependent CreER(T)/LoxP-reporter cell line derived from transgenic mice. These studies provide a chemical foundation that we expect will enable specific delivery of small molecules using cytocompatible, tissue penetrant near-IR light.

  19. Filling the gap --near UV, optical and near IR extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Derck

    2014-10-01

    We propose a SNAP program to obtain STIS low resolution near-UV, optical and near-IR (G430L and G750L) spectra for a set of O7-B7 class III-V stars in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds with available IUE or HST/STIS UV spectropotometry, optical photometry and 2MASS IR photometry. Together with the existing data, the new observations will provide complete photometric and spectrophotometric coverage from 1150 to 10000 A and enable us to produce complete extinction curves from the far-UV to the near-IR, with well-determined values of R(V). The proposed set of 150 program sight lines includes the full range of interstellar extinction curve types from both the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The new data will allow us to examine variability in the near-UV through near-IR spectral regions, including the UV-optical "knee", and the "Very Broad Structure" and to verify the applicability of the near IR extinction law recently derived by Fitzpatrick and Massa (2009). We will examine the response of these features to different interstellar environments and their relationship to other curve features. These are largely unexplored aspects of the extinction curves which will provide additional constraints on the properties of interstellar grains. The curves will be derived using model atmospheres for the program stars, eliminating the need for standard stars.

  20. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  1. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth.

    PubMed

    Fried, William A; Simon, Jacob C; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-18

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  2. About The ESO Messenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjär, K.

    2000-06-01

    The present Messenger is the hundredth issue to be published. This may be a good moment to look back to the beginning and to the development of this publication. The idea of an internal ESO newsletter was born in the early seventies. Using the words of Professor Blaauw, Director General of ESO at that time and the person who launched The Messenger in its orbit, the purpose of The ESO Messenger should be “first of all, to promote the participation of ESO staff in what goes on in the Organization, especially at places of duty other than our own. Moreover, The Messenger may serve to give the world outside some impression of what happens inside ESO. The need for more internal communication is felt by many of the staff. The dispersion of our resources over several countries in widely separated continents demands a special effort to keep us aware of what is going on at the other establishments...”

  3. Gold Corroles as Near-IR Phosphors for Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Christopher M; Powers, David C; Brothers, Penelope J; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-09-05

    The triplet state of gold(III) corroles is exploited for optical oxygen sensing. We report intense phosphorescence for gold(III) corroles in the near-IR, an optical window that is ideal for tissue transparency. Moreover, the triplet excited-state emission exhibits significant changes in intensity and lifetime over the 0-160 Torr O2 pressure range. This renders these compounds sensitive at biologically relevant pressures and overcomes the spectral limitations of palladium and platinum porphyrins for oxygen sensing in biology.

  4. Early fire sensing using near-IR diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomse, David S.; Hovde, D. Christian; Chen, Shin-Juh; Silver, Joel A.

    2002-09-01

    We describe research leading to a trace gas detection system based on optical absorption using near-IR diode lasers that is intended to provide early warning of incipient fires. Applications include "high loss" structures such as office buildings, hospitals, hotels and shopping malls as well as airplanes and manned spacecraft where convention smoke detectors generate unacceptably high false alarm rates. Simultaneous or near-simultaneous detection of several gases (typically carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, acetylene and hydrogen cyanide) provides high sensitivity while reducing the chance of false alarms. Continuous measurement of carbon dioxide concentrations also provides an internal check of instrument performance because ambient levels will not drop below ~350 ppm.

  5. ESO Highlights in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    As is now the tradition, the European Southern Observatory looks back at the exciting moments of last year. 2008 was in several aspects an exceptionally good year. Over the year, ESO's telescopes provided data for more than 700 scientific publications in refereed journals, making ESO the most productive ground-based observatory in the world. ESO PR Highlights 2008 ESO PR Photo 01a/09 The image above is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2008. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2008 page. Austria signed the agreement to join the other 13 ESO member states (ESO 11/08 and 20/08), while the year marked the 10th anniversary of first light for ESO's "perfect science machine", the Very Large Telescope (ESO 16/08 and 17/08). The ALMA project, for which ESO is the European partner, had a major milestone in December, as the observatory was equipped with its first antenna (ESO 49/08). Also the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope impressed this year with some very impressive and publicly visible results. Highlights came in many fields: Astronomers for instance used the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to discover and image a probable giant planet long sought around the star Beta Pictoris (ESO 42/08). This is now the eighth extrasolar planet to have been imaged since the VLT imaged the first extrasolar planet in 2004 (three of eight were imaged with VLT). The VLT also enabled three students to confirm the nature of a unique planet (ESO 45/08). This extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is a planet about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. The world's foremost planet-hunting instrument, HARPS, located at ESO's La Silla observatory, scored a new first, finding a system of three super-Earths around a star (ESO 19/08). Based on the complete HARPS sample, astronomers now think that one Sun-like star out of three harbours short orbit, low

  6. Retrieval of Atmospheric CO2 Column from Ground-based Near IR Spectra of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This grant has supported a graduate research assistant stipend for Zhonghua Yang, a geochemistry Ph.D. student at Caltech. In this project, we have significantly improved the retrieval of atmospheric column CO2 (and molecular oxygen) from ground-based, high resolution near-IR solar transmission spectra. This work has greatly benefited from interactions with Dr. Geoffrey Toon and Stan Sander of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and with James T. Randerson, University of California - Irvine. The results from this study are summarized in three publications, reprints of which are enclosed in with this report.

  7. X-shooter near-IR spectrograph arm realisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Ramon; Elswijk, Eddy; Tromp, Niels; ter Horst, Rik; Horrobin, Matthew; Vernet, Joel; Finger, Gert; Groot, Paul; Kaper, Lex

    2008-07-01

    X-shooter is a new high-efficiency spectrograph observing the complete spectral range of 300-2500 nm in a single exposure, with a spectral resolving power R>5000. The instrument will be located at the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs and consists of three spectrographs: UV, VIS and Near-IR. This paper addresses the design, hardware realization and performance of the Near-IR spectrograph of the X-Shooter instrument and its components. Various optical, mechanical and cryogenic manufacturing and verification techniques are discussed. The cryogenic performance of replicated light weight gratings is presented. Bare aluminium mirrors are produced and polished to optical quality to preserve high shape accuracy at cryogenic conditions. Their manufacturing techniques and performance are both discussed. The cryogenic collimator and dispersion boxes, on which the optical components are mounted, feature integrated baffles for improved stiffness and integrated leaf springs to reduce tension on optical components, thereby challenging 5 axis simultaneous CNC milling capabilities. ASTRON Extreme Light Weighting is used for a key component to reduce the flexure of the cryogenic system; some key numbers and unique manufacturing experience for this component are presented. The method of integrated system design at cryogenic working temperatures and the resulting alignment-free integration are evaluated. Finally some key lab test results for the complete NIR spectrograph are presented.

  8. ESO Public Surveys at VISTA: Lessons learned from Cycle 1 Surveys and the start of Cycle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, M.; Delmotte, N.; Gadotti, D.; Hilker, M.; Hussain, G.; Mascetti, L.; Micol, A.; Petr-Gotzens, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Retzlaff, J.; Ivison, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Romaniello, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ESO Public Surveys on VISTA serve the science goals of the survey teams while increasing the legacy value of ESO programmes, thanks to their homogeneity and the breadth of their sky coverage in multiple bands. These projects address a variety of research areas: from the detection of planets via microlensing, to stars, the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies, to extragalactic astronomy, galaxy evolution, the high-redshift Universe and cosmology. In 2015, as the first generation of imaging surveys was nearing completion, a second call for Public Surveys was opened to define a coherent scientific programme for VISTA until the commissioning of the wide-field multi-fibre spectrograph, 4MOST, in 2020. This article presents the status of the Cycle 1 surveys as well as an overview of the seven new programmes in Cycle 2, including their science goals, coverage on the sky and observing strategies. We conclude with a forward look at the Cycle 2 data releases and the timelines for their release.

  9. Graphene-supported tunable near-IR metamaterials.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyong; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Wangzhou

    2015-01-15

    By integrating the metallic metamaterials (MMs) with a graphene layer, the resonant properties of an active tunable device based on the metal-SiO(2)-graphene (MSiO(2)G) structure have been theoretically investigated in the near-IR spectral region. The results manifest that the influences of the graphene layer on the propagation properties are significant. Owing to the tunability of the Fermi level of graphene, the resonance of transmitted or reflected curves can be tuned in a wide range (160-193 THz). To an original metal unit cell structure, an elevated Fermi level of graphene layer enhances the resonance dips and shifts it to the higher frequency. Compared with the original structure, the corresponding complementary MMs structure shows a much sharper spectral curve and can be used to fabricate a switcher or filters. The results are very helpful for designing graphene plasmonic devices.

  10. On Structural Features Necessary for Near-IR-Light Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Baibiao; Li, Zhujie; Wang, Zeyan; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Dai, Ying; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2015-09-21

    In the search for photocatalysts that can directly utilize near-IR (NIR) light, we investigated three oxides Cu3(OH)4SO4 (antlerite), Cu4(OH)6SO4, and Cu2(OH)3Cl by photodecomposing 2,4-dichlorophenol over them under NIR irradiation and by comparing their electronic structures with that of the known NIR photocatalyst Cu2(OH)PO4. Both Cu3(OH)4SO4 and Cu4(OH)6SO4 are NIR photocatalysts, but Cu2(OH)3Cl is not. Thus, in addition to the presence of two different CuOm and Cu'On polyhedra linked with Cu-O-Cu' bridges, the presence of acceptor groups (e.g., SO4, PO4) linked to the metal oxygen polyhedra is necessary for NIR photocatalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Near-IR imaging toward a puzzling young stellar object precessing jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Fariña, C.; Ortega, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: The study of jets that are related to stellar objects in formation is important because it enables us to understand the history of how the stars have built up their mass. Many studies currently examine jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies toward massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are rare. In a previous study, based on 12CO J = 3-2 and public near-IR data, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows toward the infrared point source UGPS J185808.46+010041.8 (IRS) and some infrared features suggesting the existence of a precessing jet. Methods: Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs broad- and narrowbands centered on the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Brγ, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.̋35 and 0.̋45. Results: The emission in the JHKs broadbands shows in great detail a cone-shaped nebula extending to the north-northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed of two arc-like features and a bow-shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis of proper motions based on our Gemini observations and UKIDSS data additionally supports the precession scenario. We present one of the best-resolved cone-like nebula that is most likely related to a precessing jet up to date. The analysis of the observed near-IR lines shows that the H2 is collisionally excited, and the spatially coincidence of the [FeII] and H2 emissions in the closer arc-like feature suggests that this region is affected by a J shock. The second arc-like feature presents H2 emission without [FeII], which suggests a nondissociated C shock or a less energetic J shock. The H2 1-0 S(1) continuum-subtracted image reveals several knots and filaments at a larger

  12. Near-IR spectral evolution of dusty starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lançon, Ariane; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    1996-11-01

    We propose a multicomponent analysis of starburst galaxies, based on a model that takes into account the young and evolved stellar components and the gas emission, with their respective extinction, in the frame of a coherent dust distribution pattern. Near-IR signatures are preferentially investigated, in order to penetrate as deep as possible into the dusty starburst cores. We computed the 1.4-2.5 μm spectra of synthetic stellar populations evolving through strong, short timescale bursts of star formation (continuum and lines, R ≃ 500). The evolution model is specifically sensitive to cool stellar populations (AGB and red supergiant stars). It takes advantage of the stellar library of Lançon & Rocca-Volmerange (1992) [A&ASS, 96, 593], observed with the same instrument (FTS/CFHT) as the analysed galaxy sample, so that the instrumental effects are minimised. The main near-IR observable constraints are the molecular signatures of CO and H2O and the slope of the continuum, observed over a range exceptionally broad for spectroscopic data. The H - K colour determined from the spectra measures the intrinsic stellar energy distribution but also differential extinction, which is further constrained by optical emission line ratios. Other observational constraints are the near-IR emission lines (Brγ, He I 2.06 μm, [Fe II] 1.64 μm, H2 2.12 μm) and the far-IR luminosity. The coherence of the results relies on the interpretation in terms of stellar populations from which all observable properties are derived, so that the link between the various wavelength ranges is secured. The luminosity LK is used for the absolute calibration. We apply this approach to the typical spectrum of the core of NGC 1614. Consistent solutions for the starburst characteristics (star-formation rate, IMF, burst age, morphology) are found and the role of each observational constraint in deriving satisfactory models is extensively discussed. The acceptable contamination of the K band light by the

  13. Near-IR imaging of moderate redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, S. A.; Dickinson, M. E.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained near-IR imaging of 3 moderate-z clusters on the 1.3 m at KPNO with SQIID, a new camera offering wide-field (5.5 arcmin) simultaneous JHK band imaging. Our photometry on a sample of approximately 100 likely member galaxies in one of the clusters, Abell 370 at z = 0.37, shows that we can obtain magnitudes good to 20 percent down to K = 18, considerably below the estimated K* = 16.5 at this redshift. These data indicate that there are no systematic problems in obtaining photometry at faint levels with SQIID. With the development of larger arrays, the field is open to progress. The resulting J, H, and K data for three clusters are combined with previously obtained multiband optical photometry. We present an investigation of the spectral properties and evolution of the dominant cold stellar populations by comparing optical-to-IR colors and color-magnitude diagrams to predictions from population synthesis models and galaxy spectral evolution codes.

  14. Optical+Near-IR Bayesian Classification of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sajjan S.; Richards, G. T.; Myers, A. D.

    2011-05-01

    We describe the details of an optimal Bayesian classification of quasars with combined optical+near-IR photometry from the SDSS and UKIDSS LAS surveys. Using only deep co-added SDSS photometry from the "Stripe 82" region and requiring full four-band UKIDSS detections, we reliably identify 2665 quasar candidates with a computed efficiency in excess of 99%. Relaxing the data constraints to combinations of two-band detections yields up to 6424 candidates with minimal trade-off in completeness and efficiency. The completeness and efficiency of the sample are investigated with existing spectra from the SDSS, 2SLAQ, and AUS surveys in addition to recent single-slit observations from Palomar Observatory, which revealed 22 quasars from a subsample of 29 high-z candidates. SDSS-III/BOSS observations will allow further exploration of the completeness/efficiency of the sample over 2.2

  15. Near-IR emissions in the upper Jovian atmosphere after SL-9 impact: Indications of possible northern counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Encrenaz, Th.; Stüwe, J. A.; Wiedemann, G.

    The evolution of the Jovian atmosphere as a result of the impact of SL-9 was monitored in the near-IR at the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at ESO, La Silla, from July 22-31, 1994. At the beginning of the observational run the spectra around 3.5 µm show enhanced H3+ emissions at -44° and +44° latitude, which are distributed similarly in longitude. Later, most of the H3+ emission is present in the northern polar region while it has faded at -44°. In the 2.1 µm range all spectra obtained at -44° lat. show a continuum associated to the impact sites on which in some cases the H2 quadrupole line is indicated. The spatial distribution of the H2 emission in the northern hemisphere does not show a clear correlation to the impact sites.

  16. The Near-Ir Spectrum of CH_3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaoyue; Lehmann, Kevin; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrei V.; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The near-IR spectrum, from 5000-8960 cm-1, of isotopically pure CH_3D was taken at temperatures of 294, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900K with a high resolution Fourier Transform machine at Old Dominion University. The spectra where analyzed to give the wavenumbers, integrated line intensities, and lower state term values (using lines observed in at least 3 different spectra). For the 294 K spectrum 12080 lines with S between 3.6x10-22 and 1x10-27 cm (not corrected for CH_3D natural abundance) were determined for this spectral interval. A theoretical spectrum of CH_3D has also been calculated at the Univ. of Reins, with >400,000 transitions predicted between 5000-6300 cm-1 with S values between 2.1x10-22 and 1 x 10-27 cm at 294K. Comparison of the predictions with 175 J" = 0 and 1 transitions previously assigned by the ETH group^1 shows that for 130 of these the absolute difference between the observed and predicted line wavenumbers is less than 0.1 cm-1 and for all but one transition the absolute difference is less than 1 cm-1. In this project, we are combining the temperature dependence of the line intensities, combination differences, and comparisons of line positions and strengths with the theoretical spectrum to extend the assignments of CH_3D lines in this spectral region. Selected assignments will be confirmed by IR-IR double resonance measurements at the University of Virginia. Ultimately, we hope to give a global analysis of CH_3D spectrum using a global effective Hamiltonian model. 1. Ulenikov, O.N. et al., Molecular Physics 108, 1209-1240 (2010)

  17. Photodissociation of Peroxynitric Acid in the Near-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roehl, Coleen M.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Zhang, Hui; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature-dependent near-IR photodissociation spectra were obtained for several vibrational overtone transitions of peroxynitric acid (HNO4) with a tunable OPO photolysis/OH laser-induced-fluorescence system. Band-integrated photodissociation cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub diss)), determined relative to that for the 3nu(sub 1), OH stretching overtone, were measured for three dissociative bands. Assuming unit quantum efficiency for photodissociation of 3nu(sub 1), we find 2nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 3)(8242/cm) = (1.21 x 10(exp -20) (independent of temperature), 2nu(sub 1) (6900/cm) = 4.09 x 10(exp 18) * e(sup (-826,5/T)) (295 K greater than T greater than 224 K), and nu(sub 1) + 2nu(sub 3) (6252/cm) = 1.87 x 10(exp -19) * e(sup (- 1410.7/T)) (278 K greater than T greater than 240 K) sq cm/molecule cm. The photodissociation cross-sections are independent of pressure over the range 2 to 40 Torr. Temperature-dependent quantum yields (phi) for these transitions were obtained using integrated absorption cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub abs)) of HNO4 overtone vibrations measured with a FTIR spectrometer. In the atmosphere, photodissociation in the infrared is dominated by excitation of the first overtone of the OH stretching vibration (2nu((sub 1)). Inclusion of all dissociative HNO4 overtone and combination transitions yields a daytime IR photolysis rate of approximately 1 x 10(esp -1)/s. This process significantly shortens the estimated lifetime of HNO4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  18. PESSTO: survey description and products from the first data release by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smartt, S. J.; Valenti, S.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Young, D. R.; Sullivan, M.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, K. W.; Taubenberger, S.; Yaron, O.; Anderson, J. P.; Ashall, C.; Balland, C.; Baltay, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Baumont, S.; Bersier, D.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bongard, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Bulla, M.; Cappellaro, E.; Campbell, H.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chen, T.-W.; Childress, M. J.; Clocchiatti, A.; Contreras, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Danziger, J.; de Jaeger, T.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Elman, N.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gall, E.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Morales Garoffolo, A.; Greggio, L.; Guillou, L. L.; Hachinger, S.; Hadjiyska, E.; Hage, P. E.; Hillebrandt, W.; Hodgkin, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; James, P. A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kotak, R.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Leloudas, G.; Lundqvist, P.; Lyman, J. D.; Hook, I. M.; Maguire, K.; Manulis, I.; Margheim, S. J.; Mattila, S.; Maund, J. R.; Mazzali, P. A.; McCrum, M.; McKinnon, R.; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Nicholl, M.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pignata, G.; Phillips, M. M.; Polshaw, J.; Pumo, M. L.; Rabinowitz, D.; Reilly, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Scalzo, R.; Schmidt, B.; Schulze, S.; Sim, S.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Walker, E.; Walton, N. A.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Yuan, F.; Zampieri, L.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) began as a public spectroscopic survey in April 2012. PESSTO classifies transients from publicly available sources and wide-field surveys, and selects science targets for detailed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up. PESSTO runs for nine months of the year, January - April and August - December inclusive, and typically has allocations of 10 nights per month. Aims: We describe the data reduction strategy and data products that are publicly available through the ESO archive as the Spectroscopic Survey data release 1 (SSDR1). Methods: PESSTO uses the New Technology Telescope with the instruments EFOSC2 and SOFI to provide optical and NIR spectroscopy and imaging. We target supernovae and optical transients brighter than 20.5m for classification. Science targets are selected for follow-up based on the PESSTO science goal of extending knowledge of the extremes of the supernova population. We use standard EFOSC2 set-ups providing spectra with resolutions of 13-18 Å between 3345-9995 Å. A subset of the brighter science targets are selected for SOFI spectroscopy with the blue and red grisms (0.935-2.53 μm and resolutions 23-33 Å) and imaging with broadband JHKs filters. Results: This first data release (SSDR1) contains flux calibrated spectra from the first year (April 2012-2013). A total of 221 confirmed supernovae were classified, and we released calibrated optical spectra and classifications publicly within 24 h of the data being taken (via WISeREP). The data in SSDR1 replace those released spectra. They have more reliable and quantifiable flux calibrations, correction for telluric absorption, and are made available in standard ESO Phase 3 formats. We estimate the absolute accuracy of the flux calibrations for EFOSC2 across the whole survey in SSDR1 to be typically ~15%, although a number of spectra will have less reliable absolute flux calibration because of

  19. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  20. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Christopher; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-24

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  1. Near IR-emitting DNA-probes exploiting stepwise energy transfer processes.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Andras; Borbas, K Eszter; Bruce, James I

    2007-10-10

    The synthesis and characterisation of two new cyclen-based near IR-emitting lanthanide complexes is reported; the lanthanides are sensitised by rhodamine, which in turn is excited by energy transfer from a coumarin 2 moiety. The three lumophores function as an energy transfer cascade spanning the UV-visible-near IR region of the spectrum, resulting in large Stokes shifts. Double stranded DNA selectively switches one of the two energy transfer processes off, enabling luminescent DNA-sensing in the near IR region. The regioselective di-alkylation of the cyclen scaffold is explained with the help of DFT calculations.

  2. Cyanine Photocages Enable the Near-IR Light Activation of Antibody-Drug Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Nani, Roger R.; Gorka, Alexander P.; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the clinical application of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), novel cleavage strategies that provide improved selectivity are still needed. Near-IR light could provide a targetable, biocompatible external stimulus to initiate drug release. Here we report the first approach using near-IR light to cleave a small molecule from a biomacromolecule, which we apply to the problem of ADC linkage. Our method uses a recently developed near-IR uncaging reaction that exploits the photochemical reactivity of C4’-N-dialkylamine heptamethine cyanines. This communication describes the synthesis of bioconjugatable cyanine-small molecule photocages, bioconjugation and 690 nm light-mediated cleavage from the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab, and initial in vitro and in vivo evaluation. These studies provide the critical chemical underpinning from which to develop this near-IR cleavable linker strategy. PMID:26403799

  3. Pulsating stars in ω Centauri. Near-IR properties and period-luminosity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, Camila; Catelan, Márcio; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Alonso-García, Javier; Gran, Felipe; Dékány, István; Minniti, Dante

    2017-09-01

    ω Centauri (NGC 5139) contains many variable stars of different types, including the pulsating type II Cepheids, RR Lyrae and SX Phoenicis stars. We carried out a deep, wide-field, near-infrared (IR) variability survey of ω Cen, using the VISTA telescope. We assembled an unprecedented homogeneous and complete J and KS near-IR catalog of variable stars in the field of ω Cen. In this paper we compare optical and near-IR light curves of RR Lyrae stars, emphasizing the main differences. Moreover, we discuss the ability of near-IR observations to detect SX Phoenicis stars given the fact that the amplitudes are much smaller in these bands compared to the optical. Finally, we consider the case in which all the pulsating stars in the three different variability types follow a single period-luminosity relation in the near-IR bands.

  4. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    Congress (Parliament) in 1964. According to this, the Chilean Government "grants to ESO the same immunities, prerogatives, privileges and facilities as the Government applies to the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL), as granted in the Convention signed in Santiago on 16 February 1953" (Article 4 of the Chile-ESO Convention). Through this, the Chilean Government has in particular recognized that "the possessions and properties of (ESO) wherever they may be, and whoever may have them in his possession, shall be exempt of registration, requisition, confiscation, expropriation and of whatever interference, may it be through executive, administrative, judicial or legislative action" (Art. 4, Sec. 8, CEPAL Convention). Such privileges and immunities are not peculiar to the relations between Chile and ESO. They apply, as already mentioned, to CEPAL as well as to all other United Nations' Agencies and they are today typically recognized by the host states of International Organisations throughout the world. The Chilean Government and ESO agreed in 1983-84 by an exchange of diplomatic notes that these privileges and immunities apply not only to the La Silla observatory, but equally to any other observatory site that the Organisation may establish in the future in the Republic of Chile. It is obvious that, in order to exclude a possible breach of international law, the reported preliminary decision requires to be considered and interpreted in the light of these privileges and immunities. ESO trusts that the competent Chilean authorities will take the appropriate action and decisions which are required for ensuring the Organisation's international status and its protection from any public interference into its possessions and properties. In a Press Conference at the ESO Headquarters in Santiago de Chile on February 13, 1995, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt, ESO's highest-ranking representative in Chile, stated on behalf of the Organisation that "ESO is in Chile with

  5. Room-Temperature, Near IR Fluorescence of High Optical Quality KTP (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    AFRL-SN-WP-TP-2007-109 ROOM-TEMPERATURE, NEAR IR FLUORESCENCE OF HIGH OPTICAL QUALITY KTP (POSTPRINT) S.M. Hegde, K.L. Schepler, R.D...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ROOM-TEMPERATURE, NEAR IR FLUORESCENCE OF HIGH OPTICAL QUALITY KTP (POSTPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F 5d...the peak fluorescence near 800nm. In addition, all samples showed a weaker secondary fluorescence band peaking near 600nm. A low fluorescence sample

  6. Educational Projects at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, H. M. J.

    2005-11-01

    ESO's public outreach activities comprise communication and media activities, educational projects and targeted events, addressing well-defined audiences. In 2004, one major activity stands out both in terms of visibility and in covering all of the above areas: the Venus Transit 2004 Public Science Discovery Programme. This very successful programme comprised the development of an extensive set of teaching materials for schools, a web-based information and reporting system, observational activities on the day of the transit as well as a video contest and a final event in Paris in November.

  7. Assessment of the remineralization in simulated enamel lesions via dehydration with near-IR reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that near-IR imaging can be used to nondestructively monitor the severity of enamel lesions. Arrested lesions typically have a highly mineralized surface layer that reduces permeability and limits diffusion into the lesion. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rate of water loss correlates with the degree of remineralization using near-IR reflectance imaging. Artificial bovine (n=15) enamel lesions were prepared by immersion in a demineralization solution for 24 hours and they were subsequently placed in an acidic remineralization solution for different periods. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 30 seconds and surfaces were imaged using an InGaAs camera at 1300-1700 nm wavelengths. Near-IR reflectance intensity differences before and after dehydration decreased with longer periods of remineralization. This study demonstrated that near-IR reflectance imaging was suitable for the detection of remineralization in simulated caries lesions and near-IR wavelengths longer than 1400 nm are well suited for the assessment of remineralization.

  8. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Andrew C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Light scattering in dental enamel decreases markedly from the UV to the near-IR and recent studies employing near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging including optical coherence tomography indicate that this wavelength region is ideally suited for imaging dental caries due to the high transparency of enamel. The opacity of dentin is an important factor in optimizing the contrast of demineralization in reflectance measurements. It also influences the contrast of occlusal lesions in transillumination. Light scattering in dentin is an order of magnitude larger than in enamel, it is highly anisotropic and has a different spectral light scattering dependence than enamel. The objective of this study was to measure the optical attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at near-IR wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm. In this study the collimated transmission of near-IR light through polished thin sections of dentin of 0.05 to 0.6 mm thickness was measured. Beer-Lambert plots show that the attenuation coefficients range in magnitude from 20 to 40 cm-1. Attenuation increased significantly with increasing wavelength and the increases were not entirely consistent with increased water absorption.

  9. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M.; Fu, Hai; Wardlow, J.; Amber, S.; Baker, A. J.; Baes, M.; Bock, J.; Bourne, N.; Dye, S.; Bussmann, R. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  10. Assessment of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions via dehydration with near-IR reflectance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert C; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-24

    Previous studies have demonstrated that near-IR imaging can be used to nondestructively monitor the severity of enamel lesions. Arrested lesions typically have a highly mineralized surface layer that reduces permeability and limits diffusion into the lesion. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rate of water loss correlates with the degree of remineralization using near-IR reflectance imaging. Artificial bovine (n=15) enamel lesions were prepared by immersion in a demineralization solution for 24 hours and they were subsequently placed in an acidic remineralization solution for different periods. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 30 seconds and surfaces were imaged using an InGaAs camera at 1300-1700 nm wavelengths. Near-IR reflectance intensity differences before and after dehydration decreased with longer periods of remineralization. This study demonstrated that near-IR reflectance imaging was suitable for the detection of remineralization in simulated caries lesions and near-IR wavelengths longer than 1400 nm are well suited for the assessment of remineralization.

  11. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm.

    PubMed

    Chan, Andrew C; Darling, Cynthia L; Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-18

    Light scattering in dental enamel decreases markedly from the UV to the near-IR and recent studies employing near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging including optical coherence tomography indicate that this wavelength region is ideally suited for imaging dental caries due to the high transparency of enamel. The opacity of dentin is an important factor in optimizing the contrast of demineralization in reflectance measurements. It also influences the contrast of occlusal lesions in transillumination. Light scattering in dentin is an order of magnitude larger than in enamel, it is highly anisotropic and has a different spectral light scattering dependence than enamel. The objective of this study was to measure the optical attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at near-IR wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm. In this study the collimated transmission of near-IR light through polished thin sections of dentin of 0.05 to 0.6 mm thickness was measured. Beer-Lambert plots show that the attenuation coefficients range in magnitude from 20 to 40 cm(-1). Attenuation increased significantly with increasing wavelength and the increases were not entirely consistent with increased water absorption.

  12. Near-IR fluorescence and reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging of quantum dots in mammalian skin

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Luke J.; Glazowski, Christopher E.; Zavislan, James M.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the skin penetration of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important concern due to the increasing presence of NPs in consumer products, including cosmetics. Technical challenges have slowed progress in evaluating skin barrier and NP factors that contribute to skin penetration risk. To limit sampling error and other problems associated with histological processing, many researchers are implementing whole tissue confocal or multiphoton microscopies. This work introduces a fluorescence and reflectance confocal microscopy system that utilizes near-IR excitation and emission to detect near-IR lead sulfide quantum dots (QDs) through ex vivo human epidermis. We provide a detailed prediction and experimental analysis of QD detection sensitivity and demonstrate detection of QD skin penetration in a barrier disrupted model. The unique properties of near-IR lead-based QDs will enable future studies that examine the impact of further barrier-disrupting agents on skin penetration of QDs and elucidate mechanistic insight into QD tissue interactions at the cellular level. PMID:21698023

  13. Harnessing cyanine photooxidation: from slowing photobleaching to near-IR uncaging.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Alexander P; Schnermann, Martin J

    2016-08-01

    Light provides a uniquely powerful stimulus to help visualize and/or perturb biological systems. The use of tissue penetrant near-IR wavelengths enables in vivo applications, however the design of molecules that function in this range remains a substantial challenge. Heptamethine cyanine fluorophores are already important tools for near-IR optical imaging. These molecules are susceptible to photobleaching through a photooxidative cleavage reaction. This review details efforts to define the mechanism of this reaction and two emerging fields closely tied to this process. In the first, efforts that slow photooxidation enable the creation of photobleaching resistant fluorophores. In the second, cyanine photooxidation has recently been employed as the cornerstone of a near-IR uncaging strategy. This review seeks to highlight the utility of mechanistic organic chemistry insights to help tailor cyanine scaffolds for new, and previously intractable, biological applications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Assessment of remineralization via measurement of dehydration rates with thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert C; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the optical changes due to the loss of water from porous lesions can be exploited to assess lesion severity with QLF, thermal and near-IR imaging. Since arrested lesions are less permeable to water due to the highly mineralized surface layer, changes in the rate of water loss can be related to changes in lesion structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rate of water loss correlates with the degree of remineralization and whether that rate can be measured using thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging. Artificial bovine enamel lesions (n=30) were prepared by immersion in a demineralization solution for either 8 and 24 h and they were subsequently placed in an acidic remineralization solution for different periods. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 30s and surfaces were imaged using a thermal camera and an InGaAs camera at 1300-1700 nm wavelengths. The area enclosed by the time-temperature curve, ΔQ, from thermal imaging showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the lesion window and other windows. Near-IR reflectance intensity differences, ΔI, before and after dehydration decreased with longer periods of remineralization. Only near-IR reflectance imaging was capable of detecting significant differences (P<0.05) between the different periods of remineralization. This study demonstrated that both thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging were suitable for the detection of remineralization in simulated caries lesions and near-IR wavelengths longer than 1400 nm are well suited for the assessment of remineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High contrast reflectance imaging of simulated lesions on tooth occlusal surfaces at near-IR wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Fried, William A; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L

    2013-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-infrared (near-IR) without the interference of stain. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1,300 nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 × 4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1- and 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using near-IR reflectance at three wavelengths, 1,300, 1,460, and 1,600 nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405 nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500 nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. The contrast of both the 1- and 2-day lesions were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for near-IR reflectance imaging at 1,460 and 1,600 nm than it was for near-IR reflectance imaging at 1,300 nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. The markedly higher contrast at 1,460 and 1,600 nm wavelengths, coincident with higher water absorption, suggest that these wavelengths are better suited than 1,300 nm for imaging early/shallow demineralization on tooth surfaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Near-IR Light-Mediated Cleavage of Antibody-Drug Conjugates Using Cyanine Photocages.

    PubMed

    Nani, Roger R; Gorka, Alexander P; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Schnermann, Martin J

    2015-11-09

    Despite significant progress in the clinical application of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), novel cleavage strategies that provide improved selectivity are still needed. Herein is reported the first approach that uses near-IR light to cleave a small molecule from a biomacromolecule, and its application to the problem of ADC linkage. The preparation of cyanine antibody conjugates, drug cleavage mediated by 690 nm light, and initial in vitro and in vivo evaluation is described. These studies provide the critical chemical underpinning from which to develop this near-IR light cleavable linker strategy.

  17. Near-IR spectroscopy of the eruptive variable source V2493 Cyg (HBC 722)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Efimova, N.; Larionov, V.; Arkharov, A.; Gorshanov, D.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.

    2012-05-01

    As part of our near-IR spectroscopic monitoring program of EXor pre-Main sequence variables (Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056) on-going at the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), we have recently (2012 May 11) obtained a low resolution (R~250) near-IR spectrum (0.8 - 2.5 μm) of the outbursting source V2493 Cyg (otherwise called HBC 722). Since its outburst in August 2009 (Miller et al.

  18. Electrochromic poly(acetylene)s with switchable visible/near-IR absorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Anja C; Varnado, C Daniel; Bielawski, Christopher W; Theato, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Ferrocene is incorporated into a poly(acetylene) derivative via the postpolymerization amidation of a polymer precursor bearing pentafluorophenyl ester-leaving groups with aminoferrocene. While the neutral polymer exhibits a strong absorbance at 553 nm due to its conjugated backbone, oxidation of the ferrocene moieties with silver tetrafluoroborate causes the material to absorb in the near-IR (λ max ≈ 1215 nm). Subsequent reduction of the oxidized polymer with decamethylferrocene restores the initial absorbance profile, demonstrating that the material features switchable visible/near-IR absorption characteristics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Near-IR Absorption Spectra for the C70 Fullerene Anions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-20

    were prepared in benzonitrile that was 0.1M in Bu 4 NPF6 support- ing electrolyte. Spectra of the various C70 species were obtained at room temperature...we note that the near-IR transition observed for C701 " appears at the same wavelength in benzonitrile and dichloromethane solutions. Furthermore...1. UV-visible-near-IR absorption spectra for (A) C70 and (B) C70 1- obtained in benzonitrile /0.1M Bu 4NPF6. A blank sample of the supporting

  20. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. In addition to the state-of-the-art Very Large Telescope and the four Auxiliary Telescopes of 1.8-m diameter which can move to relocate in up to 30 different locations feeding the interferometer, Paranal will also be home to the 2.6-m VLT Survey telescope (VST) and the 4.2-m VISTA IR survey telescope. Both Paranal and La Silla have a proven record of their unique ability to address most current issues in observational astronomy. In 2004 alone, each observatory provided data for the publication of about 350 peer-reviewed journal articles, more than any other ground-based observatory. With the present merging of these top-ranking astronomical observatories, fostering synergies and harmonizing the many diverse activities, ESO and the entire community of European astronomers will profit even more from these highly efficient research facilities. Images of ESO's observatories and telescopes are available in the ESO gallery.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Near-IR imaging polarimetry of HD142527 (Canovas+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovas, H.; Menard, F.; Hales, A.; Jordan, A.; Schreiber, M. R.; Casassus, S.; Gledhill, T. M.; Pinte, C.

    2013-07-01

    Imaging polarimetry data of the protoplanetary disk HD 142527 and the comparison (diskless) star HD 161743 is provided here. The observations were performed with NaCo/VLT in H and Ks filters, with exposure times ranging from 0.4s to 15s. All the images shown here were normalized to 1s exposure time. Each FITS file is a data-cube that contains 4 images of 160x160 pixels (4.32"x4.32"). In all files, the images inside the Cube-FITS are organized as: Stokes I image, Stokes Q image, Stokes U image, Polarized Intensity (PI) Image. The images were reduced with custom-made IDL routines. The raw data can be found in the ESO public archive service, under program ID: 089.C-0480(A), PI: SCHREIBER, M. (2 data files).

  2. Electronic spectra of Fe3+ oxides and oxide hydroxides in the near IR to near UV.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.; Waite, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Optical absorption and diffuse reflectance spectra of several Fe2O3 and FeOOH polymorphs (hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite) in the near-IR to near-UV spectral regions (2000-200 nm) are presented. The spectra consist primarily of Fe3+ ligand field and ligand-to-metal charge-transfer transitions.-J.A.Z.

  3. Near-IR polarization imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.1 The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  4. Near-IR Polarization Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Darling, Cynthia L; Jiao, Jane J; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.(1) The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

  5. Improved and Expanded Near-IR Oscillator Strengths for Ti I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael P.; Sneden, Chris; Nave, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    We report on recent work to produce an improved and expanded set of near-IR oscillator strengths for Ti I. Emission branching fractions are measured from several spectra recorded with the NIST 2-m FTS covering the region from 4000 Å to 5.5 μm. Traditionally, branching fractions are combined with level lifetimes measured using laser-induced fluorescence; however, this technique becomes problematic for near-IR oscillator strength studies. Instead, we employ thorough and robust reverse stellar analyses of the Sun and Arcturus to obtain lifetimes for new levels of interest. This work makes use of an extensive set of previously reported laboratory Ti I oscillator strengths in the visible to better understand uncertainties and check for systematic effects in the reverse stellar analyses. This method will soon be applied to other species to help address the scarcity of near-IR Fe-group atomic data and support the growing interests of the near-IR astronomical community.

  6. Optical and near-IR spectroscopy of nova Oph 2017 (TCP J17394608-2457555)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Ashish; Pavana, M.; Anupama, G. C.; Bhowmick, Anirban; Dar, Rahul; Kumar, S. Pramod

    2017-05-01

    We report optical and near-IR spectroscopic observations of the nova Oph 2017 (ATel #10366, #10367, #10369). The optical spectrum on May 11, 2017 was obtained using the HFOSC instrument mounted on the 2m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) of the Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle, India, in the 380-800nm wavelength range.

  7. Chapter 1.1 Crystallinity of Nanocellulose Materials by Near-IR FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Considering that crystallinity is one of the important properties that influence the end use of cellulose nanomaterials, it is important that the former be measured accurately. Recently, a new method based on near-IR FTRaman spectroscopy was proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. It was reported that in the Raman spectrum of cellulose materials, the...

  8. Targeted near-IR QDs-loaded micelles for cancer therapy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Nurunnabi, Md; Cho, Kwang Jae; Choi, Joon Sig; Huh, Kang Moo; Lee, Yong-kyu

    2010-07-01

    The use of water-soluble, functionalized quantum dots (QDs) that are highly stable against oxidation for biological and biomedical applications is currently one of the fastest growing fields of nanotechnology. Polymer-based nanoparticles are now widely used for drug delivery and targeted therapy. We modified the surface of near Infrared QDs by the solid dispersion method using PEG-PCDA and PCDA-Herceptin conjugates to demonstrate water-solubility and target-specific properties. Upon UV irradiation, QD cores located within nanoprobes were further stabilized by intramicellar cross-linking between neighboring PCDA-Herceptin moieties. These cross-linked nanoprobes showed higher stability and less toxicity. Near-IR QDs-loaded micelles were spherical with diameters of around 130-150 nm. The anti-tumor effect of near-IR QDs-loaded micelles against MDA-MB-231 tumors was remarkably better than that of control. Mice treated with the near-IR QDs-loaded micelles had a tumor volume of about 285 mm(3), indicating shrinkage in initial tumor volume and inhibition of tumor growth by 77.3% compared to that of control group (saline injection). In addition, near-IR QDs-loaded micelles were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing nude mice for simultaneous tumor therapy and imaging. We observed that the targeted near-IR QDs-loaded micelles distributed rapidly throughout the animal body including the tumor in real time. These multi-functional nanoprobes could therefore be used for both active and passive targeting, imaging and treatment of cancers in the early stage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EsoRex: ESO Recipe Execution Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2015-04-01

    EsoRex (ESO Recipe Execution Tool) lists, configures, and executes Common Pipeline Library (CPL) (ascl:1402.010) recipes from the command line. Its features include automatically generating configuration files, recursive recipe-path searching, command line and configuration file parameters, and recipe product naming control, among many others.

  10. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  11. Remote Sensing of Water Vapor and Thin Cirrus Clouds using MODIS Near-IR Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major facility instrument on board the Terra Spacecraft, was successfully launched into space in December of 1999. MODIS has several near-IR channels within and around the 0.94 micrometer water vapor bands for remote sensing of integrated atmospheric water vapor over land and above clouds. MODIS also has a special near-IR channel centered at 1.375-micron with a width of 30 nm for remote sensing of cirrus clouds. In this paper, we describe briefly the physical principles on remote sensing of water vapor and cirrus clouds using these channels. We also present sample water vapor images and cirrus cloud images obtained from MODIS data.

  12. The mid-IR and near-IR interferometry of AGNs: key results and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, M.

    2015-09-01

    Infrared interferometry has been very productive in directly probing the structure of AGNs at sub-pc scales. With tens of objects already probed in the mid-IR and near-IR, I will summarize the key results and im- plications from this direct exploration. The Keck interferometry in the near-IR and VLTI in the mid-IR shaped the luminosity dependence of the torus size and structure, while the latter also revealed an equatorial structure at several Rsub (dust sublimation radius), and a polar-elongated region at a few tens of Rsub. Notably, this polar component seems to dominate the compact mid-IR flux. This component can persuasively be attributed to a polar outflow. However, interferometry, through emissivity estimations, also indicates that it is not a UV-optically-thin cloud but participating in the obscuration of the nucleus. I will discuss how to accommodate all these facts to build a consistent picture.

  13. Wavelength-agile near-IR optical parametric oscillator using a deposited silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Mark A; Foster, Amy C

    2015-06-15

    Using a deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide, we demonstrate ultra-broad bandwidth (60 THz) parametric amplification via four-wave mixing (FWM), and subsequently achieve the first silicon optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at near-IR wavelengths. Utilization of the time-dispersion-tuned technique provides an optical source with active wavelength tuning over 42 THz with a fixed pump wave.

  14. Peripheral Substitution of a Near-IR-Absorbing Soluble Phthalocyanine Using "Click" Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayukh, Mayank; Lu, Chin-Wei; Hernandez, Edgardo; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-06-10

    A series of near-IR-absorbing soluble phthalocyanines (Pcs) with eight alkyne moieties as side chains of the chromophore have been synthesized. One of these Pcs has been used as a scaffold for functional group modification using alkyne–azide click chemistry with various azides. This led to a small library of Pcs with photo and thermal crosslinkable, dendritic, and hydrophilic moieties starting from a single Pc molecule. A patterned thin film was fabricated by photocrosslinking one of these Pc derivatives.

  15. Dramatic increase of the near-IR flux of the young source V2492 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. A.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Vitali, F.; Larionov, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of our EXor monitoring program dubbed EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI, Lorenzetti et al. 2007 ApJ 665, 1182; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056), we are now observing a new increase of the near-IR brightness of the protostar V2492 Cyg, based on data taken at the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy).

  16. Excitation transfer mechanism along the visible to the Near-IR in rhodamine J-heteroaggregates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valencia, Juan R; Toudert, Johann; González-García, Lola; González-Elipe, Agustín R; Barranco, Angel

    2010-06-28

    An enhanced fluorescent emission of the dye Rhodamine 800 in the Near-IR is observed in the presence of other xanthene dye molecules (RhX) when they are hosted in different matrices due to the formation of a new type of fluorescent J-heteroaggregates. This enhanced emission of the acceptor occurs despite the low spectral overlapping and the low quantum yield of Rh800.

  17. Bis-anthracene fused porphyrins: synthesis, crystal structure, and near-IR absorption.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nicola K S; Thompson, Amber L; Anderson, Harry L

    2010-05-07

    Synthesis of fused bis-anthracene porphyrin monomers and dimers has been achieved by oxidative ring closure using FeCl(3) and Sc(OTf)(3)/DDQ, respectively. The fused compounds display red-shifted absorption spectra with maxima in the near-IR at 973 and 1495 nm, respectively, and small electrochemical HOMO-LUMO gaps. The crystal structure of the fully fused bis-anthracene porphyrin shows that it has a regular planar pi-system.

  18. The near-IR Mbh-L and Mbh-n relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vika, Marina; Driver, Simon P.; Cameron, Ewan; Kelvin, Lee; Robotham, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    We present near-infrared (near-IR) surface photometry (2D profiling) for a sample of 29 nearby galaxies for which supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses are constrained. The data are derived from the UKIDSS-LAS representing a significant improvement in image quality and depth over previous studies based on Two Micron All Sky Survey data. We derive the spheroid luminosity and spheroid Sérsic index for each galaxy with GALFIT3 and use these data to construct SMBH mass-bulge luminosity (Mbh-L) and SMBH-Sérsic index (Mbh-n) relations. The best-fitting K-band relation for elliptical and disc galaxies is log (Mbh/M⊙) =-0.36(±0.03)(MK+ 18) + 6.17(±0.16), with an intrinsic scatter of 0.4+0.09-0.06 dex, whilst for elliptical galaxies we find log (Mbh/M⊙) =-0.42(±0.06)(MK+ 22) + 7.5(±0.15), with an intrinsic scatter of 0.31+0.087-0.047 dex. Our revised Mbh-L relation agrees closely with the previous near-IR constraint by Graham. The lack of improvement in the intrinsic scatter in moving to higher quality near-IR data suggests that the SMBH relations are not currently limited by the quality of the imaging data but is either intrinsic or a result of uncertainty in the precise number of required components required in the profiling process. Contrary to expectation, a relation between SMBH mass and the Sérsic index was not found at near-IR wavelengths. This latter outcome is believed to be explained by the generic inconsistencies between 1D and 2D galaxy profiling which are currently under further investigation.

  19. Fundamental Properties of Galaxy Clusters: A Prelude to Large Scale SZE/Near-IR Cluster Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-T.

    2005-12-01

    Within the context of precision cosmology, the systematics of a cluster survey must be carefully controlled. These require knowledge of the cluster selection function, the sources of contamination, and the evolution of clusters. For surveys aiming to study the dark energy, probing the redshift range z = 1-2 is essential. This can be most efficiently carried out by a Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) survey supplemented with near-IR follow-up. The cluster sample with SZE+near-IR data will also provide an excellent opportunity for understanding the cluster galaxy population evolution. This dissertation is developed under the two themes central to such a survey, i.e. the control of systematics, and the nature and evolution of cluster galaxy populations. We first conduct an analysis of a deep SZE survey and offer considerations for determining the survey mass sensitivity and for extracting cosmological constraints. Because the radio-loud AGNs can potentially contaminate the cluster SZE signal, we also investigate the properties of cluster AGNs to facilitate modeling their effects on the survey yields. The second thrust of the dissertation is a systematic survey of the near-IR properties of cluster galaxies. With a large nearby cluster sample that spans a wide range in mass, we study scaling relations between the total galaxy luminosity or number and the cluster mass. The origins of such correlations are discussed in terms of the hierarchical structure formation, among other possibilities. We proceed to study the properties of various cluster components, including the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and the stars and gas that exist within the intracluster space. Constraints on BCG formation and the thermodynamic history of the intracluster medium are presented. Finally, with deep near-IR imaging data, we examine the luminosity function for a smaller cluster sample that extends to z ˜ 1. We confirm the existence of the scaling relations and determine their evolution

  20. Near-IR image-guided laser ablation of demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that reflectance images at near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are well-suited for image-guided laser ablation of carious lesions since the contrast between sound and demineralized enamel is extremely high and interference from stains is minimized. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that near-IR reflectance images taken at a wavelength range of 1,500-1,700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3 μm CO(2) laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this in vitro study. Shallow simulated caries lesions with random patterns and varying depth and position were produced on tooth occlusal surfaces. Sequential near-IR reflectance images at 1,500-1,700 nm were used to guide the laser for the selective removal of the demineralized enamel. Digital microscopy and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) were used to assess selectivity. Images taken before and after lesion removal suggest that the demineralized areas were removed with high selectivity. Although the estimated volume of tissue ablated was typically higher than the initial lesion volume measured with PS-OCT, the volume of enamel removed by the laser correlated well with the initial lesion volume. Sequential near-IR reflectance images at 1,500-1,700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3 μm CO(2) laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interface engineering for ternary blend polymer solar cells with a heterostructured near-IR dye.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huajun; Ohkita, Hideo; Tamai, Yasunari; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2015-10-21

    Ternary-blend polymer solar cells can be effectively improved by incorporating a heterostructured near-IR dye, which has a hexyl group compatible with the polymer and a benzyl group compatible with the fullerene. Because of the compatibility with both materials, the heterostructured dye can be loaded up to 15 wt% and hence can boost the photocurrent generation by 30%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Near-IR Image-Guided Laser Ablation of Demineralization on Tooth Occlusal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that reflectance images at near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are well-suited for image-guided laser ablation of carious lesions since the contrast between sound and demineralized enamel is extremely high and interference from stains is minimized. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that near-IR reflectance images taken at a wavelength range of 1,500–1,700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3 μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. Methods The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this in vitro study. Shallow simulated caries lesions with random patterns and varying depth and position were produced on tooth occlusal surfaces. Sequential near-IR reflectance images at 1,500–1,700 nm were used to guide the laser for the selective removal of the demineralized enamel. Digital microscopy and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) were used to assess selectivity. Results Images taken before and after lesion removal suggest that the demineralized areas were removed with high selectivity. Although the estimated volume of tissue ablated was typically higher than the initial lesion volume measured with PS-OCT, the volume of enamel removed by the laser correlated well with the initial lesion volume. Conclusion Sequential near-IR reflectance images at 1,500–1,700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3 μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. PMID:26763111

  3. Visible and near IR lidar backscatter observations on the GLOBE Pacific Survey missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Chudamani, S.; Cavanaugh, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement techniques and initial results of the Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) performed in November 1989 and May-June 1990 to provide data on prevailing values of atmospheric backscatter cross section are presented. The upper troposphere aerosol scattering cross section was low in the Southern Hemisphere for the May-June flights and low in the Northern Hemisphere for the November flights. The initial results indicate that the instrumentation and calibration techniques applied for the near IR lidar measurements were successful.

  4. Visible and near IR lidar backscatter observations on the GLOBE Pacific Survey missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.; Chudamani, S.; Cavanaugh, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement techniques and initial results of the Global Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) performed in November 1989 and May-June 1990 to provide data on prevailing values of atmospheric backscatter cross section are presented. The upper troposphere aerosol scattering cross section was low in the Southern Hemisphere for the May-June flights and low in the Northern Hemisphere for the November flights. The initial results indicate that the instrumentation and calibration techniques applied for the near IR lidar measurements were successful.

  5. Metallo-Phthalocyanine Near-IR Fluorophores: Oligonucleotide Conjugates and Their Applications in PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nesterova, Irina V.; Verdree, Vera T.; Pakhomov, Serhii; Strickler, Karen L.; Allen, Michael W.; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Water soluble, metallo-pthalocyanine (MPc) near-IR fluorophores were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as highly stable and sensitive reporters for fluorescence assays. Their conjugation to oligonucleotides was achieved via succinimidyl ester-amino coupling chemistry with the conditions for conjugation extensively examined and optimized. In addition, various conjugate purification and isolation techniques were evaluated as well. Results showed that under proper conditions and following purification using reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography, labeling efficiencies near 80% could be achieved using ZnPc (Zn phthalocyanine) as the labeling fluorophore. Absorption and fluorescence spectra accumulated for the conjugates indicated that the intrinsic fluorescence properties of the MPc’s were not significantly altered by covalent attachment to oligonucleotides. As an example of the utility of MPc reporters, we used the MPc–oligonucleotide conjugates as primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplifications with the products sorted via electrophoresis and detected using near-IR fluorescence (λex = 680 nm). The MPc dyes were found to be more chemically stable under typical thermal cycling conditions used for PCR compared to the carbocyanine-based near-IR reporter systems typically used and produced single and narrow bands in the electrophoretic traces, indicative of producing a single PCR product during amplification. PMID:18030995

  6. Polarization resolved near-IR imaging of sound and carious dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light is reflected from and transmitted through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of optical imaging devices. New optical imaging tools employing non-ionizing radiation are needed for the detection and assessment of dental caries. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light is reflected from the occlusal surface or transmitted through thin sections of extracted human whole teeth. Previous near-IR imaging studies suggest that polarization imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of early dental caries due to the rapid depolarization of incident polarized light by the highly scattering areas of decay. In this study, the reflectance from tooth occlusal surfaces with demineralization and transmitted light through tooth thin sections with caries lesions were investigated. Major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel. This study suggests that polarization resolved optical imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of dental decay.

  7. Near-IR and CP-OCT imaging of suspected occlusal caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Kang, Hobin; Staninec, Michal; Jang, Andrew T; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Lee, Robert C; Fried, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Radiographic methods have poor sensitivity for occlusal lesions and by the time the lesions are radiolucent they have typically progressed deep into the dentin. New more sensitive imaging methods are needed to detect occlusal lesions. In this study, cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) and near-IR imaging were used to image questionable occlusal lesions (QOC's) that were not visible on radiographs but had been scheduled for restoration on 30 test subjects. Near-IR reflectance and transillumination probes incorporating a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources were used to acquire images of the lesions before restoration. The reflectance probe utilized cross-polarization and operated at wavelengths from 1,500 to 1,700 nm where there is an increase in water absorption for higher contrast. The transillumination probe was operated at 1,300 nm where the transparency of enamel is highest. Tomographic images (6 × 6 × 7 mm(3) ) of the lesions were acquired using a high-speed swept-source CP-OCT system operating at 1,300 nm before and after removal of the suspected lesion. Near-IR reflectance imaging at 1,500-1,700 nm yielded significantly higher contrast (P < 0.05) of the demineralization in the occlusal grooves compared with visible reflectance imaging. Stains in the occlusal grooves greatly reduced the lesion contrast in the visible range yielding negative values. Only half of the 26 lesions analyzed showed the characteristic surface demineralization and increased reflectivity below the dentinal-enamel junction (DEJ) in 3D OCT images indicative of penetration of the lesion into the dentin. This study demonstrates that near-IR imaging methods have great potential for improving the early diagnosis of occlusal lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:215-224, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Finland to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Finland will become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory. In a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching on 9 February 2004, an Agreement to this effect was signed by the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, in the presence of other high officials from Finland and the ESO member states.

  9. High Spectral and Spatial Resolution Near-IR Spectroscopy of M1-92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, S. R.; Goodrich, R. W.

    1997-05-01

    We present high spectral and spatial resolution near-IR spectroscopy of the bipolar proto-planetary nebula M1-92. The spectra were obtained using the high resolution spectrograph, CSHELL, at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea. The goal of this project was to spatially resolve the location of the H_2 emission present in this object and to determine its relative velocity as a function of nebular position. Previous optical spectropolarimetry of M1-92 revealed that the line emission seen in the bipolar lobes is indicative of shock heating with V_s = 40 - 100 km s(-1) (Trammell et al. 1993). Subsequent high resolution optical spectroscopy demonstrated that this shock emission is associated with a high velocity outflow (Solf 1994). Narrow-band HST images of this object show a highly collimated outflow originating near the central star and impacting the bipolar lobes (Trammell and Goodrich 1996). Using a 1arcsec slit placed along the bipolar axis, we mapped the velocity field of the Br gamma and H_2 2.122 micron emission lines in M1-92. In both cases, high velocity components (> 100 km s(-1) ) of emission are evident. The high velocity components of emission are co-spatial with the collimated outflow seen in the lobes of M1-92 in the HST images. Further, the outflow velocities derived for the near-IR emission lines are consistent with those estimated from the optical emission line ratios and found using optical spectroscopy. These results suggest that the near-IR H_2 emission is associated with the collimated outflow seen in the lobes of M1-92. We discuss several mechanisms that could be responsible for producing the kinematic features observed in M1-92, in particular the action of a precessing, episodic jet.

  10. Near-IR and PS-OCT imaging of developmental defects in dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2007-02-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and near-IR (NIR) imaging are promising new technologies under development for monitoring early carious lesions. Fluorosis is a growing problem in the U.S., and the more prevalent mild fluorosis can be visually mistaken for early enamel demineralization. Some initial NIR images suggest that enamel defects and dental caries manifest different optical behavior in the NIR. Unfortunately, there is little quantitative information available regarding the differences in optical properties of sound enamel, enamel developmental defects, and demineralized enamel due to caries. This study tested the hypothesis that hypomineralized enamel due to fluorosis can be differentiated from demineralized enamel due to caries using NIR and PS-OCT imaging because of different optical behavior in the NIR. Thirty extracted human teeth with various degrees of suspected fluorosis and/or caries were imaged using PS-OCT and NIR transillumination. An InGaAs camera and a near-IR diode laser were used to measure the optical attenuation through transverse tooth sections (~200 μm). Developmental defects were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved OCT images, demonstrating that PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively measure the depth and possible severity of the defects. Enamel defects on whole teeth that could be imaged with high contrast with visible light were transparent in the near-IR while demineralized areas due to caries were opaque. In contrast, dental caries could be clearly distinguished from sound enamel. This study suggests that PS-OCT and NIR methods may potentially be used as tools to assess the severity and extent of enamel defects and for the differentiation of mild fluorosis defects from early carious lesions.

  11. Theoretical Near-IR Spectra for Surface Abundance Studies of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of O-type stars based on theoretical near-IR spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio near-IR (1-5 micron) spectra of massive stars in different environments of local galaxies. Our goal is to analyze model near-IR spectra corresponding to those expected from NIRspec on JWST in order to map the wind properties and surface composition across the parameter range of 0 stars and to determine projected rotational velocities. As a massive star evolves, internal coupling, related mixing, and mass loss impact its intrinsic rotation rate. These three parameters form an intricate loop, where enhanced rotation leads to more mixing which in turn changes the mass loss rate, the latter thus affecting the rotation rate. Since the effects of rotation are expected to be much more pronounced at low metallicity, we pay special attention to models for massive stars in the the Small Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy provides a unique opportunity to probe stellar evolution, and the feedback of massive stars on galactic evol.ution in conditions similar to the epoch of maximal star formation. Plain-Language Abstract: We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of massive stars based on theoretical near-infrared (1-5 micron) spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. This study is to prepare for observations by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Interpretation of the Near-IR Spectra of the Kuiper Belt Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Brown, Michael E.; Stansberry, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-IR observations of the Kuiper Belt Object (136472) 2005 FY(9) have indicated the presence of unusually long (1 cm or more) optical path lengths in a layer of methane ice. Using microphysical and radiative transfer modeling, we show that even at the frigid temperatures in the outer reaches of the solar system, a slab of low porosity methane ice can indeed form by pressureless sintering of micron-sized grains, and it can qualitatively reproduce the salient features of the measured spectra. A good semiquantitative match with the near-IR spectra can be obtained with a realistic slab model, provided the spectra are scaled to a visible albedo of 0.6, at the low end of the values currently estimated from Spitzer thermal measurements. Consistent with previous modeling studies, matching spectra scaled to higher albedos requires the incorporation of strong backscattering effects. The albedo may become better constrained through an iterative application of the slab model to the analysis of the thermal measurements from Spitzer and the visible/near-IR reflectance spectra. The slab interpretation offers two falsifiable predictions (1) Absence of an opposition surge, which is commonly attributed to the fluffiness of the optical surface. This prediction is best testable with a spacecraft, as Earth-based observations at true opposition will not be possible until early next century. (2) Unlikelihood of the simultaneous occurrence of very long spectroscopic path lengths in both methane and nitrogen ice on the surface of any Kuiper Belt Object, as the more volatile nitrogen would hinder densification in methane ice.

  13. Near-IR period-luminosity relations for pulsating stars in ω Centauri (NGC 5139)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Alonso-García, J.; Gran, F.; Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139) hosts hundreds of pulsating variable stars of different types, thus representing a treasure trove for studies of their corresponding period-luminosity (PL) relations. Our goal in this study is to obtain the PL relations for RR Lyrae and SX Phoenicis stars in the field of the cluster, based on high-quality, well-sampled light curves in the near-infrared (IR). Methods: Observations were carried out using the VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM) mounted on the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). A total of 42 epochs in J and 100 epochs in KS were obtained, spanning 352 days. Point-spread function photometry was performed using DoPhot and DAOPHOT crowded-field photometry packages in the outer and inner regions of the cluster, respectively. Results: Based on the comprehensive catalog of near-IR light curves thus secured, PL relations were obtained for the different types of pulsators in the cluster, both in the J and KS bands. This includes the first PL relations in the near-IR for fundamental-mode SX Phoenicis stars. The near-IR magnitudes and periods of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars were used to derive an updated true distance modulus to the cluster, with a resulting value of (m - M)0 = 13.708 ± 0.035 ± 0.10 mag, where the error bars correspond to the adopted statistical and systematic errors, respectively. Adding the errors in quadrature, this is equivalent to a heliocentric distance of 5.52 ± 0.27 kpc. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, with the VISTA telescope (project ID 087.D-0472, PI R. Angeloni).

  14. Variability Survey of ω Centauri in the Near-IR: Period-Luminosity Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Gran, F.; Alonso-García, J.; Dékány, I.

    2017-03-01

    ω Centauri is by far the most massive globular star cluster in the Milky Way, and possibly the remnant of a dwarf galaxy. As such, it contains a large number of variable stars of different classes. Here we report on an extensive, wide-field time-series study of ω Cen in the J and K S bands, which has allowed us to study the near-IR period-luminosity relations for different variability classes, including the first such relations for the SX Phoenicis stars.

  15. Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy using lanthanide centred near-IR emission.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiyu; Tropiano, Manuel; Mantulnikovs, Konstantins; Faulkner, Stephen; Vosch, Tom; Sørensen, Thomas Just

    2015-02-11

    The narrow, near infrared (NIR) emission from lanthanide ions has attracted great interest, particularly with regard to developing tools for bioimaging, where the long lifetimes of lanthanide excited states can be exploited to address problems arising from autofluorescence and sample transparency. Despite the promise of lanthanide-based probes for near-IR imaging, few reports on their use are present in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that images can be recorded by monitoring NIR emission from lanthanide complexes using detectors, optical elements and a microscope that were primarily designed for the visible part of the spectrum.

  16. Bismuth-doped optical fibres: A new breakthrough in near-IR lasing media

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30

    Recent results demonstrate that bismuth-doped optical fibres have considerable potential as near-IR active lasing media. This paper examines bismuth-doped fibres intended for the fabrication of fibre lasers and optical amplifiers and reviews recent results on the luminescence properties of various types of bismuth-doped fibres and the performance of bismuth-doped fibre lasers and optical amplifiers for the spectral range 1150 - 1550 nm. Problems are discussed that have yet to be solved in order to improve the efficiency of the bismuth lasers and optical amplifiers. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  17. Reductant-free colloidal synthesis of near-IR emitting germanium nanocrystals: role of primary amine.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Batu; Ogawara, Makoto; Sakka, Yoshio; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    High temperature colloidal synthesis without using hazardous reducing agent is demonstrated here to develop a straight forward pathway for synthesizing near-IR (NIR) light emitting germanium nanocrystals (Ge NCs). The NCs were prepared by heating a mixture of germanium (II) iodide and organoamine. This article presents an important role of the primary amine which serves as a reducing agent as well as an inhibitor against oxidation by comparing with the tertiary amine. Interestingly, the difference in chemical reactivity between each amine causes the difference in major structural phase of the products. An efficient route to produce NIR light emitting Ge NCs is demonstrated.

  18. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Spectroscopic Instrumentation for Quantitative Near-Ir Analysis of Organic Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilert, Arnold James

    1995-01-01

    The utility of near-IR spectroscopy for routine quantitative analyses of a wide variety of compositional, chemical, or physical parameters of organic materials is well understood. It can be used for relatively fast and inexpensive non-destructive bulk material analysis before, during, and after processing. It has been demonstrated as being a particularly useful technique for numerous analytical applications in cereal (food and feed) science and industry. Further fulfillment of the potential of near-IR spectroscopic analysis, both in the process and laboratory environment, is reliant upon the development of instrumentation that is capable of meeting the challenges of increasingly difficult applications. One approach to the development of near-IR spectroscopic instrumentation that holds a great deal of promise is acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. A combination of attributes offered by AOTF spectrometry, including speed, optical throughput, wavelength reproducibility, ruggedness (no -moving-parts operation) and flexibility, make it particularly desirable for numerous applications. A series of prototype (research model) acousto -optic tunable filter instruments were developed and tested in order to investigate the feasibility of the technology for quantitative near-IR spectrometry. Development included design, component procurement, assembly and/or configuration of the optical and electronic subsystems of which each functional spectrometer arrangement was comprised, as well as computer interfacing and acquisition/control software development. Investigation of this technology involved an evolution of several operational spectrometer systems, each of which offered improvements over its predecessor. Appropriate testing was conducted at various stages of development. Demonstrations of the potential applicability of our AOTF spectrometer to quantitative process monitoring or laboratory analysis of numerous organic substances, including food materials, were

  19. Three conformers of 2-furoic acid: structure changes induced with near-IR laser light.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Anna; Lapinski, Leszek; Reva, Igor; Rostkowska, Hanna; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J

    2015-02-12

    Conformers of 2-furoic acid were studied using the matrix-isolation technique combined with narrow-band near-IR excitations with tunable laser light. Two conformers of the compound were trapped from the gas phase into low-temperature Ar or Ne matrixes with the population ratio of nearly 1:1. The two forms differ from each other by 180° rotation of the carboxylic group with respect to the furan ring. In both structures, the OH group adopts the cis orientation, with its H atom directed toward the C═O bond of the O═C-O-H group. Narrow-band near-IR excitations of the OH stretching overtone vibrations resulted in transformation of one of the initially observed conformers into a third conformational structure. This near-IR-induced isomerization concerned rotation of the OH group from the initial cis orientation to the trans conformation with the hydrogen atom directed toward the oxygen atom of the furan ring. In the photoproduced conformer, the hydrogen-bond-like O-H···O interaction (between O-H and the oxygen atom of the furan ring) is rather weak. Nevertheless, this interaction stabilized the structure so that it was present in the matrix for several hours after the near-IR-induced generation. The spontaneous conversion of the photogenerated, higher-energy form back into the more stable conformer with the carboxylic group in cis orientation was monitored for 2-furoic acid isolated in Ar and Ne matrixes. The speed of this process was found to be dependent on temperature and on the matrix material. The experimentally determined half-life times of this conformational conversion occurring in the dark are t1/2 = 1390 min (Ar, 5.5 K); t1/2 = 630 min (Ar, 15 K); t1/2 = 240 min (Ne, 5.5 K). The three conformers of 2-furoic acid observed in the present work were identified by comparison of their infrared spectra with the spectra theoretically calculated for the candidate structures.

  20. Near-IR spectroscopic imaging for skin hydration: the long and the short of it.

    PubMed

    Attas, E Michael; Sowa, Michael G; Posthumus, Trevor B; Schattka, Bernhard J; Mantsch, Henry H; Zhang, Shuliang L

    2002-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopic methods have been developed to determine the degree of hydration of human skin in vivo. Noncontact reflectance spectroscopic imaging was used to investigate the distribution of skin moisture as a function of location. A human study in a clinical setting has generated quantitative data showing the effects of a drying agent and a moisturizer on delineated regions of the forearms of eight volunteers. Two digital imaging systems equipped with liquid-crystal tunable filters were used to collect stacks of monochromatic images at 10-nm intervals over the 650-1050 and 960-1700 nm wavelength bands. Synthetic images generated from measurements of water absorption band areas at three different near-IR wavelengths (970, 1200, and 1450 nm) showed obvious differences in the apparent distribution of water in the skin. Changes resulting from the skin treatments were much more evident in the long-wavelength images than in the short-wavelength ones. The variable sensitivity of the method at different wavelengths has been interpreted as being the result of different penetration depths of the IR light used in the reflectance studies.

  1. Improved and Expanded Near-IR Oscillator Strengths for Fe-group Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael P.; Nave, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of modern experimental techniques, including LIF lifetime and FTS branching fraction measurements, has significantly increased the scope and reliability of laboratory atomic transition probabilities in the UV and visible. However, the combination of these techniques is problematic in the IR, a region of increasing importance due to improved detector, spectrometer, and telescope technologies. The result is a significant gap between the capabilities to record new IR astronomical spectra and the data needed to sufficiently understand and analyze them. To aid in closing this gap, we are developing new laboratory techniques to measure improved and expanded sets of oscillator strengths in the near-IR (λ ≈ 1-5 μm), with a primary focus on the Fe-group elements. A description of the methods proposed and their applicability will be presented. Input from the astronomical community is essential in order to focus the research on those lines and atomic species representing the greatest near-IR atomic data needs.

  2. Panchromatic Light Capture and Efficient Excitation Transfer Leading to Near-IR Emission of BODIPY Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ritambhara; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2016-08-18

    All-BODIPY-based (BODIPY=boron-dipyrromethene) donor-acceptor systems capable of wide-band absorbance leading to efficient energy transfer in the near-IR region are reported. A covalently linked 3-pyrrolyl BODIPY-BODIPY dimer building block bearing an ethynyl group at the meso-aryl position is synthesized and coupled with three different monomeric BODIPY/pyrrolyl BODIPY building blocks with a bromo/iodo group under Pd(0) coupling conditions to obtain three covalently linked 3-pyrrolyl-BODIPY-based donor-acceptor oligomers in 19-29 % yield. The oligomers are characterized in detail by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and optical spectroscopy. Due to the presence of different functionalized BODIPY derivatives in the oligomers, panchromatic light capture (300-725 nm) is witnessed. Fluorescence studies reveal singlet-singlet energy transfer from BODIPY monomer to BODIPY dimer leading to emission in the 700-800 nm range. Theoretical modeling according to the Förster mechanism predicts ultrafast energy transfer due to good spectral overlap of the donor and acceptor entities. Femtosecond transient absorption studies confirm this to be the case and thus show the relevance of the currently developed all-BODIPY-based energy-funneling supramolecular sytems with near-IR emission to solar-energy harvesting applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Enhancing near IR luminescence of thiolate Au nanoclusters by thermo treatments and heterogeneous subcellular distributions.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Cecil V; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Ahuja, Tarushee; Tang, Zhenghua; Prickett, Cherish A; Yang, Jenny J; Wang, Gangli

    2014-07-07

    A five-to-ten fold enhancement, up to ca. 5-10% quantum efficiency, of near IR luminescence from monothiolate protected gold nanoclusters was achieved by heating in the presence of excess ligand thiols. An emission maximum in the 700-900 nm range makes these Au nanoclusters superior for bioimaging applications over other emissions centered below 650 nm due to reduced background interference, albeit visible emissions could have higher quantum efficiency. The heating procedure is shown to be effective to improve the luminescence of Au nanoclusters synthesized under a variety of conditions using two types of monothiols: mercaptosuccinic acid and tiopronin. Therefore, this heating method is believed to be a generalizable approach to improve the near IR luminescence of aqueous soluble Au nanoclusters, which enables better bioimaging applications. The high quantum yield is found relatively stable over a wide pH range. PEGylation of the Au nanoclusters reduces their quantum efficiency but improves their permeation into the cytoplasm. Interestingly, z-stack confocal analysis clearly reveals the presence of Au nanoclusters inside the cell nucleus in single cell imaging. The finding addresses controversial literature reports and demonstrates the internalization and heterogeneous subcellular distributions, particularly inside the nucleus. The high luminescence intensity, small overall dimension, cell and nuclear distribution, chemical stability and low-to-non toxicity make these Au nanoclusters promising probes for broad cell dynamics and imaging applications.

  4. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile

    PubMed Central

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Zillikens, M Carola; Stančáková, Alena; Finucane, Francis M; Ried, Janina S; Langenberg, Claudia; Zhang, Weihua; Beckmann, Jacques S; Luan, Jian’an; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Zhou, Yanhua; Smith, Albert Vernon; Zhao, Jing-Hua; Amin, Najaf; Vedantam, Sailaja; Shin, So Youn; Haritunians, Talin; Fu, Mao; Feitosa, Mary F; Kumari, Meena; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Tikkanen, Emmi; Mangino, Massimo; Hayward, Caroline; Song, Ci; Arnold, Alice M; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Oostra, Ben A; Campbell, Harry; Cupples, L Adrienne; Davis, Kathryn E; Döring, Angela; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Estrada, Karol; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Glazer, Nicole L; Guiducci, Candace; Hofman, Albert; Humphries, Steve E; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Leonie C; Jula, Antti; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Lauren J; Kivimäki, Mika; Klopp, Norman; Kühnel, Brigitte; Kuusisto, Johanna; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; McKnight, Barbara; Mellström, Dan; Mitchell, Braxton D; Mooser, Vincent; Moreno, José Maria; Männistö, Satu; O’Connell, Jeffery R; Pascoe, Laura; Peltonen, Leena; Peral, Belén; Perola, Markus; Psaty, Bruce M; Salomaa, Veikko; Savage, David B; Semple, Robert K; Skaric-Juric, Tatjana; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Song, Kijoung S; Spector, Timothy D; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Talmud, Philippa J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Clegg, Deborah J; Schadt, Eric; Wilson, James F; Rudan, Igor; Ripatti, Samuli; Borecki, Ingrid B; Shuldiner, Alan R; Ingelsson, Erik; Jansson, John-Olov; Kaplan, Robert C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Groop, Leif; Kiel, Douglas P; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Walker, Mark; Barroso, Inês; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Soranzo, Nicole; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Stefansson, Kari; Wichmann, H-Erich; Ohlsson, Claes; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Fox, Caroline S; Laakso, Markku; Loos, Ruth J F

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), a measure that does not allow distinguishing lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ~2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals, and followed up the 14 most significant (P<10−6) independent loci in 39,576 individuals. We confirmed the previously established adiposity locus in FTO (P=3×10−26), and identified two new loci associated with body fat percentage, one near IRS1 (P=4×10−11) and one near SPRY2 (P=3×10−8). Both loci harbour genes with a potential link to adipocyte physiology, of which the locus near IRS1 shows an intriguing association pattern. The body-fat-decreasing allele associates with decreased IRS1 expression and with an impaired metabolic profile, including decreased subcutaneous-to-visceral fat ratio, increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease, and decreased adiponectin levels. Our findings provide new insights into adiposity and insulin resistance. PMID:21706003

  5. Biomarkers in disk-averaged near-UV to near-IR Earth spectra using Earthshine observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdani, S.; Arnold, L.; Foellmi, C.; Berthier, J.; Billeres, M.; Briot, D.; François, P.; Riaud, P.; Schneider, J.

    2006-12-01

    Context: .The detection of exolife is one of the goals of very ambitious future space missions or extremely large ground-based telescopes that aim to take direct images of Earth-like planets. While associations of simple molecules present in the planet's atmosphere (O2, O3, CO2 etc.) have been identified as possible global biomarkers, we analyse here the detectability of vegetation on a global scale on Earth's surface. Aims: .Considering its specific reflectance spectrum showing a sharp edge around 700 nm, vegetation can be considered as a potential global biomarker. This work, based on observational data, aims to characterise and to quantify this signature in the disk-averaged Earth's spectrum. Methods: .Earthshine spectra have been used to test the detectability of the "Vegetation Red Edge" (VRE) in the Earth spectrum. We obtained reflectance spectra from near UV (320 nm) to near IR (1020 nm) for different Earth phases (continents or oceans seen from the Moon) with EMMI on the NTT at ESO/La Silla, Chile. We accurately correct the sky background and take into account the phase-dependent colour of the Moon. VRE measurements require a correction of the ozone Chappuis absorption band and Rayleigh plus aerosol scattering. Results: .The near-UV spectrum shows a dark Earth below 350 nm due to the ozone absorption. The Vegetation Red Edge is observed when forests are present (4.0% for Africa and Europe), and is lower when clouds and oceans are mainly visible (1.3% for the Pacific Ocean). Errors are typically ±0.5, and ±1.5 in the worst case. We discuss the different sources of errors and bias and suggest possible improvements. Conclusions: .We showed that measuring the VRE or an analog on an Earth-like planet remains very difficult (photometric relative accuracy of 1% or better). It remains a small feature compared to atmospheric absorption lines. A direct monitoring from space of the global (disk-averaged) Earth's spectrum would provide the best VRE follow-up.

  6. ESO PR Highlights in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Last year proved again a wonderful one for astronomy in general and for ESO in particular. Certainly the most important astronomical event for a large public was the unique Transit of Venus : on June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - passed in front of the Sun. This rare event - the last one occurred in 1882 - attracted the attention of millions of people all over the world. ESO in cooperation with several other institutes and with support from the European Commission organised through the whole year the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme that successfully exposed the broad public to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. The web site experienced a record 55 million webhits during a period of 8 hours around the transit. The programme also re-enacted the historical determination of the distance to the Sun (the "Astronomical Unit") by collecting 4550 timings of the four contacts made by more than 1500 participating group of observers and combining them in a calculation of the AU. This resulted in an astonishing accurate value of the Astronomical Unit. More details are available at the VT-2004 website, whose wealth of information will certainly make it a useful tool until the next transit in 2012! For ESO also, 2004 proved a very special year. Finland officially joined as eleventh member state and in December, the Chilean President, Ricardo Lagos, visited the Paranal Observatory. Last year was also the Fifth anniversary of the Very Large Telescope, ESO's flagship facility, as on April 1, 1999 the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), was "handed over" to the astronomers. On this occasion, ESO released several products, including a selection of the best astronomical images taken with the VLT, the VLT Top 20. But there is no doubt that the numerous high quality images published last year are all contenders to top the charts of best astronomical pictures. The year 2004 also saw many

  7. Finland to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Finland will become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, in the presence of other high officials from Finland and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 02/04 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Finnish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Finland will formally join ESO on July 1, 2004. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 03/04 ESO PR Photo 03/04 Caption : Signing of the Finland-ESO Agreement on February 9, 2004, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen . [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 499 pix - 52k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 997 pix - 720k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2126 x 2649 pix - 2.9M] The Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen, began her speech with these words: "On behalf of Finland, I am happy and proud that we are now joining the European Southern Observatory, one of the most successful megaprojects of European science. ESO is an excellent example of the potential of European cooperation in science, and along with the ALMA project, more and more of global cooperation as well." She also mentioned that besides science ESO offers many technological challenges and opportunities. And she added: "In Finland we will try to promote also technological and industrial cooperation with ESO, and we hope that the ESO side will help us to create good working relations. I am confident that Finland's membership in ESO will be beneficial to both sides." Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO Director General, warmly welcomed the Finnish intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Finnish

  8. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  9. ATLAST Detector Needs for Direct Spectroscopic Biosignature Characterization in the Visible and Near-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, S. H.; Stahle, Carl; Stark, Christopher C.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    Are we alone? Answering this ageless question will be a major focus for astrophysics in coming decades. Our tools will include unprecedentedly large UV-Optical-IR space telescopes working with advanced coronagraphs and starshades. Yet, these facilities will not live up to their full potential without better detectors than we have today. To inform detector development, this paper provides an overview of visible and near-IR (VISIR; lambda = 0.4 - 1.8 micrometers) detector needs for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), specifically for spectroscopic characterization of atmospheric biosignature gasses. We also provide a brief status update on some promising detector technologies for meeting these needs in the context of a passively cooled ATLAST.

  10. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth A.; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for caries detection employing transillumination and reflectance imaging geometries. Three intra-oral NIR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo, real time videos using a high definition InGaAs SWIR camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provide occlusal and interproximal images using 1300-nm light where water absorption is low and enamel manifests the highest transparency. A third reflectance probe utilizes cross polarization and operates at >1500-nm, where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. These probes are being used in an ongoing clinical study to assess the diagnostic performance of NIR imaging for the detection of caries lesions in teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons.

  11. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  12. Measurement and compensation of laser-induced wavefront deformations and focal shifts in near IR optics.

    PubMed

    Stubenvoll, Martin; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate the feasibility of passive compensation of the thermal lens effect in fused silica optics, placing suitable optical materials with negative dn/dT in the beam path of a high power near IR fiber laser. Following a brief overview of the involved mechanisms, photo-thermal absorption measurements with a Hartmann-Shack sensor are described, from which coefficients for surface/coating and bulk absorption in various materials are determined. Based on comprehensive knowledge of the 2D wavefront deformations resulting from absorption, passive compensation of thermally induced aberrations in complex optical systems is possible, as illustrated for an F-Theta objective. By means of caustic measurements during high-power operation we are able to demonstrate a 60% reduction of the focal shift in F-Theta lenses through passive compensation.

  13. EAGLE ISS: a modular twin-channel integral-field near-IR spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Peter; Stobie, Brian; Vivès, Sébastien; Vola, Pascal; Wells, Martyn; Evans, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    The ISS (Integral-field Spectrograph System) has been designed as part of the EAGLE Phase A Instrument Study for the E-ELT. It consists of two input channels of 1.65x1.65 arcsec field-of-view, each reconfigured spatially by an imageslicing integral-field unit to feed a single near-IR spectrograph using cryogenic volume-phase-holographic gratings to disperse the image spectrally. A 4k x 4k array detector array records the dispersed images. The optical design employs anamorphic magnification, image slicing, VPH gratings scanned with a novel cryo-mechanism and a three-lens camera. The mechanical implementation features IFU optics in Zerodur, a modular bench structure and a number of highprecision cryo-mechanisms.

  14. Video rate imaging at 1.5 THz via frequency upconversion to the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekavec, Patrick F.; Kozlov, Vladimir G.; McNee, Ian; Lee, Yun-Shik; Vodopyanov, Konstantin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate video rate THz imaging in both reflection and transmission by frequency upconverting the THz image to the near-IR. In reflection, the ability to resolve images generated at different depths is shown. By mixing the THz pulses with a portion of the fiber laser pump (1064 nm) in a quasi-phase matched gallium arsenide crystal, distinct sidebands are observed at 1058 nm and 1070 nm, corresponding to sum and difference frequency generation of the pump pulse with the THz pulse. By using a polarizer and long pass filter, the strong pump light can be removed, leaving a nearly background free signal at 1070 nm. We have obtained video rate images with spatial resolution of 1mm and field of view ca. 20 mm in diameter without any post processing of the data.

  15. Calibration Sources for the Near-IR Arm of X-shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Saitta, Francesco; Bristow, Paul

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the properties of wavelength calibration sources for the near- IR arm of X-shooter. In a novel approach we are combining laboratory measurements from a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), and literature data, with simulated data derived from a physi- cal model of X-shooter. The sources studied are pen ray lamps filled with the noble gases Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and Th-Ar hollow cathode lamps. As a product we provide a quantitative order by order analysis of the expected properties of the calibration lamps during X-shooter operations. Based on these we give recommendations for the selection of the best combination of lamps. The combination of laboratory measurements and instrument modeling provides a powerful tool for future instrument development.

  16. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  17. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel.

    PubMed

    Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-18

    The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a lambda=9.3-microm CO(2) laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

  18. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Kotin, Pavel Aleksandrovich; Bubenov, Sergey Sergeevich; Mordvinova, Natalia Evgenievna; Dorofeev, Sergey Gennadievich

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm). In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculiarities of the process. The structure, Ag content, and optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. The optimal conditions for maximizing both the reaction yield and IR photoluminescence quantum yield are found.

  19. Improved and Expanded Near-IR Oscillator Strengths for Fe-group Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael; Nave, Gillian; Sneden, Christopher Alan

    2015-08-01

    The use of modern experimental techniques, including LIF lifetime and FTS branching fraction measurements, has significantly increased the scope and reliability of laboratory atomic transition probabilities in the UV and visible. However, this combination of techniques is problematic in the IR, a region of increasing importance due to improved detector, spectrometer, and telescope technologies. The result is a significant gap between the capabilities to record new IR astronomical spectra and the data needed to sufficiently analyze them. To aid in closing this gap, we are incorporating new techniques, including reverse stellar analyses, to measure sets of oscillator strengths in the near-IR (λ ≈ 1-5 μm), with a primary focus on the Fe-group elements. A description of the methods and their applicability will be presented, including recent results for Ti I.

  20. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Bubenov, Sergey Sergeevich; Mordvinova, Natalia Evgenievna; Dorofeev, Sergey Gennadievich

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm). In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculiarities of the process. The structure, Ag content, and optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. The optimal conditions for maximizing both the reaction yield and IR photoluminescence quantum yield are found. PMID:28685116

  1. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Lucas, Seth A; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-18

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for caries detection employing transillumination and reflectance imaging geometries. Three intra-oral NIR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo, real time videos using a high definition InGaAs SWIR camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provide occlusal and interproximal images using 1300-nm light where water absorption is low and enamel manifests the highest transparency. A third reflectance probe utilizes cross polarization and operates at >1500-nm, where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. These probes are being used in an ongoing clinical study to assess the diagnostic performance of NIR imaging for the detection of caries lesions in teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons.

  2. Near-IR Two-Photon Fluorescent Sensor for K(+) Imaging in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Sui, Binglin; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-08-19

    A new two-photon excited fluorescent K(+) sensor is reported. The sensor comprises three moieties, a highly selective K(+) chelator as the K(+) recognition unit, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative modified with phenylethynyl groups as the fluorophore, and two polyethylene glycol chains to afford water solubility. The sensor displays very high selectivity (>52-fold) in detecting K(+) over other physiological metal cations. Upon binding K(+), the sensor switches from nonfluorescent to highly fluorescent, emitting red to near-IR (NIR) fluorescence. The sensor exhibited a good two-photon absorption cross section, 500 GM at 940 nm. Moreover, it is not sensitive to pH in the physiological pH range. Time-dependent cell imaging studies via both one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the sensor is suitable for dynamic K(+) sensing in living cells.

  3. Targeting β-amyloid plaques and oligomers: development of near-IR fluorescence imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwu; Yang, Jian; Wang, Letian; Xu, Yungen; Zhang, Siyuan; Lv, Jie; Ran, Chongzhao; Li, Yuyan

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicated that shifting treatment to a presymptomatic stage may produce significant benefits to prevent/alleviate the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); in particular, early incorporation of noninvasive imaging and biomarker testing will be significantly beneficial for AD drug development. Based on amyloid cascade hypothesis and its revised version, both β-amyloid deposition and soluble oligomeric species could be good diagnostic biomarkers for AD. Near-IR fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, which so far is limited to animal studies, is a promising method for its incomparable advantages such as low cost, high-throughput and easy operation. This review focuses on recent reported NIRF probes that showed excellent binding to plaques and oligomers. We hope that this review will shed light on the future of NIRF probes' discovery.

  4. An Empirical Decomposition of Near-IR Emission into Galactic and Extragalactic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    We decompose the COBE/DIRBE observations of the near-IR sky brightness (minus zodiacal light) into Galactic stellar and interstellar medium (ISM) components and an extragalactic background. This empirical procedure allows us to estimate the 4.9 micron cosmic infrared background (CIB) as a function of the CIB intensity at shorter wavelengths. A weak indication of a rising CIB intensity at wavelengths greater than 3.5$ microns hints at interesting astrophysics in the CIB spectrum, or warns that the foreground zodiacal emission may be incompletely subtracted. Subtraction of only the stellar component from the zodiacal-light-subtracted all--sky map reveals the clearest 3.5 micron ISM emission map, which is found to be tightly correlated with the ISM emission at far-IR wavelengths.

  5. Nd:AlN polycrystalline ceramics: A candidate media for tunable, high energy, near IR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieg, A. T.; Grossnickle, M. J.; Kodera, Y.; Gabor, N. M.; Garay, J. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present processing and characterization of Nd-doped aluminum nitride (Nd:AlN) polycrystalline ceramics. We compare ceramics with significant segregation of Nd to those exhibiting minimal segregation. Spatially resolved photoluminescence maps reveal a strong correlation between homogeneous Nd doping and spatially homogeneous light emission. The spectroscopically resolved light emission lines show excellent agreement with the expected Nd electronic transitions. Notably, the lines are significantly broadened, producing near IR emission (˜1077 nm) with a remarkable ˜100 nm bandwidth at room temperature. We attribute the broadened lines to a combination of effects: multiple Nd-sites, anisotropy of AlN and phonon broadening. These broadened, overlapping lines in a media with excellent thermal conductivity have potential for Nd-based, tunable lasers with high average power.

  6. First Results: A Custom Near-IR Filter For Finding Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, M. C.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first results from our custom near-IR filter designed for use with ULBCAM on UH 88" telescope. Our 6% wide filter is centered on the 1.45 micron steam absorption feature seen prominently in the spectra of M and L type objects, and is designed to determine spectral type, independent of gravity and reddening, to within one subtype. For identifying young brown dwarfs in star-forming regions, our filter is designed to reduce the number of contaminant field dwarfs, giants, and extragalactic objects, thereby increasing the efficiency of spectroscopic followup over existing broad-band-only photometric selected samples. We discuss our data reduction and calibration procedures, and present observations of the Ophiuchus Star-Forming Region. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-0407441 and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

  7. Multi-dimensional Quasar Selection from Optical, Near-IR, and Astrometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Mehta, S. S.; Peters, C. M.; Myers, A. D.; Ross, N. P.

    2012-01-01

    In the future, quasar selection will be much more multi-dimensional than it is today. Algorithms will go far beyond simple optical color or variability selection. Instead quasar selection will rely on simultaneous usage of multi-wavelength photometry, variability, and even astrometry. The SDSS Southern Equatorial Stripe (aka Stripe 82) is an ideal proving ground for such future algorithms. Herein we take the first steps in true multi-dimensional analysis by describing an algorithm that uses multi-epoch optical data from the SDSS, near-IR data from UKIDSS, and astrometric information to select quasars (and determine photometric redshifts). We present the resulting catalog and compare our results to existing spectroscopic surveys.

  8. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Kiselev, A.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Bazilevsky, A. T.; Bondarenko, A.; Moiseev, P.

    2013-09-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2015) and Luna-Resurs (launch in 2017) Russian surface missions. The LIS is mounted on the mechanic arm of landing module in the field of view (45°) of stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast together with High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface area in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The electrically commanded acousto-optic filter scans sequentially at a desired sampling, with random access, over the entire spectral range.

  9. Near-IR Extragalactic Background Results from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Michael B.; CIBER

    2016-01-01

    The near IR extragalactic background light (EBL) encodes the integrated light production over cosmic history, so represents the total emission from all galaxies along the line of sight up to ancient first-light objects present during the epoch of reionization (EOR). This EOR emission necessarily comprises part of the background, and indeed a minimum level is required to supply enough photons to ionize the intergalactic medium, corresponding to an EBL brightness less than 1 nW m^-2 sr^-1, about one tenth of the integrated galactic light (IGL). In addition to emission from these IGL and EOR populations, low surface brightness tidal streams of stars stripped by gravitational interactions during galaxy formation at low redshifts, called intrahalo light (IHL), may also contribute a significant fraction of the EBL. Models for these components can be constrained both through direct photometric measurements, as well as the new technique of EBL anisotropy intensity mapping that takes advantage of the fact that the Zodiacal Light is spatially smooth while distant populations produce anisotropies with distinct spatial and spectral characteristics. This talk will present recent results from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), a sounding rocket borne payload designed to measure both the fluctuations and direct photometric emission of the extra-galactic background light. The anisotropy of the near-IR EBL suggests the presence of a bright component approximately as bright as the IGL component near 1 micron which we interpret as the aggregate emission from low-redshift IHL. New direct photometric measurements from CIBER's low resolution spectrometer will also be discussed.

  10. Real-time near-IR imaging of laser-ablation crater evolution in dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    We have shown that the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm in the near-infrared and that near-IR (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue and for observing defects in the interior of the tooth. Lasers are now routinely used for many applications in dentistry including the ablation of dental caries. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that real-time NIR imaging can be used to monitor laser-ablation under varying conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage and to measure the rate and efficiency of ablation. Moreover, NIR imaging may have considerable potential for monitoring the removal of demineralized areas of the tooth during cavity preparations. Sound human tooth sections of approximately 3-mm thickness were irradiated by a CO II laser under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with band-pass filter centered at 131--nm combined with an InGaAs focal plane array with a NIR zoom microscope in transillumination. Due to the high transparency of enamel at 1310-nm, laser-incisions were clearly visible to the dentin-enamel junction and crack formation, dehydration and irreversible thermal changes were observed during ablation. This study showed that there is great potential for near-IR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to: assess safe laser operating parameters by imaging thermal and stress-induced damage, elaborate the mechanisms involved in ablation such as dehydration, and monitor the removal of demineralized enamel.

  11. Untangling the Near-IR Spectral Features in the Protoplanetary Environment of KH 15D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulanantham, Nicole A.; Herbst, William; Gilmore, Martha S.; Cauley, P. Wilson; Leggett, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report on Gemini/GNIRS observations of the binary T Tauri system V582 Mon (KH 15D) at three orbital phases. These spectra allow us to untangle five components of the system: the photosphere and magnetosphere of star B, the jet, scattering properties of the ring material, and excess near-infrared (near-IR) radiation previously attributed to a possible self-luminous planet. We confirm an early-K subgiant classification for star B and show that the magnetospheric He i emission line is variable, possibly indicating increased mass accretion at certain times. As expected, the H2 emission features associated with the inner part of the jet show no variation with orbital phase. We show that the reflectance spectrum for the scattered light has a distinctive blue slope and spectral features consistent with scattering and absorption by a mixture of water and methane ice grains in the 1–50 μm size range. This suggests that the methane frost line is closer than ∼5 au in this system, requiring that the grains be shielded from direct radiation. After correcting for features from the scattered light, jet, magnetosphere, and photosphere, we confirm the presence of leftover near-IR light from an additional source, detectable near minimum brightness. A spectral emission feature matching the model spectrum of a 10 MJ, 1 Myr old planet is found in the excess flux, but other expected features from this model are not seen. Our observations, therefore, tentatively support the picture that a luminous planet is present within the system, although they cannot yet be considered definitive.

  12. Near-IR-induced, UV-induced, and spontaneous isomerizations in 5-methylcytosine and 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Leszek; Reva, Igor; Rostkowska, Hanna; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J

    2014-03-20

    Monomeric 5-methylcytosine (5mCyt) and 5-fluorocytosine (5FCyt) were studied using the matrix-isolation method. In 5mCyt and 5FCyt, the most stable form, dominating in low-temperature matrixes, is the amino-hydroxy (AH) tautomer. For both compounds, irradiation of the matrixes with near-IR laser light or with broadband near-IR or mid-IR light induces interconversions between the two rotamers of tautomer AH. In addition, for matrixes kept in darkness, a spontaneous tunneling conversion of the higher-energy hydroxy conformer (with the OH group directed toward the N3 atom) into the lower-energy form (OH directed toward N1) was occurring, with half-life time of 70 min for 5mCyt and 127 min for 5FCyt. These tunneling processes are much faster than that found for unsubstituted cytosine, where the half-life time is more than 30 h. UV irradiation of 5mCyt (at 316 nm) led to phototautomeric conversion of the amino-oxo form into the amino-hydroxy tautomer. Another phototransformation induced by irradiation of 5mCyt at 316 nm was the cleavage of the C-N bond in the amino-oxo form, resulting in generation of the open-ring conjugated isocyanate product. Irradiation of 5mCyt at shorter waves (λ ≤ 310 nm) induced the syn-anti photoisomerization within the imino-oxo forms of the compound. For matrix-isolated 5FCyt, the amount of the amino-oxo form was very small (with respect to the amino-hydroxy tautomer), while the imino-oxo isomers were not detected at all.

  13. A New Method for Wide-field Near-IR Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel B.; MacKenty, John; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    We present a new technique for wide and shallow observations using the near-infrared channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide-field near-IR surveys with HST are generally inefficient, as guide star acquisitions make it impractical to observe more than one pointing per orbit. This limitation can be circumvented by guiding with gyros alone, which is possible as long as the telescope has three functional gyros. The method presented here allows us to observe mosaics of eight independent WFC3-IR pointings in a single orbit by utilizing the fact that HST drifts by only a very small amount in the 25 s between non-destructive reads of unguided exposures. By shifting the reads and treating them as independent exposures the full resolution of WFC3 can be restored. We use this “drift and shift” (DASH) method in the Cycle 23 COSMOS-DASH program, which will obtain 456 WFC3 H 160 pointings in 57 orbits, covering an area of 0.6 degree in the COSMOS field down to H 160 = 25. When completed, the program will more than triple the area of extra-galactic survey fields covered by near-IR imaging at HST resolution. We demonstrate the viability of the method with the first four orbits (32 pointings) of this program. We show that the resolution of the WFC3 camera is preserved, and that structural parameters of galaxies are consistent with those measured in guided observations.

  14. The ESO Telescope bibliography at your fingertips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta; Meakins, Silvia

    2012-09-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. The ESO Library has developed and maintains the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a database of refereed papers that use observational data generated by ESO's facilities. Recently, a new public interface has been released. In addition to classical queries for bibliographic and facility-related information, it provides advanced features like faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. An additional tool offers the possibility to create graphical statistics on the fly based on user-defined criteria. The ESO Telescope Bibliography is available at http://telbib.eso.org/.

  15. Open House at the ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.

    2006-12-01

    On 15 October, the ESO Headquarters opened its doors to the public as part of the All-Campus Open House organised in connection with the inauguration of the extension of the underground line U6 from Munich to the Garching campus. The day was blessed with clear skies and plenty of sunshine, and a large number of citizens took advantage of the opportunity to visit the campus. The estimated number of visitors at ESO was close to 3000 people, a record number. Another record was set by the number of ESO staff who, in anticipation of the high num-ber of guests, volunteered to spend their Sunday at work to explain what ESO is doing and why it is important.

  16. ESO Presentation in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.; D'Odorico, S.

    2004-12-01

    On November 8, ESO continued its series of presentations in memberstates with an event in Copenhagen. So far events have been organised in Belgium, Finland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The purpose of these presentations is to raise the awareness of ESO amongst decision-makers, academia and the media. Over time, the scope and specific focus of the national events have varied, considering the particular circumstances and the wishes of the national hosts, and accordingly, the presentation in Denmark was primarily oriented towards industry. The meeting was initiated by the Royal Danish Consulate General in Munich in conjunction with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovation. Leading up to the meeting, several articles about ESO had appeared in the Danish press and the 2nd TV Channel featured a report on the ESO projects also in connection with the event.

  17. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European

  18. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  19. Near-IR activity of hybrid solar cells: Enhancement of efficiency by dissociating excitons generated in PbS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, Asim; Rath, Arup K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2010-02-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on PbS nanoparticles remained inactive in the near-IR region due to a not-so-favorable energy band-diagram that does not allow dissociation of excitons generated in PbS. In this work, with the introduction of TiO2 nanostructures in the PbS-based hybrid system, we show an enhancement of photovoltaic performance in both visible and near-IR regions. The addition of TiO2 increases the power conversion efficiency from 0.006% to 0.12%. With the aid of energy band-diagram, we show that excitons generated in PbS even in the near-IR range can now become dissociated to yield photocurrent in the external circuit.

  20. The Radiative Lifetime in Near-IR-Luminescent Ytterbium Cryptates: The Key to Extremely High Quantum Yields.

    PubMed

    Doffek, Christine; Seitz, Michael

    2015-08-10

    A powerful strategy for the improvement of near-IR lanthanoid luminescence has been successfully employed for the first time, which involves the rational and deliberate shortening of the radiative luminescence lifetimes τ(rad) in molecular ytterbium complexes. In this context, the bidentate chelating unit 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide has been identified as being responsible for decreasing τ(rad) substantially in macrobicyclic Yb cryptates. This strategy, when combined with conventional approaches, yields unprecedented absolute near-IR quantum yields of up to 12%. This extraordinary efficiency represents the highest value measured for any molecular lanthanoid near-IR emitter. The proof-of-concept for the implementation of the new strategy opens up entirely new prospects for the field of lanthanoid luminescence. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenneth H; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-24

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  2. Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-07

    We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.

  3. Main High-Resolution Near-IR Spectrometer for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, N.

    2017-06-01

    We present the ongoing CRISES+ project on the development of a cross-dispersed high resolution near-infrared spectrometer for the ESO Very Large Telescope. The presentation highlights the relation between science objectives, technical solutions, and the structure of the project. We also share some of the insights on the implementation and management of the project that are crucial for keeping the tight time-line through efficient interaction between consortium members.

  4. SwiftJ1943.4+0228: GROND observation of the optical/near-IR counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Arne; Nardini, Marco; Greiner, Jochen

    2012-04-01

    We observed the new transient Swift J1943.4+0228 (Krimm et al. 2012, ATel #4049) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'J'HK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile). Within a 4min integration starting April 14th 09:37 we clearly detect the candidate counterpart reported by Krimm et al. (2012, ATel #4049) based on Swift/UVOT observations.

  5. The VMC ESO Public Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, M.-R. L.; Anders, P.; Bagheri, G.; Bekki, K.; Clementini, G.; Emerson, J.; Evans, C. J.; For, B.-Q.; de Grijs, R.; Gibson, B.; Girardi, L.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Guandalini, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kamath, D.; Marconi, M.; Marquette, J.-B.; Miszalski, B.; Moore, B.; Moretti, M. I.; Muraveva, T.; Napiwotzki, R.; Oliveira, J. M.; Piatti, A. E.; Ripepi, V.; Romita, K.; Rubele, S.; Sturm, R.; Tatton, B.; van Loon, J. Th.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Wood, P. R.; Zaggia, S.

    2013-12-01

    The VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) has entered its core phase: about 50% of the observations across the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC), the Magellanic Bridge and Stream have already been secured and the data are processed and analysed regularly. The initial analyses, concentrated on the first two completed tiles in the LMC (including 30 Doradus and the South Ecliptic Pole), show the superior quality of the data. The photometric depth of the VMC survey allows the derivation of the star formation history (SFH) with unprecedented quality compared to previous wide-area surveys, while reddening maps of high angular resolution are constructed using red clump stars. The multi-epoch Ks-band data reveal tight period-luminosity relations for variable stars and permit the measurement of accurate proper motions of the stellar populations. The VMC survey continues to acquire data that will address many issues in the field of star and galaxy evolution.

  6. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a 10- to 20-fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12-48 hours exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths >500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two-dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion contrast in the visible does not accurately reflect the

  7. Dimensional Reduction of a Layered Metal Chalcogenide into a 1D Near-IR Direct Band Gap Semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Porter, Spencer H.; Goldberger, Joshua E.

    2012-07-24

    Reducing the dimensionality of inorganic lattices allows for the creation of new materials that have unique optoelectronic properties. We demonstrate that a layered metal chalcogenide lattice, TiS{sub 2}, can form a dimensionally reduced crystalline one-dimensional hybrid organic/inorganic TiS{sub 2}(ethylenediamine) framework when synthesized from molecular precursors in solution. This solid has strong absorption above 1.70 eV and pronounced emission in the near-IR regime. The energy dependence of the absorption, the near-IR photoluminescence, and electronic band structure calculations confirm that TiS{sub 2}(ethylenediamine) has a direct band gap.

  8. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: Variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a ten to twenty fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Materials and Methods Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12–48 hr exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Results Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion

  9. Near-IR Imaging of the Young Planetary Nebula M1-91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimeo, A. J.; Trammell, S. R.

    1997-05-01

    We present J and K band near-infrared images of the young bipolar planetary nebula M1-91. The images were obtained using the GRIM II near-IR camera on the ARC 3.5 meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory. At optical wavelengths, M1-91 appears as two roughly, symmetric lobes of nebulosity with a bright central source located between the lobes. Further, the bipolar lobes contain knots or brightness enhancements that are point symmetric about the nucleus (Goodrich 1991). The morphology of M1-91 in the J band images is similar to that seen in optical. The nebula is obviously bipolar and the lobes contain point symmetric bright knots. On the other hand, the bright nucleus between the bipolar lobes dominates the K band images. The bright knots are still clearly visible at K, but the overall shape of the nebula is more amorphous. While the overall morphology of M1-91 changes as we look farther into the infrared, the knots of emission are plainly visible in both the optical and near-IR images. This suggest that these features may be formed by a different mechanism. At short wavelengths the bipolar lobes of M1-91 act as reflection nebulae, scattering light from the heavily obscured central regions into our line of sight and producing the overall bipolar appearance of the object. The bipolar lobes are highly polarized (P >20%) at optical wavelengths (Trammell 1994) supporting this idea. On the other hand, we propose that the bright knots seen in the lobes of M1-91 result from emission produced locally in the lobes, not via scattering. FLIER's have been seen in numerous planetary nebulae and may be related to collimated outflows in these objects (e.g. Balick et al. 1994). HST images of M1-92, a younger cousin of M1-91, reveal a jet in the bipolar lobes of this proto-planetary nebula (Trammell and Goodrich 1996). We suggest that the knots seen in the lobes of M1-91 result from the impact of a similar outflow with the bipolar lobes. We discuss several possible mechanisms

  10. Stimulus responsive nanogel with innate near IR fluorescent capability for drug delivery and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vineeth M; Shenoy, Sachin J; Victor, Sunita P; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2016-10-01

    A brighter, non toxic and biocompatible optical imaging agent is one of the major quests of biomedical research. Here in, we report a photoluminescent comacromer [PEG-poly(propylene fumarate)-citric acid-glycine] and novel stimulus (pH) responsive nanogel endowed with excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence (EDF) for combined drug delivery and bioimaging applications. The comacromer when excited at different wavelengths in visible region from 400nm to 640nm exhibits fluorescent emissions from 510nm to 718nm in aqueous condition. It has high Stokes shift (120nm), fluorescent lifetime (7 nanoseconds) and quantum yield (50%). The nanogel, C-PLM-NG, prepared with this photoluminescent comacromer and N,N-dimethyl amino ethylmethacrylate (DMEMA) has spherical morphology with particle size around 100nm and 180nm at pH 7.4 (physiological) and 5.5 (intracellular acidic condition of cancer cells) respectively. The studies on fluorescence characteristics of C-PLM NG in aqueous condition reveal large red-shift with emissions from 523nm to 700nm for excitations from 460nm to 600nm ascertaining the EDF characteristics. Imaging the near IR emission with excitation at 535nm was accomplished using cut-off filters. The nanogel undergoes pH responsive swelling and releases around 50% doxorubicin (DOX) at pH 5.5 in comparison with 15% observed at pH 7.4. The studies on in vitro cytotoxicity with MTT assay and hemolysis revealed that the present nanogel is non-toxic. The DOX-loaded C-PLM-NG encapsulated in Hela cells induces lysis of cancer cells. The inherent EDF characteristics associated with C-PLM NG enable cellular imaging of Hela cells. The studies on biodistribution and clearance mechanism of C-PLM-NG from the body of mice reveal bioimaging capability and safety of the present nanogel. This is the first report on a polymeric nanogel with innate near IR emissions for bioimaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Axion Decay and Anisotropy of Near-IR Extragalactic Background Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Chen, Xuelei; Zemcov, Michael; Smidt, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is composed of the cumulative radiation from all galaxies and active galactic nuclei over cosmic history. In addition to point sources, the EBL also contains information from diffuse sources of radiation. The angular power spectra of the near-infrared intensities could contain additional signals, and a complete understanding of the nature of the infrared (IR) background is still lacking in the literature. Here we explore the constraints that can be placed on particle decays, especially candidate dark matter (DM) models involving axions that trace DM halos of galaxies. Axions with a mass around a few electronvolts will decay via two photons with wavelengths in the near-IR band and will leave a signature in the IR background intensity power spectrum. Using recent power spectra measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, we find that the 0.6-1.6 μm power spectra can be explained by axions with masses around 4 eV. The total axion abundance Ω a ≃ 0.05, and it is comparable to the baryon density of the universe. The suggested mean axion mass and abundance are not ruled out by existing cosmological observations. Interestingly, the axion model with a mass distribution is preferred by the data, which cannot be explained by the standard quantum chromodynamics theory and needs further discussion.

  12. Silver corrole complexes: unusual oxidation states and near-IR-absorbing dyes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Woormileela; Sommer, Michael G; Deibel, Naina; Ehret, Fabien; Sarkar, Biprajit; Kar, Sanjib

    2014-11-24

    Macrocycles such as porphyrins and corroles have important functions in chemistry and biology, including light absorption for photosynthesis. Generation of near-IR (NIR)-absorbing dyes based on metal complexes of these macrocycles for mimicking natural photosynthesis still remains a challenging task. Herein, the syntheses of four new Ag(III) corrolato complexes with differently substituted corrolato ligands are presented. A combination of structural, electrochemical, UV/Vis/NIR-EPR spectroelectrochemical, and DFT studies was used to decipher the geometric and electronic properties of these complexes in their various redox states. This combined approach established the neutral compounds as stable Ag(III) complexes, and the one-electron reduced species of all the compounds as unusual, stable Ag(II) complexes. The one-electron oxidized forms of two of the complexes display absorptions in the NIR region, and thus they are rare examples of mononuclear complexes of corroles that absorb in the NIR region. The appearance of this NIR band, which has mixed intraligand charge transfer/intraligand character, is strongly dependent on the substituents of the corrole rings. Hence, the present work revolves round the design principles for the generation of corrole-based NIR-absorbing dyes and shows the potential of corroles for stabilizing unusual metal oxidation states. These findings thus further contribute to the generation of functional metal complexes based on such macrocyclic ligands. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Near InfraRed IMager: A NICMOS3 near-IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, M.; Owl, R. Young; Leach, R.

    1996-12-01

    We describe the characteristics and design of Near--InfraRed IMager (NIRIM), a new near--IR camera with a spectral coverage of 0.8--2.5mu m. NIRIM serves a dual purpose of wide field imaging on the Mt. Laguna 1 m telescope and high angular resolution imaging as a science camera on a laser-guided adaptive optics system on the Mt. Wilson 100 inch telescope. NIRIM houses a 256x256 HgCdTe array (a.k.a. NICMOS3 array), reimaging optics to decrease background radiation and 14 filters; all cryogenically cooled with liquid nitrogen to ~ 77 K. On the Mt. Laguna 1 m telescope, where it saw first light in July 1995, NIRIM has three plate scale options: 0.\\arcsec 5, 1\\arcsec, and 2\\arcsec per pixel with corresponding field of views of 2.1\\arcmin, 4.3\\arcmin and 8.5\\arcmin. The University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) is the laser guide adaptive optics system being built for the Mt. Wilson 100 inch telescope. We expect NIRIM to see first light on UnISIS in summer 1997 when UnISIS is operational. Characterizations of NIRIM are presented for NIRIM on the Mt. Laguna 1 m telescope.

  14. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles with Fluorogenic Near-IR-Emitting Squaraine Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Yao, Sheng; Bondar, Mykhailo V.; Belfield, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Two squaraine (SQ) dyes, N-propanesulfonate-benzothiazolium squaraine (SQ-1) and N-propanesulfonate-benzoindolium squaraine (SQ-2), were synthesized with sulfonate groups to increase water solubility. Both dyes are almost nonfluorescent in aqueous solution with fluorescent quantum yields of 0.03, but exhibited fluorescence enhancement after noncovalently binding with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Upon addition of BSA, the fluorescence intensity increased by ca. a factor of 10, along with a 10-fold extension in the fluorescence lifetime. SQ-1 and SQ-2 interacted with BSA efficiently and appeared to show a preference for binding at site II, which involves combinational effects of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The fluorogenic squaraine dyes were then used to label BSA, forming BSA-based nanoparticles (NPs) through noncovalent binding. The resulting BSA-SQ NPs exhibited enhanced near-IR fluorescence and reduced aggregation of the squaraine moiety. The BSA-SQ NPs were used for cell incubation and bioimaging studies. Confocal fluorescent images were obtained for HCT 116 cells incubated with the BSA-SQ NPs and LysoSensor Green, demonstrating the utility of the NP probes for intracellular imaging. This strategy ovecomes the generally low fluorescence emission of SQ dyes in water and aggregation-reduced fluorescence, providing a versatile strategy for sensing and imaging in biological environments. PMID:23992402

  15. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal; Kam, Yossi; Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav; Rubinstein, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2013-03-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid organo-inorganic clay with nonionic interlayers. mid- and near-IR spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Finocchio, Elisabetta; Baccini, Irene; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca

    2011-07-07

    The intercalation of organic polymers molecules (i.e., PEGs and BRIJ) into a standard Ca-montmorillonite has been studied by XRD, TG, and IR spectroscopy. The polymer intercalation is confirmed by the increasing of the d(001) in XRD spectra as well as by the complex multisteps thermal decomposition behavior of the organo-clay materials. Mid-IR and diffuse reflectance near-IR spectra of the intercalated materials show the polymer diagnostic bands (CH stretching and deformation mode), shifted or changed in shape by the interaction with the clay matrix. Both PEG 1500 and PEG 4000 based materials are likely intercalated in an extended configuration, similar to the amorphous polymer form. BRIJ intercalated polymer spectra suggest the disordered conformation of the alkilic chain in a prevailing "gauche", poorly packed, conformation. Host montmorillonite IR bands, mainly OH and water stretching and deformation fundamentals, combination, and overtone bands, are reduced in intensity by polymer intercalation, pointing out an interaction, likely through H-bonding and/or a possible substitution of cations hydration water molecules.

  17. Near-IR diode laser absorption for measurement of tropospheric HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of using tunable lead salt diode lasers in the infrared for measurement of tropospheric HO2 has been frequently considered. Although the sensitivity of diode laser absorption has been improved through the use of high frequency detection techniques, nature has been unkind in that the HO2 absorption cross sections are weak. Even using the most optimistic assumptions about attainable path length and detectable absorbance, measurement of tropospheric HO2 by diode laser absorption in the mid-IR appears marginal. A possible alternative method for measuring HO2 is by absorption at near-infrared wavelengths. Several absorption bands of HO2 occur in the wavelength region between 1.2 and 1.6 micron due to electronic transitions and overtones of the fundamental vibrational modes. InGaAsP diode lasers operate in this wavelength region and can be used for high resolution spectroscopy in a manner analogous to the lead salt lasers. A diode laser system in the near-IR offers some advantages.

  18. Phthalocyanine dimerization-based molecular beacons using near-IR fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Nesterova, Irina V.; Erdem, S. Sibel; Pakhomov, Serhii; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate the use of a novel dimerization-based molecular beacon (MB) probe consisting of two metallo-phthalocyanine (Pc) fluorophores that use near-IR fluorescence, appropriate for highly specific and sensitive in-vivo and/or in-vitro DNA/RNA detection. Pc’s possess a propensity to form non-fluorescent H-dimers that is utilized as the molecular “off” switch in the closed MB conformation. The “on” switch, which is generated when the solution target binds to the loop of the MB forming the open form, also provides two fluorophores for transduction resulting in a doubling of the extinction coefficient and improving the resulting fluorescence yield compared to a classical single-fluorophore/quencher MB system. In addition, the Pc-based MBs possess high thermal, photo and chemical stabilities that are essential for many highly sensitive applications, such as molecular imaging. The dimer-based MBs were obtained using a simple single-step synthesis procedure and demonstrated excellent quenching efficiencies (98%) as well as a high signal-to-background ratio (~60) exceeding the performance characteristics of many conventionally-available MB probes. PMID:19191492

  19. Spectroscopic observations of the Uranus' satellite Miranda in Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgeot, F.; Dumas, C.; Merlin, F.; Vernazza, P.; Alvarez-Candal, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present new Near-IR spectra of the Uranus' icy satellite Miranda. This body is probably the most remarkable of all satellites of Uranus, displaying series of surface features such as faults, craters and largescale upwelling, remnant of a geologically very active past. The observations were performed first at the Palomar Observatory with the PHARO instrument (Palomar High Angular Resolution Observer) and then at the Mauna Kea Observatory with SpeX instrument based on the IRTF (Infra-Red Telescope Facility). Water ice is clearly visible in K-band (large 2.0 μm absorption band) and crystalline water ice (at 1.65 μm) seems to cover the most part of the satellite's surface. We focused the study in H band on the 1.42-1.72 μm range at observations dates corresponding to the leading and trailing hemispheres of Miranda. Contrary to the other outer Uranus' moons (Grundy et al. 2006), we did not found any significative differences between both hemispheres in this spectral range. We also studied the possible presence of volatiles like ammonia hydrate and do not exclude the possible presence of a tiny 2.22 μm band yet observed by Bauer et al. 2002. No significant features of carbon dioxide were identified on any spectra. We performed spectral models, based on bi-hemispherical reflectance theory (Hapke 1993) in order to obtain more details on the chemical compounds possibly present on the surface of this Uranian satellite.

  20. Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemistry of Near-IR Absorbing Bacteriochlorins Related to Bacteriochlorophyll a

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrev, Andrei; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Chen, Ping; Ohkubo, Kei; Robinson, Byron C.; Barkigia, Kathleen M.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kadish, Karl M.; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2012-01-01

    A series of new bacteriochlorins was synthesized using 132-oxobacteriopyropheophorbide- a (derived from bacteriochlorophyll-a) as a starting material, which on reacting with o-phenylenediamine and 1,10-diaminonaphthalene afforded highly conjugated annulated bacteriochlorins with fused quinoxaline, benzimidazole and perimidine rings respectively. The absorption spectra of these novel bacteriochlorins demonstrated remarkably red-shifted intense Qy absorption bands observed in the range of 816–850 nm with high molar extinction coefficients (89,900–136,800). Treatment of 132-oxo-bacteriopyropheophorbide a methyl ester with diazomethane resulted in the formation of bacterioverdins containing a fused six member methoxy substituted cyclohexenone (verdin) as an isomeric mixture. The pure isomers which exhibit long wavelength absorptions in the near-IR region (865–890 nm) are highly stable at room temperature with high reactivity with O2 at the triplet photoexcited state, favorable redox potential and could be potential candidates for use as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). PMID:23082726

  1. Monitoring proton dissociation and solution conformation of chiral ytterbium complexes with near-IR CD.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Moreno; Pintacuda, Guido; Cuzzola, Angela; Di Bari, Lorenzo

    2005-05-05

    The ytterbium complex [Yb((S)-THP)](3+) ((S)-THP = (1S,4S,7S,10S-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) is investigated in solution through NMR, near-IR absorption, and CD spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the paramagnetic pseudocontact NMR shift shows Lambda helicity of the ligand cage around the metal. The NIR CD spectrum recorded at acidic pH is found to be very similar to that of [Yb((R)-DOTMA)](-) ((R)-DOTMA = (1R,4R,7R,10R)-alpha,alpha',alpha'',alpha'''-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), which in solution assumes a twisted square antiprism (TSA) conformation. The similarity of the NIR CD spectra is discussed, and it is the first proof of the Lambda(lambda,lambda,lambda,lambda) conformation of [Yb((S)-THP)](3+). NIR CD spectra recorded in the pH range of 2-9 allow one to easily follow proton dissociation and to calculate the pK of this equilibrium in water (pK(A) = 6.4 +/- 0.1). This value agrees well with that determined for [Lu((S)-THP)](3+) using potentiometric methods. This demonstrates once again that NIR CD spectroscopy is a powerful technique for investigating the solution structure and dynamics of these complexes.

  2. Design of a near-IR Doppler instrument for planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Wang, Ji; Groot, John

    2010-07-01

    Doppler searches are extending to the near infrared to detect and characterize habitable planets around low mass stars. We present an optical design and performance of a near-IR Doppler instrument. This instrument has two operating modes covering 0.8-1.8 microns. One mode is called IRET, which consists of a fix-delay interferometer and a crossdispersed echelle spectrograph to simultaneously cover 0.8-1.35 microns with a spectral resolution of R=22000 on a 2k x 2k H2RG IR array. The other mode is called FIRST, which uses a silicon immersion grating as the main disperser to simultaneously cover 1.4-1.8 microns with a spectral resolution of R=55000 on the same detector as IRET. The triplepass parabola white pupil design is used to restrain background scatter radiation with stable configuration for precision radial velocity measurements. We used high index standard glasses for camera optics and VPH gratings as crossdispersers in both modes. The FIRST mode can be switched in and out conveniently while the IRET mode is kept without moving parts to increase its stability. This instrument is designed to deliver up to 1 m/s Doppler precision RV measurements of nearby bright M dwarfs at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope. The instrument is expected to be operational in the spring 2011.

  3. Near-IR multi-modal imaging of natural occlusal lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dustin; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2009-02-01

    Reflectance and transillumination imaging show demineralization with high contrast in the near-IR. The objective of this study is to use lesion size and contrast acquired in reflectance and transillumination near-infrared imaging modes to estimate the severity of natural occlusal caries lesions. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) light can be used to effectively image artificial carious lesions. However, its efficacy on natural lesions requires further exploration. Fifty extracted teeth with varying amounts of occlusal decay were examined using a NIR imaging system operating at 1310-nm. Image analysis software was used to calculate contrast values between sound and carious tooth structure. After imaging, teeth were histologically sampled at 1-mm intervals in order to determine lesion depth. Lesion contrast in transillumination mode significantly increased with lesion depth (p<0.001), while lesion contrast in reflectance mode did not increase. The lesion area demonstrated a significant increase with lesion severity in both imaging modes. These results suggest that lesion contrast and area can be used to estimate lesion severity in NIR images.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Near-IR BN/KL outflow images (Bally+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Silvia, D.; Youngblood, A.

    2015-02-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon is the first and only sodium-based multi-laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics system. GeMS works with a LGS constellation of 5-spots: 4 of the LGS spots are at the corners of a 60" square, with the 5-th positioned in the center. The Adaptive Optics (AO) bench called Canopus is mounted on one of the f/16 Cassegrain ports. Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is a wide-field 4096 by 4096 pixel (85" by 85" field of view) camera designed to work at the diffraction limit of the 8- meter telescope in the near-infrared. Three 85" diameter fields were observed in OMC1 between 30 December 2012 and 28 February 2013 using GSAOI. Observations of each field were obtained through 1% bandpass narrow-band filters centered on the 1.644um [FeII] and 2.122um H2 emission lines and the broad-band Ks filter. The corrected images have FWHM diameters of 0.080" to 0.10", providing the highest angular resolution images of the BN/KL outflow ever obtained in the near-IR. (2 data files).

  5. Emission properties of plasmas induced by near IR laser pulses in the far VUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khater, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    Influence of pulsed laser energy on emission characteristics of laser plasmas induced in various inert atmospheres and pressures is demonstrated by emission spectroscopy in the far vacuum UV zone (around 100 nm). In this context, argon and helium were employed and their pressures were controlled in the range 0.005-5.0 mbar. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser emitting in the near IR at 1064 nm was employed in the experiments. The laser energy was varied between 200 and 800 mJ and focused onto a reference steel sample within a vacuum-tight chamber. The radiation emitted from the line plasmas generated was recorded from a section located 2.5 mm from the target surface. Under any gas composition and pressure studied, line and background emission intensities as well as signal-to-background ratios showed significant dependence on the laser energy. For example, at 800 mJ the highest spectral line intensity was obtained in argon atmosphere at a pressure of about 0.5 mbar, while helium at the same pressure produced the largest signal-to-background ratio using lower laser pulse energy of 400 mJ. In any case, the nature and characteristics of laser plasma-based emission in the far vacuum UV are similar to those recorded in the UV-visible range.

  6. GFIT2: an experimental algorithm for vertical profile retrieval from near-IR spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Connor, Brian J.; Sherlock, Vanessa; Toon, Geoff; ...

    2016-08-02

    An algorithm for retrieval of vertical profiles from ground-based spectra in the near IR is described and tested. Known as GFIT2, the algorithm is primarily intended for CO2, and is used exclusively for CO2 in this paper. Retrieval of CO2 vertical profiles from ground-based spectra is theoretically possible, would be very beneficial for carbon cycle studies and the validation of satellite measurements, and has been the focus of much research in recent years. GFIT2 is tested by application both to synthetic spectra and to measurements at two Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites. We demonstrate that there are approximatelymore » 3° of freedom for the CO2 profile, and the algorithm performs as expected on synthetic spectra. We show that the accuracy of retrievals of CO2 from measurements in the 1.61μ (6220 cm-1) spectral band is limited by small uncertainties in calculation of the atmospheric spectrum. We investigate several techniques to minimize the effect of these uncertainties in calculation of the spectrum. These techniques are somewhat effective but to date have not been demonstrated to produce CO2 profile retrievals with sufficient precision for applications to carbon dynamics. As a result, we finish by discussing ongoing research which may allow CO2 profile retrievals with sufficient accuracy to significantly improve the scientific value of the measurements from that achieved with column retrievals.« less

  7. Near-IR diode laser absorption for measurement of tropospheric HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of using tunable lead salt diode lasers in the infrared for measurement of tropospheric HO2 has been frequently considered. Although the sensitivity of diode laser absorption has been improved through the use of high frequency detection techniques, nature has been unkind in that the HO2 absorption cross sections are weak. Even using the most optimistic assumptions about attainable path length and detectable absorbance, measurement of tropospheric HO2 by diode laser absorption in the mid-IR appears marginal. A possible alternative method for measuring HO2 is by absorption at near-infrared wavelengths. Several absorption bands of HO2 occur in the wavelength region between 1.2 and 1.6 micron due to electronic transitions and overtones of the fundamental vibrational modes. InGaAsP diode lasers operate in this wavelength region and can be used for high resolution spectroscopy in a manner analogous to the lead salt lasers. A diode laser system in the near-IR offers some advantages.

  8. A car-borne highly sensitive near-IR diode-laser methane detector

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, A G; Ershov, Oleg V; Shapovalov, Yu P

    2003-08-31

    A highly sensitive automated car-borne detector for measuring methane concentration in real time is designed, developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. Measurements were made with the help of an uncooled tunable near-IR 1.65-{mu}m laser diode. The detector consists of a multipass optical cell with a 45-m long optical path and a base length of 0.5 m. The car-borne detector is intended for monitoring the methane concentration in air from the moving car to reveal the leakage of domestic gas. The sensitivity limit (standard deviation) under field conditions is 1 ppm (20 ppb under laboratory conditions) for a measuring time of 0.4 s. The measuring technique based on the detection of a single methane line ensured a high selectivity of methane detector relative to other gases. The methane detector can be easily modified for measuring other simple-molecule gases (e.g., CO, CO{sub 2}, HF, NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) by replacing the diode laser and varying the parameters of the control program. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  9. Novel Alkoxy-Substituted Dipyrrins and Near-IR BODIPY Dyes-Preparation and Photophysical Properties.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Stefan; Kord Daoroun Kalai, Scheghajeh; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-09-12

    Starting from 3-alkoxy-2-aryl-substituted pyrroles and aromatic aldehydes, a collection of new dipyrrins was prepared. Under the standard conditions of Treibs, these were converted into the corresponding boron dipyrrins (BODIPYs). Compounds of this type with alkoxy groups at C-3 position of both pyrrole subunits are new and hence the photophysical properties of this collection of novel dipyrrins and BODIPY dyes were investigated. The dipyrrins show absorption maxima up to 596 nm and emissions of up to 677 nm. For the BODIPY series a remarkable effect of the alkoxy groups was identified, resulting in red shifts for absorptions and emissions. The compound substituted with two 2-thien-2-yl groups and a meso-C6 F5 substituent shows an absorption maximum at 725 nm and emits at 754 nm and thus is a new representative of a near-IR BODIPY dye related to certain aza-BODIPYs. Our results demonstrate the influence of the alkoxy groups on the spectroscopic data and reveal the potential of 3-alkoxy-2-aryl-substituted pyrroles for the design of new fluorophores. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. An Atomically Precise Au10 Ag2 Nanocluster with Red-Near-IR Dual Emission.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Guan, Zong-Jie; Pei, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Shang-Fu; Wan, Xian-Kai; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Quan-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A red-near-IR dual-emissive nanocluster with the composition [Au10 Ag2 (2-py-C≡C)3 (dppy)6 ](BF4 )5 (1; 2-py-C≡C is 2-pyridylethynyl, dppy=2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine) has been synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that 1 has a trigonal bipyramidal Au10 Ag2 core that contains a planar Au4 (2-py-C≡C)3 unit sandwiched by two Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs. Cluster 1 shows intense red-NIR dual emission in solution. The visible emission originates from metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) from silver atoms to phosphine ligands in the Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs, and the intense NIR emission is associated with the participation of 2-pyridylethynyl in the frontier orbitals of the cluster, which is confirmed by a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Characterizing U-Ne hollow cathode lamps at near-IR wavelengths for the CARMENES survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, L. F.; Reiners, A.; Seemann, U.; Lemke, U.; Winkler, J.; Pluto, M.; Günther, E. W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Ribas, I.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Seifert, W.

    2014-08-01

    Hollow cathode lamps of U and Th are the standard frequency calibrators in astronomical spectrographs. In an effort to optimize precision radial velocity measurements at near-IR wavelengths for the CARMENES survey, we are characterizing 12 commercial U-Ne hollow cathode lamps using a high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrograph and an InGaAs detector to analyze the wavelength range between 950 and 1700 nm. We have recorded spectral atlases of UNe operated at 8, 10 and 12 mA, which are typical values used at astronomical observatories in order to maximize lamp lifetimes. In addition to the spectral atlas, we analyze properties like warm-up times, average intensities from lines of different elements, positions and the width of emission lines, and blends. None of our lamps show strong peculiarities in the spectra or significant contamination. The identification of the uranium lines is based on the line widths and consistent with the Redman et al. (2011) catalog. Our line list can add a significant number of lines particularly in the range around 9000 cm-1 (1.1 μm) where the catalog is incomplete because of limited detector sensitivity. We are able to identify the elements emitting additional lines by measuring the line width. The increased number of U lines at wavelengths relevant to radial velocity surveys can yield a significant improvement in the accuracy of radial velocity measurements.

  12. First technological steps toward opening a near-IR window at stratospheric altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedichini, Fernando; Centrone, Mauro; Lorenzetti, Dario; Mattioli, Massimiliano; Ricci, Masimo; Vitali, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    The possibility to open a near-IR window at stratospheric altitude is crucial for a large variety of astronomical issues, from cosmology to the star formation processes. Up to now, one of the main issue is the role of the OH and thermal sky emission that are rising the sky background level when such observations are performed through ground based telescopes. We present the results of our technological activity aimed at affording some critical aspects typical of balloon flights. In particular, the obtained performances of prototype systems for rough and fine tracking will be illustrated. Both these systems constitute a high precision device (<= 1 arcsec) for pointing and tracking light telescopes on board stratospheric balloons. We give the details concerning the optical and mechanical layout, as well as the detector and the control system. We demonstrate how such devices, when used at the focal plane of enough large telescopes(2-4m, F/10), may be capable to provide diffraction limited images in the near infrared bands. We have also developed a prototypal single channel photometer NISBA (Near Infrared Sky Background at Arctic pole), working in the H band (1.65 μm), able to evaluate, during a high-latitude balloon flight, how OH emission affects the sky background during the arctic night. The laboratory tests and performance on sky are presented and analyzed.

  13. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Korablev, O.; Mantsevich, S.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R.; Kiselev, A.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bondarenko, A.; Dokuchaev, I.; Moiseev, P.; Victorov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Skorov, Y.; Bisikalo, D.; Velikodsky, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2017) and Luna- Resurs (launch in 2019) Russian surface missions. It's a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module. The instrument's field of view (FOV) of 1° is co-aligned with the FOV(45°) of a stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. It's spectrometer based on LIS with required redesign for ExoMars mission. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast coaligned with the FOV (5°) of High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers and are intended for study of the surface composition in the vicinity of the lander and rover. The spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The spectral selection is provided by acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed.

  14. Abundances in bulge stars from high-resolution, near-IR spectra. I. The CNO elements observed during the science verification of CRIRES at VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Edvardsson, B.; Gustafsson, B.; Eriksson, K.; Käufl, H. U.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.

    2009-03-01

    Context: The formation and evolution of the Milky Way bulge is not yet well understood and its classification is ambiguous. Constraints can, however, be obtained by studying the abundances of key elements in bulge stars. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the chemical evolution of C, N, O, and a few other elements in stars in the Galactic bulge, and to discuss the sensitivities of the derived abundances from molecular lines. Methods: High-resolution, near-infrared spectra in the H band were recorded using the CRIRES spectrometer on the Very Large Telescope. Due to the high and variable visual extinction in the line-of-sight towards the bulge, an analysis in the near-IR is preferred. The C, N, and O abundances can all be determined simultaneously from the numerous molecular lines in the wavelength range observed. Results: The three giant stars in Baade's window presented here are the first bulge stars observed with CRIRES during its science verification observations. We have especially determined the C, N, and O abundances, with uncertainties of less than 0.20 dex, from CO, CN, and OH lines. Since the systematic uncertainties in the derived C, N, and O abundances due to uncertainties in the stellar fundamental parameters, notably T_eff, are significant, a detailed discussion of the sensitivities of the derived abundances is included. We find good agreement between near-IR and optically determined O, Ti, Fe, and Si abundances. Two of our stars show a solar [C+N/Fe], suggesting that these giants have experienced the first dredge-up and that the oxygen abundance should reflect the original abundance of the giants. The two giants fit into the picture, in which there is no significant difference between the oxygen abundance in bulge and thick-disk stars. Our determination of the sulphur abundances is the first for bulge stars. The high [S/Fe] values for all the stars indicate a high star-formation rate in an early phase of the bulge evolution. Based on

  15. THE GEMINI SPECTRAL LIBRARY OF NEAR-IR LATE-TYPE STELLAR TEMPLATES AND ITS APPLICATION FOR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Winge, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic library of late spectral type stellar templates in the near-IR range 2.15-2.42 {mu}m, at R = 5300-5900 resolution, oriented to support stellar kinematics studies in external galaxies, such as the direct determination of the masses of supermassive black holes in nearby active (or non-active) galaxies. The combination of high spectral resolution and state-of-the-art instrumentation available in 8 m class telescopes has made the analysis of circumnuclear stellar kinematics using the near-IR CO band heads one of the most used techniques for such studies, and this library aims to provide the supporting data sets required by the higher spectral resolution and larger spectral coverage currently achieved with modern near-IR spectrographs. Examples of the application for kinematical analysis are given for data obtained with two Gemini instruments, but the templates can be easily adjusted for use with other near-IR spectrographs at similar or lower resolution. The example data sets are also used to revisit the 'template mismatch' effect and the dependence of the velocity dispersion values obtained from the fitting process with the characteristics of the stellar templates. The library is available in electronic form from the Gemini Web pages.

  16. Highly selective and responsive visible to near-IR ytterbium emissive probe for monitoring mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chan, Chi-Fai; Lan, Rongfeng; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-01-20

    A new lanthanide probe based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process with the combination of ytterbium porphyrinate complex and a rhodamine B derivative unit was synthesized to detect the Hg(2+) ion with responsive emission in the visible and near-IR region with a detection limit of 10 μM.

  17. IGRJ17062-6143: GROND observations of the optical/near-IR counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Arne; Schady, Patricia; Kann, D. Alexander; Greiner, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    We observed the counterpart of Swift trigger 525148 / IGR J17062-6143 (Barthelmy et al. 2012, GCN #13386) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) at the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile). Observations started on June 25th 22:52 UT and lasted for ~22min. We clearly detect the optical counterpart already reported by Ricci et al. (2008, ATel #1840) for an earlier outburst in 2008 and confirm the rapid fading found by Ivarsen et al.

  18. Swift J1910.2-0546: GROND discovery of a candidate optical/near-IR counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Arne; Greiner, Jochen; Schady, Patricia

    2012-06-01

    We observed the new transient Swift J1910.2-0546 / MAXI1910-057 (Krimm et al. 2012, ATel #4139; Usui et al. 2012, ATel #4140) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) at the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile). Observations started on June 1st 08:48 UT and lasted for ~40min. Within the 3 arcmin Swift/BAT error circle (Krimm et al. 2012, ATel #4139) we detect a new bright point source at ....

  19. ESO science data product standard for 1D spectral products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micol, Alberto; Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa A. R.; Mascetti, Laura; Retzlaff, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Phase 3 process allows the upload, validation, storage, and publication of reduced data through the ESO Science Archive Facility. Since its introduction, 2 million data products have been archived and published; 80% of them are one-dimensional extracted and calibrated spectra. Central to Phase3 is the ESO science data product standard that defines metadata and data format of any product. This contribution describes the ESO data standard for 1d-spectra, its adoption by the reduction pipelines of selected instrument modes for in-house generation of reduced spectra, the enhanced archive legacy value. Archive usage statistics are provided.

  20. Searching for heavily obscured post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae. II. Near-IR observations of IRAS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Suárez, O.; Miranda, L. F.; Gómez, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The most massive AGB stars are expected to result in heavily obscured post-AGB stars, proto-PNe and PNe with highly axisymmetric morphologies. To investigate this evolutionary connection, we have selected a sample of 165 presumably obscured IRAS post-AGB star and PN candidates and obtained near-IR JHK images for 164 of them. These images, in conjunction with DSS, 2MASS, Spitzer GLIMPSE, MSX, AKARI, and IRAS archival data, have allowed us to identify the near-IR counterparts of 154 of these sources, providing reliable finding charts and coordinates. Near-IR narrow-band Brγ, H2, and K continuum images were acquired for 6 of these sources that were found to be resolved in near-IR JHK images. Among the extended post-AGB source and PN candidates, three are round and seven have bipolar morphologies. Five of the extended sources are ionized and may have thus entered the PN stage. We note that all extended sources with water maser emission have bipolar morphology. We have investigated the Galactic distribution of sources with the largest flux drop from the 9 μm AKARI band to the near-IR J band and found that the width of the distribution in Galactic latitude is consistent with those of bipolar PNe and DUPLEX (DUst-Prominent Longitudinally EXtended) sources. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (081.D-0812), observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and on observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.

  1. Design and Performance of a Versatile Penn State near IR Imager and Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Debes, John H.; Ren, Deqing; Friedman, Jerry

    2003-03-01

    A versatile near IR instrument called Penn State near IR Imager and Spectrograph (PIRIS) with a 256 x 256 PICNIC IR array has been developed at Penn State and saw its first light at the Mt. Wilson 100 inch in October 2001. The optical design consists of five optical subsystems including (1) the slit aperture wheel, (2) an achromat collimator optic, (3) a grism/filter and pupil assembly, (4) a pupil imaging optic, and (5) achromat camera optics. This instrument has imaging, spectroscopy and coronagraph modes. It is being updated to have an integral field 3-D imaging spectroscopy mode and a very high IR spectroscopy mode (R ~ 150,000) with an anamorphic silicon immersion grating in 2003. The instrument is designed to take full advantage of high Strehl ratio images delivered by high order adaptive optics systems. Its imaging mode has f/37 and f/51 optics to allow diffraction-limited imaging in H and K bands, respectively. Its spectroscopy mode has R = 20, 180, 400, 2000, and 5000. The lowest resolution is obtained with a non-deviation prism. The medium resolution spectroscopy mode is conducted with three commercial fused-silica grisms. They can be either used in long slit spectroscopy mode with a blocking filter or used as a cross-disperser for a high resolution silicon grism. High resolution spectroscopy is done with silicon grisms and cross-disperser grisms, which are designed to work on high orders (~ 80) to completely cover H and K bands for R = 5000 separately, or simultaneously cover H and K bands for R = 2000. Coronagraphy is done by inserting an apodizing mask, held in the slit aperture wheel, in the focal plane and a Lyot stop (pupil mask) at a reimaged pupil inside the dewar. Image contrast can be enhanced by using different combinations of the apodizing mask and pupil mask. Several of Gaussian pupil masks have also been installed in the pupil wheel for high contrast imaging. We have successfully detected two substellar companions during our first light at

  2. A Concept for Seeing-Limited Near-IR Spectroscopy on the Giant Magellan Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcoe, Robert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Egan, Mark; Malonis, Andrew; Hellickson, Tim

    2016-09-01

    We present a simple seeing-limited IR spectrometer design for the Giant Magellan Telescope, with continuous R = 6000 coverage from 0.87-2.50 microns for a 0:7" slit. The instrument's design is based on an asymmetric white pupil echelle layout, with dichroics splitting the optical train into yJ, H, and K channels after the pupil transfer mirror. A separate low-dispersion mode offers single-object R ~ 850 spectra which also cover the full NIR bandpass in each exposure. Catalog gratings and H2RG detectors are used to minimize cost, and only two cryogenic rotary mechanisms are employed, reducing mechanical complexity. The instrument dewar occupies an envelope of 1:8×1:5×1:2 meters, satisfying mass and volume requirements for GMT with comfortable margin. We estimate the system throughput at ~35% including losses from the atmosphere, telescope, and instrument (i.e. all coatings, gratings, and sensors). This optical efficiency is comparable to the FIRE spectrograph on Magellan, and we have specified and designed fast cameras so the GMT instrument will have an almost identical pixel scale as FIRE. On the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes, FIRE is read-noise limited in the y and J bands, similar to other existing near-IR spectrometers and also to JWST/NIRSPEC. GMT's twelve-fold increase in collecting area will therefore offer gains in signal-to-noise per exposure that exceed those of moderate resolution optical instruments, which are already sky-noise limited on today's telescopes. Such an instrument would allow GMT to pursue key early science programs on the Epoch of Reionization, galaxy formation, transient astronomy, and obscured star formation environments prior to commissioning of its adaptive optics system. This design study demonstrates the feasibility of developing relatively affordable spectrometers at the ELT scale, in response to the pressures of joint funding for these telescopes and their associated instrument suites.

  3. Near-IR Period-Luminosity Relations for variable stars in ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Gran, F.; Alonso-García, J.; Dékány, I.

    2014-10-01

    We report on an extensive time-series study of the globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139), obtained in the framework of the VVV Templates project (Catelan et al. 2013, arXiv: 1310.1996). This cluster was chosen for this project due to its large variable star content. A total of 42 and 100 epochs of the cluster in J and K_{S}, respectively, were taken using VIRCAM@VISTA, and PSF photometry was performed to derive light curves for 270 pulsating stars (RRab, RRc, type II Cepheids and SX Phoenicis) with an unprecedented phase coverage in the near-IR. Period-Luminosity (PL) relations in both bands were derived using Fourier fitted magnitudes for RR Lyrae and Type II Cepheids, while weighted-average magnitudes were used for SX Phe stars. Using the PL relation for RRab stars derived by Dékány et al. (2013, ApJ, 776, 19L) in the VISTA K_{S} system, we determine a distance modulus of (m-M)_{0} = 13.78 ± 0.04 mag, in good agreement with Del Principe et al. (2006, ApJ, 652, 362). From Type II Cepheids we derived a value of (m-M)_{0} = 13.67 ± 0.07 mag, similar to what was found by Matsunaga et al. (2006, MNRAS, 370, 1979). For SX Phe stars, we use the derived periods and magnitudes to infer their pulsation modes, and we confirm that at least 12 of them are fundamental-mode pulsators (Olech et al. 2005, MNRAS, 363, 40).

  4. Determination of Near-IR Water Vapor Self Continuum from Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlawer, Eli; Gombos, Daniel; Alvarado, Matthew; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Payne, Vivienne; Chase, Alison; Michalsky, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    There is still significant uncertainty in the strength of water vapor continuum absorption in the windows between near-infrared water vapor bands. Many radiation codes obtain their water vapor continuum absorption coefficients from the MT CKD continuum model, which derives its near-infrared values from a water vapor line-shape function that has been constrained by continuum measurements in other spectral regions. A number of recent laboratory studies have shown that the strength of the near-IR self continuum in the MT CKD model is too low, but these laboratory studies disagree with each other by more than an order of magnitude. At the high end of the range of measured strengths, the self continuum absorbs a significant amount of solar radiation, so it is crucial that other observational studies are performed to establish the actual strength of this absorption source. We describe here an analysis of measurements from a solar FTS in Lamont, OK, part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Thirteen periods on individual days in 2012 were identified as being reasonably stable with respect to aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor. For each period, the FTS measurements, coincident measurements from a Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) at the DOE ARM site, and calculations from the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) were used to obtain aerosol optical depths in window regions from 8000-20000 cm-1, which were then extended to lower wavenumbers through a generalized Angstrom relationship. In windows between 4000-7000 cm-1, these aerosol optical depths, and the LBLRTM optical depths without any self continuum, were subtracted from FTS-derived total optical depths. The self continuum absorption coefficients that were derived from this procedure were at the low end of the recent laboratory studies, but higher than the current version of MT CKD. The implications of the results of this study with respect to the absorption of

  5. IGRINS Near-IR High-resolution Spectroscopy of Multiple Jets around LkHα 234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H2 emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position-velocity diagrams of the H2 1-0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H2 emission at the systemic velocity (VLSR = -10.2 km s-1) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at VLSR = -100--130 km s-1. We infer that the H2 emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H2 lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500-3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  6. Optical design of a versatile FIRST high-resolution near-IR spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-01

    We report the update optical design of a versatile FIRST high resolution near IR spectrograph, which is called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST). This spectrograph uses cross-dispersed echelle design with white pupils and also takes advantage of the image slicing to increase the spectra resolution, while maintaining the instrument throughput. It is an extremely high dispersion R1.4 (blazed angle of 54.74°) silicon immersion grating with a 49 mm diameter pupil is used as the main disperser at 1.4μm -1.8μm to produce R=72,000 while an R4 echelle with the same pupil diameter produces R=60,000 at 0.8μm -1.35μm. Two cryogenic Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings are used as cross-dispersers to allow simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.8μm -1.8μm. The butterfly mirrors and dichroic beamsplitters make a compact folding system to record these two wavelength bands with a 2kx2k H2RG array in a single exposure. By inserting a mirror before the grating disperser (the SIG and the echelle), this spectrograph becomes a very efficient integral field 3-D imaging spectrograph with R=2,000-4,000 at 0.8μm-1.8μm by coupling a 10x10 telescope fiber bundle with the spectrograph. Details about the optical design and performance are reported.

  7. The Surprising in Vivo Instability of Near-IR-Absorbing Hollow Au–Ag Nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal ablation based on resonant illumination of near-infrared-absorbing noble metal nanoparticles that have accumulated in tumors is a highly promising cancer therapy, currently in multiple clinical trials. A crucial aspect of this therapy is the nanoparticle size for optimal tumor uptake. A class of nanoparticles known as hollow Au (or Au–Ag) nanoshells (HGNS) is appealing because near-IR resonances are achievable in this system with diameters less than 100 nm. However, in this study, we report a surprising finding that in vivo HGNS are unstable, fragmenting with the Au and the remnants of the sacrificial Ag core accumulating differently in various organs. We synthesized 43, 62, and 82 nm diameter HGNS through a galvanic replacement reaction, with nanoparticles of all sizes showing virtually identical NIR resonances at ∼800 nm. A theoretical model indicated that alloying, residual Ag in the nanoparticle core, nanoparticle porosity, and surface defects all contribute to the presence of the plasmon resonance at the observed wavelength, with the major contributing factor being the residual Ag. While PEG functionalization resulted in stable nanoparticles under laser irradiation in solution, an anomalous, strongly element-specific biodistribution observed in tumor-bearing mice suggests that an avid fragmentation of all three sizes of nanoparticles occurred in vivo. Stability studies across a wide range of pH environments and in serum confirmed HGNS fragmentation. These results show that NIR resonant HGNS contain residual Ag, which does not stay contained within the HGNS in vivo. This demonstrates the importance of tracking both materials of a galvanic replacement nanoparticle in biodistribution studies and of performing thorough nanoparticle stability studies prior to any intended in vivo trial application. PMID:24547810

  8. GFIT2: an experimental algorithm for vertical profile retrieval from near-IR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Brian J.; Sherlock, Vanessa; Toon, Geoff; Wunch, Debra; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2016-08-02

    An algorithm for retrieval of vertical profiles from ground-based spectra in the near IR is described and tested. Known as GFIT2, the algorithm is primarily intended for CO2, and is used exclusively for CO2 in this paper. Retrieval of CO2 vertical profiles from ground-based spectra is theoretically possible, would be very beneficial for carbon cycle studies and the validation of satellite measurements, and has been the focus of much research in recent years. GFIT2 is tested by application both to synthetic spectra and to measurements at two Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites. We demonstrate that there are approximately 3° of freedom for the CO2 profile, and the algorithm performs as expected on synthetic spectra. We show that the accuracy of retrievals of CO2 from measurements in the 1.61μ (6220 cm-1) spectral band is limited by small uncertainties in calculation of the atmospheric spectrum. We investigate several techniques to minimize the effect of these uncertainties in calculation of the spectrum. These techniques are somewhat effective but to date have not been demonstrated to produce CO2 profile retrievals with sufficient precision for applications to carbon dynamics. As a result, we finish by discussing ongoing research which may allow CO2 profile retrievals with sufficient accuracy to significantly improve the scientific value of the measurements from that achieved with column retrievals.

  9. Implications of New Methane Absorption Coefficients on Uranus Vertical Structure Derived from Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.

    2009-09-01

    Using new methane absorption coefficients from Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, submitted to Icarus, "Methane Absorption Coefficients for the Jovian Planets from Laboratory, Huygens, and HST Data"), we fit Uranus near-IR spectra previously analyzed in Sromovsky et al. (2006, Icarus 182, 577-593, Fink and Larson, 1979 J- and H-band), Sromovsky and Fry (2008, Icarus 193, 252-266, 2006 NIRC2 J- and H-band, 2006 SpeX) using Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319) methane absorption coefficients. Because the new absorption coefficients usually result in higher opacities at the low temperatures seen in Uranus' upper troposphere, our previously derived cloud altitudes are expected to generally rise to higher altitudes. For example, using Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) model D temperature and methane abundance profiles, we are better able to fit the J-band 43-deg. south bright band with the new coefficients (chi-square=205, vs. 315 for Irwin), with the pressure of the upper tropospheric cloud decreasing to 1.6 bars (from 2.4 bars using Irwin coefficients). Improvements in fitting H-band spectra from the same latitude are not as readily obtained. Derived upper tropospheric cloud pressures are very similar using the two absorption datasets (1.6-1.7 bars), but the character of the fits differs. New Karkoschka and Tomasko coefficients better fit some details in the 1.5-1.58 micron region, but Irwin fits the broad absorption band wing at 1.61-1.62 microns better, and the fit chi-square values are similar (K&T: 243, Irwin: 220). Results for a higher methane concentration (Lindal et al. model F) were similar. Whether the new coefficients will simply raise derived altitudes across the planet or will result in fundamental changes in structure is as yet unclear. This work was suported by NASA planetary astronomy and planetary atmospheres programs.

  10. IGRINS NEAR-IR HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTIPLE JETS AROUND LkHα 234

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Kang-Min; Oh, Jae Sok; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Sungho; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Pak, Soojong; Lee, Hye-In; Le, Huynh Anh Nguyen; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; and others

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H{sub 2} emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position–velocity diagrams of the H{sub 2} 1−0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H{sub 2} emission at the systemic velocity (V{sub LSR} = −10.2 km s{sup −1}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at V{sub LSR} = −100–−130 km s{sup −1}. We infer that the H{sub 2} emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H{sub 2} lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500–3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation.

  11. Low altitude cloud height and methane humidity retrievals on Titan in the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkovics, M.; Hayes, A.; Mitchell, J.; De Pater, I.; Young, E.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of low altitude clouds on Titan, with cloud-top altitudes below ~10km, likely occurs by a fundamentally different mechanism than for the clouds commonly observed to have cloud-tops in the upper troposphere, above ~15km [1]. Near-infrared spectroscopy of clouds has been the method of choice for determining cloud altitudes [2], however, uncertainties in aerosols scattering properties and opacities, together with limitations in laboratory measurements of gas opacities (in particular for methane), lead to uncertainties in how accurately the altitude of low clouds can be retrieved [3]. Here we revisit near-IR spectra obtained with Keck and Cassini using new laboratory methane line data in the HITRAN 2012 database [4] to address the problem of measuring the altitudes of low clouds. We discuss the role of topography in relation to the formation of low clouds and other diagnostics of conditions near the surface, such as the tropospheric methane humidity. We reanalyze measurements the tropospheric humidity variation [5] and describe observational strategies for improved diagnostics of the tropospheric humidity on Titan . Acknowledgements: Funding for this work is provided by the NSF grant AST-1008788 and NASA OPR grant NNX12AM81G. References: [1] Brown, et al. (2009) ApJ, 706, L110-L113. [2] Ádámkovics et al. (2010) Icarus, 208, 868-877. [3] Griffith et al. (2012) Icarus, 218, 975-988. [4] Rothman et al. (2013) AIP Conf. Proc., 1545, 223-231. [5] Penteado & Griffith (2010) Icarus, 206, 345-351.

  12. ESO PR Highlights in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Another great year went by for ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. From 1 January 2007, with the official joining of the Czech Republic, ESO has 13 member states, and since September, ESO has a new Director General, Tim de Zeeuw (ESO 03/07 and 38/07). Many scientific discoveries were made possible with ESO's telescopes. Arguably, the most important is the discovery of the first Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of a low-mass red dwarf (ESO 22/07). If there is water on this planet, then it should be liquid! ESO PR Highlights 2007 This is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2007. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2007 page. In our own Solar System also, astronomers made stunning breakthroughs with ESO's telescopes, observing the effect of the light from the Sun on an asteroid's rotation (ESO 11/07), describing in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope (ESO 18/07), peering at the rings of Uranus (ESO 37/07), discovering a warm south pole on Neptune (ESO 41/07), showing a widespread and persistent morning drizzle of methane over the western foothills of Titan's major continent (ESO 47/07), and studying in the greatest details the wonderful Comet McNaught (ESO 05/07 and 07/07). In the study of objects slightly more massive than planets, the VLT found that brown dwarfs form in a similar manner to normal stars (ESO 24/07). The VLT made it also possible to measure the age of a fossil star that was clearly born at the dawn of time (ESO 23/07). Other discoveries included reconstructing the site of a flare on a solar-like star (ESO 53/07), catching a star smoking (ESO 34/07), revealing a reservoir of dust around an elderly star (ESO 43/07), uncovering a flat, nearly edge-on disc of silicates in the heart of the magnificent Ant Nebula (ESO 42/07), finding material around a star before it exploded (ESO 31/07), fingerprinting the Milky Way (ESO 15/07), revealing a rich

  13. Monitoring of near-IR emission features at the NTT and detection of the northern counterparts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, R.; Encrenaz, T.; Stüwe, J. A.; Wiedemann, G.

    The evolution of the Jovian stratosphere after the impact of P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 was monitored spectroscopically in the 3.5 μm and 2.1 μm regions using the IRSPEC spectrometer at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope on La Silla between July 16 and 31, 1994. H3+ and H2 emissions were observed above some of the impact sites and the strongest of the monitored H3+ lines was also detected at the longitudes of the impact areas in the northern hemisphere. These counterparts of the impact sites were clearly visible between July 23 and 25, 1994. Later the longitudinal distribution of the emissions detected in the northern hemisphere does no longer show a correlation to the impact areas. The distribution of the H3+ and H2 emissions on the entire Jovian disk including the auroral regions is presented as a function of time.

  14. ESO's First Observatory Celebrates 40th Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    ESO's La Silla Observatory, which is celebrating its 40th anniversary, became the largest astronomical observatory of its time. It led Europe to the frontline of astronomical research, and is still one of the most scientifically productive in ground-based astronomy. ESO PR Photo 12a/09 La Silla Aerial View ESO PR Photo 12b/09 The ESO New Technology Telescope ESO PR Photo 12c/09 SEST on La Silla ESO PR Photo 12d/09 Looking for the best site ESO PR Video 12a/09 ESOcast 5 With about 300 refereed publications attributable to the work of the observatory per year, La Silla remains at the forefront of astronomy. It has led to an enormous number of scientific discoveries, including several "firsts". The HARPS spectrograph is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. It detected the system around Gliese 581, which contains what may be the first known rocky planet in a habitable zone, outside the Solar System (ESO 22/07). Several telescopes at La Silla played a crucial role in discovering that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (ESO 21/98) and in linking gamma-ray bursts -- the most energetic explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang - with the explosions of massive stars (ESO 15/98). Since 1987, the ESO La Silla Observatory has also played an important role in the study and follow-up of the nearest supernova, SN 1987A (ESO 08/07). "The La Silla Observatory continues to offer the astronomical community exceptional capabilities," says ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. "It was ESO's first presence in Chile and as such, it triggered a very long and fruitful collaboration with this country and its scientific community." The La Silla Observatory is located at the edge of the Chilean Atacama Desert, one of the driest and loneliest areas of the world. Like other observatories in this geographical area, La Silla is located far from sources of polluting light and, as the Paranal Observatory that houses the Very Large Telescope, it has one of the darkest and clearest

  15. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large

  16. Charon's, Hydra's, and Nix's near IR spectra as seen by New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Protopapa, Silvia; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; New Horizons Surface Composition Theme Team

    2016-10-01

    Charon, Pluto's largest satellite, is a predominantly grey-color icy world covered mostly in H2O ice, with spectral evidence for NH3 and/or its hydrates, as previously reported (Cook et al. 2007, ApJ. 663, 1406; Verbiscer et al. 2007, LPSC 38, 2318; Merlin et al. 2010, Icarus, 210, 930; Cook et al. 2014, AAS/DPS Abstracts, 46, #401.04; Holler et al. 2016, submitted, arXiv:1606.05695). In their 2010 work, Merlin et al. reported the presence of ammonia species along with H2O ice both in crystalline and amorphous phase. They introduced a blue component to model the slope present in their near-IR observations, which could not be otherwise reproduced without the adoption of an ad hoc component. The presence of ammonia and H2O in its crystalline form prompted Cook et al. (2007) to suggest cryovolcanism as a favored mechanism of resurfacing although the geological evidence for volcanism reported from New Horizons imaging observations does not appear to be recent (Moore et al. Science, 351, 1284).We analyze one of New Horizons' observations of Charon taken with the LEISA imaging spectrometer from a distance of ~82,000 km at high spatial resolution (4.9 km/pixel). Images from the New Horizons spacecraft reveal a surface with terrains of seemingly different ages and a moderate degree of localized coloration.Hydra was observed by New Horizons at a distance 240,000 and 370,000 hardly resolving its disk. Nix on the other hand was observed from a much more favorable distance of 60,000 and 162,000 km revealing a nearly uniform surface coloration and structure.Although Hydra could hardly be resolved at the flyby distance we have obtained its spectral signature and we compare it with those of Charon and Nix. A feature at ~2.2 µm, corresponding to the NH3 and/or NH3 hydrates, is visible subtly on Charon and clearly on Hydra and Nix hinting at the possibility that NH3 might be less volatile than previously thought and making the need for recent cryovolcanism less crucial

  17. Predicting future space near-IR grism surveys using the WFC3 infrared spectroscopic parallels survey

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Teplitz, Harry; Rafelski, Marc; Bunker, Andrew; Ross, Nathaniel; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Masters, Dan; Siana, Brian; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.

    2013-12-10

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg{sup 2}) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg{sup –2} above an Hα flux of 2 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution

  18. Near-IR spectra of ISOGAL sources in the inner Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheis, M.; Lançon, A.; Omont, A.; Schuller, F.; Ojha, D. K.

    2003-07-01

    We present near-IR spectra (HK-band) of a sample of 107 sources with mid-IR excesses at 7 and 15;mu m detected during the ISOGAL survey. Making use of the DENIS interstellar extinction map from Schultheis et al. (1999) we derive luminosities and find that the Mbol vs. 12CO and M_bol vs. H2O diagrams are powerful tools for identifying supergiants, AGB stars, giants and young stellar objects. The majority of our sample are AGB stars ( ~ 80%) while we find four good supergiant candidates, nine young stellar objects and 12 RGB candidates. We have used the most recent K0-[15] relation by Jeong et al. (\\cite{Jeong2002}) based on recent theoretical modeling of dust formation of AGB stars to determine mass-loss rates. The mass-loss rates of the supergiants are comparable with those in the solar neighbourhood while the long-period variables cover a mass-loss range from -5 < log dot M < -7. The red giant candidates lie at the lower end of the mass-loss rate range between -6.5 < log dot M < -9. We used the equivalent width of the CO bandhead at 2.3 μm, the NaI doublet and the CaI triplet to estimate metallicities using the relation by Ramírez et al. (\\cite{Ramirez2000}). The metallicity distribution of the ISOGAL objects shows a mean [Fe/H] ~ -0.25 dex with a dispersion of +/- 0.40 dex which is in agreement with the values of Ramírez et al. (\\cite{Ramirez2000}) for Galactic Bulge fields between b = -4o and b = -1.3o. A comparison with the solar neighbourhood sample of Lançon & Wood (\\cite{LW}) shows that our sample is ~ 0.5 dex more metal-rich on average. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The spectra are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/405/531

  19. Anticancer Drug Released from Near IR-activated Prodrug Overcomes Spatiotemporal Limits of Singlet Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen (1O2). However, 1O2 has a short lifetime (< 40 ns) and cannot diffuse (< 20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ~ 1,800 nm). Thus, 1O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping 1O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an 1O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, 1O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of 1O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anticancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data consistently

  20. Anticancer drug released from near IR-activated prodrug overcomes spatiotemporal limits of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data

  1. Fabrication of 3D polymer photonic crystals for near-IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Peng; Qiu, Liang; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Prather, Dennis W.; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Kelmelis, Eric

    2008-02-01

    occurred as we reduced the lattice constant for near-IR applications. In this work, we address this problem by employing SU8. The exposure is vertically confined by using a mismatched 220nm DUV source. Intermixing problem is eliminated due to more densely crosslinked resist molecules. Using this method, we have demonstrated 3D "woodpile" structure with 1.55μm lattice constant and a 2mm-by-2mm pattern area.

  2. The Orion fingers: Near-IR adaptive optics imaging of an explosive protostellar outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Silvia, Devin; Youngblood, Allison

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Adaptive optics (AO) images are used to test the hypothesis that the explosive BN/KL outflow from the Orion OMC1 cloud core was powered by the dynamical decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars. Methods: Narrow-band H2, [Fe ii], and broad-band Ks obtained with the Gemini South multi-conjugate AO system GeMS and near-IR imager GSAOI are presented. The images reach resolutions of 0.08 to 0.10'', close to the 0.07'' diffraction limit of the 8-m telescope at 2.12 μm. Comparison with previous AO-assisted observations of sub-fields and other ground-based observations enable measurements of proper motions and the investigation of morphological changes in H2 and [Fe ii] features with unprecedented precision. The images are compared with numerical simulations of compact, high-density clumps moving ~103 times their own diameter through a lower density medium at Mach 103. Results: Several sub-arcsecond H2 features and many [Fe ii] "fingertips" on the projected outskirts of the flow show proper motions of ~300 km s-1. High-velocity, sub-arcsecond H2 knots ("bullets") are seen as far as 140'' from their suspected ejection site. If these knots propagated through the dense Orion A cloud, their survival sets a lower bound on their densities of order 107 cm-3, consistent with an origin within a few au of a massive star and accelerated by a final multi-body dynamic encounter that ejected the BN object and radio source I from OMC1 about 500 yr ago. Conclusions: Over 120 high-velocity bow-shocks propagating in nearly all directions from the OMC1 cloud core provide evidence for an explosive origin for the BN/KL outflow triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars. Such events may be linked to the origin of runaway, massive stars. The final set of FITS files is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A130

  3. Interactions of monochromatic visible light and near-IR radiation with cells: currently discussed mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karu, Tiina I.

    1995-05-01

    Biological responses of cells to visible and near IR (laser) radiation occur due to physical and/or chemical changes in photoacceptor molecules, components of respiratory chains (cyt a/a3 in mitochondria, and cyt d in E. coli). As a result of the photoexcitation of electronic states, the following physical and/or chemical changes can occur: alteration of redox properties and acceleration of electron transfer, changes in biochemical activity due to local transient heating of chromophores, one-electron auto-oxidation and O2- production, and photodynamic action and 1O2 production. Different reaction channels can be activated to achieve the photobiological macroeffect. The primary physical and/or chemical changes induced by light in photoacceptor molecules are followed by a cascade of biochemical reactions in the cell that do not need further light activation and occur in the dark (photosignal transduction and amplification chains). These reactions are connected with changes in cellular homeostasis parameters. The crucial step here is thought to be an alteration of the cellular redox state: a shift towards oxidation is associated with stimulation of cellular vitality, and a shift towards reduction is linked to inhibition. Cells with a lower than normal pH, where the redox state is shifted in the reduced direction, are considered to be more sensitive to the stimulative action of light than those with the respective parameters being optimal or near optimal. This circumstance explains the possible variations in observed magnitudes of low-power laser effects. Light action on the redox state of a cell via the respiratory chain also explains the diversity of low-power laser effects. Beside explaining many controversies in the field of low-power laser effects (i.e., the diversity of effects, the variable magnitude or absence of effects in certain studies), the proposed redox-regulation mechanism may be a fundamental explanation of some clinical effects of irradiation, for

  4. The mass function of M 4 from near IR and optical HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulone, Luigi; de Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco

    1999-02-01

    Deep images of the galactic globular cluster M 4 taken at various locations with the NIC 3 and the WFPC 2 cameras on HST were used to derive detailed local optical and near IR luminosity functions. White dwarfs have been detected for the first time on a color sequence at constant luminosity in the F110W band. Transformation of the observed luminosity functions into mass functions via the most up to date theoretical mass luminosity relations currently available results in best fit local mass functions, in logarithmic mass units, that consist of a power-law dN ~ m(-x) dlog m, with single exponent x = -0.8 for the inner regions and a two-segment power-law which rises with x = 1 down to M814 =~ 8.5 and then drops all the way to the detection limit with x = -0.3 for the outer regions. This behaviour cannot be reconciled with the expectations of a multi-mass King-Michie dynamical model using as input the canonical structure parameters for this cluster (core radius r_c = 50{('') } and concentration c = 1.6: Harris 1996). Thus, either the model does not accurately reflect the structure of the cluster due to some effect not properly accounted for in it or the canonical cluster structural parameters have to be significantly modified. Reasonable fits to all the present observations can be obtained with various global mass functions provided the cluster's structural parameters such as concentration c and core radius r_c, are in the range c in [1.4, 1.9] and r_c in [50{('') } , 90{('') } ]. The best compromise, in this case, consists in a model with a two-segment power-law mass function with exponents x = 0.2-1.0 in the mass interval 0.8 < Msun < 0.25, x = -0.4 for m <= 0.25 M_sun and structural parameters that require the least modification from the currently established values. This last result differs only minimally from that obtained for other globular clusters studied so far with HST which seem to have global mass functions increasing up to a peak at ~ 0.25 M_sun and then

  5. Optical Testing of Diamond Machined, Aspheric Mirrors for Groundbased, Near-IR Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, V. John; Mink, Ronald G.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Connelly, Joseph A.; Mentzell, J. Eric; Arnold, Steven M.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Winsor, Robert S.; MacKenty, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a facility-class instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 and 2.1 meter telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8-2.5 micron) spectrometer and operates at approximately 80 K. The 6061-T651 aluminum bench and mirrors constitute an athermal design. The instrument produces simultaneous spectra at low- to mid-resolving power (R=lambda/delta lambda= 300-3000) of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field. We describe ambient and cryogenic optical testing of the IRMOS mirrors across a broad range in spatial frequency (figure error, mid-frequency error, and microroughness). The mirrors include three rotationally symmetric, off-axis conic sections, one off-axis biconic, and several flat fold mirrors. The symmetric mirrors include convex and concave prolate and oblate ellipsoids. They range in aperture from 94x86 mm to 286x269 mm and in f-number from 0.9 to 2.4. The biconic mirror is concave and has a 94x76 mm aperture, R(sub x)=377 mm, k(sub x)=0.0778, R(sub y)=407 mm, and k(sub y)=0.1265 and is decentered by -2 mm in X and 227 mm in Y. All of the mirrors have an aspect ratio of approximately 6:1. The surface error fabrication tolerances are less than 10 nm RMS microroughness, 'best effort' for mid-frequency error, and less than 63.3 nm RMS figure error. Ambient temperature (approximately 293 K) testing is performed for each of the three surface error regimes, and figure testing is also performed at approximately 80 K. Operation of the ADE Phaseshift MicroXAM white light interferometer (micro-roughness) and the Bauer Model 200 profilometer (mid-frequency error) is described. Both the sag and conic values of the aspheric mirrors make these tests challenging. Figure testing is performed using a Zygo GPI interferometer, custom computer generated holograms (CGH), and optomechanical alignment fiducials. Cryogenic CGH null testing is discussed in detail. We discuss complications such as the change in

  6. Predicting Future Space Near-IR Grism Surveys Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, Harry; Atek, Hakim; Bunker, Andrew; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Martin, Crystal L.; Masters, Dan; McCarthy, Patrick; Siana, Brian

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg2) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg-2 above an Hα flux of 2 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution in both the Hα luminosity function from z = 0.3-1.5 and the [O III] luminosity function from z = 0.7-2.3 is

  7. Near-IR resonance Raman spectroscopy of archaerhodopsin 3: effects of transmembrane potential.

    PubMed

    Saint Clair, Erica C; Ogren, John I; Mamaev, Sergey; Russano, Daniel; Kralj, Joel M; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2012-12-20

    Archaerhodopsin 3 (AR3) is a light driven proton pump from Halorubrum sodomense that has been used as a genetically targetable neuronal silencer and an effective fluorescent sensor of transmembrane potential. Unlike the more extensively studied bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium salinarum, AR3 readily incorporates into the plasma membrane of both E. coli and mammalian cells. Here, we used near-IR resonance Raman confocal microscopy to study the effects of pH and membrane potential on the AR3 retinal chromophore structure. Measurements were performed both on AR3 reconstituted into E. coli polar lipids and in vivo in E. coli expressing AR3 in the absence and presence of a negative transmembrane potential. The retinal chromophore structure of AR3 is in an all-trans configuration almost identical to BR over the entire pH range from 3 to 11. Small changes are detected in the retinal ethylenic stretching frequency and Schiff Base (SB) hydrogen bonding strength relative to BR which may be related to a different water structure near the SB. In the case of the AR3 mutant D95N, at neutral pH an all-trans retinal O-like species (O(all-trans)) is found. At higher pH a second 13-cis retinal N-like species (N(13-cis)) is detected which is attributed to a slowly decaying intermediate in the red-light photocycle of D95N. However, the amount of N(13-cis) detected is less in E. coli cells but is restored upon addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) or sonication, both of which dissipate the normal negative membrane potential. We postulate that these changes are due to the effect of membrane potential on the N(13-cis) to M(13-cis) levels accumulated in the D95N red-light photocycle and on a molecular level by the effects of the electric field on the protonation/deprotonation of the cytoplasmic accessible SB. This mechanism also provides a possible explanation for the observed fluorescence dependence of AR3 and other microbial rhodopsins on transmembrane

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES OF INTERSTELLAR EXTINCTION CURVES. VI. THE NEAR-IR EXTINCTION LAW

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Massa, D. E-mail: massa@derckmassa.net

    2009-07-10

    We combine new observations from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera of Survey with existing data to investigate the wavelength dependence of near-IR (NIR) extinction. Previous studies suggest a power law form for NIR extinction, with a 'universal' value of the exponent, although some recent observations indicate that significant sight line-to-sight line variability may exist. We show that a power-law model for the NIR extinction provides an excellent fit to most extinction curves, but that the value of the power, {beta}, varies significantly from sight line to sight line. Therefore, it seems that a 'universal NIR extinction law' is not possible. Instead, we find that as {beta} decreases, R(V) {identical_to} A(V)/E(B - V) tends to increase, suggesting that NIR extinction curves which have been considered 'peculiar' may, in fact, be typical for different R(V) values. We show that the power-law parameters can depend on the wavelength interval used to derive them, with the {beta} increasing as longer wavelengths are included. This result implies that extrapolating power-law fits to determine R(V) is unreliable. To avoid this problem, we adopt a different functional form for NIR extinction. This new form mimics a power law whose exponent increases with wavelength, has only two free parameters, can fit all of our curves over a longer wavelength baseline and to higher precision, and produces R(V) values which are consistent with independent estimates and commonly used methods for estimating R(V). Furthermore, unlike the power-law model, it gives R(V)s that are independent of the wavelength interval used to derive them. It also suggests that the relation R(V) = -1.36 E(K-V)/(E(B-V)) - 0.79 can estimate R(V) to {+-}0.12. Finally, we use model extinction curves to show that our extinction curves are in accord with theoretical expectations, and demonstrate how large samples of observational quantities can provide useful constraints on the grain properties.

  9. Long Period Variables in NGC 5128 . II. Near-IR properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Silva, D. R.; Bedding, T. R.

    2003-12-01

    Long Period Variable stars are ubiquitous among the bright red giant branch stars in NGC 5128. Mostly they are found to be brighter than the tip of the first ascent giant branch with magnitudes ranging from about K=19 to K=21.5. They have periods between 155 and 1000 days and K-band amplitudes between 0.1 and 2 mag, characteristic of semi-regular and Mira variables. We compare the colors, periods and amplitudes of these variables with those found in old stellar populations like Galactic globular clusters and Galactic bulge as well as with intermediate-age Magellanic Cloud long period variables. The population of stars above the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) amounts to 2176 stars in the outer halo field (Field 1) and 6072 stars in the inner halo field (Field 2). The comparison of the luminosity functions of the Galactic bulge, M 31 bulge and NGC 5128 halo fields shows an excess of bright AGB stars extending to MK =~ -8.65. The large majority of these sources belong to the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) population in NGC 5128. Subtracting the foreground Galactic stars and probable blends, at least 26% and 70% of AGB stars are variable in Fields 1 and 2, respectively. The average period of NGC 5128 LPVs is 395 days and the average amplitude 0.77 mag. Many more short period Miras are present in Field 2 than in Field 1 indicating a difference in the stellar populations between the two fields. Period and amplitude distributions and near-IR colors of the majority of LPVs in NGC 5128 are similar to the Galactic bulge variables. However, some ~ 10% of LPVs have periods longer than 500 days and thus probably more massive, hence younger, progenitor stars. A few carbon star candidates are identified based on their red J-H and H-K colors. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, within the Observing Programmes 63.N-0229, 65.N-0164, 67.B-0503, 68.B-0129 and 69.B-0292, and at La Silla Observatory, Chile, within the Observing

  10. DEEP NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4: HUNTING FOR BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Dieball, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Knigge, C.; Rich, R. M.; Allard, F.; Dotter, A.; Richer, H.; Zurek, D.

    2016-01-20

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 near-IR (NIR) imaging data of the globular cluster (GC) M4. The best-photometry NIR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) clearly shows the main sequence extending toward the expected end of the hydrogen-burning limit and going beyond this point toward fainter sources. The white dwarf (WD) sequence can be identified. As such, this is the deepest NIR CMD of a GC to date. Archival HST optical data were used for proper-motion cleaning of the CMD and for distinguishing the WDs from brown dwarf (BD) candidates. Detection limits in the NIR are around F110W ≈ 26.5 mag and F160W ≈ 27 mag, and in the optical around F775W ≈ 28 mag. Comparing our observed CMDs with theoretical models, we conclude that we have reached beyond the H-burning limit in our NIR CMD and are probably just above or around this limit in our optical–NIR CMDs. Thus, any faint NIR sources that have no optical counterpart are potential BD candidates, since the optical data are not deep enough to detect them. We visually inspected the positions of NIR sources that are fainter than the H-burning limit in F110W and for which the optical photometry did not return a counterpart. We found in total five sources for which we did not get an optical measurement. For four of these five sources, a faint optical counterpart could be visually identified, and an upper optical magnitude was estimated. Based on these upper optical magnitude limits, we conclude that one source is likely a WD, one source could be either a WD or BD candidate, and the remaining two sources agree with being BD candidates. No optical counterpart could be detected for just one source, which makes this source a good BD candidate. We conclude that we found in total four good BD candidates.

  11. Near-IR Transillumination and Reflectance Imaging at 1,300 nm and 1,500–1,700nm for In Vivo Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C; Lucas, Seth A.; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Cozin, Matthew J.; Lee, Robert C.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several studies suggest that near-IR imaging methods at wavelengths longer than 1,300nm have great potential for caries detection. In this study, the diagnostic performance of both near-IR transillumination and near-IR reflectance was assessed on teeth scheduled for extraction due to orthodontic treatment (n = 109 teeth on 40 test subjects). Methods Three intra-oral near-IR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo images using a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provided occlusal and approximal images using 1,300nm light which manifests the highest transparency in enamel. A third reflectance probe utilized cross-polarization and operated at wavelengths greater than 1,500nm where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. Teeth were collected after extraction and sectioned and examined with polarized light microscopy and microradiography which served as the gold standard. In addition, radiographs were taken of the teeth and the diagnostic performance of near-IR imaging was compared with radiography. Results Near-IR imaging was significantly more sensitive (P < 0.05) than radiography for the detection of lesions on both occlusal and proximal surfaces. Conclusion Near-IR imaging methods are ideally suited for screening all tooth surfaces for carious lesions. PMID:27389018

  12. Near-IR detection of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1048.1-5937 following a glitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Kaspi, V.; Bryant, J.; Dib, R.; Tam, C.; Gavriil, F.

    2007-04-01

    We observed the field of AXP 1E 1048.1-5937 on 2007 April 04, UT 00:37, at Ks band, using the near-IR imaging camera PANIC on the Magellan/Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The exposure was 15 min and the seeing 0.6 arcsec. We detected the near-IR counterpart discovered by Wang & Chakrabarty (2002, ApJ, 579, L33), and found its Ks =19.9 +/-0.2 mag (1-sigma uncertainty). This Ks magnitude indicates that the AXP right now is comparably as bright as on 2002 April 8, when the counterpart was discovered, but is 1.3--1.5 mag brighter than in 2003 April/June (Durant & van Kerkwijk 2005, ApJ, 627, 376) and roughly 3 mag brighter than in 2006, during which 4 HST/NICMOS observations of the source were performed (Tam et al.

  13. Selective Laser Ablation of Carious Lesions using Simultaneous Scanned Near-IR Diode and CO2 Lasers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2017-01-28

    Previous studies have established that carious lesions can be imaged with high contrast using near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption, namely 1450-nm, without the interference of stains. It has been demonstrated that computer-controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, a point-to-point scanning system was developed integrating a 1450-nm diode laser with the CO2 ablation laser. This approach is advantageous since it does not require an expensive near-IR camera. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a combined NIR and IR laser system for the selective removal of carious lesions.

  14. Selective laser ablation of carious lesions using simultaneous scanned near-IR diode and CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have established that carious lesions can be imaged with high contrast using near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption, namely 1450-nm, without the interference of stains. It has been demonstrated that computer-controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, a point-to-point scanning system was developed integrating a 1450-nm diode laser with the CO2 ablation laser. This approach is advantageous since it does not require an expensive near-IR camera. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a combined NIR and IR laser system for the selective removal of carious lesions.

  15. Selective Laser Ablation of Carious Lesions using Simultaneous Scanned Near-IR Diode and CO2 Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have established that carious lesions can be imaged with high contrast using near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption, namely 1450-nm, without the interference of stains. It has been demonstrated that computer-controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, a point-to-point scanning system was developed integrating a 1450-nm diode laser with the CO2 ablation laser. This approach is advantageous since it does not require an expensive near-IR camera. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a combined NIR and IR laser system for the selective removal of carious lesions. PMID:28626285

  16. Blue--green to near-IR switching electroluminescence from Si-rich silicon oxide/nitride bilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berencén, Y.; Jambois, O.; Ramírez, J. M.; Rebled, J. M.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Domínguez, C.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Garrido, B.

    2011-07-01

    Blue--green to near-IR switching electroluminescence (EL) has been achieved in a metal-oxide-semiconductor light emitting device, where the dielectric has been replaced by a Si-rich silicon oxide/nitride bilayer structure. To form Si nanostructures, the layers were implanted with Si ions at high energy, resulting in a Si excess of 19%, and subsequently annealed at 1000°C. Transmission electron microscopy and EL studies allowed ascribing the blue--green emission to the Si nitride related defects and the near-IR band with the emission of the Si-nanoclusters embedded into the SiO2 layer. Charge transport analysis is reported and allows for identifying the origin of this two-wavelength switching effect.

  17. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  18. Characterization and monitoring of Flamingos-II, a near-IR imager and spectrograph at Gemini South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogsrud, David; Diaz, Ruben; Ferrero, Gabriel; Mora, Marcelo; Navarete, Felipe; Schirmer, Mischa

    2015-01-01

    We present results of the characterization and continual monitoring of the Flamingos-II instrument. Currently installed at Gemini South Observatory, Flamingos-II is a near-IR imager and longslit/multi-object spectrograph. In addition to the characterization of the detector, methodologies and results of the Science Verification pipeline, Telluric corrections, and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) mask design software are presented.

  19. Conformational Changes in Thiazole-2-carboxylic Acid Selectively Induced by Excitation with Narrowband Near-IR and UV Light.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Anna; Reva, Igor; Lapinski, Leszek; Nowak, Maciej J; Fausto, Rui

    2016-04-07

    Conformers and photoinduced conformational transformations were studied for monomers of thiazole-2-carboxylic acid (TCA). The matrix-isolation technique and excitations with narrowband near-IR and UV light, tuned in an optical parametric oscillator, were used for this purpose. Form I, with the carboxylic moiety in the trans orientation and with the hydrogen atom of the OH group directed toward the nitrogen atom of the ring, was the most abundant in low-temperature argon or nitrogen matrixes. Conformer II, differing from I by 180° rotation of the OH group around the C-O bond, was also trapped in the matrixes, but in much smaller amount. The abundance of form II was experimentally determined as ∼6% of the total amount of TCA molecules. Selective excitation of I with narrowband near-IR laser light resulted in I → II transformation. This near-IR-induced conformational change was photoreversible: form II converted back to I upon selective excitation of II with near-IR light of different wavelength. Conformational conversions of I into II, or vice versa, were also induced in TCA monomers by narrowband UV excitations at 300 nm (for I → II transformation) and at 305 nm (for II → I transformation). A spontaneous conversion of photogenerated II into the most stable form I was observed for the compound trapped in the matrix at 15 K and kept in the dark. This process was very slow; the estimated half-life time of conformer II was longer than 50 h. Finally, TCA was shown to thermally decompose at room temperature, yielding CO2 and thiazole.

  20. 11% Efficient Ternary Organic Solar Cells with High Composition Tolerance via Integrated Near-IR Sensitization and Interface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nian, Li; Gao, Ke; Liu, Feng; Kan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Xiaofang; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Peng, Xiaobin; Russell, Thomas P; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-10-01

    Highly efficient electron extraction is achieved by using a photoconductive cathode interlayer in inverted ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) where a near-IR absorbing porphyrin molecule is used as the sensitizer. The OSCs show improved device performance when the ratio of the two donors varies in a large region and a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 11.03% is demonstrated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Near-IR Photoluminescence of Pr/Cu/Sn Tridoped Phosphate Glass: Nonplasmonic Material System Versus Plasmonic Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, José A.; Sendova, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    An optical spectroscopy study of Pr2O3, CuO, and SnO tridoped barium phosphate glass prepared by the melt-quenching technique has been carried out, emphasizing near-infrared (IR) emission properties. The material is studied in its nonplasmonic state (as synthesized) and plasmonic form (heat-treated), aiming to elucidate the effects of Cu nanoparticles. The data indicate that Cu+ ions and Sn centers are stabilized in the melt-quenched glass. Broad ultraviolet excitations of both species can lead to near-IR emission of Pr3+ ions via energy transfer. The plasmonic nanocomposite is produced upon heat treatment as Sn2+ reduces Cu+ to Cu0 atoms, ultimately precipitating as Cu nanoparticles sustaining the surface plasmon resonance. Consequently, depletion of primarily Cu+ modified the ultraviolet excitation properties for the sensitized near-IR Pr3+ emission. Further, suppression of the Pr3+ emission from near-IR emitting states 1D2 and 1G4 was observed in the Cu nanocomposite in accord with a "plasmonic diluent" role of the nanoparticles.

  2. Conformers of Kojic Acid and Their Near-IR-Induced Conversions: Long-Range Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Anna; Reva, Igor; Lapinski, Leszek; Rostkowska, Hanna; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J

    2016-05-05

    Conformational transformations were investigated for molecules of kojic acid trapped in low-temperature argon and nitrogen matrixes. Two conformers, differing from each other by 120° rotation of the hydroxymethyl (-CH2OH) moiety, were found to be populated in freshly deposited matrixes, prior to any irradiation. Matrixes containing isolated monomers of kojic acid were irradiated with narrowband, tunable near-infrared (near-IR) laser light. Excitations at wavenumbers corresponding to the overtone of the stretching vibration of the OH bond of the hydroxymethyl group led to conversion of one of the observed conformers into another. The direction of this conformational transformation depended on the wavenumber (within the 7126-7115 cm(-1) range) used for irradiation. The same conformational photoconversion was also observed to occur upon narrowband irradiation at much lower wavenumbers (from the 6468-6447 cm(-1) range). Near-IR light from this range selectively excites overtone vibrations of the OH group directly attached to the heterocyclic ring. Such an observation provides a convincing evidence of a long-range vibrational energy transfer from the initially excited OH group (directly attached to the ring) to the remote hydroxymethyl fragment which changes its orientation. Structural changes, occurring in matrix-isolated molecules of kojic acid upon near-IR excitation, were monitored by FTIR spectroscopy.

  3. Broadband near-IR emission from cubic perovskite KZnF(3):Ni(2+) nanocrystals embedded glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changgui; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Zhiyong; Li, Legang; Bocker, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2015-11-15

    Transparent KF-ZnF(2)-SiO(2) glass-ceramics were prepared with the precipitation of KZnF(3)Ni(2+) nanocrystals. During excitation with a wavelength of 405 nm at room temperature, a broadband near-IR emission centered at 1695 nm with the FWHM of more than 350 nm was observed, which is originated from the T(2g)3(F3)→A(2g)3(F3) transition of octahedral Ni(2+) incorporated in the KZnF(3) crystalline phase. In comparison to oxide glass-ceramics, a redshift of the luminescence is observed, which is due to the low crystal field of these octahedral Ni(2+). The shift and extension of near-IR emission in the KZnF(3):Ni(2+) nanocrystals embedded in a glassy matrix do not only complete the broadband emission in the whole near-IR region for the Ni(2+) ions-based photonics, but also open an easy way to approach the broadband optical amplifier and tunable lasers operating in the wavelength region near 1800 nm, which was up to now achieved by codoping of several types of active ions.

  4. Erbium doping of III-N materials for near-IR optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, John Devin

    1998-12-01

    In this dissertation, the potential for III-N:Er materials, epitaxially-grown in ultrahigh vacuum, as a basis for near-IR optoelectronic devices integrated with Si has been demonstrated. This research effort's scope includes the development and understanding of III-N matrix growth from chemical beams in ultrahigh vacuum, the demonstration and study of the incorporation and luminescence behavior of Er in III-N materials, and finally, the realization of electroluminescent GaN:Er structures emitting at 1.54 mum. Exploitation of the 1.54 mum intra-4f shell transition of the Ersp{3+} ion is of immediate technological significance as this radiative transition matches the attenuation loss minima of silica fibers. A III-N device, utilizing Er as an optical center and compatible with economically-developed Si technology, could provide an efficient, temperature stable, and inexpensive light source for fiber communications systems as well as for high speed optical interconnects at all levels of computer integration. Metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE), the growth technique used in this work, was ideally suited for this research as it allowed for growth from elemental beams, metalorganic precursors, and radio-frequency (RF) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas over a range of operating conditions. Also, the MOMBE apparatus provides the capability to tailor device and materials parameters such as rare-earth and electrical dopant profiles and impurity levels. High quality, GaN and AlN films were grown epitaxially on (0001) Alsb2Osb3. Optimized growth conditions were determined for growth of III-N materials from ECR and RF nitrogen plasmas. Control over impurity backgrounds through the use of various Group III sources was achieved. Plasma parameters were correlated with film characteristics and optical emission spectra of the RF and ECR plasmas to deduce the optimal Group V conditions for growth. Solid source doping and metalorganic sources were utilized to

  5. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- UDS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} to provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.In combination with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young

  6. Twenty Years at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1982-12-01

    On the 5th of October 1962, the ESO Convention was signed in Paris by representatives of Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. More than a year later, on the 17th of January 1964, the Convention went into effect, following parliamentary ratification in the required majority of countries. In 1967, Denmark also joined. In the early days (partly before the formalities were completed), site surveys were made which led to the choice of La Silla as the observatory location, and work was started on the La Silla infrastructure and on the Schmidt telescope and the 3.6 m telescope. Some other telescopes were ordered from industry. After it was realized that ESO did not have the necessary (technical) management capabilities to bring all its projects to a successful completion, discussions took place with CERN which led in 1970 to the founding of the T(elescope) P(roject) Division in Geneva, partly staffed with CERN personnel. As a result, the 3.6 m telescope was completed in 1976.

  7. ESO Image Processing Group: MIDAS Memo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-09-01

    The ESO scientific computer facilities were moved into new rooms in the extension of the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The machines in the old computer room were disconnected and moved to the new location in the basement of the new wing on July 16. Since there is no large elevator down to the room, all big items like computer racks, disk drives and tape units had to be taken out of the building and lowered down by a crane as seen in Figure 1. The new computer room contains now most of the scientific computer equipment in ESO including the two VAX 8600 computers, the IHAP HP system, the database machine 10M 500, and the peripherals like disk drives, terminal multiplexer and DICOMED image recording unit (see Figure 2). The ESO archive will also be placed in this room which is fully air-conditioned and fire protected by a halon system. The magnetic tape drives are located in an adjacent room with general access. The user room is now also located in the new wing on the entrance level. All IHAP and MIDAS image processing workstations are placed there in addition to a number of public available terminals connected to the VAX's. Figure 3 shows the half of the user room which is dedicated to MIDAS stations. Furthermore, the main printing and plotting facilities are in a central section of the user room. The Image Processing Group has also moved to new offices just above the user room.

  8. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Mars Analogue Materials Under Arid Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the hyper-spectral imagers MRO-CRISM and Mars Express OMEGA in martian orbit have signatures from Fe-bearing phases (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, and jarosite), H2O/OH-bearing phases (e.g., smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases), and carbonate [e.g., 1-5]. Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of VNIR spectra acquired in the laboratory under appropriate environmental conditions on samples whose mineralogical composition is known. We report here additional results for our ongoing project [6] to acquire VNIR spectra under arid conditions.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Empirical calibration of the near-IR Ca triplet (Cenarro+ 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenarro, A. J.; Cardiel, N.; Gorgas, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Vazdekis, A.; Prada, F.

    2001-09-01

    File table contains details of the new near-IR stellar library observed to calibrate the Ca II triplet. It includes the indices CaT*, CaT and PaT measured over the final spectra as well as their corresponding errors. The Henry Draper Catalogue number, other names (mainly HR and BD numbers), coordinates, spectral type, luminosity class, apparent magnitude and atmospheric parameters (as derived in Paper II; Cenarro et al., 2001MNRAS.326..981C) are also given. (1 data file).

  10. Airborne observed solar elevation and row direction effects on the near-IR/red ratio of cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to obtain data over two adjacent cotton fields having rows perpendicular to one another, at three times of day (different solar elevations), and on two dates (different plant size). The near IR/red ratios were displayed in image form, so that within-field variations and differences between fields could be easily assessed. The ratio varied with changing Sun elevation for north-south oriented rows, but no variation was detected for east-west oriented rows.

  11. Understanding the two-dimensional ionization structure in luminous infrared galaxies. A near-IR integral field spectroscopy perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis; Piqueras López, Javier; Arribas, Santiago; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Pastoriza, Miriani; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Sales, Dinalva

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional excitation structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and Seyferts using near-IR integral field spectroscopy. This study extends to the near infrared the well-known optical and mid-IR emission line diagnostics used to classify activity in galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved spectroscopy of prototypes, we identify in the [FeII]1.64 μm/Brγ- H22.12 μm/Brγ plane regions dominated by the different heating sources, i.e. active galactic nuclei (AGNs), young main-sequence massive stars, and evolved stars i.e. supernovae. The ISM in LIRGs occupy a wide region in the near-IR diagnostic plane from -0.6 to +1.5 and from -1.2 to +0.8 (in log units) for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ line ratios, respectively. The corresponding median(mode) ratios are +0.18(0.16) and +0.02(-0.04). Seyferts show on average larger values by factors ~2.5 and ~1.4 for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ ratios, respectively. New areas and relations in the near-IR diagnostic plane are defined for the compact, high surface brightness regions dominated by AGN, young ionizing stars, and supernovae explosions, respectively. In addition to these high surface brightness regions, the diffuse regions affected by the AGN radiation field cover an area similar to that of Seyferts, but with high values in [FeII]/Brγ that are not as extreme. The extended, non-AGN diffuse regions cover a wide area in the near-IR diagnostic diagram that overlaps that of individual excitation mechanisms (i.e. AGN, young stars, and supernovae), but with its mode value to that of the young star-forming clumps. This indicates that the excitation conditions of the extended, diffuse ISM are likely due to a mixture of the different ionization sources, weighted by their spatial distribution and relative flux contribution. The integrated line ratios in LIRGs show higher excitation conditions i.e. towards AGNs, than those measured by the spatially resolved

  12. Fundamental properties of galaxy clusters: A prelude to large scale Sunyaev- Zel'dovich effect/near-IR cluster surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting

    Within the context of precision cosmology, the systematics of a cluster survey must be carefully controlled and understood. These require knowledge of the selection function of the clusters, the sample variance, the sources of contamination, and evolution of clusters. For surveys aiming to study the nature of the dark energy that drives the accelerating expansion of the Universe, probing the redshift range z = 1--2 is essential. This can be most efficiently carried out by a Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) survey supplemented with near-IR follow-up observations. The cluster sample with SZE+near-IR data will also provide an excellent opportunity for understanding the galaxy population evolution in clusters. This dissertation is developed under the two themes central to such a survey, i.e. the control of systematics, and the nature and evolution of cluster galaxy populations. For the first part, we conduct an analysis of a deep SZE survey and offer careful considerations for determining the survey mass sensitivity and for extracting cosmological constraints. In addition, because the radio- loud AGNs can potentially contaminate the cluster SZE signal, we investigate the radio properties of cluster AGNs to facilitate modeling their effects on the survey yields. The second thrust of the dissertation is a systematic survey of the near-IR properties of cluster galaxies. With a large nearby cluster sample that spans a wide range in mass, we study scaling relations between the total galaxy luminosity or number and the cluster binding mass. The origins of such correlations are discussed in terms of a variation of star formation efficiency with cluster mass, various dynamical processes that affect galaxy evolution, and the hierarchical formation of structure. We proceed to study the properties of various cluster components, including the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and the stars and gas that exist within the intracluster space. Constraints on BCG formation and the

  13. Quality initiative at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprecht, Gero; Arsenault, Robin; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Kraus, Maximilian; Sivera, Paola; Tromp, Arnout; Verzichelli, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    An initiative is under way at ESO Headquarters to optimise operations, in particular in the engineering, technical and associated management areas. A systematic approach to strengthen the operating processes is in preparation, starting with a mapping of the extensive existing process network. Processes identified as sufficiently important and complex to merit an in-depth analysis will be properly specified and their implementation optimised to strike a sensible balance between organisational overhead (documentation) and efficiency. By applying methods and tools tried and tested in industry we expect to achieve a more unified approach to address recurrent tasks. This will enable staff to concentrate more on new challenges and improvement and avoid spending effort on issues already resolved in the past.

  14. TNO Photometry and Spectroscopy at ESO and Calar Alto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Sekiguchi, T.; Vair, M.; Hainaut, O.; Delahodde, C.; West, R. M.; Tozzi, G. P.; Barrera, L.; Birkle, K.; Watanabe, J.; Meech, K.

    New photometry and spectroscopy of Transneptunian objects (TNO) has been obtained at ESO (VLT+FORS1, NTT+SOFI) and the Calar Alto (3.5m+MOSCA) observatory. BVRI photometry of more than 10 objects confirms the general colour-colour distribution of TNOs found previously. Quasi-simultaneous spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range of 5 TNOs did not reveal any spectral signature apart from the spetral gradients which are in agreement with the broadband colours. JHK filter photometry of 3 objects indicates that the reddening may only occur in the near-IR at least in some cases. Using new observations from the ESO VLT the lightcurve, colours and spectrum of 1996TO66 are investigated: the rotation period of 6.25h is confirmed, also the change in the lightcurve between 1997 and 1998 which indicates an exceptional behaviour in this object (temporary cometary activity ?). The 1999 photometry and spectroscopy in the visible revealed solar colours, no reddening and no spectral features. V-R colour changes over the rotation phase are not found. This works is done in colaboration with:

  15. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  16. Decisions by the ESO Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    Today, Wednesday, 19 April 1995, the ESO Council [1] met in extraordinary session at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) to discuss the recent developments which have affected the operations of this Organisation in its host state, the Republic of Chile [2]. The delegations were informed about the various events which have impeded ESO's operations in Chile, in particular the construction of the 16-m equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama desert. The ESO Council welcomes and appreciates the signature on 18 April 1995 by Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Chilean Government and Professor Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of ESO, of the "Interpretative, Supplementary and Amending Agreement" to the ESO/Chile Convention of 1963 for the establishment of an astronomical observatory in Chile and the accompanying assurances by the Chilean Government. Council considers this as a very significant step towards a new level of cooperation between Chile and ESO, and expects to approve this Agreement at the same time as the Chilean Parliament. Council also appreciates the determined efforts of the Chilean Government to guarantee ESO's privileges and immunities on the basis of the 1963 Convention and to solve the issues surrounding private claims to the Paranal site in short order. However, there still exist a number of problems which impede ESO's activities in Chile including the issue of ESO's immunity from national jurisdiction, financial damage incurred to ESO and its VLT project, and the practical implementation of custom clearance and accreditation procedures to permit the continuation of work. Consequently, Council has directed the ESO Management to continue direct negotiations with the Chilean Government to resolve all pending issues, to continue work on Paranal, and also to convene an ad-hoc Working Group to propose alternatives for the possible placement of one VLT telescope or of the entire VLT

  17. Near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging at 1,300 nm and 1,500-1,700 nm for in vivo caries detection.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Lucas, Seth A; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Cozin, Matthew J; Lee, Robert C; Fried, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that near-IR imaging methods at wavelengths longer than 1,300 nm have great potential for caries detection. In this study, the diagnostic performance of both near-IR transillumination and near-IR reflectance was assessed on teeth scheduled for extraction due to orthodontic treatment (n = 109 teeth on 40 test subjects). Three intra-oral near-IR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo images using a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provided occlusal and approximal images using 1,300 nm light which manifests the highest transparency in enamel. A third reflectance probe utilized cross-polarization and operated at wavelengths greater than 1,500 nm where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. Teeth were collected after extraction and sectioned and examined with polarized light microscopy and microradiography which served as the gold standard. In addition, radiographs were taken of the teeth and the diagnostic performance of near-IR imaging was compared with radiography. Near-IR imaging was significantly more sensitive (P < 0.05) than radiography for the detection of lesions on both occlusal and proximal surfaces. Near-IR imaging methods are ideally suited for screening all tooth surfaces for carious lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:828-836, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Visual, Near-IR, and TiO Spectrophotometry of Pulsating Giant and Supergiant M-Type Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasatonic, R. P.; Guinan, E. F.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsating M-type giant and supergiant stars radiate mainly in the near to intermediate IR (1000-2000 nm). Since most prior long-term photometric observations have been done visually or with UBVRI filters, an on-going program was established to monitor selected stars using both wide-band visual (550 nm) and Wing (719 nm, 754 nm, and 1040 nm) intermediate band filters. Outer atmopsheric titanium-oxide (TiO) strenghts are calculated and compared with generated visual light curves to study correlations of stellar pulsa- tions with molecular formation. IR color temperatures are computed and are used in combination with measured bolome- tric magnitudes to estimate radii changes throughout pulsa- tional cycles. These results should provide information relevant for studies of internal structures, atmopsheres, and evolution of red giant and supergiant stars. Some stars currently being observed include Mira, Aldebaran, Alpha Her, Betelgeuse, V CVn, R Leo, and CE Tau. Additionally, a calibration of the Wing 3-color spectro- photometry sytem is in progress to correlate TiO strengths with known spectral types and near-IR color temperatures for the benefit of the community. Observations measuring spectral sub-type changes via cyclic pulsational variations in TiO-indices and near-IR color temperature changes will be more accurate once the calibration is completed. This work was in part supported by NSF grant AST-9315365, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  19. Near UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer using the beam-folding position-tracking method based on retroreflectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuzhu; Chan, Robert K Y; Cheng, Amelia S K

    2008-12-01

    A near UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer based on a beam-folding position-tracking method realized by using retroreflectors is reported. The use of retroreflectors maintains all beams in the beam-fold arrangement in parallel with the incident beams. The beam-folding interferometer used for position tracking is arranged to have optical path symmetry with the measurement interferometer in the zero path difference position of the measurement interferometer, and the vertex of the movable retroreflector in the measurement interferometer is arranged very close to the midpoint of the vertices of two movable retroreflectors in the position-tracking interferometer. These measures keep the equivalent optical axis of the position-tracking interferometer well in line with that of the measurement interferometer even with translational misalignments. Therefore, the change in the optical path difference of the position-tracking interferometer is always synchronous to that of the measurement interferometer during the scanning process. That is, the position-tracking error can be suppressed to very small values during a scan. We have demonstrated a UV-near IR Fourier transform spectrometer with a standard quality ball-bearing translation stage achieving a resolution close to the theoretical resolution of approximately 0.28 cm(-1) at the He-Ne laser wavelength when the scan distance reaches the travel distance of over 2 cm. This was achieved without the need for elaborate optics, sophisticated detecting electronics, and high-precision servomotion control.

  20. Properties of the fullerene C60-containing PN Lin49 in the SMC; Explanations of strong near-IR excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, Francisca; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Aleman, Isabel; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Cami, Jan; Ochsendorf, Bram; Peeters, Els

    2016-07-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C6o-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Lin49 is a C-rich and metal- deficient PN (Z∼⃒0.0006) and its nebular abundances are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.25Mʘ stars with the metallicity Z = 0.001 of Fishlock et al. (2014, [1]). By stellar absorption fitting with TLUSTY, we derived stellar abundances, effective temperature, and surface gravity. We constructed the photo-ionization model with CLOUDY in order to investigate physical conditions of Lin49. The model with the 0.005-0.1 μm radius graphite and a constant hydrogen density shell could not fit the ∼⃒1-5 μm SED owing to the strong near-IR excess. We propose that the near-IR excess indicates (1) the presence of extremely small carbon molecules or (2) the presence of high-density structure surrounding the central star.

  1. Understanding the clumpy star-formation in local (U)LIRGs: A near-IR IFS perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueras López, J.; Colina, L.; Arribas, S.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2017-03-01

    The importance of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (U/LIRGs) in the context of the cosmological evolution of the star formation has been well established in the last decades. In particular, the study of local U/LIRGs using near-IR integral field spectroscopic techniques allows us to disentangle the 2D distribution of the star-formation using high spatial resolution, and characterise dust-enshrouded, spatially-resolved star-forming regions with great amount of detail. We present a comprehensive 2D IFS near-IR study of the extinction-corrected star-formation in a local sample of 10 LIRGs and 7 ULIRGs, based on VLT-SINFONI observations. We investigate the spatially-resolved distribution of the extinction-corrected star-formation rate (SFR) and star-formation rate surface density (Σ_{SFR}) by analysing the Brγ and Paα emission of the galaxies of the sample. We also obtained integrated measurements of the SFR and Σ_{SFR}, and identified a sample of 95 individual star-forming regions, characterised in terms of their size and Paα luminosity. These measurements will be discussed and compared with other SFR tracers like Hα, 24μm, and L_{IR}, and other local and high-z samples of star-forming clumps.

  2. Visible/near-IR-light-driven TNFePc/BiOCl organic-inorganic heterostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhang, Mingyi; Zhao, Zhenyu; Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Xitian

    2016-06-21

    Although semiconductor photocatalysis has been reported for more than 40 years, the spectral response is still focused on the region of UV-Visible and it is seldom extended to more than 600 nm. In this work, visible/near-IR-light-driven 2,9,16,23-tetranitrophthalocyanine iron (FeTNPc)/bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) organic-inorganic heterostructures have been synthesized by a two-step solvothermal method. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron and transmission microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and electrochemical measurements. The photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of methyl orange and bisphenol A solution can be significantly improved under visible/near-IR-light irradiation. Through detecting the main oxidative species by trapping experiments, the results show holes and ˙O2(-) radicals are majorly and minorly responsible for photodegradation respectively. What's more, the FeTNPc/BiOCl composite photocatalyst still retained the photocatalytic activity after three cycle measurements.

  3. Measurement of Gas and Aerosol Phase Absorption Spectra across the Visible and Near-IR Using Supercontinuum Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Radney, James G; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate a method to measure the absorption spectra of gas and aerosol species across the visible and near-IR (500 to 840 nm) using a photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer and a pulsed supercontinuum laser source. Measurements of gas phase absorption spectra were demonstrated using H2O(g) as a function of relative humidity (RH). The measured absorption intensities and peak shapes were able to be quantified and compared to spectra calculated using the 2012 High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN2012) database. Size and mass selected nigrosin aerosol was used to measure absorption spectra across the visible and near-IR. Spectra were measured as a function of aerosol size/mass and show good agreement to Mie theory calculations. Lastly, we measured the broadband absorption spectrum of flame generated soot aerosol at 5% and 70% RH. For the high RH case, we are able to quantifiably separate the soot and water absorption contributions. For soot, we observe an enhancement in the mass specific absorption cross section ranging from 1.5 at 500 nm (p < 0.01) to 1.2 at 840 nm (p < 0.2) and a concomitant increase in the absorption Ångström exponent from 1.2 ± 0.4 (5% RH) to 1.6 ± 0.3 (70% RH).

  4. Development of a Near-Ir Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer for the Detection of Atmospheric Oxidation Products and Organoamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Jewell, Breanna; Thurnherr, Emily

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 10,000 to 100,000 different compounds have been measured in the atmosphere, each one undergoes many oxidation reactions that may or may not degrade air quality. To date, the fate of even some of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere is poorly understood. One difficulty is the detection of atmospheric oxidation products that are very labile and decompose during analysis. To study labile species under atmospheric conditions, a highly sensitive, non-destructive technique is needed. Here we describe a near-IR incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup that we are developing to meet this end. We have chosen to utilize the near-IR, where vibrational overtone absorptions are observed, due to the clean spectral windows and better spectral separation of absorption features. In one spectral window we can simultaneously and continuously monitor the composition of alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids in an air mass. In addition, we have used our CEAS setup to detect organoamines. The long effective path length of CEAS allows for low detection limits, even of the overtone absorption features, at ppb and ppt levels.

  5. IR-780 Loaded Phospholipid Mimicking Homopolymeric Micelles for Near-IR Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Yin; Han, Haijie; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2016-03-23

    IR-780 iodide, a near-infrared (near-IR) fluorescent dye, can be utilized as an effective theranostic agent for both imaging and photothermal therapy. However, its lipophilicity limits its further biomedical applications. Herein, we synthesized a phospholipid mimicking amphiphilic homopolymer poly(12-(methacryloyloxy)dodecyl phosphorylcholine) (PMDPC) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The amphiphilic homopolymer PMDPC can be self-assembled into micelles and used for the encapsulation of IR-780. The IR-780 loaded micelles (PMDPC-IR-780) exhibited low cytotoxicity in the dark, whereas remarkable photothermal cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3) was observed upon near-IR laser irradiation. We further investigated in vivo biodistribution of PMDPC-IR-780 micelles. Higher accumulation of PMDPC-IR-780 than that of free IR-780 in tumor tissue was verified, which might be ascribed to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and long circulation time benefiting from the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine surface. Therefore, the IR-780 loaded phospholipid mimicking homopolymeric micelles could have great potential for cancer theranostics.

  6. Simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging to assess cerebral oxygenation and brain water during hypoxia-ischemia in two-week-old rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, R. A.; Tuor, U. I.; Foniok, T.; Bascaramurty, S.; Ringland, K.; McKenzie, E.; Qiao, M.; Tomanek, B.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2001-10-01

    Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy can potentially probe several parameters related to the onset of stroke and the ensuing tissue damage. One obvious marker of ischemia is cerebral oxygenation, which can be lowered sharply in stroke-affected tissue. Also commonly assessed, though less straightforward to recover, is the redox state of the cytochrome aa3 copper center. Finally, parameters that are in principle available but seldom recovered from in vivo near-IR spectra are changes in water concentration and scattering properties of the tissue. We have evaluated the potential for near-IR spectroscopy to detect relevant changes in cerebral oxygenation, blood volume, water content, and scattering properties in an infant rat stroke model that is well characterized by magnetic resonance imaging methods. The specific aim was to acquire near-IR spectra simultaneously with MR images and to correlate stroke-associated changes detected via these two modalities prior to, during and after a hypoxia-ischemia episode within this stroke model. Presented here are results from the design and testing of a near-IR illumination/detection system that is compatible with an MR imaging system, and the recovery of trends in the near-IR spectra that complement the hypoxic-ischemic changes observed in the MR images. Unexpectedly large intensity changes observed for the in vivo near-IR water absorptions are ascribed to hypoxia-induced variations in effective optical pathlength, suggesting that the water absorptions may prove generally useful as a means to track such changes.

  7. News from the ESO Science Archive Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycki, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Bierwirth, T.; Boelter, M.; Da Rocha, C.; Delmotte, N.; Forchì, V.; Fourniol, N.; klein Gebbinck, M.; Lange, U.; Mascetti, L.; Micol, A.; Moins, C.; Munte, C.; Pluciennik, C.; Retzlaff, J.; Romaniello, M.; Rosse, N.; Sequeiros, I. V.; Vuong, M.-H.; Zampieri, S.

    2015-09-01

    ESO Science Archive Facility (SAF) - one of the world's biggest astronomical archives - combines two roles: operational (ingest, tallying, safekeeping and distribution to observers of raw data taken with ESO telescopes and processed data generated both internally and externally) and scientific (publication and delivery of all flavours of data to external users). This paper presents the “State of the SAF.” SAF, as a living entity, is constantly implementing new services and upgrading the existing ones. We present recent and future developments related to the Archive's Request Handler and metadata handling as well as performance and usage statistics and trends. We also discuss the current and future datasets on offer at SAF.

  8. Brazil's Route to ESO Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, A.

    2011-06-01

    On 29 December 2010, in a ceremony held at the Ministry of Science and Technology in Brazil's capital, Brasília, the then Minister, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw signed the accession agreement by which, pending ratification by the Brazilian Congress, Brazil becomes the 15th ESO Member State and the first non-European member. An overview of the historical background, the current state of astronomy in Brazil, and the motivation that made Brazil apply to become an ESO Member State is presented.

  9. Shaping ESO2020+ Together: Feedback from the Community Poll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Ivison, R.; Berger, J.-P.; Caselli, P.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Alonso Herrero, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Leibundgut, B.; Moitinho, A.; Saviane, I.; Spyromilio, J.; Testi, L.; Vennes, S.

    2015-09-01

    A thorough evaluation and prioritisation of the ESO science programme into the 2020+ timeframe took place under the auspices of a working group, comprising astronomers drawn from ESO’s advisory structure and from within ESO. This group reported to ESO’s Scientific Technical Committee, and to ESO Council, concluding the exercise with the publication of a report, “Science Priorities at ESO”. A community poll and a dedicated workshop, held in January 2015, formed part of the information gathering process. The community poll was designed to probe the demographics of the user community, its scientific interests, use of observing facilities and plans for use of future telescopes and instruments, its views on types of observing programmes and on the provision of data processing and archiving. A total of 1775 full responses to the poll were received and an analysis of the results is presented here. Foremost is the importance of regular observing programmes on all ESO observing facilities, in addition to Large Programmes and Public Surveys. There was also a strong community requirement for ESO to process and archive data obtained at ESO facilities. Other aspects, especially those related to future facilities, are more challenging to interpret because of biases related to the distribution of science expertise and favoured wavelength regime amongst the targeted audience. The results of the poll formed a fundamental component of the report and pro-vide useful data to guide the evolution of ESO’s science programme.

  10. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  11. Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sorvoja, H.S.S.; Myllylae, T S; Myllylae, Risto A; Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A; Elseoud, A A; Nikkinen, J; Tervonen, O; Kiviniemi, V

    2011-01-24

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source - detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  12. A study of distributed dielectric bragg reflectors for vertically emitting lasers of the near-IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Blokhin, A. A.; Vasil'ev, A. P.; Guseva, Yu. A.; Kulagina, M. M.; Karpovsky, I. O.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Troshkov, S. I.; Prasolov, N. D.; Brunkov, P. N.; Levitsky, V. S.; Lisak, V.; Maleev, N. A.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-10-01

    Studies aimed at optimization of the design of a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) produced by the reactive magnetron sputtering method for applications in near-IR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts (ICC-VCSELs) are carried out. It is shown that the reflectivity of the dielectric DBRs based on SiO2/TiO2 decreases due to the polycrystalline structure of the TiO2 layers, which causes diffusive scattering of light. In contrast, amorphous Ta2O5 layers is characterized by a low surface roughness and low fluctuation in the refractive index. Single-mode ICC-VCSELs in the 980-nm spectral range with dielectric DBR based on SiO2/Ta2O5 with a threshold current less than 0.27 mA, electric resistance of less than 200 Ω, and differential efficiency of more than 0.8 W/A are demonstrated.

  13. Directional reflectance response in AVHRR red and near-IR bands for three cover types and varying atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B.; Kimes, D.; Fraser, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Surface directional red and near-infrared reflectances of bare soil, orchard grass, and fescue were extracted from a multitemporal data set to correspond to NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) scanning and illumination geometry at 30 deg latitude. Radiances were simulated at satellite altitude and a ratio vegetation index was calculated. The results show that off-nadir directional reflectance measured at the surface in the red and near-IR portions of the spectrum are approximately maintained with AVHRR viewing and illumination characteristics. The two-channel reflectance response is such that the ratio vegetation index is more constant with scan angle and atmospheric conditions than individual channels. It is shown that inclusion of atmospheric and surface reflectance data can greatly improve interpretation of AVHRR data, when knowledge of the range of atmospheric conditions and approximate directional reflectances of major cover types are known.

  14. Exploring the NRO Opportunity for a Hubble-Sized Wide-Field Near-IR Space Telescope - New WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Alan; Spergel, David; Mountain, Matt; Postman, Mark; Elliott, Erin; Bendek, Eduardo; Bennett, David; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Guyon, Olivier; Hirata, Christopher; Kalirai, Jason; Kasdin, Jeremy; Kruk, Jeff; Macintosh, Bruce; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Penny, Matthew; Shaklan, Stuart; Stern, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We discuss scientific, technical, and programmatic issues related to the use of an NRO 2.4m telescope for the WFIRST initiative of the 2010 Decadal Survey. We show that this implementation of WFIRST, which we call "NEW WFIRST," would achieve the goals of the NWNH Decadal Survey for the WFIRST core programs of Dark Energy and Microlensing Planet Finding, with the crucial benefit of deeper and/or wider near-IR surveys for GO science and a potentially Hubble-like Guest Observer program. NEW WFIRST could also include a coronagraphic imager for direct detection of dust disks and planets around neighboring stars, a high-priority science and technology precursor for future ambitious programs to image Earth-like planets around neighboring stars.

  15. Organic photovoltaic devices comprising solution-processed substituted metal-phthalocyanines and exhibiting near-IR photo-sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Dominic V.; Mayukh, Mayank; Placencia, Diogenes; Armstrong, Neal R.

    2016-11-29

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are disclosed. An exemplary device has first and second electrodes and an organic, photovoltaically active zone located between the first and second electrodes. The photovoltaically active zone includes an organic electron-donor material and an organic electron-acceptor material. The electron-donor material includes one or more trivalent- or tetravalent-metal phthalocyanines with alkylchalcogenide ring substituents, and is soluble in at least one organic solvent. This solubility facilitates liquid-processability of the donor material, including formation of thin-films, on an unlimited scale to form planar and bulk heterojunctions in organic OPVs. These donor materials are photovoltaically active in both visible and near-IR wavelengths of light, enabling more of the solar spectrum, for example, to be applied to producing electricity. Also disclosed are methods for producing the metalated phthalocyanines and actual devices.

  16. Status of the BOOTES-IR Project at OSN for GRB near-IR follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunniffe, R.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jelínek, M.; Gorosabel, J.; Moliné, B.; García-Segura, F.

    2013-07-01

    Bootes-IR (Castro-Tiradoet al. 2005) is a robotic observatory based around a 60 cm alt-az telescope (dubbed T60) that can slew rapidly while carrying heavy instrumentation at the Nasmyth foci. Initially commissioned with an optical camera, with which the optical afterglow to GRB 060707 (http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/gcn3/5290.gcn3) was discovered, we have concentrated our efforts on the near-IR (0.8-2.5 μm) camera (BIRCAM) for which the telescope was specifically designed. The telescope is installed at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada near Granada in Spain, at an altitude of 3000 m and in an area of very low humidity. The telescope, dome, camera and liquid nitrogen generation and refilling systems have all been recently brought back into operation, and routine observations are expected to begin within the next few months.

  17. Studying Atmospheres Of Exoplanets With The VLT: Near IR Eclipses Of WASP-17b And WASP-18b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebb, Leslie; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Gillon, M.

    2011-09-01

    Secondary eclipse measurements of a transiting planet obtained when the planet is occulted by its host star provide important information about the thermal emission of the planet itself. Studies of the planet's atmosphere is possible when such eclipse observations are made over a range of wavelengths. In addition, the eclipse timing is useful for determining the orbital eccentricity of the system which is a key parameter in understanding the tidal history and internal energy budget of the planet. Here, we present new H and K-band observations of the secondary eclipses of two unique transiting planets, WASP-17b and WASP-18b. These data were obtained with the HAWK-1 instrument on the VLT and are part of a larger program to obtain ground based, near IR eclipses of a large number of transiting planets.

  18. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Batu; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs). The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i) a two-step process and (ii) in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters. PMID:27877634

  19. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xukun; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Huadan; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yanfang; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-27

    A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10(-8) W ⋅ cm (-1)/Hz(1/2).

  20. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Batu; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-02-01

    This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs). The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i) a two-step process and (ii) in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters.

  1. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Reverberation- Mapped AGNs in the Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Bentz, Misty C.

    2013-02-01

    We propose to use WHIRC on WIYN to obtain high spatial resolution near-IR images of the remaining host galaxies in our sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs in order to study the effect of host-galaxy morphology on the M_BH-L_bulge scaling relationship. Recent studies of the M_BH-sigma_star relationship, which is based on the stellar and gas-dynamical sample of black hole masses, have uncovered a possible offset in the relationship due to the presence of a pseudobulge or bar in the host galaxy. This offset would adversely affect ones ability to use the M_BH-sigma_star relationship as a way to estimate black hole masses efficiently because it would require the detailed morphology of the galaxy to be known it a priori. Preliminary results based on optical HST data suggest that the M_BH-L_bulge is not plagued by this same offset. However, due to dust and on-going star formation, the optical data yield an M_BH-L_bulge relationship with a slightly higher scatter. WHIRC near-IR imaging is essential to minimize the effects of dust and star formation in order to confirm the M_BH-L_bulge relationship as a more accurate predictor of black hole masses and a potentially more fundamental relationship, thus informing our understanding of black hole and galaxy co-evolution across cosmic time. emphThe proposed observations will comprise a significant portion of the PI's PhD thesis.

  2. Synthesis, Structures, and Photophysical Properties of a Series of Rare Near-IR Emitting Copper(I) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Hupp, Benjamin; Schiller, Carl; Lenczyk, Carsten; Stanoppi, Marco; Edkins, Katharina; Lorbach, Andreas; Steffen, Andreas

    2017-08-07

    Herein, we report on the synthesis and structural characterization of a series of trigonal and tetrahedral cationic copper(I) complexes, bearing phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as donors, with benzthiazol-2-pyridine (pybt) and benzthiazol-2-quinoline (qybt) acting as π-chromophores. The compounds are highly colored due to their (1)MLCT (MLCT = metal-to-ligand charge transfer) states absorbing between ca. λabs = 400-500 nm, with (1)ILCT (ILCT = intraligand charge transfer) states in the UV region. The relative shifts of the S0→S1 absorption correlate with the computed highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps, the qybt complexes generally being lower in energy than the pybt ones due to the larger conjugation of the quinoline-based ligand. The compounds exhibit, for Cu(I) complexes, rare intense long-lived near-IR emission with λmax ranging from 593 to 757 nm, quantum yields of up to Φ = 0.11, and lifetimes τ of several microseconds in the solid state as well as in poly(methyl methacrylate) films. Although a bathochromic shift of the emission is observed with λmax ranging from 639 to 812 nm and the lifetimes are greatly increased at 77 K, no clear indication for thermally activated delayed fluorescence was found, leaving us to assign the emission to originate from a (3)(Cu→pybt/qybt)MLCT state. The red to near-IR emission is a result of incorporation of the sulfur into the chromophore ligand, as related nitrogen analogues emit in the green to orange region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The photophysical results and conclusions have further been corroborated with density functional theory (DFT)/time-dependent DFT calculations, confirming the nature of the excited states and also the trends of the redox potentials.

  3. ESO Catalogue Facility Design and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moins, C.; Retzlaff, J.; Arnaboldi, M.; Zampieri, S.; Delmotte, N.; Forchí, V.; Klein Gebbinck, M.; Lockhart, J.; Micol, A.; Vera Sequeiros, I.; Bierwirth, T.; Peron, M.; Romaniello, M.; Suchar, D.

    2013-10-01

    The ESO Phase 3 Catalogue Facility provides investigators with the possibility to ingest catalogues resulting from ESO public surveys and large programs and to query and download their content according to positional and non-positional criteria. It relies on a chain of tools that covers the complete workflow from submission to validation and ingestion into the ESO archive and catalogue repository and a web application to browse and query catalogues. This repository consists of two components. One is a Sybase ASE relational database where catalogue meta-data are stored. The second one is a Sybase IQ data warehouse where the content of each catalogue is ingested in a specific table that returns all records matching a user's query. Spatial indexing has been implemented in Sybase IQ to speed up positional queries and relies on the Spherical Geometry Toolkit from the Johns Hopkins University which implements the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM) algorithm. It is based on a recursive decomposition of the celestial sphere in spherical triangles and the assignment of an index to each of them. It has been complemented with the use of optimized indexes on the non-positional columns that are likely to be frequently used as query constraints. First tests performed on catalogues such as 2MASS have confirmed that this approach provides a very good level of performance and a smooth user experience that are likely to facilitate the scientific exploitation of catalogues.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: KiDS-ESO-DR3 multi-band source catalog (de Jong+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kuijken, K.; Sikkema, G.; Brescia, M.; Bilicki, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Amaro, V.; Begeman, K. G.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Cavuoti, S.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Helmich, E.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; La Barbera, F.; Longo, G.; McFarland, J. P.; Nakajima, R.; Paolillo, M.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Tortora, C.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vellucci, C.; Vriend, W-J.; Amon, A.; Blake, C.; Choi, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Klaes, D.; Merten, J.; Miller, L.; Schneider, P.; Viola, M.

    2017-04-01

    KiDS-ESO-DR3 contains a multi-band source catalogue encompassing all publicly released tiles, a total of 440 survey tiles including the coadded images, weight maps, masks and source lists of 292 survey tiles of KiDS-ESO-DR3, adding to the 148 tiles released previously (50 in KiDS-ESO-DR1 and 98 in KiDS-ESO-DR2). (1 data file).

  5. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  6. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-µm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination.

    PubMed

    Chung, Leon C; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Simon, Jacob C; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L

    2015-02-24

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-µm with a pulse duration of 10-15-µs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  7. Development of a femtosecond time-resolved near-IR multiplex stimulated Raman spectrometer in resonance with transitions in the 900-1550 nm region.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Tomohisa; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-07-21

    Charge transfer and charge delocalisation processes play key roles in the functions of large biomolecular systems and organic/inorganic devices. Many of the short-lived transients involved in these processes can be sensitively detected by monitoring their low-energy electronic transitions in the near-IR region. Ultrafast time-resolved near-IR Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for investigating the structural dynamics of the short-lived transients as well as their electronic dynamics. In this study, we have developed a femtosecond time-resolved near-IR multiplex stimulated Raman spectrometer using the Raman pump pulse at 1190 nm and a broadband probe pulse covering the 900-1550 nm region. Spectral and temporal instrument responses of the spectrometer are estimated to be 5 cm(-1) and 120 fs, respectively. Time-resolved near-IR stimulated Raman spectra of poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (P3DDT) are recorded in toluene solution for investigating its structural changes following the photoexcitation. The spectra strongly indicate conformational changes of P3DDT in excited states associated with the elongation of its effective conjugation length. The results on P3DDT fully demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly developed femtosecond time-resolved near-IR stimulated Raman spectrometer.

  8. Graphitic carbon nitride C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl: Characterisation by UV and near-IR FT Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Paul F.; Lees, Victoria; Quirico, Eric; Sella, Andrea; Reynard, Bruno; Simon, Patrick; Bailey, Edward; Deifallah, Malek; Cora, Furio

    2009-10-15

    The graphitic layered compound C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl was prepared by reaction between melamine and cyanuric chloride under high pressure-high temperature conditions in a piston cylinder apparatus and characterised using SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, UV Raman and near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy with near-IR excitation. Theoretical calculations using density functional methods permitted evaluation of the mode of attachment of H atoms to nitrogen sites in the structure and a better understanding of the X-ray diffraction pattern. Broadening in the UV and near-IR FT Raman spectra indicate possible disordering of the void sites within the graphitic layers or it could be due to electron-phonon coupling effects. - Graphical abstract: The graphitic layered compound C{sub 6}N{sub 9}H{sub 3}.HCl was prepared by reaction between melamine and cyanuric chloride under high pressure-high temperature conditions in a piston cylinder apparatus and characterised using SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, UV Raman and near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using near-IR excitation. Theoretical calculations using density functional methods permitted evaluation of the mode of attachment of H atoms to nitrogen sites around the C{sub 12}N{sub 12} voids within the layered structure and also led to better understanding of the X-ray diffraction pattern. Sharp peaks in the UV Raman spectra are due to C{sub 3}N{sub 3} triazine ring units in the structure, that may be enhanced by resonance Raman effects. Broadening in the UV and near-IR FT Raman spectra indicate possible disordering within the graphitic layers or electron-phonon coupling effects.

  9. Impact of animal density on cattle nutrition in dry Mediterranean rangelands: a faecal near-IR spectroscopy-aided study.

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Yehuda, Y; Muklada, H; Peleg, G; Henkin, Z; Voet, H; Ungar, E D

    2017-07-17

    In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement. In each season, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the chemical composition of herbage samples (ash, NDF, CP, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) content from IVDMD). Near-IR spectroscopy was applied also to faecal samples to determine the chemical composition of the diet selected by the animal, as well as the contents of ash, NDF and CP in the faeces themselves. A faecal-NIRS equation was applied to estimate the dietary proportion of PL. Seasonal categories were green, dry without PL supplementation and dry with it. We found no effects of animal density on nutrition during the green season but effects were apparent when cows consumed dry pasture. Ash content predicted by faecal NIRS was higher in the diet than in plant samples clipped from pasture, which infers that cows ingested soil. Dietary and faecal ash contents were higher (P<0.05) at the H, implying greater soil intake in these animals. During the dry period, dietary contents of ME were higher in L than in H (P<0.05). Poultry litter supplementation was associated with a marked increase (P<0.01) in dietary and faecal CP contents. Poultry litter represented 0.45 and 0.59 of the diet in treatments L and H, respectively (P<0.05). Consequently, treatment H had higher faecal protein (P<0.05). A tendency of higher dietary protein (P=0.08) and lower dietary NDF (P=0.10) in treatment H was probably related to greater PL ingestion. Given that high and

  10. Summertime Coincident Observations of Ice Water Path in the Visible/Near-IR, Radar, and Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Jasna V.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate representation of the physical and radiative properties of clouds in climate models continues to be a challenge. At present, both remote sensing observations and modeling of microphysical properties of clouds rely heavily on parameterizations or assumptions on particle size distribution (PSD) and cloud phase. In this study, we compare Ice Water Path (IWP), an important physical and radiative property that provides the amount of ice present in a cloud column, using measurements obtained via three different retrieval strategies. The datasets we use in this study include Visible/Near-IR IWP from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument flying aboard the Aqua satellite, Radar-only IWP from the CloudSat instrument operating at 94 GHz, and NOAA/NESDIS operational IWP from the 89 and 157 GHz channels of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) instrument flying aboard the NOAA-18 satellite. In the Visible/Near-IR, IWP is derived from observations of optical thickness and effective radius. CloudSat IWP is determined from measurements of cloud backscatter and assumed PSD. MHS IWP retrievals depend on scattering measurements at two different, non-water absorbing channels, 89 and 157 GHz. In order to compare IWP obtained from these different techniques and collected at different vertical and horizontal resolutions, we examine summertime cases in the tropics (30S - 30N) when all 3 satellites are within 4 minutes of each other (approximately 1500 km). All measurements are then gridded to a common 15 km x 15 km box determined by MHS. In a grid box comparison, we find CloudSat to report the highest IWP followed by MODIS, followed by MHS. In a statistical comparison, probability density distributions show MHS with the highest frequencies at IWP of 100-1000 g/m(exp 2) and CloudSat with the longest tail reporting IWP of several thousands g/m(exp 2). For IWP greater than 30 g/m(exp 2), MODIS is consistently higher than CloudSat, and it is higher at

  11. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Reverberation-Mapped AGNs in the Near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Emily; Bentz, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results for a near-IR M-L scaling relationship for active galaxies in the reverberation sample. We are particularly interested in the effect of host-galaxy morphology on the M-L scaling relationship. In order to study evolution over cosmic time we must employ scaling relations, which are calibrated to the direct methods of black hole mass measurement and rely on correlations between host galaxy properties and black hole masses. However, it remains uncertain which scaling relation most reliably predicts black hole masses based on host galaxy observables. Recent studies of the M- relationship have uncovered a possible offset in the relationship due to the presence of a pseudobulge or bar in the host galaxy. This offset would adversely affect one's ability to use the M-relationship as a way to estimate black hole masses efficiently because it would require the detailed morphology of the galaxy to be known a priori. Preliminary results based on optical HST data suggest that the M-L relation for active galaxies with reverberation-based black hole masses is not plagued by the same offsets. However, due to dust and on-going star formation, the optical data yield an M-L relationship with a slightly higher scatter than the M- relation. We have carried out near-IR imaging with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC) on the WIYN telescope to minimize the effects of dust and star formation in order to test whether the M-L relationship is a more accurate predictor of black hole masses and a potentially more fundamental relationship. The imaging campaign has been completed, and we are currently in the process of carefully modeling the galaxy surface brightness features so that we can accurately remove the contribution from the point spread function of the active nucleus. We present our preliminary results here, and we expect that the final results will prove to be quite useful in conjunction with future large imaging surveys, such as LSST, which

  12. Near IR Photocathode Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Electron Photoemission from InP", Appl. Phys. Letters, Vol. 25, No. 11, pp. 645 - 646, (1974). 11 J.S. Escher , R.L. Bell, P.E. Gregory, S.B. Hyder, T.J...Photomultiplier with Fast Time Response”, SPIE Vol. 2022, pp. 64 - 73, (1993). 14 J.S. Escher and R. Sankaran, "Transferred-electron Photoemission to 1.4 µm

  13. ESO's User Portal: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Peron, M.; Sogni, F.; Dorigo, D.; Nass, P.; Fourniol, N.; Sforna, D.; Haggouchi, K.; Dolensky, M.

    2008-07-01

    ESO introduced a User Portal for its scientific services in November 2007. Registered users have a central entry point for the Observatory's offerings, the extent of which depends on the users' roles - see [1]. The project faced and overcame a number of challenging hurdles between inception and deployment, and ESO learned a number of useful lessons along the way. The most significant challenges were not only technical in nature; organization and coordination issues took a significant toll as well. We also indicate the project's roadmap for the future.

  14. Evidence for Interlayer Collapse of Nontronite on Mars from Laboratory Visible and Near-IR Reflective Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.

    2010-01-01

    Dioctahedral smectites (e.g., nontronite and montmorillionite) are interpreted to occupy the optical surface of Mars at a number of locations on the basis of spectral features derived from interlayer H2O and MOH (M=Fe(3+)2, Fe(3+)Al, Al2, etc.) as observed by orbiting MRO-CRISM and MEx-OMEGA hyperspectral imaging spectrometers. At wavelengths shorter than approximately 2.7 micrometers, the strongest bands from interlayer H2O occur at approximately 1.4 and 1.9 micrometers from 2v1 and v1+v2, respectively, where v1 and v2 are the fundamental stretching and bending vibrations of the H2O molecule. Smectite MOH vibrations occur near 1.4 micrometers (stretching overtone) and in the region between 2.1 and 2.7 micrometers (stretching + bending combination). Because interlayer H2O can exchange with the martian environment, a number of studies have examined the strength of the interlayer H2O spectral features under Mars-like environmental conditions. The relationship between spectral properties and the underlying crystal structure of the smectites was not determined, and the extent of interlayer H2O removal was not established. We report combined visible and near-IR (VNIR), Mossbauer (MB), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for samples of the Fe-bearing smectite nontronite where the interlayer was collapsed by complete removal of interlayer H2O.

  15. VARIABILITY AT THE EDGE: OPTICAL NEAR/IR RAPID-CADENCE MONITORING OF NEWLY OUTBURSTING FU ORIONIS OBJECT HBC 722

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Joel D.; Robertson, Paul; Pak, Soojong; Meschiari, Stefano; Baek, Giseon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Pooley, David; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu

    2013-02-10

    We present the detection of day-timescale periodic variability in the r-band lightcurve of newly outbursting FU Orionis-type object HBC 722, taken from >42 nights of observation with the CQUEAN instrument on the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m telescope. The optical/near-IR lightcurve of HBC 722 shows a complex array of periodic variability, clustering around 5.8-day (0.044 mag amplitude) and 1.28-day (0.016 mag amplitude) periods, after removal of overall baseline variation. We attribute the unusual number of comparable strength signals to a phenomenon related to the temporary increase in accretion rate associated with FUors. We consider semi-random 'flickering', magnetic braking/field compression and rotational asymmetries in the disk instability region as potential sources of variability. Assuming that the 5.8-day period is due to stellar rotation and the 1.28-day period is indicative of Keplerian rotation at the inner radius of the accretion disk (at 2 R {sub *}), we derive a B-field strength of 2.2-2.7 kG, slightly larger than typical T Tauri stars. If instead the 5.8-day signal is from a disk asymmetry, the instability region has an outer radius of 5.4 R {sub *}, consistent with models of FUor disks. Further exploration of the time domain in this complicated source and related objects will be key to understanding accretion processes.

  16. Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Leon, Jerome; Michihiro, Takami; Karr, Jennifer; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We present new high-resolution (approximately 0.09) H-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0.15 (approximately 20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of approximately 90 AU, an inclination of approximately 35 deg from the plane of the sky, and an approximate PA of 15 deg for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2. 5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1 (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an unseen brown dwarf, but our results do not exclude the explanation that these tails are outflow cavities or jets.

  17. ZnSe hollow nanospheres in mechanically stable near-IR antireflection coatings for ZnSe substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Luo, Rui-Chun; Mao, Yong-Qiang; Du, Xi-Wen; Yang, Jing

    2016-09-09

    Though possessing low absorption throughout a wide infrared (IR) spectral regime, owing to a high refractive index, zinc selenide substrates are generally covered by antireflection coatings (ARCs) for practical optical uses. However, achieving a high transmission of ZnSe substrates in the near-IR (NIR) region is still challenging. Herein, for the first time, colloidal ZnSe hollow nanospheres (HNSs) smaller than 100 nm were prepared and adopted to assemble ARCs for ZnSe substrates. The voiding kinetics of the HNSs was found to agree well with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, and the self-diffusion of the Zn ion in the core was faster than its diffusion through the ZnSe shell. With single-index ARCs, the transmission of ZnSe substrates was remarkably enhanced in the NIR region, with up to an 18% increase at 840 nm. Besides, the ZnSe HNS-based ARCs showed superior mechanical stability even under violent ultrasonication in organic solutions. We expect that ZnSe HNSs will make it possible to construct graded-index ARCs to realize omnidirectional and broadband antireflection in IR, through further tuning of HNSs' void fraction.

  18. ZnSe hollow nanospheres in mechanically stable near-IR antireflection coatings for ZnSe substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Luo, Rui-Chun; Mao, Yong-Qiang; Du, Xi-Wen; Yang, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Though possessing low absorption throughout a wide infrared (IR) spectral regime, owing to a high refractive index, zinc selenide substrates are generally covered by antireflection coatings (ARCs) for practical optical uses. However, achieving a high transmission of ZnSe substrates in the near-IR (NIR) region is still challenging. Herein, for the first time, colloidal ZnSe hollow nanospheres (HNSs) smaller than 100 nm were prepared and adopted to assemble ARCs for ZnSe substrates. The voiding kinetics of the HNSs was found to agree well with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, and the self-diffusion of the Zn ion in the core was faster than its diffusion through the ZnSe shell. With single-index ARCs, the transmission of ZnSe substrates was remarkably enhanced in the NIR region, with up to an 18% increase at 840 nm. Besides, the ZnSe HNS-based ARCs showed superior mechanical stability even under violent ultrasonication in organic solutions. We expect that ZnSe HNSs will make it possible to construct graded-index ARCs to realize omnidirectional and broadband antireflection in IR, through further tuning of HNSs’ void fraction.

  19. The 3D Structure of Eta Carinae's Nebula: A Definitive Picture from High-Dispersion Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.

    2005-12-01

    High resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini South provide our most accurate probe of the 3D structure of the Homunculus Nebula around Eta Carinae. Emission from molecular hydrogen at 2.122 microns traces a very thin outer skin, which contains the vast majority of the more than 10 solar masses of material in the nebula. This emission, in turn, yields our first definitive picture of the exact shape of the nebula, plus the latitude dependence of the mass-loss rate, speed, kinetic energy, shell thickness, and other properties asociated with Eta Car's 19th century explosion. This will be critical for testing any models for the outburst mechanism. A preliminary analysis suggests that explosion from a critically rotating star was the dominant mechanism that gave rise to both the bipolar shape of the nebula and the production of its equatorial disk. [Fe II] emission in the near IR traces a geometrically thicker but less massive shell found on the inner surface of the H2 skin --- this is either a reverse shock that decelerates Eta Car's wind or a warm PDR. [Fe II] emission also clarifies the structure of an inner "Little Homunculus" seen previously in HST/STIS spectra. Comparing these two tracers of cool molecular gas and warm partially-ionized gas resolves some significant confusion about the complex structure noted in previous studies.

  20. Harnessing Hot Electrons from Near IR Light for Hydrogen Production Using Pt-End-Capped-AuNRs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Nathalia; Zoellner, Brandon; Hong, Soung Joung; Ji, Yue; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yang; Maggard, Paul A; Wang, Gufeng

    2017-08-09

    Gold nanorods show great potential in harvesting natural sunlight and generating hot charge carriers that can be employed to produce electrical or chemical energies. We show that photochemical reduction of Pt(IV) to Pt metal mainly takes place at the ends of gold nanorods (AuNRs), suggesting photon-induced hot electrons are localized in a time-averaged manner at AuNR ends. To use these hot electrons efficiently, a novel synthetic method to selectively overgrow Pt at the ends of AuNRs has been developed. These Pt-end-capped AuNRs show relatively high activity for the production of hydrogen gas using artificial white light, natural sunlight, and more importantly, near IR light at 976 nm. Tuning of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength of AuNRs changes the hydrogen gas production rate, indicating that SPR is involved in hot electron generation and photoreduction of hydrogen ions. This study shows that gold nanorods are excellent for converting low-energy photons into high-energy hot electrons, which can be used to drive chemical reactions at their surfaces.

  1. The 3D Structure of Eta Carinae's Nebula: A Definitive Picture from High-Dispersion Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini South provide our most accurate probe of the 3D structure of the Homunculus Nebula around Eta Carinae. Emission from molecular hydrogen at 2.122 microns traces a very thin outer skin, which contains the vast majority of the more than 10 solar masses of material in the nebula. This emission, in turn, yields our first definitive picture of the exact shape of the nebula, plus the latitude dependence of the mass-loss rate, speed, kinetic energy, shell thickness, and other properties associated with Eta Car's 19th century explosion. This will be critical for testing any models for the outburst mechanism. A preliminary analysis suggests that explosion from a critically rotating star was the dominant mechanism that gave rise to both the bipolar shape of the nebula and the production of its equatorial disk. [Fe II] emission in the near IR traces a geometrically thicker but less massive shell found on the inner surface of the H2 skin --- this is either a reverse shock that decelerates Eta Car's wind or a warm PDR. [Fe Ill emission also clarifies the structure of an inner "Little Homunculus" seen previously in HST/STlS spectra. Comparing these two tracers of cool molecular gas and warm partially-ionized gas resolves some significant confusion about the complex structure noted in previous studies.

  2. Near-IR imaging of interproximal lesions from occlusal surfaces and the influence of stains and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2006-02-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR (NIR). Our previous work demonstrated that NIR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) and that it can also be used to image decay in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth where most new dental decay occurs. Early occlusal lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of lesion development due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. Stains and non-calcified plaque are not visible in the NIR enabling better discrimination of demineralized areas. We also demonstrate that interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above). Moreover, multiple illumination and detector angles can be exploited for optimal contrast between caries and sound tissue. These measurements suggest that NIR imaging offers significant advantages over the conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and other optical caries detection and imaging techniques.

  3. The 3D Structure of Eta Carinae's Nebula: A Definitive Picture from High-Dispersion Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini South provide our most accurate probe of the 3D structure of the Homunculus Nebula around Eta Carinae. Emission from molecular hydrogen at 2.122 microns traces a very thin outer skin, which contains the vast majority of the more than 10 solar masses of material in the nebula. This emission, in turn, yields our first definitive picture of the exact shape of the nebula, plus the latitude dependence of the mass-loss rate, speed, kinetic energy, shell thickness, and other properties associated with Eta Car's 19th century explosion. This will be critical for testing any models for the outburst mechanism. A preliminary analysis suggests that explosion from a critically rotating star was the dominant mechanism that gave rise to both the bipolar shape of the nebula and the production of its equatorial disk. [Fe II] emission in the near IR traces a geometrically thicker but less massive shell found on the inner surface of the H2 skin --- this is either a reverse shock that decelerates Eta Car's wind or a warm PDR. [Fe Ill emission also clarifies the structure of an inner "Little Homunculus" seen previously in HST/STlS spectra. Comparing these two tracers of cool molecular gas and warm partially-ionized gas resolves some significant confusion about the complex structure noted in previous studies.

  4. Variability at the Edge: Optical Near/IR Rapid-cadence Monitoring of Newly Outbursting FU Orionis Object HBC 722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; Robertson, Paul; Baek, Giseon; Pooley, David; Pak, Soojong; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Meschiari, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    We present the detection of day-timescale periodic variability in the r-band lightcurve of newly outbursting FU Orionis-type object HBC 722, taken from >42 nights of observation with the CQUEAN instrument on the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m telescope. The optical/near-IR lightcurve of HBC 722 shows a complex array of periodic variability, clustering around 5.8-day (0.044 mag amplitude) and 1.28-day (0.016 mag amplitude) periods, after removal of overall baseline variation. We attribute the unusual number of comparable strength signals to a phenomenon related to the temporary increase in accretion rate associated with FUors. We consider semi-random "flickering," magnetic braking/field compression and rotational asymmetries in the disk instability region as potential sources of variability. Assuming that the 5.8-day period is due to stellar rotation and the 1.28-day period is indicative of Keplerian rotation at the inner radius of the accretion disk (at 2 R sstarf), we derive a B-field strength of 2.2-2.7 kG, slightly larger than typical T Tauri stars. If instead the 5.8-day signal is from a disk asymmetry, the instability region has an outer radius of 5.4 R sstarf, consistent with models of FUor disks. Further exploration of the time domain in this complicated source and related objects will be key to understanding accretion processes.

  5. Estimation of Cellulose Crystallinity of Lignocelluloses Using Near-IR FT-Raman Spectroscopy and Comparison of the Raman and Segal-WAXS Methods

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard R. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Of the recently developed univariate and multivariate near-IR FT-Raman methods for estimating cellulose crystallinity, the former method was applied to a variety of lignocelluloses: softwoods, hardwoods, wood pulps, and agricultural residues/fibers. The effect of autofluorescence on the crystallinity estimation was minimized by solvent extraction or chemical treatment...

  6. Searching for Correlation Between Neutron Albedo and Near-IR Albedo of Mars Surface Using HEND/Odyssey and MOLA/MGS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, N. E.; Boynton, W. V.; Gilichinsky, D. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A. B.; Saunders, R. S.; Smith, D. E.; Tretykov, V. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2007-03-01

    Strong negative correlation between HEND neutron albedo and MOLA near-IR albedo is found within two broad latitude belts: 40°N-80°N and 40°S-60°S. Interpretation: water ice in these belts is buried below the dry skin layer, which thickness is determined

  7. Direct Calculations of Mid- and Near-IR Absorption and Circular Dichroism Spectra of Chiral Molecules Using QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulation Method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2011-12-13

    The infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (1S)-(-)-β-pinene in the mid- and near- IR frequency regions are numerically simulated by using a time-correlation function theory and mixed quantum/classical simulation method. Anharmonic vibrational dynamics and fluctuating atomic partial charges of the chiral pinene were obtained by carrying out quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Thus obtained time-correlation functions of electric and magnetic dipole moments are used to calculate the IR absorption and VCD spectra, and they are directly compared with experimental results. Not only the fundamental transition bands but also first overtone and combination bands in the near-IR frequency region are successfully simulated. It is shown that the polarizable nature of the solute is particularly important in quantitatively reproducing the near-IR spectra, whereas such polarization effects on dipole and rotational strengths of lower-frequency and large-amplitude vibrations are less critical. We anticipate that the present QM/MM MD method in combination with mixed quantum/classical time-correlation function theory to calculate both mid- and near-IR absorption and VCD spectra will be of critical use in interpreting vibrational optical activity properties of even conformationally flexible chiral molecules, such as proteins.

  8. Effects of Palagonitic Dust Coatings on Visible, Near-IR, and Mossbauer Spectra of Rocks and Minerals: Implication for Mineralogical Remote Sensing of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R.; Graff, T. G.; Shelfer, T. D.; Bell, J. F., III

    2001-01-01

    Visible, near-IR, and Mossbauer measurements on dust coated rocks and minerals show that a 300 5m thick layer is required to obscure the substrate for VNIR measurements and that a greater than 2000-micron-thick layer is required to obscure the substrate for Mossbauer measurements. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. ESO PR Highlights in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was the year of Physics. It was thus also in part the year of astronomy and this is clearly illustrated by the numerous breakthroughs that were achieved, in particular using ESO's telescopes. One of the highlights was without any doubt the confirmation of the first image of an exoplanet , around the star 2M1207 (see ESO PR 12/05). ESO's telescopes also found a Neptune-mass exoplanet around a small star ( PR 30/05) - a discovery that proves crucial in the census of other planetary systems, and imaged a tiny companion in the close vicinity of the star GQ Lupi, a very young object still surrounded by a disc, with an age between 100,000 and 2 million years ( PR 09/05). Moreover, using a new high-contrast adaptive optics camera on the VLT, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI, astronomers were able for the first time to image a companion 120 times fainter than its star , very near the star AB Doradus A. This companion appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be ( PR 02/05). ESO's telescopes proved very useful in helping to solve a 30-year old puzzle . Astronomers have for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars ( PR 26/05). Additional evidence came from witnessing another event with the VLT ( PR 32/05). Also in this field, astronomers found the farthest known gamma-ray burst with ESO's VLT, observing an object with a redshift 6.3, i.e. that is seen when the Universe was less than 900 million years old ( PR 22/05). On July 4, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface. For two days before and six days after, all major ESO telescopes have been observing the comet, in a coordinated fashion and in

  10. Science-Grade Imaging Data for HAWK-I, VIMOS, and VIRCAM: The ESO-UK Pipeline Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeser, M.; Lewis, J.; Madsen, G.; Yoldas, A.; Irwin, M.; Gabasch, A.; Coccato, L.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Romaniello, M.; Freudling, W.; Ballester, P.

    2016-12-01

    A new chapter for ESO science-grade data has begun with the implementa-tion of three new pipelines developed for the HAWK-I, VIMOS and VIRCAM instruments. The HAWK-I and VIMOS image archives at ESO have been completely reprocessed using these new pipelines, and these data are now publicly available. This article introduces the work done to bring these pipelines to the level of science-grade, their use in reprocessing ESO archival data, and their dissemination into ESO science operations and to the ESO community.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR NON-STELLAR REST-FRAME NEAR-IR EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Johannes U.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn

    2016-03-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR (2–5 μm) emission in galaxies at z ∼ 1. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and Hα emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis, together with the IR-colors and Hα profiles, shows that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of excess in the majority of galaxies. Our results suggest that non-stellar near-IR emission is linked to increased SFRs and is ubiquitous among star-forming galaxies. As such, the near-IR emission might be a powerful tool to measure SFRs in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Report on the 2009 ESO Fellows Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Eric; West, Michael; Leibundgut, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    The fourth ESO Fellows Symposium took place in Garching from 8-10 June 2009. This year's symposium brought together 28 ESO Fellows from Chile and Germany to meet their colleagues from across the ocean, discuss their research and provide feedback on ESO's Fellowship programme. This year's symposium also included training workshops to enhance the practical skills of ESO Fellows in today's competitive job market.

  13. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Bastian, N.; Smith, L. J.; Seth, A. C.; Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E.; O'Connell, R. W.; Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  14. Autonomous Identification of Carbonates Using Near-IR Reflectance Spectra During the February 1999 Marsokhod Field Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, T. L.; Gazis, P. R.

    1999-09-01

    Future planetary missions face severe constraints on communications bandwidth. This is particularly true of rover missions, where data acquired during a traverse could rapidly overwhelm any conceivable communications link. One approach to addressing this problem would be to develop autonomous systems that can perform some preliminary science analysis onboard to identify, prioritize, and flag interesting data for return to Earth. Such a capability would enable the rover to perform some decision-making that potentially enhances the ultimate science return from a mission. As an initial step toward the independent rover scientific analysis we have developed an autonomous system to identify the presence of carbonates in near-IR reflectance spectra (0.35-2.5 mu m). This system consists of a set of feature-extraction algorithms that operate in conjunction with a rule-based system to identify carbonates based on the presence and characteristics of absorption bands near 2.33 and 2.5 mu m. This system was tested during the February 1999 Marsokhod field operations. A field portable spectrometer was used to acquire measurements of reflected sunlight from a variety of targets over a wide range of viewing geometries and distances. When appropriate, the autonomous system successfully recognized all the noisy spectra and performed no further evaluation. Among those that it did evaluate for carbonates, the system had a success rate of 80% compared with the performance of the field science team, a success rate of 82-90% compared with the performance of the remote science team, and a false positive rate of 0%. This high level of performance is particularly encouraging given the simplicity of the rule set and could likely be improved by suitable modifications of the inference rules. In the future we intend to evaluate additional algorithms and methods that might be employed for autonomous data analysis and subsequent selection or prioritization onboard future planetary and space

  15. Near-IR luminescence and field-induced single molecule magnet of four salen-type ytterbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Qi; Yan, Peng-Fei; Luan, Fang; Li, Yu-Xin; Sun, Jing-Wen; Chen, Chuan; Yang, Fan; Chen, Han; Zou, Xiao-Yan; Li, Guang-Ming

    2015-01-05

    A series of rigid hexadentate salen-type (H2L) ytterbium complexes, namely, [Yb2L3(CH3OH)]·3CH3CN (1), [Yb2LL'L″(CH3OH)(H2O)2](ClO4)2·CH3OH·H2O (2), [Yb2L(OAc)4(CH3OH)2]·2CH3OH (3), and {[Yb2L(OAc)4]·3H2O}n (4) (H2L = N,N'-bis(2-oxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine, HL' = 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methyloxy-phenyl)benzimidazole and HL" = 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde) have been synthesized by reactions of H2L with multifarious Yb(3+) salts. X-ray crystallographic analyses demonstrate that complex 1 is of a triple-decker sandwich-type Yb2L3 structure with a ratio of H2L/Yb = 3:2, 2 and 3 possess the unique Yb2 core with a ratio of H2L/Yb = 2:2 and 1:2, respectively, 4 exhibits one dimensional coordination polymers in which the polymeric structures are formed by acetate (OAc(-)) groups. All complexes 1-4 exhibit near-IR luminescence, which can be rationalized on the basis of the disparate structural effects. The magnetic analysis unveils that all complexes 1-4 are of field-induced single-molecule magnet behavior with the energy barriers (Ueff/kB) of 14.5, 2.0, 9.5, and 2.4 K at 3 kOe direct current fields, respectively.

  16. Investigation on water content in fresco mock-ups in the microwave and near-IR spectral regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Donata; Cucci, Costanza; Olmi, Roberto; Picollo, Marcello; Riminesi, Cristiano

    2017-02-01

    Water diffusion inside masonry is responsible for the majority of the decay phenomena observed in wall paintings and frescos. Thus, the diagnostics of moisture and water content and their monitoring represent a key issue. In order to preserve the integrity of surfaces of artistic interest, investigations by means of non-destructive techniques (NDT) are preferred over others. The aim of this research is to determine methodologies to quantify the moisture content (MC) of frescos by means of the integrated use of two non-invasive techniques, namely fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) in the near-IR region and evanescent field dielectrometry (EFD) in the microwave range. The FORS technique has been employed in order to assess the amount of water adsorbed from the surface by means of an analysis of the reflectance spectra in the Vis-NIR (350-2200 nm) range. This technique investigates the electronic and vibrational transitions that are characteristic of each compound and enables their identification. The water content is evaluated on the basis of the 1920 nm and 1450 nm absorption bands. The EFD system consists of a resonant probe connected to a network analyzer. The resonance frequency of the cavity under different moisture-content conditions of frescos is in the 1.0-1.5 GHz range. The device makes it possible to compute, in real time, the MC from a measurement of the transmission coefficient (amplitude versus frequency) through the probe. Fresco mock-ups have been prepared in collaboration with the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in order to recreate most of the possible chromatic shades obtained by mixing iron oxides and hydroxide-based pigments. Measurements were performed by employing both techniques on fresco models after wet-dry cycles obtained by means of poultices with a known water content. The results obtained with these two techniques were compared, and cross relationships between the EFD and FORS data were defined.

  17. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  18. An Optical-Near-IR Study of a Triplet of Super Star Clusters in the Starburst Core of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Bastian, N.; Smith, L. J.; Seth, A. C.; Gallagher, J. S., III; O'Connell, R. W.; Ryon, J. E.; Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Rosa González, D.

    2014-07-01

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ~6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 105 M ⊙, and their sizes are R eff = 159, 104, 59 mas (~2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s-1 for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x 2 orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm-3) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x 2 orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ~25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope under program 11641 and the Gemini-North telescope under program GN-2010B-Q-4.

  19. Specific features of diffuse reflection of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light

    SciTech Connect

    Dolotov, L E; Sinichkin, Yu P; Tuchin, Valerii V; Al'tshuler, G B; Yaroslavskii, I V

    2011-04-30

    The specific features of diffuse reflection from different areas of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light have been investigated to localise the closed-eye (eyelid) region. In the visible spectral range the reflection from the eyelid skin surface can be differentiated by measuring the slope of the spectral dependence of the effective optical density of skin in the wavelength range from 650 to 700nm. In the near-IR spectral range the reflectances of the skin surface at certain wavelengths, normalised to the forehead skin reflectance, can be used as a criterion for differentiating the eyelid skin. In this case, a maximum discrimination is obtained when measuring the skin reflectances at laser wavelengths of 1310 and 1470nm, which correspond to the spectral ranges of maximum and minimum water absorption. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  20. Tunable femtosecond near-IR source by pumping an OPA directly with a 90  MHz Yb:fiber source.

    PubMed

    Mundry, J; Lohrenz, J; Betz, M

    2017-04-10

    Up to 400 mW of near-IR (1370-1500 nm) femtosecond pulses are generated from an optical parametric amplifier directly driven by a Yb:fiber oscillator delivering 100 fs pulses at 1036 nm. The process is seeded by a stable supercontinuum obtained from a photonic crystal fiber. We use a single pass through a 3 mm, magnesium oxide-doped, periodically poled LiNbO3 downconversion crystal to produce a near-IR pulse train with a remarkable power stability of 1.4% (RMS) during one hour. Tuning is achieved by the temperature and the poling period of the nonlinear crystal.

  1. Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Redistribution in 2-Thiocytosine: SH Rotamerization Induced by Near-IR Selective Excitation of NH2 Stretching Overtone.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Anna; Lapinski, Leszek; Rostkowska, Hanna; Nowak, Maciej J

    2015-09-03

    Near-IR-induced transformations, converting one amino-thiol conformer of 2-thiocytosine into another, were observed for monomers of the compound isolated in Ne, Ar, and N2 low-temperature matrixes. The two conformers involved in this phototransformation differ from each other by 180° rotation of the SH group. To induce the conversion, conformers of 2-thiocytosine were selectively excited to the overtone (or combination) NH2 stretching vibrational states, using very narrowband (fwhm <1 MHz) near-IR light generated in a tunable diode laser. The conformational changes were monitored by IR spectroscopy. The conformational transformation observed in the current work provides a clear evidence of the vibrational energy redistribution from the initially excited NH2 moiety to the remote SH group that changes its orientation.

  2. The Spectacular Radio-Near-IR-X-Ray Jet of 3C 111: the X-Ray Emission Mechanism and Jet Kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.; Tombesi, Francesco; Cara, Mihai; Marshall, Herman L.; Hogan, Brandon M.; Kazanas, Demos

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic jets are the most energetic manifestation of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) phenomenon. AGN jets are observed from the radio through gamma-rays and carry copious amounts of matter and energy from the subparsec central regions out to the kiloparsec and often megaparsec scale galaxy and cluster environs. While most spatially resolved jets are seen in the radio, an increasing number have been discovered to emit in the optical/near- IR and/or X-ray bands. Here we discuss a spectacular example of this class, the 3C 111 jet, housed in one of the nearest, double-lobed FR II radio galaxies known. We discuss new, deep Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations that reveal both near-IR and X-ray emission from several components of the 3C 111 jet, as well as both the northern and southern hotspots. Important differences are seen between the morphologies in the radio, X-ray, and near-IR bands. The long (over 100 kpc on each side), straight nature of this jet makes it an excellent prototype for future, deep observations, as it is one of the longest such features seen in the radio, near-IR/optical, and X-ray bands. Several independent lines of evidence, including the X-ray and broadband spectral shape as well as the implied velocity of the approaching hotspot, lead us to strongly disfavor the EC/CMB model and instead favor a two-component synchrotron model to explain the observed X-ray emission for several jet components. Future observations with NuSTAR, HST, and Chandra will allow us to further constrain the emission mechanisms.

  3. Near-IR supercontinuum generation based on a telecom single-mode fibre in an all-fibre format, and its power combining

    SciTech Connect

    Rumao Tao; Xiaolin Wang; Xiao, H; Zhou, P; Jing Hou

    2014-04-28

    Near-IR supercontinuum (SC) is generated based on a standard telecommunication single-mode (SM) fibre in an all-fibre format. The observed spectrum covers the spectral range from 1050 nm to 1700 nm. High-efficiency combining of the SC power is demonstrated for the first time, and the spectral SC properties are shown to be maintained after power combining. The results may find applications in sensing, spectroscopy and medicine. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  4. Antibody response against NY-ESO-1 in CHP-NY-ESO-1 vaccinated patients.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Ryohei; Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Saika, Takashi; Sato, Shuichiro; Uenaka, Akiko; Miyata, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Takushi; Doki, Yuichiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Kumon, Hiromi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Shiku, Hiroshi; Ritter, Gerd; Murphy, Roger; Hoffman, Eric; Old, Lloyd J; Monden, Morito; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2007-05-15

    NY-ESO-1 specific humoral responses are frequently observed in patients with various types of NY-ESO-1 antigen expressing tumors. In a large proportion of NY-ESO-1 antibody-positive patients of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8 T-cells can also be detected suggesting that monitoring of the NY-ESO-1 specific humoral immune response may be a relevant and more practical surrogate for estimating the overall immune response against NY-ESO-1 in clinical vaccine studies. We have immunized 9 cancer patients with full length NY-ESO-1 protein formulated with cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP-NY-ESO-1) and investigated the humoral immune responses against NY-ESO-1. Seven patients were NY-ESO-1 antibody-negative and 2 patients were positive prior to vaccination. Vaccination with CHP-NY-ESO-1 resulted in the induction or increase of NY-ESO-1 antibody responses in all 9 patients immunized. Epitope analysis revealed 5 regions in the NY-ESO-1 protein molecule that were recognized by antibodies induced after vaccination. The 5 regions were also recognized by antibodies present in nonvaccinated, NY-ESO-1 antibody-positive cancer patients. A peptide spanning amino acids 91-108 was recognized in 6 out of 9 vaccinated patients and in 8 out of 9 nonvaccinated, sero-positive patients, being the most dominant antigenic epitope in NY-ESO-1 for antibody recognition in cancer patients. In conclusion, we showed that CHP-NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination had a potent activity for inducing humoral immune responses against NY-ESO-1 antigen in cancer patients. The antigenic epitopes recognized by antibodies in the vaccinated patients were similar to those recognized in cancer patients with spontaneous humoral immunity against NY-ESO-1. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  6. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    PubMed Central

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  7. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  8. ESO Director General to Become President of AUI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    scientific awards for his work. Prof. Giacconi is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is the author of books as well as more than 200 scientific publications. Note: [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and AUI (URL: http://www.aui.edu/ ). How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  9. Austria Declares Intent To Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    At a press conference today at the University of Vienna's Observatory, the Austrian Science Minister Johannes Hahn announced the decision by the Austrian Government to seek membership of ESO from 1 July this year. ESO PR Photo 11/08 ESO PR Photo 11/08 Announcing Austria's Intent to Join ESO Said Minister Hahn: "With membership of ESO, Austria's scientists will receive direct access to the world's leading infrastructure in astronomy. This strengthens Austria as a place for research and provides an opportunity for young researchers to continue their work from here. With this move, Austria takes an important step in the reinforcement of Europe's science and research infrastructure." The decision constitutes a major breakthrough for Austrian scientists who have argued for membership of ESO for many years. Seeking membership in ESO also marks a step towards the further development of the European Research and Innovation Area, an important element of Europe's so-called Lisbon Strategy. "ESO welcomes the Austrian bid to join our organisation. I salute the Austrian Government for taking this important step and look forward to working closely with our Austrian friends and colleagues in the years to come," commented the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. For Austrian astronomers, ESO membership means not only unrestricted access to ESO's world-leading observational facilities including the world's most advanced optical telescope, the Very Large Telescope, and full participation in the quasi-global ALMA project, but also the possibility to participate on a par with their European colleagues in the future projects of ESO, including the realisation of ESO's Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT), which is currently in the design phase. All these projects require some of the most advanced technologies in key areas such as optics, detectors, lightweight structures, etc. Austrian participation in ESO opens the door for Austrian industry and major research institutes of the

  10. CCD data reductions at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbol, Preben

    The image-processing and data-reduction functions of the IHAP and MIDAS software packages developed at ESO for CCD astronomy are briefly reviewed. IHAP and MIDAS perform the same basic operations on HP 1000 and VAX computers, respectively, and MIDAS is currently being modified to run in the UNIX operating system as well as in VAX VMS. Consideration is given to the special properties of CCD data, the removal of gross errors (due to bad pixels and cosmic-ray events), photometric correction for dark current and sensitivity variations, digital filtering and Fourier transforms, detection and classification algorithms for direct imaging, surface photometry of extended objects, function fitting, and image deconvolution.

  11. Syntheses of asymmetric zinc phthalocyanines as sensitizer of Pt-loaded graphitic carbon nitride for efficient visible/near-IR-light-driven H2 production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiaohu; Zhuang, Chuansheng; Lin, Li; Li, Renjie; Peng, Tianyou

    2014-03-07

    Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivatives with asymmetric (Zn-tri-PcNc-2) or symmetric (Zn-tetrad-Nc) structure, which possess wide spectral response in the visible/near-IR light region, are synthesized and utilized as a sensitizer of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with 0.5 wt% Pt-loading for photocatalytic H2 production. The experimental results indicate that Zn-tri-PcNc-2 exhibits much better photosensitization on g-C3N4 than Zn-tetrad-Nc under visible/near-IR light although Zn-tetrad-Nc possesses wider and stronger optical absorption property than Zn-tri-PcNc-2. Zn-tri-PcNc-2-Pt/g-C3N4 exhibits an average H2 production rate of 132 μmol h(-1), which is much better than that (26.1 μmol h(-1)) of Zn-tetrad-Nc-Pt/g-C3N4 under visible-light (λ ≥ 500 nm) irradiation. Moreover, Zn-tri-PcNc-2-Pt/g-C3N4 also shows much higher apparent quantum yield (AQY) than Zn-tetrad-Nc-Pt/g-C3N4 under red/near-IR light irradiation. Especially, Zn-tri-PcNc-2-Pt/g-C3N4 exhibits impressively higher AQY (1.07%) than that (0.22%) of the Zn-tetrad-Nc-Pt/g-C3N4 under 700 nm monochromatic light irradiation. The much better photoactivity of Zn-tri-PcNc-2-Pt/g-C3N4 than Zn-tetrad-Nc-Pt/g-C3N4 is caused by the asymmetric structure of Zn-tri-PcNc-2, which can result in the electronic orbital directionality of its excited state, much faster photogenerated electron transfer to g-C3N4, and higher red/near-IR light utilization efficiency as compared to Zn-tetrad-Nc-Pt/g-C3N4. The present results provide an important insight into the effects of molecular structure and optical absorption property of phthalocyanine derivatives on the photoactivity of the dye-sensitized semiconductor, and also guide us to further improve the solar energy conversion efficiency by optimizing the molecular structure and effectively utilizing the visible/near-IR light of sunlight.

  12. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Smectite Acquired Under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Achilles, Cherie N; Archer, Paul D.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, Dadi C.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the MEx OMEGA and the MRO CRISM hyper-spectral imaging instruments have spectral features associated with the H2O molecule and M OH functional groups (M = Mg, Fe, Al, and Si). Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of laboratory VNIR spectra, which were often acquired under ambient (humid) conditions. Smectites like nontronite, saponite, and montmorillionite have interlayer H2O that is exchangeable with their environment, and we have acquired smectite reflectance spectra under dry environmental conditions for interpretation of martian surface mineralogy. We also obtained chemical, Moessbauer (MB), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) data to understand variations in spectral properties. VNIR spectra were recorded in humid lab air at 25-35C, in a dynamic dry N2 atmosphere (50-150 ppmv H2O) after exposing the smectite samples (5 nontronites, 3 montmorillionites, and 1 saponite) to that atmosphere for up to approximately l000 hr each at 25-35C, approximately 105C, and approximately 215C, and after re-exposure to humid lab air. Heating at 105C and 215C for approximately 1000 hr is taken as a surrogate for geologic time scales at lower temperatures. Upon exposure to dry N2, the position and intensity of spectral features associated with M-OH were relatively insensitive to the dry environment, and the spectral features associated with H2O (e.g., approximately 1.90 micrometers) decreased in intensity and are sometimes not detectable by the end of the 215C heating step. The position and intensity of H2O spectral features recovered upon re-exposure to lab air. XRD data show interlayer collapse for the nontronites and Namontmorillionites, with the interlayer remaining collapsed for the latter after re-exposure to lab air. The interlayer did not collapse for the saponite and Ca-montmorillionite. TG data show that the concentration of H2O derived from structural OH was invariant

  13. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- GOODS-South Field, Non-SNe-Searched Visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.When combined with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young vs. old

  14. An optical and near-IR spectroscopic study of the extreme P Cygni-type supergiant HDE 316285

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Najarro, F.; Fullerton, A. W.

    1998-12-01

    A detailed study of the Galactic P Cygni-type supergiant HDE 316285, based on high quality optical (AAT, MSO, CTIO) and near-IR (UKIRT, CFHT, CTIO) spectroscopy, is presented. As has been noted previously, its spectrum is dominated by H, He I, and Fe Ii P Cygni profiles. Emission lines due to N I, N Ii, [N Ii], O I, Na I, Mg Ii, Al Ii, Ca Ii, Si Ii, Si Iii, Fe Ii and [Fe Ii] can also be readily identified. Many of the metal lines are produced by continuum fluorescence. The rich N spectrum, the paucity of the O spectrum (only 2 O lines can be identified), and the apparent absence of emission due to C, strongly suggest that the atmosphere of the star is contaminated by CNO processed material. A comparison of the spectrum of HDE 316285 with P Cygni and He 3-519 is presented. From a spectral analysis using the non-LTE atmosphere code of Hillier (1991), and assuming a distance of 1.85 kpc, our preferred model for HDE 316285 has the following parameters: T_* = 15 kK, log L_* / L_sun = 5.44, spose M = 2.4 x 10(-4) Msun yr(-1) , v_∞ = 410 {km s(-1) }, E_B-V=1.81 mag, and H/He ~ 1.5 by number. Due to the low degree of He ionization the derived H/He abundance ratio and mass-loss rate are strongly coupled. Models with H/He=10 to 0.5 are equally capable of explaining the H and He I\\ spectrum provided the mass-loss rate is scaled according to the approximate formula spose M = 9.1 + 26.3 (He/H -0.1) x 10(-5) M_{\\odot}yr. Preliminary work, however, indicates that a solar H/He ratio can be ruled out on the basis of line strengths of other species - particularly N, Mg, Al. The stellar wind from HDE 316285 is more extreme than P Cygni with a performance number (= ratio of wind momentum to radiative momentum) 30 times greater. The low H/He abundance ratio and high N/He abundance ratio confirms that HDE 316285 is evolved. Although we find no evidence in the literature for photometric variability, we find strong evidence for significant spectral variability. Because of the spectral

  15. Spatial distribution of Io's volcanic activity from near-IR adaptive optics observations on 100 nights in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kleer, Katherine; de Pater, Imke

    2016-12-01

    The extreme and time-variable volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io is the result of periodic tidal forcing. The spatial distribution of Io's surface heat flux provides an important constraint on models for tidal heat dissipation, yielding information on interior properties and on the depth at which the tidal heat is primarily dissipated. We analyze the spatial distribution of 48 hot spots based on more than 400 total hot spot detections in adaptive optics images taken on 100 nights in 2013-2015 (data presented in de Kleer and de Pater [2016] Time variability of Io's volcanic activity from near-IR adaptive optics 13 observations on 100 nights in 2013-2015). We present full surface maps of Io at multiple near-infrared wavelengths for three epochs during this time period, and show that the longitudinal distribution of hot spots has not changed significantly since the Galileo mission. We find that hot spots that are persistently active at moderate intensities tend to occur at different latitudes/longitudes than those that exhibit sudden brightening events characterized by high peak intensities and subsequent decay phases. While persistent hot spots are located primarily between ± 30°N, hot spots exhibiting bright eruption events occur primarily between 40° and 65° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. In addition, while persistent hot spots occur preferentially on the leading hemisphere, all bright eruptions were detected on the trailing hemisphere, despite the comparable longitudinal coverage of our observations to both hemispheres. A subset of the bright hot spots which are not intense enough to qualify as outburst eruptions resemble outbursts in terms of temporal evolution and spatial distribution, and may be outbursts whose peak emission went unobserved, or else scaled-down versions of the same phenomenon. A statistical analysis finds that large eruptions are more spatially clustered and occur at higher latitudes than 95% of simulated datasets that

  16. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  17. The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

    Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

  18. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  19. Comparison of line-by-line and band models of near-IR methane absorption applied to outer planet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; Boudon, V.; Campargue, A.; Nikitin, A.

    2012-03-01

    Recent improvements in high spectral resolution measurements of methane absorption at wavenumbers between 4800 cm-1 and 7919 cm-1 have greatly increased the number of lines with known lower state energies, the number of weak lines, and the number of lines observed at low temperatures (Campargue, A., Wang, L., Kassi, S., Mašát, M., Votava, O. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1141-1151; Campargue, A., Wang, L., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Kassi, S. [2010]. Chem. Phys. 373, 203-210; Mondelain, D., Kassi, S., Wang, L.C. [2011]. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 7985-7996; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2011a]. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 268, 93-106; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 2211-2224; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Campargue, A. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1130-1140; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Campargue, A. [2011]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 112, 937-951), making it possible to fit near-IR spectra of Titan using line-by-line calculations instead of band models (Bailey, J., Ahlsved, L., Meadows, V.S. [2011]. Icarus 213, 218-232; de Bergh, C. et al. [2011]. Planet. Space Sci. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2011.05.003). Using these new results, we compiled an improved line list relative that used by Bailey et al. by updating several spectral regions with either calculated or more recently measured line parameters, revising lower state energy estimates for lines lacking them, and adding room temperature lines to make the list applicable over a wider range of temperatures. We compared current band models with line-by-line calculations using this new line list, both to assess the behavior of band models, and to identify remaining issues with line-by-line calculations when applied to outer planet atmospheres and over a wider range of wavelengths. Comparisons were made for a selection of uniform paths representing outer planet conditions and for representative non-uniform paths within the atmospheres of Uranus, Saturn

  20. The ESO Educational Office Reaches Out towards Europe's Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    ESA/ESO Astronomy Exercises Provide a Taste of Real Astronomy [1] Summary The European Southern Observatory (ESO) has been involved in many Europe-wide educational projects during the past years, in particular within European Science Weeks sponsored by the European Commission (EC). In order to further enhance the significant educational potential inherent in the numerous scientific endeavours now carried out by Europe's astronomers with ESO front-line telescope facilities, it has been decided to set up an Educational Office within the ESO EPR Department. It will from now on work closely with astronomy-oriented teachers, in particular at the high-school level , providing support, inspiration and new materials. Much of this interaction will happen via the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) In this context, and in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) , the first instalments of the "ESA/ESO Astronomy Exercise Series" have just been published, on the web ( http://www.astroex.org ) and in print (6 booklets totalling 100 pages; provided free-of-charge to teachers on request). They allow 16-19 year old students to gain exciting hands-on experience in astronomy, making realistic calculations with data obtained from observations by some of the world's best telescopes, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) . PR Photo 36/01 : The "ESA/ESO Astronomy Exercise Series" . Educational projects at ESO The European Southern Observatory (ESO) , through its Education and Public Relations Department (EPR) , has long been involved in educational activities, in particular by means of Europe-wide projects during successive European Science Weeks , with support from the European Commission (EC) . A most visible outcome has been the creation of the trailblazing European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) - this was first discussed at an international meeting at the ESO Headquarters in November 1994 with the

  1. Photographic photometry of 16000 galaxies on ESO blue and red survey plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauberts, A.; Valentijn, E. A.

    An ongoing photometric survey of 16,000 galaxies on ESO red and blue plates is described. The galaxies of the ESO/Uppsala Catalog (Lauberts, 1982) are being PDS scanned, and the results are combined with existing photometry and supplementary observational data obtained at the 1-m ESO telescope to form a catalog for paper, magnetic-tape, and possibly video-disk publication. Details of the plate digitization, photometric calibration, and automatic parameter extraction are discussed, and a flow chart of the extraction operation and graphs of sample data are provided.

  2. ESO Fellowship Programme 2003/2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    THE EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY AWARDS SEVERAL POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS to provide young scientists opportunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes. Its goal is to bring them into close contact with the instruments, activities, and people at one of the world's foremost observatories. For more information about ESO's astronomical research activities please consult http://www.eso.org/science/

  3. Catherine Cesarsky - ESO's Next Director General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    The ESO Council has appointed Dr. Catherine Cesarsky as Director General for a five-year period, succeeding Professor Riccardo Giacconi, whose term ends this year. Dr. Cesarsky will take up her duties on September 1, 1999, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany).

  4. Optical and near-IR observations of the faint and fast 2008ha-like supernova 2010ae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Hsiao, E.; Valenti, S.; Taddia, F.; Rivera-Thorsen, T. J.; Leloudas, G.; Maeda, K.; Pastorello, A.; Phillips, M. M.; Pignata, G.; Baron, E.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Hamuy, M.; Höflich, P.; Morrell, N.; Prieto, J. L.; Benetti, S.; Campillay, A.; Haislip, J. B.; LaClutze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Reichart, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive set of optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy is presented for the faint and fast 2008ha-like supernova (SN) 2010ae. Contingent on the adopted value of host extinction, SN 2010ae reached a peak brightness of -13.8 > MV > -15.3 mag, while modeling of the UVOIR light curve suggests it produced 0.003-0.007 M⊙ of 56Ni, ejected 0.30-0.60 M⊙ of material, and had an explosion energy of 0.04-0.30 × 1051 erg. The values of these explosion parameters are similar to the peculiar SN 2008ha -for which we also present previously unpublished early phase optical and NIR light curves - and places these two transients at the faint end of the 2002cx-like SN population. Detailed inspection of the post-maximum NIR spectroscopic sequence indicates the presence of a multitude of spectral features, which are identified through SYNAPPS modeling to be mainly attributed to Co ii. Comparison with a collection of published and unpublished NIR spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe, reveals that a Co ii footprint is ubiquitous to this subclass of transients, providing a link to Type Ia SNe. A visual-wavelength spectrum of SN 2010ae obtained at +252 days past maximum shows a striking resemblance to a similar epoch spectrum of SN 2002cx. However, subtle differences in the strength and ratio of calcium emission features, as well as diversity among similar epoch spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe indicates a range of physical conditions of the ejecta, highlighting the heterogeneous nature of thispeculiar class of transients. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programs 082.A-0526, 084.D-0719, 088.D-0222, 184.D-1140, and 386.D-0966); the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Programs GS-2010A-Q-14 and GS-2010A-Q-38); the Magellan 6.5 m telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; and the SOAR telescope.Tables 1-5 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http

  5. The brown dwarf atmosphere monitoring (BAM) project. I. The largest near-IR monitoring survey of L and T dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, P. A.; Rajan, A.; Patience, J.

    2014-06-01

    Using the SofI instrument on the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope, we have conducted an extensive near-infrared monitoring survey of an unbiased sample of 69 brown dwarfs spanning the L0 to T8 spectral range, with at least one example of each spectral type. Each target was observed for a 2-4 h period in the Js-band, and the median photometric precision of the data is ~0.7%. A total of 14 brown dwarfs were identified as variables with min-to-max amplitudes ranging from 1.7% to 10.8% over the observed duration. All variables satisfy a statistical significance threshold with a p-value ≤5% based on comparison with a median reference star light curve. Approximately half of the variables show pure sinusoidal amplitude variations similar to 2MASSJ2139+0220, and the remainder show multi-component variability in their light curves similar to SIMPJ0136+0933. It has been suggested that the L-T transition should be a region of a higher degree of variability if patchy clouds are present, and this survey was designed to test the patchy cloud model with photometric monitoring of both the L-T transition and non-transition brown dwarfs. The measured frequency of variables is 13+10-4% across the L7-T4 spectral range, indistinguishable from the frequency of variables of the earlier spectral types (30+11-8%), the later spectral types (13+10-4%), or the combination of all non-transition region brown dwarfs (22+7-5%). The variables are not concentrated in the transition, in a specific colour, or in binary systems. Of the brown dwarfs previously monitored for variability, only ~60% maintained the state of variability (variable or constant), with the remaining switching states. The 14 variables include 9 newly identified variables that will provide important systems for follow-up multi-wavelength monitoring to further investigate brown dwarf atmosphere physics. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at La Silla Observatory under programme ID 188.C-0493.Tables 1, 2, and 4 are

  6. Assessment of MODIS-Derived Visible and Near-IR Aerosol Optical Properties and their Spatial Variability in the Presence of Mineral Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Zhang, Q.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H.; Remer, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosol is among the most difficult aerosol species to measure quantitatively from space. In this paper, we evaluate MODIS retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the visible to the near-IR off the US West Coast using measurements taken by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer, AATS-14, during the EVE (Extended-MODIS-lambda Validation Experiment, 2004) campaign in April of 2004. In EVE, a total of 35 and 49 coincident over-ocean suborbital measurements at the nominal level-2 retrieval scale of 10 km x 10 km were collected for Terra and Aqua, respectively. For MODIS-Terra about 80% of the AOD retrievals are within the estimated uncertainty, DELTA tau = plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau; this is true for both the visible (here defined to include 466-855 nm) and near-IR (here defined to include 1243-2119 nm) retrievals. For MODIS-Aqua about 45% of the AOD retrievals are within DELTA tau = plus or minus 0.03 plus or minus 0.05 tau; the fraction of near-IR retrievals that fall within this uncertainty range is about 27%. We found an rms difference of 0.71 between the sunphotometer snd MODIS-Aqua estimates of the visible (553-855 nm) Angstrom exponent, while the MODIS-Terra visible Angstrom exponents show an rms difference of only 0.29 when compared to AATS. The cause of the differences in performance between MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua could be instrument calibration and needs to be explored further. The spatial variability of AOD between retrieval boxes as derived by MODIS is generally larger than that indicated by the sunphotometer data.

  7. Visible and near-IR spectroscopy of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes and their monoanions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareev, I. E.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Dutlov, A. E.; Martynenko, V. M.; Bubnov, V. P.; Laukhina, E.; Veciana, J.; Rovira, C.

    2017-03-01

    Solutions of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes are studied by means of visible and near-IR spectroscopy upon their conversion from neutral to the anionic form via a redox reaction with the electron donor potassium perchlorotriphenylmethide K(18-crown-6)[C(C6Cl5)3]. The concentrations of the studied solutions of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes in o-dichlorobenzene were determined from the spectroscopic data, and their molar extinction coefficients are calculated.

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of thick composite media with vanadium dioxide nanoparticles. I. Self-defocusing of radiation in the visible and near-IR regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrosablina, A. A.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental and theoretical results of a study of the interaction of pulsed laser radiation with thick composite media containing nanoparticles of vanadium dioxide (VO2). It establishes that the reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition that occurs in VO2 nanoparticles under the action of radiation can produce self-defocusing of radiation in the visible and near-IR regions because of the formation of a photoinduced dynamic lens. An analysis is carried out of how the radiation intensity affects the dynamics of these processes. It is shown that photoinduced absorption and scattering play a role in forming the nonlinear optical response.

  9. Diode laser-based sensor system for long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric concentration and near-IR molecular spectral parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.; Lee, J.; Adler-Golden, S.M.; Bien, F.

    1993-12-31

    Line-locked near-IR diode lasers and a simple retroreflector/telescope system were used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents over long atmospheric paths. The experimental configuration used in preliminary measurements of atmospheric water vapor and oxygen with AlGaAs diode lasers is presented. A prototype field sensor system currently under development shares the same basic configuration but incorporates interchangeable AlGaAs and InGaAsP diode-laser modules for monitoring a variety of atmospheric gases.

  10. Spectral phase transfer from near IR to deep UV by broadband phase-matched four-wave mixing in an argon-filled hollow core waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, J. P.; Mendonça, C. R.; Zilio, S. C.; Misoguti, L.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the implementation of a spectral phase transfer scheme from near IR to deep UV, in which the frequency conversion step is based on the broadband phase-matched four-wave mixing in a gas-filled hollow core waveguide. Micro joule level femtosecond pulses at 260 nm were generated by nonlinear mixing of a Ti:sapphire laser and its second-harmonic. The transfer of a π-step phase in a controllable manner was proposed and confirmed by a modulation observed in the generated deep UV femtosecond pulse spectrum due to an interference process. Numerical simulations confirmed our results.

  11. Differences in visible and near-IR responses, and derived vegetation indices, for the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 AVHRRs: a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluates the differences in the visible and near-IR responses of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-9 and -10 satellites for coincident sample locations. The study also evaluates the differences in vegetation indices computed from those data. Data were acquired of the southeast portion of the United States for the 6 December 1986 daylight orbits of NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites. The results suggest that, with appropriate gain and offset, the vegetation indices of the two sensor systems may be interchangeable for assessment of land surfaces.

  12. Visible to Near-IR Spectral Properties of Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Pancams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Pancam multispectral images of a wide range of rock and soil targets were acquired using as many as 11 narrowband filters with central wavelengths from 432 to 1009 nm. These images were acquired in order to characterize the overall color properties of materials at the Gusev and Meridiani landing sites, to constrain the iron-bearing mineralogy of these materials based on the nature of crystalline and/or nanophase Fe3+ (ferric) absorptions in the visible to near-IR in altered materials and Fe2+ (ferrous) absorptions in the near-IR from less-altered volcanic materials, and to aid in the selection of specific targets for detailed chemical and mineralogic investigations using the rovers' arm instruments. At Gusev during the plains traverse to the Columbia Hills, most bright soil and rock surfaces appear covered or coated by optically thick fine-grained ferric-iron rich dust. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces, including regions that were brushed or drilled by the RAT, show near-IR signatures consistent with ferrous silicates like pyroxene or olivine. Since Spirit's arrival in the Columbia Hills, Pancam images have revealed evidence for some intrinsically less dusty or less altered rock surfaces, as well as isolated occurrences of more crystalline ferric signatures that may be indicative of enhanced weathering or alteration relative to materials in the plains. At Meridiani during the exploration of Eagle crater and during the traverse to Endurance crater, a wide range of visible to near-IR spectral properties was identified among small rock clasts and spherules. For example, spectra of dark sand, some dark rock clasts, and one larger dark rock found on the plains show spectra consistent with the presence of pyroxene or olivine. Spectra of dark spherules are consistent with the presence of crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. Bright materials, including windblown dust, bright spherules, and the sulfur-rich laminated outcrop deposits, have

  13. Characterization of plasma-enhanced teflon AF for sensing benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water with near-IR surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Tim A; Nijjar, Rajvir; Kipper, Matt J; Lear, Kevin L

    2014-02-01

    Near-IR surface plasmon resonance is used to characterize Teflon AF films for refractive index-based detection of the aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water. The technique requires no sample preparation, and film sensitivity is found to be enhanced by oxygen plasma etching. A diffusion equation model is used to extract the diffusion and partition coefficients, which indicate film enrichment factors exceeding two orders of magnitude, permitting a limit of detection of 183, 105 and 55 ppb for benzene, toluene, and xylenes, respectively. The effect of other potential interfering contaminants is quantified.

  14. The Gaia-ESO Survey: processing FLAMES-UVES spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, G. G.; Morbidelli, L.; Franciosini, E.; Maiorca, E.; Randich, S.; Modigliani, A.; Gilmore, G.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Hambly, N.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N.; Bergemann, M.; Costado, M. T.; de Laverny, P.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R.; Jofre, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Lardo, C.; Magrini, L.; Masseron, T.; Prisinzano, L.; Worley, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey is a large public spectroscopic survey that aims to derive radial velocities and fundamental parameters of about 105 Milky Way stars in the field and in clusters. Observations are carried out with the multi-object optical spectrograph FLAMES, using simultaneously the medium-resolution (R ~ 20 000) GIRAFFE spectrograph and the high-resolution (R ~ 47 000) UVES spectrograph. In this paper we describe the methods and the software used for the data reduction, the derivation of the radial velocities, and the quality control of the FLAMES-UVES spectra. Data reduction has been performed using a workflow specifically developed for this project. This workflow runs the ESO public pipeline optimizing the data reduction for the Gaia-ESO Survey, automatically performs sky subtraction, barycentric correction and normalisation, and calculates radial velocities and a first guess of the rotational velocities. The quality control is performed using the output parameters from the ESO pipeline, by a visual inspection of the spectra and by the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra. Using the observations of the first 18 months, specifically targets observed multiple times at different epochs, stars observed with both GIRAFFE and UVES, and observations of radial velocity standards, we estimated the precision and the accuracy of the radial velocities. The statistical error on the radial velocities is σ ~ 0.4 km s-1 and is mainly due to uncertainties in the zero point of the wavelength calibration. However, we found a systematic bias with respect to the GIRAFFE spectra (~0.9 km s-1) and to the radial velocities of the standard stars (~0.5 km s-1) retrieved from the literature. This bias will be corrected in the future data releases, when a common zero point for all the set-ups and instruments used for the survey is be established. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under programme 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public

  15. Estimation of cellulose crystallinity of lignocelluloses using near-IR FT-Raman spectroscopy and comparison of the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Umesh P; Reiner, Richard R; Ralph, Sally A

    2013-01-09

    Of the recently developed univariate and multivariate near-IR FT-Raman methods for estimating cellulose crystallinity, the former method was applied to a variety of lignocelluloses: softwoods, hardwoods, wood pulps, and agricultural residues/fibers. The effect of autofluorescence on the crystallinity estimation was minimized by solvent extraction or chemical treatment or both. Additionally, when the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the Raman crystallinity assessment were investigated, it was found that syringyl lignin containing lignocelluloses generated somewhat higher crystallinity, whereas the presence of hemicellulose reduced the crystallinity. Overall, when autofluorescence was minimized and corrections made for hemicellulose and syringyl lignin contributions, the univariate Raman method performed well and estimated cellulose crystallinity accurately. Moreover, when the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods were compared, we observed that in the absence of significant fluorescence, the Raman method was influenced mostly by hemicellulose and syringyl lignin, whereas the Segal-WAXS was affected by various types of lignin and hemicellulose. It was concluded that the near-IR FT-Raman method with corrections for influences of syringyl lignin and hemicellulose can be used to correctly estimate cellulose crystallinity.

  16. Near IR fluorescent conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)bisphosphonate nanoparticles for in vivo bone targeting in a young mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rudnick-Glick, S; Corem-Salkmon, E; Grinberg, I; Yehuda, R; Margel, S

    2015-11-14

    Bisphosphonate (BP) compounds are widely used in the treatment of bone disorders. This group of drugs with a high affinity to Ca(+2) ions is rapidly attracted to bone mineral, especially in areas of high resorption. We have engineered unique biodegradable BP nanoparticles (NPs) by dispersion co-polymerization of the monomers methacrylate-PEG-BP) and (3-Aminopropyl)mathacrylamide) with the crosslinker monomer tetra ethylene glycol diacrylate. These NPs possess a dual functionality: (1) covalent attachment of a dye (e.g. near IR dye) or a drug to the nanoparticles through the primary amine groups on the surface of the NPs; (2) chelation to the bone mineral hydroxyapatite through the BP on the surface of the NPs. This study describes the uptake of the unique near IR fluorescent Cy 7-conjugated BP NPs in bone of a young mouse model. Blood half-life studies revealed a relatively long half-life (approximately 5 h) due to a high concentration of PEG in the BP NPs as well as a relatively long whole body clearance (approximately 2 weeks). Body distribution studies showed a specific uptake of the BP NPs in bone. These unique engineered BP NPs are planned to be utilized in future work for diagnostic and drug delivery systems that are targeted to bone disorders.

  17. Near-IR emissive chlorin-bacteriochlorin energy-transfer dyads with a common donor and acceptors with tunable emission wavelength.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhanqian; Ptaszek, Marcin

    2013-11-01

    Design, synthesis, and optical properties of a series of novel chlorin-bacteriochlorin energy transfer dyads are described. Each dyad is composed of a common red-absorbing (645-646 nm) chlorin, as an energy donor, and a different near-IR emitting bacteriochlorin, as an energy acceptor. Each bacteriochlorin acceptor is equipped with a different set of auxochromes, so that each of them emits at a different wavelength. Dyads exhibit an efficient energy transfer (≥0.77) even for chlorin-bacteriochlorin pairs with large (up to 122 nm) separation between donor emission and acceptor absorption. Excitation of the chlorin donor results in relatively strong emission of the bacteriochlorin acceptor, with a quantum yield Φf range of 0.155-0.23 in toluene and 0.12-0.185 in DMF. The narrow, tunable emission band of bacteriochlorins enables the selection of a series of three dyads with well-resolved emissions at 732, 760, and 788 nm, and common excitation at 645 nm. Selected dyads have been also converted into bioconjugatable N-succinamide ester derivatives. The optical properties of the described dyads make them promising candidates for development of a family of near-IR fluorophores for simultaneous imaging of multiple targets, where the whole set of fluorophores can be excited with the common wavelength, and fluorescence from each can be independently detected.

  18. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of the Standing Wave Mechanism in the Near-IR Regime in Producing High Energy Backwards Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, William

    2016-10-01

    Laser-plasma interactions involving ultra-short ultra-intense, near IR or IR wavelength lasers represent a novel regime, specifically inducing relativistic dynamics of charges at lower intensities than required for current ultra-intense lasers. We present 2D(3 v) Particle-in-Cell(PIC) simulations using the LSP code that produce super-ponderomotive MeV electron beams from ultra-short ultra-intense IR or Near-IR laser beams incident on targets with significant pre-plasma. We perform simulations across different wavelengths, including 800 nanometer, 3 microns, and 10 microns. We also simulate different pulse energies varying from tens of microjoules to tens of joules, and different scale lengths of pre-plasma. The accelerated electrons energies reach super-ponderomotive energies that scale roughly with the normalized vector potential, in line with the standing wave acceleration mechanism discussed in Orban et al. The angular spectrum of ejected electrons in all cases are similar, displaying preferred angles as suggested by the elaborations on the standing wave mechanism explained in Ngirmang, et al.

  19. Chilean Senate Ratifies Agreement with ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-09-01

    On 5 September 1996, the Senate of the Republic of Chile (Second Chamber of the Parliament) has ratified the Interpretative, Supplementary and Modifying Agreement (See ESO Press Release 04/95 of 18 April 1995 ) to the Convention of 1963, which regulates the relations between the European Southern Observatory and its host country, the Republic of Chile. In a subsequent statement, the Director General of ESO, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, has expressed that this important event is a reason for great mutual satisfaction, as the new Agreement not only consolidates the already existing good relationship between ESO and the Government of Chile, but also heralds a new era of cooperation with wide-ranging benefits for both parties. The ratification of this Agreement by the Chilean Parliament is of particular value for ESO, now engaged at Cerro Paranal in the construction of the largest telescope of the world, because it signifies a pillar of stability for the future activities of this Organisation in Chile and thus for the development and operation of the VLT observatory into the next century. The European astronomical community now has full security that it can continue to pursue its front-line scientific investigations in Chile and at the same time the Chilean astronomers, by means of guaranteed observing time, will have direct access to this new and exceedingly important window to the Universe, soon to open via the privileged skies of their country. The General Manager of the ESO operations in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt, also welcomed this positive development. He is convinced that it will further promote the existing close relationship between ESO and Chilean research institutions and also provide new incentives for ESO's continued interaction with the local communities in the area of the La Silla and Paranal observatories. ESO is indebted to the Government of Chile and especially to the Minister of Foreign Relations, Don Jose Miguel Insulza, and all those who have

  20. CCDs at ESO: A Systematic Testing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, T. M. C.; Warmels, R. H.

    ESO currently offers a stable of 12 CCDs for use by visiting astronomers. It is incumbent upon ESO to ensure that these devices perform according to their advertised specifications (Abbott 1994). We describe a systematic, regular testing program for CCDs which is now being applied at La Silla. These tests are designed to expose failures which may not have catastrophic effects but which may compromise observations. The results of these tests are stored in an archive, accessible to visiting astronomers, and will be subject to trend analysis. The test are integrated in the CCD reduction package of the Munich Image Data Analysis System (ESO-MIDAS).

  1. ESO Welcomes Finland as Eleventh Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, C.

    2004-09-01

    In early July, Finland joined ESO as the eleventh member state, following the completion of the formal accession procedure. Before this event, however, Finland and ESO had been in contact for a long time. Under an agreement with Sweden, Finnish astronomers had for quite a while enjoyed access to the SEST at La Silla. Finland had also been a very active participant in ESO's educational activities since they began in 1993. It became clear, that science and technology, as well as education, were priority areas for the Finnish government.

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Calibration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.; Lardo, C.; Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Ragaini, S.; Cocozza, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Sabbi, E.; Zoccali, M.; Donati, P.; Heiter, U.; Koposov, S. E.; Blomme, R.; Morel, T.; Símon-Díaz, S.; Lobel, A.; Soubiran, C.; Montalban, J.; Valentini, M.; Casey, A. R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jofré, P.; Worley, C. C.; Magrini, L.; Hourihane, A.; François, P.; Feltzing, S.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J. E.; Jeffries, R. D.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Hambly, N.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N. A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Edvardsson, B.; Franciosini, E.; Frasca, A.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.; Koch, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey (GES) is now in its fifth and last year of observations and has produced tens of thousands of high-quality spectra of stars in all Milky Way components. This paper presents the strategy behind the selection of astrophysical calibration targets, ensuring that all GES results on radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and chemical abundance ratios will be both internally consistent and easily comparable with other literature results, especially from other large spectroscopic surveys and from Gaia. The calibration of GES is particularly delicate because of (i) the large space of parameters covered by its targets, ranging from dwarfs to giants, from O to M stars; these targets have a large wide of metallicities and also include fast rotators, emission line objects, and stars affected by veiling; (ii) the variety of observing setups, with different wavelength ranges and resolution; and (iii) the choice of analyzing the data with many different state-of-the-art methods, each stronger in a different region of the parameter space, which ensures a better understanding of systematic uncertainties. An overview of the GES calibration and homogenization strategy is also given, along with some examples of the usage and results of calibrators in GES iDR4, which is the fourth internal GES data release and will form the basis of the next GES public data release. The agreement between GES iDR4 recommended values and reference values for the calibrating objects are very satisfactory. The average offsets and spreads are generally compatible with the GES measurement errors, which in iDR4 data already meet the requirements set by the main GES scientific goals. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 188.B-3002 and 193.B-0936.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  3. ESO Fellowship Programme 2006/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO awards several postdoctoral fellow-ships each year. The goal of these fel-lowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  4. Report of the ESO OPC Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinks, E.; Leibundgut, B.; Mathys, G.

    2012-12-01

    With over 1000 proposals per semester for ESO telescopes, the community is facing the problem of fair and robust selection of observing programmes. We report here on a working group to investigate the current selection process and procedures and identify possible improvements. The working group report summarises the current process, based on peer review, that has been in use for many years at ESO and other comparable ground- and space-based observatories, and presents an inventory of the changes and approaches that may be considered to make the process more manageable and less time-consuming, while at the same time preserving its integrity. The working group presented several recommendations, which have been discussed with ESO committees and analysed by the operational groups at ESO.

  5. Two-photon sensitized visible and near-IR luminescence of lanthanide complexes using a fluorene-based donor-π-acceptor diketonate.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Adam W; Frazer, Andrew; Morales, Alma R; Yu, Jin; Moore, Anthony F; Campiglia, Andres D; Jucov, Evgheni V; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Belfield, Kevin D

    2014-11-28

    A fluorene-based donor-acceptor ligand was successfully employed to sensitize visible and near-IR emitting lanthanide centers. The ligand construct is based on a donor-π-acceptor architecture with diphenylamino acting as the donor and a fluorenyl π bridge derivatized with a trifluoroacetonate moiety acting as both a strong acceptor and the classic bidentate scaffold for complexing metals. (1)H NMR analysis in the polar solvents THF and CDCl3 revealed the enolic form of the diketone dominant in solution equilibria at room temperature. This preferred cis-enol form binds strongly to the lanthanide(III) ions (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Tb, Yb, Nd, Er, and Gd) in the presence of phenanthroline affording the resulting ternary tris(diketonates) complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline. Detailed characterization of these complexes was conducted, with particular emphasis on linear and nonlinear photophysical properties. Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy and overall photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) measurements were performed on all the complexes. Sizeable visible and near-IR efficiency for europium (room temperature, visible), samarium (low temperature, visible) and ytterbium, neodymium and erbium (room temperature, near-IR) was displayed, with long luminescent lifetimes for the europium and samarium complexes of 85 and 70 μs, respectively Measurement of the luminescence decay for the Yb complex at 976 nm, Nd complex at 874 nm, and Er complex at 1335 nm yielded mono-exponential decay curves, with lifetimes of ~13 μs, ~1.6 μs, and ~2.5 μs, respectively, inferring that the emission was generated by a single species. In addition, fluorescence anisotropy and two-photon absorption (2PA) spectra (via Z-scan) were obtained for the ligand and europium complex, revealing a maximum 2PA cross section of 340 GM for the latter upon excitation at 760 nm. A quadratic relationship was found by varying laser excitation power vs. luminescence intensity of the europium complex

  6. Report on the ESO Data Simulation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.

    2016-06-01

    The role of simulated data is increasing rapidly across all phases of instrumentation projects, from design to scientific exploitation. The many commonalities among ESO instruments, their reduction software and archival products, makes it especially worthwhile to exchange knowledge between their instrument teams. The data simulation workshop was the first of its kind to bring together the ESO instrument simulator community and a brief overview of the workshop is presented. The participants expressed strong interest in continuing to exchange knowledge in this area.

  7. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  8. Using ESO Reflex with Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järveläinen, P.; Savolainen, V.; Oittinen, T.; Maisala, S.; Ullgrén, M. Hook, R.

    2008-08-01

    ESO Reflex is a prototype graphical workflow system, based on Taverna, and primarily intended to be a flexible way of running ESO data reduction recipes along with other legacy applications and user-written tools. ESO Reflex can also readily use the Taverna Web Services features that are based on the Apache Axis SOAP implementation. Taverna is a general purpose Web Service client, and requires no programming to use such services. However, Taverna also has some restrictions: for example, no numerical types such integers. In addition the preferred binding style is document/literal wrapped, but most astronomical services publish the Axis default WSDL using RPC/encoded style. Despite these minor limitations we have created simple but very promising test VO workflow using the Sesame name resolver service at CDS Strasbourg, the Hubble SIAP server at the Multi-Mission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST) and the WESIX image cataloging and catalogue cross-referencing service at the University of Pittsburgh. ESO Reflex can also pass files and URIs via the PLASTIC protocol to visualisation tools and has its own viewer for VOTables. We picked these three Web Services to try to set up a realistic and useful ESO Reflex workflow. They also demonstrate ESO Reflex abilities to use many kind of Web Services because each of them requires a different interface. We describe each of these services in turn and comment on how it was used

  9. APPLICATION OF LASERS AND LASER-OPTICAL METHODS IN LIFE SCIENCES Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvoja H. S., S.; Myllylä, T. S.; Kirillin, M. Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Myllylä, Risto A.; Elseoud, A. A.; Nikkinen, J.; Tervonen, O.; Kiviniemi, V.

    2011-01-01

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source — detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable.

  10. Design of ``push-pull'' p-type quinoid-based organic dyes with near-IR absorption: A density function theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Li, Juan; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Wansong

    2017-04-01

    Based on an experimentally synthesized p-type dye QT-1, we screened and designed a series of quinoid-based "push-pull" dyes SPL401 - SPL407 by modifying the π-conjugated linker for ptype dye-sensitized solar cells (p-type DSSC). Further, we systematically calculated their electronic and optical properties by using the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). The results indicate that compared to QT-1, SPL406 and SPL407, which have not only smaller energy gaps, higher oscillator strength f increased by 70% and 80%, and 141 nm and 110 nm redshifts, respectively, but also a broader absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range to the near-IR region of 1200 nm, may be the most promising candidates among SPL401 - SPL407 for p-type organic sensitizers.

  11. Third harmonic generation from mid-IR to near-IR regions in a phase-matched silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Shum, Perry Ping; Shao, Xuguang; Huang, Tianye; Sun, Yunxu

    2014-10-06

    The conversion efficiency of third harmonic generation (THG) from mid-IR (3600 nm) to near-IR (1200 nm) regions in a silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide (SSHPW) was calculated. The required modal phase-matching condition (PMC) between the 0-th mode at fundamental wave (FW) and the 2-nd mode at third harmonic (TH) is achieved by carefully designing the waveguide geometry. Benefiting from the hybridized surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nature of the two guided modes, the SSHPW is capable of achieving both high THG nonlinear coefficient |I₆| and reasonable linear propagation loss, thereby resulting in large figure-of-merits (FOMs) for both FW and TH. According to our simulation, THG conversion efficiency up to 0.823% is achieved at 62.9 ����m SSHPW with pump power of 1 W.

  12. Palagonitic Mars from Rock Rinds to Dust: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectra of Poorly Crystalline Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Mertzman, S. A.; Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for Martian bright regions are characterized by a general shape consisting of a ferric absorption edge extending from about 400 to 750 nm and relatively constant reflectivity extending from about 750 nm to beyond 2000 nm . Among terrestrial geologic materials, the best spectral analogues are certain palagonic tephras from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). By definition, palagonite is a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass. The ferric pigment in palagonite is nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout the hydrated basaltic glass matrix. The hydration state of the np-Ox particles is not known, and the best Martian spectral analogues contain allophane-like materials and not crystalline phyllosilicates. We show here that laboratory VNIR and TES spectra of palagonitic alteration rinds developed on basaltic rocks are spectral endmembers that provide a consistent explanation for both VNIR and TES data of Martian dark regions.

  13. Retrieval of Cirrus Clouds Properties Using Limb-Scanning Near-IR Spectroscopy in the Tropical Tropopause Layer During the NASA Attrex Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosimo, S. F.; Spolaor, M.; Festa, J.; Natraj, V.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Werner, B.; Scalone, L.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Stutz, J.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) cirrus clouds and their radiative effects represent a major uncertainty in the evaluation of Earth's energy budget. It is thus crucial to study cirrus cloud optical properties and composition, especially in the TTL. High altitude aircraft offer an opportunity to provide observations at cirrus cloud altitudes, most commonly using in-situ measurements of ice particle properties. However, remote sensing of scattering properties and near-IR ice water absorption in the limb can provide unique insights into sub-visible cirrus clouds. Here we present novel spectroscopic observations of path-averaged ice water absorptions on-board NASA's Global Hawk aircraft, during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause Experiment (ATTREX) missions in 2011, 2013, and 2014. The UCLA/U. Heidelberg mini-DOAS instrument provided multi-angle limb-scanning observations of scattered solar radiation in the near-IR (900-1726 nm), allowing the identification of ice and liquid water, O2, CO2 and H2O. Ice water path retrieval in limb geometry requires a full spherical radiative transfer (RT) calculation of both single and multiple scattering components of radiance fluxes. We developed and validated the FOMS (First Order Multiple Scattering) routine, based on the VLIDORT RT code, to simulate high altitude limb observations for varied cloud scenarios. We applied the spectral retrievals for a particularly interesting case during Science Flight 2 over Guam in February 2014, during which the aircraft flew in circles in the same general area for an extended period of time. The measurements of ice particle scattering and absorption at different azimuths relative to the sun and at different altitudes represents a unique opportunity to test our approach and to infer properties of the ice particles, together with information on cirrus cloud radiative transfer.

  14. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  15. ESO and Australia to Discuss Future Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    For some time, the astronomical community in Australia has expressed interest in closer ties to ESO. One of the main reasons is the construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), of which the first 8.2 m unit telescope is scheduled for completion less than 2 years from now. The science of astronomy and astrophysics is highly developed in Australia and researchers in this country already have access to several excellent observational facilities, notably the 3.9 m optical telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory, the 64 m Parkes radio telescope and the Australia Telescope, one of the largest radio interferometric instruments in the world. On this important background, it is understandable that there is now an expressed desire among Australian scientists to participate in the VLT project and thus to partake in the front-line science and technology at the world's largest optical telescope. The related moves have been channelled through the Australian National Committee for Astronomy and the first formal contacts between Australia and ESO were made 1/2 year ago, cf. ESO Press Release 07/95 of 8 June 1995. ESO has welcomed the prospects of a closer, future collaboration with Australia, in particular because of the acknowledged expertise in that country within the important field of optical interferometry, a main feature of the VLT project. The Australian Government recently announced a new master plan 'Innovate Australia' which aims at updating and further development of science and technology in this country. It incorporates important support towards the modernization of the Australia Telescope, and certain funds are also foreseen for participation in international projects within the field of astronomy and astrophysics. At the request of the Australian Government, a high-ranking Australian delegation will visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) in order to explore with ESO in some detail possible modes of future collaboration. This visit will take place

  16. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  17. Centralized FITS Metadata Handling Framework at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Dobrzycki, A.; Vuong, M.-H.; Brion, A.

    2011-07-01

    The European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) headquartered in Garching, Germany, operates three state-of-the-art observatories in Chile: at La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. The observatories produce huge amounts of data, which are transferred to the ESO headquarters and stored in the ESO Archive. The archive also stores the products generated by pipeline processing of raw data by the ESO Quality Control (QC) group. In addition, the Archive also stores science products delivered by the principal investigators. Historically, these three processes were independent from one another which resulted in different metadata handling frameworks for each kind of product. This architecture led to duplicate efforts for building metadata-based services as well as creating challenging scenarios for integrating metadata from different processes. We present the metadata handling framework recently implemented at the European Southern Observatory, in which all metadata from FITS compliant sources are stored in a centralized repository database. The framework allows building metadata-based services in a descriptive way, transparently propagating any modifications/updates performed in the central repository. In addition, through a set of common functions, the framework allows for enrichment of FITS-based metadata with derived values and/or with metadata from other ESO operational databases.

  18. Report on the ''ESO Python Boot Camp — Pilot Version''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, B.; Milli, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Python programming language is becoming very popular within the astronomical community. Python is a high-level language with multiple applications including database management, handling FITS images and tables, statistical analysis, and more advanced topics. Python is a very powerful tool both for astronomical publications and for observatory operations. Since the best way to learn a new programming language is through practice, we therefore organised a two-day hands-on workshop to share expertise among ESO colleagues. We report here the outcome and feedback from this pilot event.

  19. Catherine Cesarsky - ESO's Next Director General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    The ESO Council has appointed Dr. Catherine Cesarsky as Director General for a five year period, succeeding Professor Riccardo Giacconi, whose term ends this year. Dr. Cesarsky will take up her duties on September 1, 1999, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). Dr. Cesarsky was born in France in 1943. She received a degree in Physical Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in 1971 from Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., USA). Afterwards she worked at the California Institute of Technology (CALTECH). In 1974, she became a staff member of the Service d'Astrophysique (SAp) , Direction des Sciences de la Matière (DSM), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) (France). She headed the theoretical group of the SAp (1978-1985), was Head of SAp (1985-1993) and has been Director of DSM since 1994. The DSM encompasses, at the CEA, activities of basic research in physics, chemistry, astrophysics and earth sciences and comprises about 3000 scientists, engineers, technicians, etc. Dr. Cesarsky is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. The first part of her career was devoted to the high-energy domain. This has involved studies of the propagation and composition of galactic cosmic rays, of matter and fields in the diffuse interstellar medium, as well as the acceleration of particles in astrophysical shocks, e.g. in connection with supernovae. She then turned to infrared astronomy. She is the Principal Investigator of the ISOCAM camera onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) of the European Space Agency (ESA) and, as such, she leads the ISOCAM central programme. It studies, in a coordinated way, the infrared emission from a variety of galactic and extragalactic sources and is yielding new and exciting results on star formation and galactic evolution. Dr. Cesarsky received the COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Space Science Award in 1998. She is a member of many

  20. ESO-VLT Science Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard; Data Processing; Quality Control Group

    2017-09-01

    "In the past three years the QC group at ESO has installed an efficient process to create science-grade data products from VLT instruments. With the focus on spectroscopic observations, these data products are complementary to the (externally provided) data products from the surveys. The production line combines efficient mass production (more than one million spectra have been generated so far), previews, and quality control. All data products are available to the community through the ESO archive interface. The talk will highlight the most recent addition, the MUSE datacubes."

  1. ESO and Fokker Space Sign Contract about VLTI Delay Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    variations due to atmospheric disturbances and/or mechanical vibrations along the optical path length. The VLTI Delay Line system consists of a retro-reflector mounted on a moving base. The optical design of this `Cat's Eye' is of the Ritchey-Chretien type that reflects the light very effectively. For this particular application, the `Cat's Eye' is not a corner cube with 3 perpendicular mirrors as is the case in the reflectors on cars and bicycles; it is in fact a telescope with a mirror at the focus that sends a light beam back in a direction parallel to the one it came from. The moving base enables the Cat's Eye to travel along a 60 metres long rail track, thereby providing optical path difference corrections of up to 120 metres, as required for the VLT telescope configurations at Paranal. The necessary, rapid path length corrections are performed by a fine positioning loop in which a piezo crystal (mounted on the backside of the Variable Curvature Mirror M3) is used to correct the fast optical path variations as measured by a Fringe Sensing Unit (FSU). The latter provides a signal to the Delay Line system via a fast link to the Delay Line Local Control Unit. An optical datalink to the Cat's Eye on the carriage ensures the transfer of data to the Piezo controller. The carriage is driven by a Linear Induction Motor. The coils for the motor are mounted on the floor of the Delay Line Long Support Bench and the magnets are mounted on the bottom of the carriage. The metrology system (to measure the carriage position) consists of a laser-interferometer whose beam follows the same path as the light beams from the telescopes via the Cat's Eye. The main design parameters are shown here: Optical Path range above 120 m Optical Path resolution better than 20 nm Optical Path stability better than 14 nm over any 0.01 sec (in the visible spectral range) better than 50 nm over any 0.05 sec (in Near-IR spectral range) better than 225 nm over any 0.3 sec (in Thermal-IR spectral range

  2. Habitable Earth-like Planet Surveys with Next Generation Extremely High Resolution and High Doppler Precision Optical and Near IR Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Powell, S.; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Fletcher, A.; Chang, L.; Groot, J.; Wan, X.; Jakeman, H.; Myers, D.; Grafer, E.; Liu, J.; Varosi, F.; Schofield, S.; Moore, A.; van Olphen, M.; Katz, J.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Barnes, R.; Blake, C.

    2013-01-01

    Two major high precision Doppler surveys for habitable Earth-like planets are about to launch in 2013 using next generation extremely high spectral resolution and high Doppler precision optical and near infrared (NIR) spectrographs developed at UF in 2009-2012. The optical spectrograph, called EXtremely high Precision ExtrasolaR planet Tracker (EXPERT) III (EXPERT-III), produces a spectral resolution over R=100,000 and simultaneously covers 0.38-0.9 mm with a 4kx4k back-illuminated Fairchild CCD detector in a single exposure. It will be coupled to the KPNO 2.1-m telescope. The near IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST), produces R=70,000 at 1.4-1.8 mm or R=60,000 at 0.8-1.35 mm in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array. It will be coupled with the Tennessee State University 2-m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. Our rocky planet survey with EXPERT-III will primarily target habitable zone (HZ) rocky planets around nearby ~300 bright K0-M4 dwarfs with V<8.5. Our NIR M dwarf survey is the first large-scale NIR high precision Doppler survey dedicated to detecting and characterizing planets around ~200 nearby M dwarfs with J< 10. A combination of the EXPERT-III HZ planet survey in the optical wavelengths with the FIRST HZ planet survey around M4-M9 dwarfs in the near IR wavelengths will give us a broad view of HZ planets around low-mass stars for the first time. The overall planet sample will substantially increase the power for the statistical study of planet occurrence and properties and constraining planet formation models and physical conditions around low mass (0.2-0.8 M ) stars. We will report the early Doppler performance of both survey instruments on the telescopes.

  3. Phobos Near-IR Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erard, S.; Poulet, F.

    2002-01-01

    Unusual values of the opposition effect on Phobos derived by Simonelli et al. are tested using ISM observations in the NIR, and do not appear consistent. A Deimos-like opposition surge provides acceptable values for the other Hapke parameters. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Phobos Near-IR Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erard, S.; Poulet, F.

    2002-01-01

    Unusual values of the opposition effect on Phobos derived by Simonelli et al. are tested using ISM observations in the NIR, and do not appear consistent. A Deimos-like opposition surge provides acceptable values for the other Hapke parameters. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. ESO Phase 3 automatic data validation: groovy-based tool to assure the compliance of the reduced data with the Science Data Product Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascetti, L.; Forchı, V.; Arnaboldi, M.; Delmotte, N.; Micol, A.; Retzlaff, J.; Zampieri, S.

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Phase 3 infrastructure provides a channel to submit reduced data products for publication to the astronomical community and long-term data preservation in the ESO Science Archive Facility. To be integrated into Phase 3, data must comply to the ESO Science Data Product Standard regarding format (one unique standard data format is associated to each type of product, like image, spectrum, IFU cube, etc.) and required metadata. ESO has developed a Groovy based tool that carries out an automatic validation of the submitted reduced products that is triggered when data are uploaded and then submitted. Here we present how the tool is structured and which checks are implemented.

  6. A study of faint companions of nearby stars in the near-IR with the Mt.Wilson 100 inch telescope and adaptive optics system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Ge, J.; Debes, J. H.; Brown, R.; McCarthy, D.; Ftaclas, C.

    2001-12-01

    We have initiated a study of the nature of faint companions to nearby stars within 25pc using the Penn State near IR Imaging Spectrometer (PIRIS) and a PICNIC 256x256 pixel array. This instrument is equipped with direct imaging modes, coronographic modes, a special Gaussian pupil mask mode, and low resolution (vision prism, R=25), medium resolution (commercial fused silica grisms, R=200 to 400), and high resolution (silicon grisms, R=1000 to 5000) spectroscopy modes from 0.8 micron to 2.4 micron. We report here initial results from our first observations of HD 190067 and other stars on the Mt. Wilson 100 inch telescope using its natural guide star Adaptive Optics System. We find the H-K color of the companion of HD 190067 to be 1.1, and H magnitude to be 10.7, suggesting that it could be a very late M type dwarf, and its central hydrogen may not burn. Low resolution (R=25) spectra of this star along with other faint companion stars were also obtained to put a constraint on their nature.

  7. Probing ultrafast photochemistry of retinal proteins in the near-IR: bacteriorhodopsin and anabaena sensory rhodopsin vs retinal protonated Schiff base in solution.

    PubMed

    Wand, Amir; Loevsky, Boris; Friedman, Noga; Sheves, Mordechai; Ruhman, Sanford

    2013-04-25

    Photochemistry of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), and all-trans retinal protonated Schiff base (RPSB) in ethanol is followed with femtosecond pump-hyperspectral near-IR (NIR) probe spectroscopy. This is the first systematic probing of retinal protein photochemistry in this spectral range. Stimulated emission of the proteins is demonstrated to extend deep into the NIR, and to decay on the same characteristic time scales previously determined by visible probing. No signs of a transient NIR absorption band above λpr > 1.3 μm, which was recently reported and is verified here for the RPSB in solution, is observed in either protein. This discrepancy demonstrates that the protein surroundings change photochemical traits of the chromophore significantly, inducing changes either in the energies or couplings of photochemically relevant electronic excited states. In addition, low-frequency and heavily damped spectral modulations are observed in the NIR signals of all three systems up to 1.4 μm. By background subtraction and Fourier analysis they are shown to resemble wave packet signatures in the visible, stemming from multiple vibrational modes and by analogy are assigned to torsional wave packets in the excited state of the retinal chromophore. Differences in the vibrational frequencies between the three samples and the said discrepancy in transient spectra are discussed in terms of opsin effects on the RPSB electronic structure.

  8. All-solid-state electrochromic device integrated with near-IR blocking layer for image sensor and energy-saving glass application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Hao; Chen, Yung-Chih; Wang, Jen-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) integrated with near-IR (NIR) blocking layer fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique has been developed for image sensor and energy-saving glass applications. The all-solid-state ECD with the single-substrate structure of glass/NIR-blocking transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/NiO/Ta2O5/WO3/ITO could potentially modulate the optical transmittance between 81.9% and 17.5% at 550 nm in the visible region and between 38.0% and 9.5% at the NIR wavelength larger than 1100 nm. The better energy-saving and light blocking performance, including the larger optical density difference (ΔOD) and lower solar heat-gain coefficient (SHGC) could be achieved in the NIR-blocking ECD structure, even with the general criteria SHGC(bleach)/SHGC(colored) < 3. With the application of ECDs, it is possible to directly apply the device onto an image sensor and energy-saving glass with the NIR rejection function even in the bleached state. Furthermore, the NIR-blocking TCO with the low sheet resistance and high transparency characteristics also provides the lower power consumption in the switching cycle at voltages as low as 5 V, and makes ECDs the ideal components for applications of large area and battery powered devices.

  9. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO{sub 2} in exhale air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A

    2011-12-31

    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 {mu}m). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm{sup -1}) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO{sub 2} in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1 Per-Mille-Sign .

  10. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra for Smectite, Sulfate And Perchlorate under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R.V.; Ming, W.; Golden, D.C.; Arvidson, R.E.; Wiseman, S.M.; Lichtenberg, K.A.; Cull, S.; Graff, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for the martian surface obtained from orbit by the MRO-CRISM and OMEGA instruments are interpreted as having spectral signatures of H2O/OH-bearing phases, including smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases [e.g., 1-4]. Interpretations of martian spectral signatures are based on and constrained by spectra that are obtained in the laboratory on samples with known mineralogical compositions and other physicochemical characteristics under, as appropriate, Mars-like environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and humidity). With respect to environmental conditions, differences in the absolute concentration of atmospheric H2O can effect the hydration state and therefore the spectra signatures of smectite phyllosilicates (solvation H2O) and certain sulfates (hydration H2O) [e.g., 5-7]. We report VNIR spectral data acquired under humid (laboratory air) and dry (dry N2 gas) environments for two natural smectites (nontronite API-33A and saponite SapCa-1) to characterize the effect of solvation H2O on spectral properties. We also report spectral data for the thermal dehydration products of (1) melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O) in both air and dry N2 gas and (2) Mg-perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2.6H2O) in dry N2 environments. Spectral measurements for samples dehydrated in dry N2 were made without exposing them to humid laboratory air.

  11. PPy@MIL-100 Nanoparticles as a pH- and Near-IR-Irradiation-Responsive Drug Carrier for Simultaneous Photothermal Therapy and Chemotherapy of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Da; Chen, Su-Ping; Zhao, Huan; Yang, You; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Jing; Fan, Hong-Song; Zhang, Xing-Dong

    2016-12-21

    A medical nanoplatform with small size, low cost, biocompatibility, good biodegradability, and, in particular, multifunctionality has attracted much attention in the exploration of novel therapeutic methodologies. As an emerging material of self-assembled porous structure, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have high expectations because of their special properties compared to traditional porous materials. Therefore, integration of MOFs and functional materials is leading to the creation of new multifunctional composites/hybrids. Photothermal therapy (PTT), using near-IR (NIR) laser-absorbing nanomaterials as PTT agents, has shown encouraging therapeutic effects to photothermally ablate tumors. However, the most of widely used PTT agents are inorganic materials and nonbiodegradable. Herein, uniform polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (NPs) with good biodegradability were synthesized by a microemulsion method. The PPy NPs were further coated with the mesoporous iron-based MOF structure MIL-100 by interaction between PPy NPs and MIL-100 precursors at room temperature. As a multifunctional nanoplatform, an anticancer drug could easily be loaded into the mesopores of the MIL-100 shell. The PPy core, as an organic photothermal agent, is able to photothermally ablate cancer cells and improve the efficacy of chemotherapy under NIR irradiation. The composites showed an outstanding in vivo synergistic anticancer capacity. Our work could encourage further study in the construction of a synergetic system using MOFs and organic PTT agents.

  12. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep high-resolution optical and near-IR spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Sterling, N. C.; Luridiana, V.

    2017-03-01

    We have done a spectroscopical analysis of the type I planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R ˜ 40000) optical spectroscopy with UVES at the 8.2m Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R ˜ 4800) near-IR spectroscopy with FIRE at the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 μm to 2.50μm. The main aim of this work is to investigate the slow neutron(n)-capture process (the s-process) in the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star progenitor of a type I PNe. We detected and identified about 700 features, including lines from the n-capture elements Kr, Se, and possibly Br and Xe. We compute physical conditions using line ratios of common ions. Ionic abundances are computed for the species with available atomic data. We calculate total abundances using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Our results for common elements are in good agreement with previous works on the same object. We do not find a substantial s-process enrichment in NGC 5315, which is typical for type I PNe.

  13. Relaxation dynamics of the LH2 complex from a photosynthetic purple bacterium Thiorhodospira sibirica studied by the near-IR femtosecond pump-probe method

    SciTech Connect

    Razjivin, A P; Pishchal'nikov, R Yu; Kozlovskii, V S; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Moskalenko, A A; Makhneva, Z K

    2005-01-31

    Photoinduced changes in the absorption spectrum of the LH2 (B800-830-850) complex from a Thiorhodospira sibirica (Trs. sibirica) bacterium are studied by the pump-probe method. The complex has the anomalous absorption spectrum exhibiting three bands in the near-IR region at 793, 826.5, and 846.5 nm. At room temperature, the excitation energy transfer from the B800, B830, and B859 bands was detected with the time constants {tau}{sub 1{approx}}0.5 ps, {tau}{sub 2{approx}}2.5 ps, and {tau}{sub 3} of the order of a few hundreds of picoseconds, respectively. A rapid energy transfer from the B830 band compared to energy transfer from the B850 band ({tau}{sub 2}||{tau}{sub 3}) suggests that all the three bands belong to the same complex (i.e., that the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica is homogeneous). A slower energy transfer (by three - five times) from the B830 band of the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica compared to energy transfer from the B800 band of the LH2 complexes (B800-850 and especially B800-820) from other purple bacteria suggests that the electronic structures of ensembles of bacteriochlorophyll molecules in these complexes are substantially different. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Methylene blue encapsulation in cucurbit[7]uril: laser flash photolysis and near-IR luminescence studies of the interaction with oxygen.

    PubMed

    González-Béjar, María; Montes-Navajas, Pedro; García, Hermenegildo; Scaiano, J C

    2009-09-15

    The effect of methylene blue (MB) encapsulation in cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) on triplet excited-state behavior and singlet oxygen (1O2) generation has been studied by using laser flash photolysis (LFP) and time-resolved near-IR luminescence spectroscopy. The lifetime of the triplet excited state of MB is longer in the CB[7] cavity (140 micros for MB-CB[7] vs 79.5 micros for aqueous MB). Cucurbituril also protects the dye triplets from quenching by oxygen, reducing the quenching rate constant [kq(O2)] from 2.6x10(9) M(-1) s(-1) to 0.2x10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The quantum yield of 1O2 production in the air-equilibrated D2O solutions is similar for free MB and for MB-CB[7], and the singlet oxygen lifetime is approximately 70 micros, suggesting its decay occurs in the aqueous (D2O) phase. The generation of singlet oxygen is delayed by CB[7]; this is attributed to the time required for oxygen to access the CB[7] nanocavity and react with the MB triplet. Thus, the rate-limiting step for sensitization is the entry of oxygen into the CB[7] cavity. Encapsulation inside CB[7] increases the relative efficiency of photoinduced MB2+* dication-radical generation, for which a modest yield is observed.

  15. a Theoretical Characterization of Electronic States of CH2IOO and CH2OO Radicals Relevant to the Near IR Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, Richard; Lolur, Phalgun; Huang, Meng; Kline, Neal; Miller, Terry A.

    2015-06-01

    Criegee intermediates (R1R2COO or CIs) arise from ozonolysis of biogenic and anthropogenic alkenes, which is an important process in the atmosphere. Recent breakthroughs in producing them in the gas phase have resulted in a flurry of experimental and theoretical studies. Producing the simplest CI (CH2OO) in the lab via photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of O2 yields both CH2OO and CH2IOO with pressure dependent branching. As discussed in the preceding talk, both species might be expected to have electronic transitions in the near IR (NIR). Here we discuss electronic structure calculations used to characterize the electronic states of both systems in the relevant energy range. Using explicitly-correlated multireference configuration interaction (MRCI-F12) and coupled-cluster (UCCSD(T)-F12b) calculations we were first able to exclude CH2OO as the carrier of the observed NIR spectrum. Next, by computing frequencies and relaxed full torsional scans for the ~A and ~X states, we were able to aid in analysis and assignment of the NIR spectrum attributed to CH2IOO.

  16. Non-Destructive and Discriminating Identification of Illegal Drugs by Transient Absorption Spectroscopy in the Visible and Near-IR Wavelength Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Chie; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    We have tested the possibility of identifying illegal drugs by means of nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with a 10-ns UV-laser pulse for the excitation light and visible-to-near-IR light for the probe light. We measured the transient absorption spectra of acetonitrile solutions of d-methamphetamine, dl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (MDMA), and dl-N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine hydrochloride (MBDB), which are illegal drugs widely consumed in Japan. Transient absorption signals of these drugs were observed between 400 and 950 nm, a range in which they are transparent in the ground state. By analyzing the spectra in terms of exponential and Gaussian functions, we could identify the drugs and discriminate them from chemical substances having similar structures. We propose that transient absorption spectroscopy will be a useful, non-destructive method of inspecting for illegal drugs, especially when they are dissolved in liquids. Such a method may even be used for drugs packed in opaque materials if it is further extended to utilize intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  17. Optimization of the electric arc discharge synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the basis of near-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. E.; Perea, D. E.; Niyogi, S.; Love, J.; Tang, J.; Yu, A.; Kang, C.; Haddon, R. C.

    2004-03-01

    The metal catalyst plays an important role in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). It was originally reported that nickel and yttrium provide the optimum yield for bulk production of SWNTs by the electric arc discharge technique, at a catalyst composition of 4.0/ at. percent of Ni and 1.0 atomic percent of Y.[1] More recent work suggested a much lower concentration of Ni and Y for optimum SWNT generation: 0.6 atomic percent of Ni and 0.1 atomic percent of Y.[2] Both results were based on TGA, SEM and Raman analysis of milligrams quantities of SWNT soot. Recently we developed a quantitative technique to reliably assess the carbonaceous purity of bulk (10g scale) quantities of SWNTs, based on near-IR spectroscopy.[3] In this presentation we report the utilization of this technique for the determination of the purity of SWNT soot as a function of the catalyst composition. We present the range of optimum concentrations of Ni and Y for the bulk synthesis of the SWNTs. [1] C.Journet et al., Nature 388 (1997) 756; [2] M.Takizawa et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 326 (2000) 351; [3] M.E. Itkis et al., Nano Lett. 3 (2003) 309.

  18. The near-IR spectrum of NO(X̃(2)Π)-Ne detected through excitation into the Ã-state continuum: A joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Kłos, J; Zhang, S G; Meyer, H

    2016-03-21

    We present new measurements of the near IR spectrum of NO-Ne in the region of the first NO overtone transition. The IR absorption is detected by exciting the vibrationally excited complex to the Ã-state dissociation continuum. The resulting NO(A) fragment is subsequently ionized in the same laser pulse. Spectra of the two lowest bands, A and B, are recorded. The spectra are compared with calculated spectra based on bound states derived from a new set of high level ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs). For the calculation, the PESs are used with either fixed NO intermolecular distance or averaged for the vibrational states of NO (X̃, v = 0 or 2). Spectra based on the new PESs reproduce the experimental spectra better than theoretical spectra based on the older PESs of M. H. Alexander et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5588 (2001)]. Especially, spectra based on the two different vibrationally averaged PESs show a marked improvement in comparison to the one based on the fixed internuclear NO-distance. A fitted set of spectroscopic constants allows to reproduce most of the finer details of the measured spectra. Monitoring simultaneously the NO fragment ion and the parent ion channels while scanning the UV wavelength through the NO A-X hot-band region enabled us to confirm the NO-Ne Ã-state dissociation limit of 44233 ± 5 cm(-1). These measurements also confirm the absence of a structured NO-Ne spectrum involving the Ã-state.

  19. The near-IR spectrum of NO(X˜ 2Π )-Ne detected through excitation into the Östate continuum: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłos, J.; Zhang, S. G.; Meyer, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present new measurements of the near IR spectrum of NO-Ne in the region of the first NO overtone transition. The IR absorption is detected by exciting the vibrationally excited complex to the A ˜ -state dissociation continuum. The resulting NO(A) fragment is subsequently ionized in the same laser pulse. Spectra of the two lowest bands, A and B, are recorded. The spectra are compared with calculated spectra based on bound states derived from a new set of high level ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs). For the calculation, the PESs are used with either fixed NO intermolecular distance or averaged for the vibrational states of NO (X ˜ , v = 0 or 2). Spectra based on the new PESs reproduce the experimental spectra better than theoretical spectra based on the older PESs of M. H. Alexander et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 114, 5588 (2001)]. Especially, spectra based on the two different vibrationally averaged PESs show a marked improvement in comparison to the one based on the fixed internuclear NO-distance. A fitted set of spectroscopic constants allows to reproduce most of the finer details of the measured spectra. Monitoring simultaneously the NO fragment ion and the parent ion channels while scanning the UV wavelength through the NO A-X hot-band region enabled us to confirm the NO-Ne A ˜ -state dissociation limit of 44233 ± 5 cm-1. These measurements also confirm the absence of a structured NO-Ne spectrum involving the A ˜ -state.

  20. A Red to Near-IR Fluorogen: Aggregation-Induced Emission, Large Stokes Shift, High Solid Efficiency and Application in Cell-Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi Jia; Shi, Yang; Wang, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Xinyuan; Nie, Han; Qian, Jun; Qin, Anjun; Sun, Jing Zhi; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2016-07-04

    A tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivative modified with the strong electron acceptor 2-dicyano-methylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF) was obtained in high yield by a simple two-step reaction. The resultant TPE-TCF showed evident aggregation-induced emission (AIE) features and pronounced solvatochromic behavior. Changing the solvent from apolar cyclohexane to highly polar acetonitrile, the emission peak shifted from 560 to 680 nm (120 nm redshift). In an acetonitrile solution and in the solid powder, the Stokes shifts are as large as 230 and 190 nm, respectively. The solid film emits red to near-IR (red-NIR) fluorescence with an emission peak at 670 nm and a quantum efficiency of 24.8 %. Taking the advantages of red-NIR emission and high efficiency, nanoparticles (NPs) of TPE-TCF were fabricated by using tat-modified 1,2-distearoylsn-glycero-3-phosphor-ethanol-amine-N-[methoxy-(polyethyl-eneglycol)-2000] as the encapsulation matrix. The obtained NPs showed perfect membrane penetrability and high fluorescent imaging quality of cell cytoplasm. Upon co-incubation with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in the presence of tritons, the capsulated TPE-TCF nanoparticles could enter into the nucleus and displayed similar staining properties to those of DAPI. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Tragic Car Accident Involves ESO Employees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    Saturday, May 27, turned into a tragic day for ESO. The team installing TIMMI2 at La Silla, went on an excursion to the Elqui valley, 70 km east of the city of La Serena and suffered a serious car accident, crashing against another car driving from the opposite direction.

  2. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  3. ESO Helps Antofagasta Region after the Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    On November 14 at 12:41 local time, a major earthquake with magnitude 7.7 on the Richter scale affected the north of Chile. The epicentre was located 35 km from the city of Tocopilla and 170 km of Antofagasta. Two persons died and tens were injured, while buildings were damaged in several cities. In the Maria Elena-Tocopilla area, several thousand homes were destroyed or damaged. In an act of solidarity with the local community and its authorities, ESO immediately announced a donation of 30 millions Chilean pesos (around 40,000 euros) to Antofagasta's Regional Government to support reconstruction in the Region II. ESO and its staff have been shocked by the earthquake and its impact on local communities, especially on the people of Tocopilla. The ESO Representation in Chile formally contacted the regional authorities to explore with them possible ways to collaborate in this difficult moment. In addition, many of ESO staff are personally cooperating with the victims, under the coordination of Cruz Roja, the organisation currently in charge of implementing individual efforts.

  4. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) redshift survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G.; Zamorani, G.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey over about 30 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude bj = 19.4 and consists of more than three thousands galaxies with reliable redshift determination.

  5. FA0.8MA0.2SnxPb1-xI3 Hybrid Perovskite Solid Solution: Toward Environmentally Friendly, Stable, and Near-IR Absorbing Materials.

    PubMed

    Patrini, Maddalena; Quadrelli, Paolo; Milanese, Chiara; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2016-12-19

    We report the first investigation addressing the synthesis and characterization of the FA0.8MA0.2SnxPb1-xI3 solid solution showing a complete solubility of Sn on the Pb-site leading to cubic single-phase materials. The explored composition shows excellent phase stability and absorbance in the near-IR spectral region.

  6. Relaxation mechanism of β-carotene from S2 (1Bu(+)) state to S1 (2Ag(-)) state: femtosecond time-resolved near-IR absorption and stimulated resonance Raman studies in 900-1550 nm region.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Tomohisa; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-06-12

    Carotenoids have two major low-lying excited states, the second lowest (S2 (1Bu(+))) and the lowest (S1 (2Ag(-))) excited singlet states, both of which are suggested to be involved in the energy transfer processes in light-harvesting complexes. Studying vibrational dynamics of S2 carotenoids requires ultrafast time-resolved near-IR Raman spectroscopy, although it has much less sensitivity than visible Raman spectroscopy. In this study, the relaxation mechanism of β-carotene from the S2 state to the S1 state is investigated by femtosecond time-resolved multiplex near-IR absorption and stimulated Raman spectroscopy. The energy gap between the S2 and S1 states is estimated to be 6780 cm(-1) from near-IR transient absorption spectra. The near-IR stimulated Raman spectrum of S2 β-carotene show three bands at 1580, 1240, and 1050 cm(-1). When excess energy of 4000 cm(-1) is added, the S1 C═C stretch band shows a large upshift with a time constant of 0.2 ps. The fast upshift is explained by a model that excess energy generated by internal conversion from the S2 state to the S1 state is selectively accepted by one of the vibronic levels of the S1 state and is redistributed among all the vibrational modes.

  7. Next Generation Bibliometrics and the Evolution of the ESO Telescope Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, C.; Grothkopf, U.

    2010-10-01

    Bibliometric studies typically focus on citation and publication analysis. Due to recent advances in web technology along with greater access to web content, bibliometric research can include statistics and measures that were once difficult to obtain. The European Southern Observatory's Telescope Bibliography (ESO telbib), a content management system for refereed articles containing ESO data, provides an excellent test-bed for exploring next generation bibliometrics. Through web services provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Abstract Service among others, previously unavailable information can be imported into telbib where it can be analyzed in further detail. Though some telbib features are still in their infancy, some interesting trends can already be derived.

  8. Post-polymerization C-H Borylation of Donor-Acceptor Materials Gives Highly Efficient Solid State Near-Infrared Emitters for Near-IR-OLEDs and Effective Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Daniel L; Urbano, Laura; Neumann, Robert; Bourke, Struan; Jones, Jennifer; Dailey, Lea Ann; Green, Mark; Humphries, Martin J; King, Simon M; Turner, Michael L; Ingleson, Michael J

    2017-08-30

    Post-polymerization modification of the donor-acceptor polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole), PF8-BT, by electrophilic C-H borylation is a simple method to introduce controllable quantities of near-infrared (near-IR) emitting chromophore units into the backbone of a conjugated polymer. The highly stable borylated unit possesses a significantly lower LUMO energy than the pristine polymer resulting in a reduction in the band gap of the polymer by up to 0.63 eV and a red shift in emission of more than 150 nm. Extensively borylated polymers absorb strongly in the deep red/near-IR and are highly emissive in the near-IR region of the spectrum in solution and solid state. Photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) values are extremely high in the solid state for materials with emission maxima ≥ 700 nm with PLQY values of 44% at 700 nm and 11% at 757 nm for PF8-BT with different borylation levels. This high brightness enables efficient solution processed near-IR emitting OLEDs to be fabricated and highly emissive borylated polymer loaded conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNPs) to be prepared. The latter are bright, photostable, low toxicity bioimaging agents that in phantom mouse studies show higher signal to background ratios for emission at 820 nm than the ubiquitous near-IR emissive bioimaging agent indocyanine green. This methodology represents a general approach for the post-polymerization functionalization of donor-acceptor polymers to reduce the band gap as confirmed by the C-H borylation of poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(3-hexylthien-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2c,2cc-diyl) (PF8TBT) resulting in a red shift in emission of >150 nm, thereby shifting the emission maximum to 810 nm.

  9. First detection of Mars atmospheric hydroxyl: CRISM Near-IR measurement versus LMD GCM simulation of OH Meinel band emission in the Mars polar winter atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; García-Muñoz, Antonio; Lefèvre, Franck; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Montmessin, Franck; Murchie, Scott L.; Nair, Hari

    2013-09-01

    Visible and near-IR Meinel band emissions originate from excited OH in the terrestrial upper atmosphere (Meinel, I.A.B. [1950]. Astrophys. J. 111, 555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/145296), and have recently been detected in the Venus nightside upper mesosphere (Piccioni, G. et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 483, L29-L33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:200809761). Meinel band observations support key studies of transport and photochemistry in both of these atmospheres. In the case of Mars, OH regulates the basic stability of the CO2 atmosphere to photolytic decomposition (to CO and O2, e.g. Parkinson, T.D., Hunten, D.M. [1972]. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380-1390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<1380:SAAOOO>2.0.CO;2), and yet has never been measured. We present the first detection of Mars atmospheric OH, associated with CRISM near-IR spectral limb observations of polar night Meinel band emissions centered at 1.45 and 2.9 μm. Meinel band (1-0), (2-1), and (2-0) average limb intensities of 990 ± 280, 1060 ± 480, and 200 ± 100 kiloRayleighs (kR), respectively, are determined for 70-90 NS polar winter latitudes over altitudes of 40-56 km. Additional OH bands, such as (3-2), (3-1), and (4-2), present ⩽1σ measurements. Uncertainty in the (4-2) band emission rate contributes to increased uncertainty in the determination of the O2(1Δg) (0-0)/(0-1) band emission ratio A00/A01=47-12+26. An average profile retrieval for Mars OH polar nightglow indicates 45-55 km altitude levels for volume emission rates (VER) of 0.4 (2-0) to 2 (1-0, 2-1) × 104 photons/(cm3 s). Similar to polar night O2(1Δg) emission (e.g. Clancy, R.T. et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 117, E00J10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018), Meinel OH band emission is supported by upper level, winter poleward transport of O and H in the deep Hadley solsticial circulations of Mars. The retrieved OH emission rates are compared to polar winter OH nightglow simulated by the LMD (Laboratoire

  10. First detection of Mars atmospheric hydroxyl: CRISM Near-IR measurement versus LMD GCM simulation of OH Meinel band emission in the Mars polar winter atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Sandor, Brad J.; García-Muñoz, Antonio; Lefèvre, Franck; Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Montmessin, Franck; Murchie, Scott L.; Nair, Hari

    2013-09-01

    Visible and near-IR Meinel band emissions originate from excited OH in the terrestrial upper atmosphere (Meinel, I.A.B. [1950]. Astrophys. J. 111, 555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/145296), and have recently been detected in the Venus nightside upper mesosphere (Piccioni, G. et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 483, L29-L33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:200809761). Meinel band observations support key studies of transport and photochemistry in both of these atmospheres. In the case of Mars, OH regulates the basic stability of the CO2 atmosphere to photolytic decomposition (to CO and O2, e.g. Parkinson, T.D., Hunten, D.M. [1972]. J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1380-1390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<1380:SAAOOO>2.0.CO;2), and yet has never been measured. We present the first detection of Mars atmospheric OH, associated with CRISM near-IR spectral limb observations of polar night Meinel band emissions centered at 1.45 and 2.9 μm. Meinel band (1-0), (2-1), and (2-0) average limb intensities of 990 ± 280, 1060 ± 480, and 200 ± 100 kiloRayleighs (kR), respectively, are determined for 70-90 NS polar winter latitudes over altitudes of 40-56 km. Additional OH bands, such as (3-2), (3-1), and (4-2), present ⩽1σ measurements. Uncertainty in the (4-2) band emission rate contributes to increased uncertainty in the determination of the O2(1Δg) (0-0)/(0-1) band emission ratio A00/A01=47-12+26. An average profile retrieval for Mars OH polar nightglow indicates 45-55 km altitude levels for volume emission rates (VER) of 0.4 (2-0) to 2 (1-0, 2-1) × 104 photons/(cm3 s). Similar to polar night O2(1Δg) emission (e.g. Clancy, R.T. et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 117, E00J10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018), Meinel OH band emission is supported by upper level, winter poleward transport of O and H in the deep Hadley solsticial circulations of Mars. The retrieved OH emission rates are compared to polar winter OH nightglow simulated by the LMD (Laboratoire

  11. Mergers as triggers for nuclear activity: a near-IR study of the close environment of AGN in the VISTA-VIDEO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouzos, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D.

    2014-03-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the driver of nuclear activity in galaxies, with active galactic nuclei (AGN) either being triggered by major or minor galactic mergers or, alternatively, through secular processes like cold gas accretion and/or formation of bars. We investigate the close environment of active galaxies selected in the X-ray, the radio and the mid-IR. We utilize the first data release of the new near-IR VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey of the XMM-Large Scale Structure field. We use two measures of environment density, namely counts within a given aperture and a finite redshift slice (pseudo-3D density) and closest neighbour density measures Σ2 and Σ5. We select both AGN and control samples, matching them in redshift and apparent Ks-band magnitude. We find that AGN are found in a range of environments, with a subset of the AGN samples residing in overdense environments. Seyfert-like X-ray AGN and flat-spectrum radio-AGN are found to inhabit significantly overdense environments compared to their control sample. The relation between overdensities and AGN luminosity does not however reveal any positive correlation. Given the absence of an environment density-AGN luminosity relation, we find no support for a scheme where high-luminosity AGN are preferentially triggered by mergers. On the contrary, we find that AGN likely trace over dense environments at high redshift due to the fact that they inhabit the most massive galaxies, rather than being an AGN.

  12. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  13. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Chary, R.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Michałowski, M. J.; Schulze, S.

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  14. Citrate-hydrazine hydrogen-bonding driven single-step synthesis of tunable near-IR plasmonic, anisotropic silver nanocrystals: implications for SERS spectroscopy of inorganic oxoanions.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Satarupa; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Priyam, Amiya; Bhalerao, Gopal M

    2014-08-21

    A simplified, single-step aqueous synthesis route to tunable anisotropic silver nanocrystals (NCs) has been developed by tailoring the hydrogen-bonding interactions between a mild stabilizer, sodium citrate, and a mild reductant, hydrazine hydrate. The structure directing ability of the H-bonding interaction was harnessed by keeping a stoichiometric excess of hydrazine under ambient conditions (pH 7, 25 °C). Decreasing the synthesis temperature to 5 °C imparts rigidity to the citrate-hydrazine H-bonding network, and the plasmon peak moves from 500 to 550 nm (using 40 mM hydrazine). On lowering the pH from 7 to 5, the H-bonding is further strengthened due to partial protonation of citrate and the plasmon peak is tuned to 790 nm. Further, we found that, at 5 °C and pH 5, there also exists a sub-stoichiometric regime in which maximum tunability of the plasmon peak (790→1010 nm) is achieved with 1 mM hydrazine. HR-TEM reveals that the near-IR plasmonic NCs are nanopyramids having a pentagonal base with edge length varying from 15 nm to 30 nm. Through second derivative FTIR analysis, a correlation between hydrogen-bonded molecular vibrations and the plasmon tunability has been established. The anisotropic NCs exhibit significant Raman enhancement on the citrate molecules. Further, a solution-phase, non-resonant SERS spectroscopic detection method for an inorganic contaminant of ground water, arsenite, has also been developed.

  15. Individual dissolution of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions of steroid or sugar compounds and their Raman and near-IR spectral properties.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Ayumi; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2006-10-10

    The individual solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), achieved by using ten different anionic-, zwitterionic-, and nonionic-steroid biosurfactants and three different sugar biosurfactants, was examined. Aqueous micelles of anionic cholate analogues, such as sodium cholate (SC), sodium deoxycholate (SDC), sodium taurocholate (STC), sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC), sodium glycocholate (SGC), as well as N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)cholamide (BIGCHAP) and N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)deoxycholamide (deoxy-BIGCHAP), exhibited good abilities to dissolve the SWNTs individually. Aqueous micelles of nonionic biosurfactants, such as sucrose monocholate (SMC), n-octyl-beta-D-glucoside (OG), n-decyl-beta-D-maltoside (DM), and n-decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-10), could dissolve the SWNTs, however, the solubilization abilities were weaker than those of the anionic cholate analogues. In sharp contrast, the solubilization abilities of the zwitterionic micelles of 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonic acid (CHAPS) and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (CHAPSO) were very low, and almost zero for OG. It is evident that the chemical structures, in particular the substituent groups of the surfactants, play an important role in the solubilization of SWNTs. The near-IR photoluminescence behaviors of the SWNTs dissolved in aqueous micelles and in 1 mM biosurfactants were investigated. The chirality indices of the SWNTs dissolved in these solutions depend on the chemical structures of the biosurfactants. The Raman spectra of the SWNTs dissolved in a 1 mM solution of SC suggest the selective extraction of the metallic SWNTs. Finally, a possible solubilization mechanism using steroid surfactants is described. The SWNTs dissolved individually in water-containing biocompounds are useful in many areas of nano- and materials chemistry.

  16. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. II. Rest-frame Near-IR Luminosity Distribution and Evidence for a Near-solar Metallicity Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Chary, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T.; Levan, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Schulze, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ˜ 0.5 and z ˜ 1.5, but little variation between z ˜ 1.5 and z ˜ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass-metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2 metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  17. Hybrid Theranostic Platform for Second Near-IR Window Light Triggered Selective Two-Photon Imaging and Photothermal Killing of Targeted Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Christine; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Viraka Nellore, Bhanu Priya; Pramanik, Avijit; Kanchanapally, Rajashekhar; Jones, Stacy; Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2015-09-23

    Despite advances in the medical field, even in the 21st century cancer is one of the leading causes of death for men and women in the world. Since the second near-infrared (NIR) biological window light between 950 and 1350 nm offers highly efficient tissue penetration, the current article reports the development of hybrid theranostic platform using anti-GD2 antibody attached gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated, single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) for second near-IR light triggered selective imaging and efficient photothermal therapy of human melanoma cancer cell. Reported results demonstrate that due to strong plasmon-coupling, two-photon luminescence (TPL) intensity from theranostic GNP attached SWCNT materials is 6 orders of magnitude higher than GNP or SWCNT alone. Experimental and FDTD simulation data indicate that the huge enhancement of TPL intensity is mainly due to strong resonance enhancement coupled with the stronger electric field enhancement. Due to plasmon coupling, the theranostic material serves as a local nanoantennae to enhance the photothermal capability via strong optical energy absorption. Reported data show that theranostic SWCNT can be used for selective two-photon imaging of melanoma UACC903 cell using 1100 nm light. Photothermal killing experiment with 1.0 W/cm(2) 980 nm laser light demonstrates that 100% of melanoma UACC903 cells can be killed using theranostic SWCNT bind melanoma cells after just 8 min of exposure. These results demonstrate that due to plasmon coupling, the theranostic GNP attached SWCNT material serves as a two-photon imaging and photothermal source for cancer cells in biological window II.

  18. Haze, Methane and Para-hydrogen on Uranus and Neptune, 2001-2007: Results from an Analysis of Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Michael; Banfield, D.; Gierasch, P.; Conrath, B.; Stam, D.

    2013-10-01

    Results form an investigation of spatially resolved near-IR spectra of Uranus and Neptune are presented. For reasons not yet understood, Neptune is one of the most meteorologically active planets in the solar system. Uranus, which appeared relatively featureless in Voyager 2 images, has shown increased activity in recent years [1], presumably revealing seasonal changes. The advent of the HST and adaptive optics technology has allowed researchers to map clouds and retrieve chemical abundances [2,3], providing clues to the dynamics driving these worlds. For this study, latitude resolved H- and K-band spectra and images were obtained using adaptive optics on the 200” Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory. Data was acquired nearly annually from 2001 to 2007, with several longitudes covered each year. We use a constrained inversion algorithm to minimize differences between observed and modeled spectra. Best fitting vertical profiles of aerosol and methane abundance are retrieved, along with the molecular hydrogen para-fraction. Most observations suggest two layers of aerosols, with a stratospheric depletion of methane, and roughly equilibrium para-fractions. These parameters are tracers of atmospheric motions and can provide insight into the atmospheric circulations. Variations with latitude and time suggesting dynamical motions and seasonal changes are investigated. This project was funded under the NASA Outer Planets Research program. [1] Rages, K.A., H.B. Hammel and A.J. Friedson, 2004. Evidence for temporal change at Uranus’ south pole. Icarus, 172, 548-554. [2] Sromovsky, L.A. and P.M.Fry, 2008. The methane abundance and structure of Uranus’ cloud bands inferred from spatially resolved 2006 Keck grism spectra. Icarus, 193, 252-266 [3] Karkoschka, E., 2011. Neptune’s cloud and haze variations 1994-2008 from 500 HST-WFPC2 images. Icarus 215. 759-773.

  19. Haze, Methane and Para-hydrogen on Uranus and Neptune, 2001-2007: Results from an Analysis of Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, M. T.; Banfield, D. J.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Stam, D.

    2013-12-01

    Results form an investigation of spatially resolved near-IR spectra of Uranus and Neptune are presented. Vertical profiles of atmospheric haze and methane are retrieved, along with information on para-hydrogen ratios. For reasons not yet understood, Neptune is one of the most meteorologically active planets in the solar system. Uranus, which appeared relatively featureless in Voyager 2 images, has shown increased activity in recent years [1], presumably revealing seasonal changes. The advent of the HST and adaptive optics technology has allowed researchers to map clouds and retrieve chemical abundances [2,3], providing clues to the dynamics driving these worlds. For this study, latitude resolved H- and K-band spectra and images were obtained using adaptive optics on the 200' Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory. Data was acquired nearly annually from 2001 to 2007, with several longitudes covered each year. We use a constrained inversion algorithm to minimize differences between observed and modeled spectra. Best fitting vertical profiles of aerosol and methane abundance are retrieved, along with the molecular hydrogen para-fraction. Most observations suggest two layers of aerosols, with a stratospheric depletion of methane, and roughly equilibrium para-fractions. These parameters are tracers of atmospheric motions and can provide insight into the atmospheric circulations. Variations with latitude and time suggesting dynamical motions and seasonal changes are investigated. This project was funded under the NASA Outer Planets Research program. [1] Rages, K.A., H.B. Hammel and A.J. Friedson, 2004. Evidence for temporal change at Uranus' south pole. Icarus, 172, 548-554. [2] Sromovsky, L.A. and P.M.Fry, 2008. The methane abundance and structure of Uranus' cloud bands inferred from spatially resolved 2006 Keck grism spectra. Icarus, 193, 252-266 [3] Karkoschka, E., 2011. Neptune's cloud and haze variations 1994-2008 from 500 HST-WFPC2 images. Icarus 215. 759-773.

  20. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured in the Ground Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond George; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-06-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2/CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 2015/2016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. In this work we focus on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test.The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements will be compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI.Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters/source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.The data, the reduction steps and the resulting cross calibration are presented.

  1. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  2. Data products in the ESO Science Archive Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retzlaff, Jörg; Arnaboldi, Magda; Romaniello, Martino; Ballester, Pascal; Carson, Paul; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Forchi, Vincenzo; Freudling, Wolfram; Gabasch, Armin; Garcia-Dabo, Cesar Enrique; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Hummel, Wolfgang; Klein Gebbinck, Maurice; Lockhart, John; Micol, Alberto; Modigliani, Andrea; Percheron, Isabelle; Szostak, Artur; Vera Sequeiros, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory Science Archive Facility is evolving from an archive containing predominantly raw data into a resource also offering science-grade data products for immediate analysis and prompt interpretation. New products originate from two different sources. On the one hand Principal Investigators of Public Surveys and other programmes reduce the raw observational data and return their products using the so-called Phase 3 - a process that extends the Data Flow System after proposal submission (Phase 1) and detailed specification of the observations (Phase 2). On the other hand raw data of selected instruments and modes are uniformly processed in-house, independently of the original science goal. Current data products assets in the ESO science archive facility include calibrated images and spectra, as well as catalogues, for a total volume in excess of 16 TB and increasing. Images alone cover more than 4500 square degrees in the NIR bands and 2400 square degrees in the optical bands; over 85000 individually searchable spectra are already available in the spectroscopic data collection. In this paper we review the evolution of the ESO science archive facility content, illustrate the data access by the community, give an overview of the implemented processes and the role of the associated data standard.

  3. ESO Demonstration Project with the NRAO 12-m Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, R.; Karban, R.

    2000-03-01

    During the months of September through November 1999, an ALMA joint demonstration project between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) was carried out in Socorro/New Mexico. During this period, Robert Karban (ESO) and Ron Heald (NRAO) worked together on the ESO Demonstration Project. The project integrated ESO software and existing NRAO software (a prototype for the future ALMA control software) to control the motion of the Kitt Peak 12-m antenna. ESO software from the VLT provided the operator interface and coordinate transformation software, while Pat Wallace's TPOINT provided the pointing- model software.

  4. Deformable mirrors development program at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Brinkmann, Martin; Jakob, Gerd; Lilley, Paul; Casali, Mark; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kasper, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.

  5. Unifying access to services: ESO's user portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Peron, M.; Sogni, F.; Canavan, T.; Nass, P.

    2006-06-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is in the process of creating a central access point for all services offered to its user community via the Web. That gateway, called the User Portal, will provide registered users with a personalized set of service access points, the actual set depending on each user's privileges. Correspondence between users and ESO will take place by way of "profiles", that is, contact information. Each user may have several active profiles, so that an investigator may choose, for instance, whether their data should be delivered to their own address or to a collaborator. To application developers, the portal will offer authentication and authorization services, either via database queries or an LDAP server. The User Portal is being developed as a Web application using Java-based technology, including servlets and JSPs.

  6. ESO's Telescopes In memoriam Daniel Enard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The contributions of ESO to the art of telescope-making have come a long way since the early years, placing it, by the turn of the millennium, among the acknowledged leaders in the field. In this article I will give a brief history of what are, in my view, the highlights among these developments, from the 3.6-metre telescope through the NTT and VLT/I to the E-ELT.

  7. ESO VLT laser guide star facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccini, Domenico; Hackenberg, Wolfgang K.; Cullum, Martin J.; Brunetto, Enzo; Ott, Thomas; Quattri, Marco; Allaert, Eric; Dimmler, Martin; Tarenghi, Massimo; Van Kersteren, A.; Di Chirico, C.; Buzzoni, Bernard; Gray, Peter; Tamai, R.; Tapia, M.

    2002-02-01

    We report in this paper on the design and progress of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility. The project will create a user facility embedded in UT4, to produce in the Earth's Mesosphere Laser Guide Stars, which extend the sky coverage of Adaptive Optics systems on the VLT UT4 telescope. Embedded into the project are provisions for multiple LGS to cope with second generation MCAO instruments.

  8. NEVEC: the NOVA ESO VLTI Expertise Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Poole, Rudolf S.; Miley, George; Jaffe, Walter; Glindemann, Andreas; Bakker, Eric J.; Waters, Rens; Roettgering, Huub J. A.; Cotton, Bill; Percheron, Isabelle; Meisner, Jeffrey A.; de Jong, Jeroen; D'Arcio, Luigi; Heijligers, Bjoern

    2003-02-01

    The start of NEVEC was initiated by the opportunity in the Netherlands to reinstate instrumental efforts in astronomy through a funding program for 'Top Research Schools,’ which brought about the creation of NOVA. The fact that considerable experience exists in Radio Astronomical imaging through interferometry (the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope started in 1970), and the relatively small size at the time of ESO's VLTI Team made it opportune to aim for a win-win situation through collaboration. So presently an MOU between ESO and NOVA is in force, which stipulates that 10 out of the 18 man-years funded by NOVA for NEVEC until 2005 [new personnel, in university setting (Leiden) but on project money] shall be used on tasks that are mutually agreed between NOVA and ESO. The tasks presently are found in the domain of observing modes, calibration and modeling, as well as contributing to the commissioning of new instruments and thinking about future instruments. Another task, outside these 10 FTE, has been the data handling and analysis software for MIDI, and again contributing to its commissioning. Delivery of the first operational version in Heidelberg has just taken place (summer 2002) contributing to the successful Preliminary Acceptance in Europe for MIDI on September 10, 2002. The actual state of 'products and deliveries' and the future outlook are reviewed.

  9. Near-ir spectroscopy of Jupiter at the time of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts: Emissions of CH4, H3 + and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Th.; Schulz, R.; Stüwe, J. A.; Wiedemann, G.; Drossart, P.; Crovisier, J.

    Near-infrared emissions of the SL9 impact sites of Jupiter have been recorded on July 16-18, 1994, at ESO (La Silla, Chile). A very strong emission of methane was recorded between 3.50 and 3.56 µm, shortly after impact H, showing evidence for a temporary increase of the Jovian stratospheric temperature. Emissions of H2 (2.12 µm) and H3+ (3.53 µm) were also detected above some of the impact sites, several hours after the impacts. The observed H3+ emissions, however, seem to be at least partly contaminated by the southern aurora. A strong continuum was also detected at 2.12 µm over most of the impact sites, presumably due to intense scattering of reflected sunlight by stratospheric haze.

  10. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    SciTech Connect

    Borba, Ana Fausto, Rui; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-10-21

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N–H···O=C, type II by a strong O–H···N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N–H···O–H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O···H–C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O–H···N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N{sub 2} matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm{sup −1}, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that

  11. Red-Eye Astronomy: 15 Years of V-band and Near-IR Tio Photometry of the Red Supergiants Alpha Orionis And TV Geminorum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasatonic, Richard P.; Guinan, E.; Engle, S.

    2011-05-01

    V-band and narrow to intermediate-band Wing TiO-band (719 nm, 754 nm), and near-IR 1024 nm pseudo-bolometric photometric observations of the SRc M2 Iab supergiants Alpha Orionis and TV Geminorum have been conducted for the past 15 years. The goals are to monitor brightness and temperature-dependent TiO-band variations, ascertain any resulting periodicities and amplitudes, and estimate variations of basic stellar parameters such as temperature, luminosity, and radius. Preliminary results for both stars indicate similar long-term V-mag periods of 6.5 years with imposed shorter-term V-mag periods of 1.2 years. The V-magnitude amplitudes were 0.8 for Alpha Ori and 1.3 for TV Gem. For both stars the temperature and luminosity variations correlate well with the V-mag changes. However, inverse radii correlations with respect to temperature and luminosity variations were not seen in either star. In Alpha Ori the the radii changes were approximately in direct correlation with the temperature and luminosity changes. In TV Gem there was a combination of correlation/inverse correlation effects. Causes for these variations are speculative, but may be due to highly convective super-granulations occurring at irregular intervals rather than fundamental mode pulsation or harmonic oscillations. Based in part on an updated RSG temperature scale and a new VLA/Hipparchos distance estimate (197 PC), the Alpha Ori temperatures ranged from 3550 K to 3730 K, with ranges in solar luminosities and radii of L = 90,000 to 115,000 and R = 760 to 820, respectively. The slightly more dynamical TV Gem underwent temperature variations from 3500 K to 3850 K with ranges in solar luminosity and radii of L = 65,000 to 90,000 and R = 620 to 720 respectively. Discussions of the observations, data reduction methods, and analysis of the data will be presented. This research is supported by NASA grant NNX10AI85G and NSF grants AST 10-09903 and AST 05-07542.

  12. Conformers, infrared spectrum, UV-induced photochemistry, and near-IR-induced generation of two rare conformers of matrix-isolated phenylglycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2014-10-01

    The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N-H...O=C, type II by a strong O-H...N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N-H...O-H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O...H-C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O-H...N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm-1, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG undergoes facile photofragmentation

  13. Long-term monitoring of the archetype Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15: X-ray, optical and near-IR variability of the corona, disc and torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Arévalo, P.; Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M. M.; Videla, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present long-term monitoring of MCG-6-30-15 in X-rays, optical and near-IR wavelengths, collected over 5 yr of monitoring. We determine the power spectrum density of all the observed bands and show that after taking into account the host contamination similar power is observed in the optical and near-IR bands. There is evidence for a correlation between the light curves of the X-ray photon flux and the optical B band, but it is not possible to determine a lag with certainty, with the most likely value being around 0 d. Strong correlation is seen between the optical and near-IR bands. Cross-correlation analysis shows some complex probability distributions and lags that range from 10 to 20 d, with the near-IR following the optical variations. Filtering the light curves in frequency space shows that the strongest correlations are those corresponding to the shortest time-scales. We discuss the nature of the X-ray variability and conclude that this is intrinsic and cannot be accounted for by absorption episodes due to material intervening in the line of sight. It is also found that the lags agree with the relation τ ∝ λ4/3, as expected for an optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc, although for a larger disc than that predicted by the estimated black hole mass and accretion rate in MCG-6-30-15. The cross-correlation analysis suggests that the torus is located at ˜20 light-days from the central source and at most at ˜50 light-days from the central region. This implies an active galactic nucleus bolometric luminosity of ˜3 × 1043 erg s-1 cm-2.

  14. Validation of ESO Phase 3 data submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmotte, N.; Arnaboldi, M.; Mascetti, L.; Micol, A.; Retzlaff, J.

    2016-07-01

    The data validation phase is an essential step of the Phase 3 process at ESO that is defining and providing an infrastructure to deal with interactions between the data producers and the archive. We are using a controlled process to systematically review all Phase 3 data submissions to ensure a homogeneous and consistent science archive with well traceable and characterised data products, to the benefits of archive users. How the Phase 3 data validation plan is defined and how its results are subsequently managed will be described in the presentation. For a description of its technical implementation, please refer to the contribution by L. Mascetti.

  15. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  16. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    The 22nd James Bond adventure is due for release tomorrow, 31 October 2008, in the UK and a week later in the rest of the world. A key location in the movie is the Residencia, the hotel for astronomers and staff at ESO's Paranal Observatory. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow ESO PR Photo 38/08 The James Bond "Quantum of Solace" filmmakers Quantum of Solace is the latest film in one of most successful movie franchises -- that of renowned 007 Agent James Bond of the British Secret Service MI6. The agent "on Her Majesty's secret service" is once again played by Daniel Craig. Key scenes of the movie were filmed at Paranal, the home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, and the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Usually occupied by no more than 100 astronomers, engineers and technicians, Paranal welcomed the 300-strong film crew for several days of shooting at the end of March 2008. The crew travelled from their hotel base in Antofagasta for up to two hours each morning to reach the filming locations. "We are delighted to have a movie like this filmed at Paranal and it was extremely good to see how careful the crew were with the surroundings and how mindful they were of the fact that they were in an operating, working observatory", says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO Director General. "Paranal is a unique observatory in a unique setting and it is no real surprise that it plays a major part in a James Bond movie", he adds. The filmmakers were mostly interested in filming exterior scenes at the Paranal Residencia, the accommodation for staff operating the Very Large Telescope. In the movie, the Residencia is supposedly the "Perla de Las Dunas", a unique hotel in the desert. Cerro Paranal is a 2600 m high mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, perhaps the driest on Earth. The high altitude site and extreme dryness make excellent conditions for astronomical observations. To make it possible for people to live and work here, a hotel, or Residencia, was built at the

  17. OmegaCAM: ESO's Newest Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijken, K.

    2011-12-01

    OmegaCAM, the 300-megapixel wide-field optical camera on the new VLT Survey Telescope (VST), was commissioned between March and August of this year. This new capability in ESO's arsenal takes images of 1 degree by 1° patches of the sky, at 0.2 arcseconds per pixel resolution and of image quality well-matched to the natural seeing on Paranal. The commissioning and OmegaCAM's scientific niche as a high image quality, ultra-violet- sensitive wide-field survey instrument are briefly discussed.

  18. ESO 50th Anniversary Gala Dinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirey, R.

    2012-12-01

    To formally mark the 50th anniversary of the signing of the ESO Convention, a gala dinner was held in the Munich Residenz. A brief report of the event is presented and the speeches are reproduced. The speakers were the President of the Council, Xavier Barcons; the German Minister for Education and Research, Prof. Dr Annette Schavan; the Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research and the Arts, Dr Wolfgang Heubisch; physics Nobel Laureate, Brian Schmidt; the current Director General, Tim de Zeeuw and the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alfredo Moreno Charme.

  19. Report on the First ESO-EAAE Astronomy Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce-Price, Douglas; Ros, Rosa Maria; Madsen, Claus

    2007-12-01

    The 1st ESO-EAAE Astronomy Summer School for teachers took place in the ESO Headquarters in Garching from 19th to 23rd July 2007. This summer school was based on ten years of successful schools organised around Europe by the EAAE (European Association for Astronomy Education), but 2007 marked increased involvement by ESO. In addition, the summer school was recognised as a Socrates course, allowing teachers to apply for funding through the Socrates programme, while some additional support for delegates was made available through ESO.

  20. VLT instrumentation control: the collaboration of OATs with ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, P.

    The collaboration of the Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) of the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste with ESO will be presented. It may be considered as an example of a good practice in the collaboration of a peripheral Institute with ESO. Started in 1985, it spans almost all the time since Italy joined ESO in 1982. The Trieste Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) participated in many technological enterprise of ESO, from Remote Observing to VLT instrumentation and to ALMA ACS, and is now looking for the challenging E-ELT.

  1. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  2. The System ESO 296-IG 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.; Gunthardt, G.

    1998-11-01

    We present here photometric and spectroscopic observations ofthe system ESO 296-IG 11, composed of two galaxies, as well as observations of a small galaxy 1'.3 distant. Colors through the whole system show little variations and reflect about the same young stellar composition. The quite blue colors of the observed regions in both galaxies of the system indicate star formation activity, and the distribution of the regions through their bodies suggests that a quite generalized starburst has taken place. The spectra of these regions are characteristic of H II regions of comparatively high excitation; their oxygen and nitrogen abundances are low, and their N(N)/N(O) ratios are comparable to those of the Magellanic Clouds and late type spiral galaxies. The low abundances of the regions would be consistent with the ages derived for the burts of star formation in their interiors. The high equivalent widths of the Halfa + [N II] emission lines of the integrated spectra of both galaxies indicate enhanced star formation compared with isolated ones, and are compatible with those observed in mergers of two disk galaxies. The velocities indicate that the two galaxies are a physical pair, and they are linked with the small nearby galaxy. The derived information suggests that ESO 296-IG 11 is composed of two advanced late type galaxies with similar general properties, and constitutes a triple system together with the small galaxy.

  3. Europe's Astronomy Teachers Meet at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-12-01

    European Association for Astronomy Education Formed A joint EU/ESO Workshop (1) on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe was held at the ESO Headquarters from November 25-30, 1994, under the auspices of the 1994 European Week for Scientific Culture. More than 100 teachers from secondary schools in 17 European countries participated together with representatives of national ministries and local authorities, as well as professional astronomers. This meeting was the first of its kind ever held and was very successful. As a most visible and immediate outcome, the participants agreed to form the "European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE)", uniting astronomy educators all over Europe into one network. A provisional Executive Committee of the EAAE was elected which will work towards the organisation of a constitutional conference within the next year. The participants unanimously adopted a "Declaration on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe", specifying the overall aims and initial actions needed to achieve them. Astronomy: Science, Technology and Culture At the beginning of the Workshop the participants listened to lectures by several specialists about some of the most active fields of astronomy. The scientific sessions included topics as diverse as minor bodies in the solar system, nucleosynthesis, interstellar chemistry and cosmology. Then followed overviews of various recent advances in astronomical technology, some of which are already having direct impact on highly specialized sectors of European industry. They included the advanced use of computers in astronomy, for instance within image processing and data archiving, as well as a demonstration of remote observing. Discussing the cultural aspects, Nigel Calder (UK) and Hubert Reeves (France) emphasized the important role of astronomy in modern society, in particular its continuing influence on our perceptions of mankind's unique location in time and space. Teaching of Astronomy in European Countries

  4. Post-perihelion coma monitoring of comet Hale-Bopp at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Bonfils, X.; Petit, Y.; Hainaut, O.; Delahodde, C.; Jorda, L.; Rauer, H.; Colas, F.; Manfroid, J.; Marchis, F.; Schulz, R.; Tanabe, R.; Tozzi, G. P.

    2002-11-01

    The post-perihelion coma activity of Comet C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp is monitored at ESO telescopes in La Silla and Paranal since Sept. 1997. Imaging through broadband filters in the visible and near-IR wavelength ranges allows to investigate the evolution of the dust coma, namely the appearance of jets, fans, shells and clouds. Long-term evolution: the comet had a porcupine-like embedded fan coma in autumn 1997 that evolved into a northern fan plus shell pattern in 1998 and remains like this since. Thus, the evolution of the coma structure post-perihelion was similar to that pre-perihelion at about the same heliocentric distances, but is occurred in reversed order. This long-term evolution can be characterized by quasi-continuous dust emission from a few (minimum 4) active regions (producing the fan structures) on the nucleus that is modulated by occasional, repetitive and short-term activity increases (generating shell features in the coma). Outbursts: a number of outbursts and unusual activity patterns occurred in the coma of the comet post-perihelion that are documented through the appearance of complex "palm-tree-like" structures of temporary nature in association with outbursts in the visual lightcurve of the comet and a series of 3 dust clouds resembling "mini-comets" and passing through the northern coma at projected velocities of 30-50m/s. The similarity of coma patterns and cometary viewing geometry from Earth before and after perihelion suggests that some nuclear regions had enhanced long-term activity, possibly driven by super-volatile ices at larger (>10AU) heliocentric distances and that the orientation of the rotation axis of the nucleus did not change much over the past 7 years.

  5. Professor Tim de Zeeuw Takes Up Duty as New ESO Director General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    On 1 September, Tim de Zeeuw became the new ESO Director General, succeeding Catherine Cesarsky. In his first day in office, he kindly agreed to answer a few questions. ESO PR Photo 38/07 ESO PR Video 38/07 Watch the Video! How would you describe the current period for astronomy? Tim de Zeeuw: We are in an extremely exciting time for astronomy and I think this is understood worldwide and not just by astronomers. The technology is now available to look not only at the farthest objects in the Universe, where the light left a long time ago, allowing us to see how the Universe evolved and developed, but we can even detect signatures of planets around other stars, and that answers an age-old question which is a fundamental question in all of science, and really excites the general public. How do you see the role of ESO in this context? Tim de Zeeuw: ESO has a very important role in the context of European and worldwide astronomy because it is one of the leading organisations for ground-based astronomy. You may even say it is the pre-eminent organisation. Therefore, we have both an opportunity and a responsibility to lead the further developments in astronomy. Where do you see ESO developing in the coming years? Tim de Zeeuw: I see three main goals for ESO in the coming years. The first one is to get the best possible science out of the Very Large Telescope, the interferometer and the survey telescopes, all of them on Paranal. The second is to build ALMA, the new observatory at 5 000 metres in the high Andes. Together with our North American and East Asian partners, we need to deliver this on budget and on time, and prepare the European astronomers for leading the science. The third main goal is to design a world-leading Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), which may have a main mirror with a diameter larger than 40 metres and will enable wonderful science. And of course, we don't only want to design it, we also want to construct it. And what about La Silla? Tim de Zeeuw: La

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey Astrophysical Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.; Gaia-ESO Survey Consortium

    2016-05-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey is a wide field spectroscopic survey recently started with the FLAMES@VLT in Cerro Paranal, Chile. It will produce radial velocities more accurate than Gaia's for faint stars (down to V ≃ 18), and astrophysical parameters and abundances for approximately 100 000 stars, belonging to all Galactic populations. 300 nights were assigned in 5 years (with the last year subject to approval after a detailed report). In particular, to connect with other ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, a detailed calibration program — for the astrophysical parameters derivation — is planned, including well known clusters, Gaia benchmark stars, and special equatorial calibration fields designed for wide field/multifiber spectrographs.

  7. Report on the ESO Fellows Days in Chile 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, M.; Emsellem, E.

    2012-03-01

    The 2011 ESO Fellows Days were held in Chile and brought together over 30 ESO Fellows from Garching and Chile. As well as presentations of research and social activities, the Fellows Days included a visit to San Pedro de Atacama and the ALMA site.

  8. Manufacturing of the ESO adaptive optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.,; Madec, P.-Y.; Hubin, N.; Stroebele, S.; Paufique, J.; Vernet, E.; Hackenberg, W.; Pirard, J.-F.; Jochum, L.; Glindemann, A.; Jost, A.; Conzelmann, R.; Kiekebusch, M.; Tordo, S.; Lizon, J.-L.; Donaldson, R.; Fedrigo, E.; Soenke, C.; Duchateau, M.; Bruton, A.; Delabre, B.; Downing, M.; Reyes, J.; Kolb, J.; Bechet, C.; Lelouarn, M.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Quattri, M.; Guidolin, I.; Buzzoni, B.; Dupuy, C.; Guzman, R.; Comin, M.; Silber, A.; Quentin, J.; La Penna, P.; Manescau, A.; Jolley, P.; Heinz, V.; Duhoux, P.; Argomedo, J.; Gallieni, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Pescoller, D.; Stuik, R.,; Deep, A.

    2010-07-01

    The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) consists in an evolution of one of the ESO VLT unit telescopes to a laser driven adaptive telescope with a deformable mirror in its optical train, in this case the secondary 1.1m mirror, and four Laser Guide Stars (LGSs). This evolution implements many challenging technologies like the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) including a thin shell mirror (1.1 m diameter and 2mm thin), the high power Na lasers (20W), the low Read-Out Noise (RON) WaveFront Sensor (WFS) camera (< 1e-) and SPARTA the new generation of Real Time Computers (RTC) for adaptive control. It also faces many problematic similar to any Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and as such, will validate many technologies and solutions needed for the European ELT (E-ELT) 42m telescope. The AOF will offer a very large (7 arcmin) Field Of View (FOV) GLAO correction in J, H and K bands (GRAAL+Hawk-I), a visible integral field spectrograph with a 1 arcmin GLAO corrected FOV (GALACSI-MUSE WFM) and finally a LTAO 7.5" FOV (GALACSI-MUSE NFM). Most systems of the AOF have completed final design and are in manufacturing phase. Specific activities are linked to the modification of the 8m telescope in order to accommodate the new DSM and the 4 LGS Units assembled on its Center-Piece. A one year test period in Europe is planned to test and validate all modes and their performance followed by a commissioning phase in Paranal scheduled for 2014.

  9. ESO adaptive optics facility progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Paufique, Jerome; La Penna, Paolo; Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Pirard, Jean-Francois; Hackenberg, Wolfgang; Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Kolb, Johann; Muller, Nicolas; Le Louarn, Miska; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Ridings, Rob; Abad, Jose A.; Fischer, Gert; Heinz, Volker; Kiekebusch, Mario; Argomedo, Javier; Conzelmann, Ralf; Tordo, Sebastien; Donaldson, Robert; Soenke, Christian; Duhoux, Philippe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Delabre, Bernard; Jost, Andreas; Duchateau, Michel; Downing, Mark; Moreno, Javier R.; Dorn, Reinhold; Manescau, Antonio; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Quattri, Marco; Dupuy, Christophe; Guidolin, Ivan M.; Comin, Mauro; Guzman, Ronald; Buzzoni, Bernard; Quentin, Jutta; Lewis, Steffan; Jolley, Paul; Kraus, Maximilian; Pfrommer, Thomas; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Bechet, Clementine; Stuik, Remko

    2012-07-01

    The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) consists in an evolution of one of the ESO VLT unit telescopes to a laser driven adaptive telescope with a deformable mirror in its optical train. The project has completed the procurement phase and several large structures have been delivered to Garching (Germany) and are being integrated (the AO modules GRAAL and GALACSI and the ASSIST test bench). The 4LGSF Laser (TOPTICA) has undergone final design review and a pre-production unit has been built and successfully tested. The Deformable Secondary Mirror is fully integrated and system tests have started with the first science grade thin shell mirror delivered by SAGEM. The integrated modules will be tested in stand-alone mode in 2012 and upon delivery of the DSM in late 2012, the system test phase will start. A commissioning strategy has been developed and will be updated before delivery to Paranal. A substantial effort has been spent in 2011-2012 to prepare the unit telescope to receive the AOF by preparing the mechanical interfaces and upgrading the cooling and electrical network. This preparation will also simplify the final installation of the facility on the telescope. A lot of attention is given to the system calibration, how to record and correct any misalignment and control the whole facility. A plan is being developed to efficiently operate the AOF after commissioning. This includes monitoring a relevant set of atmospheric parameters for scheduling and a Laser Traffic control system to assist the operator during the night and help/support the observing block preparation.

  10. ESO Strategy to Promote Astronomy and Science Culture in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argandona, G.

    2006-08-01

    With three astronomical sites operating in Chile (La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor), the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, ESO, has developed multiple approaches to foster astronomy and science culture in the country, implemented both nationally and locally. At the national level, it was established an annual fund to provide grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. This has been complemented by multiple partnerships and formal collaborations with relevant actors, like the Chilean Ministry of Education, the National Science and Technology Commission (CONICYT), science museums and national mass media. At the local level, the education and outreach program includes traditional public visits to the observatories, support to science teaching at local schools, promotion of astronomy clubs, organisation of a mobile observatory, among other actions. An overview of these national and local projects will be given, along with a review of the development of Chilean astronomy in last years, including recent statistics on the number of professional astronomers, science productivity and percentage of access to international observatories by Chilean community.

  11. Fe I oscillator strengths for the Gaia-ESO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R.; Lind, K.; Nave, G.; Pickering, J. C.

    2014-07-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey (GES) is conducting a large-scale study of multi-element chemical abundances of some 100 000 stars in the Milky Way with the ultimate aim of quantifying the formation history and evolution of young, mature and ancient Galactic populations. However, in preparing for the analysis of GES spectra, it has been noted that atomic oscillator strengths of important Fe I lines required to correctly model stellar line intensities are missing from the atomic data base. Here, we present new experimental oscillator strengths derived from branching fractions and level lifetimes, for 142 transitions of Fe I between 3526 and 10 864 Å, of which at least 38 are urgently needed by GES. We also assess the impact of these new data on solar spectral synthesis and demonstrate that for 36 lines that appear unblended in the Sun, Fe abundance measurements yield a small line-by-line scatter (0.08 dex) with a mean abundance of 7.44 dex in good agreement with recent publications.

  12. NY-ESO-1 specific antibody and cellular responses in melanoma patients primed with NY-ESO-1 protein in ISCOMATRIX and boosted with recombinant NY-ESO-1 fowlpox virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Li; Dawoodji, Amina; Tarlton, Andrea; Gnjatic, Sacha; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Karydis, Ioannis; Browning, Judy; Pratap, Sarah; Verfaille, Christian; Venhaus, Ralph R; Pan, Linda; Altman, Douglas G; Cebon, Jonathan S; Old, Lloyd L; Nathan, Paul; Ottensmeier, Christian; Middleton, Mark; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-15

    Vaccination strategies based on repeated injections of NY-ESO-1 protein formulated in ISCOMATRIX particles (NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX) have shown to elicit combined NY-ESO-1 specific antibody and T cell responses. However, it remains unclear whether heterologous prime-boost strategies based on the combination with NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX with different NY-ESO-1 boosting reagents could be used to increase NY-ESO-1 CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cell responses. To address this question, we carried out a randomized clinical trial in 39 high-risk, resected melanoma patients vaccinated with NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX, and then boosted with repeated injections of either recombinant fowlpox virus encoding full length NY-ESO-1 (rF-NY-ESO-1) (Arm A) or NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX alone (Arm B). We have comprehensively analyzed NY-ESO-1 specific T cells and B cells response in all patients before and after vaccination for a total of seven time points per patient. NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX alone elicited a strong NY-ESO-1 specific CD4(+) T cell and antibody response, which was maintained by both regiments at similar levels. However, CD8(+) T cell responses were significantly boosted in 3 out of 18 patients in Arm A after the first rF-NY-ESO-1 injection and such responses were maintained until the end of the trial, while no patients in Arm B showed similar CD8(+) T cell responses. In addition, our results clearly identified immunodominant regions in the NY-ESO-1 protein: NY-ESO-179-102 and NY-ESO-1115-138 for CD4+ T cells and NY-ESO-185-108 for CD8+ T cells in a large proportion of vaccinated patients. These regions of NY-ESO-1 protein should be considered in future clinical trials as immunodominant epitopes. © 2014 UICC.

  13. ESO Observations of New Moon of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    Two astronomers, both specialists in minor bodies in the solar system, have performed observations with ESO telescopes that provide important information about a small moon, recently discovered in orbit around the solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Brett Gladman (of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and working at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, France) and Hermann Boehnhardt ( ESO-Paranal) obtained detailed data on the object S/1999 J 1 , definitively confirming it as a natural satellite of Jupiter. Seventeen Jovian moons are now known. The S/1999 J 1 object On July 20, 2000, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced on IAU Circular 7460 that orbital computations had shown a small moving object, first seen in the sky in 1999, to be a new candidate satellite of Jupiter. The conclusion was based on several positional observations of that object made in October and November 1999 with the Spacewatch Telescope of the University of Arizona (USA). In particular, the object's motion in the sky was compatible with that of an object in orbit around Jupiter. Following the official IAU procedure, the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams designated the new object as S/1999 J 1 (the 1st candidate Satellite of Jupiter to be discovered in 1999). Details about the exciting detective story of this object's discovery can be found in an MPC press release and the corresponding Spacewatch News Note. Unfortunately, Jupiter and S/1999 J 1 were on the opposite side of the Sun as seen from the Earth during the spring of 2000. The faint object remained lost in the glare of the Sun in this period and, as expected, a search in July 2000 through all available astronomical data archives confirmed that it had not been seen since November 1999, nor before that time. With time, the extrapolated sky position of S/1999 J 1 was getting progressively less accurate. New observations were thus urgently needed to "recover

  14. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Kinematics of seven Galactic globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardo, C.; Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; de Laverny, P.; Marconi, G.; Masseron, T.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey is a large public spectroscopic survey aimed at investigating the origin and formation history of our Galaxy by collecting spectroscopy of representative samples (about 105 Milky Way stars) of all Galactic stellar populations, in the field and in clusters. The survey uses globular clusters as intra- and inter-survey calibrators, deriving stellar atmospheric parameters and abundances of a significant number of stars in clusters, along with radial velocity determinations. We used precise radial velocities of a large number of stars in seven globular clusters (NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 4833, NGC 5927, NGC 6752, and NGC 7078) to validate pipeline results and to preliminarily investigate the cluster internal kinematics. Radial velocity measurements were extracted from FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra processed by the survey pipeline as part of the second internal data release of data products to ESO. We complemented our sample with ESO archival data obtained with different instrument configurations. Reliable radial velocity measurements for 1513 bona fide cluster star members were obtained in total. We measured systemic rotation, estimated central velocity dispersions, and present velocity dispersion profiles of all the selected clusters, providing the first velocity dispersion curve and the first estimate of the central velocitydispersion for the cluster NGC 5927. Finally, we explore the possible link between cluster kinematics and other physical parameters. The analysis we present here demonstrates that Gaia-ESO survey data are sufficiently accurate to be used in studies of kinematics of stellar systems and stellar populations in the Milky Way. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A115Based on data products from observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme 188.B-3002 (the

  15. The Inauguration of the ESO Headquarters Building at Garching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, P.

    1981-06-01

    The European Southern Observatory was lormally founded on 5 October 1962 when the Convention was signed by Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, soon to be followed by Denmark. For many years, ESO was located partly in Geneva and partly in Hamburg. This split of the organization made the management difficult. About five years ago, the German government offered to construct a building for ESO on the campus of the Max-Planck Society at Garching near Munich. The administration immediately moved from Hamburg into provisional offices at Garching and about six months ago, after completion 01 the new building, the European centre of ESO found its final home.

  16. El sistema ESO 296-IG 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.

    El objeto ESO 296-IG 11 que se presenta en forma de ``V'' y posee destacadas condensaciones a lo largo de cada una de sus dos ramas, las que son de igual extensión (~ 1'), es estudiado en base a material espectroscópico obtenido en el CASLEO. Así se establecen las principales características espectrales, las condiciones físicas y los mecanismos de excitación dominantes de las zonas más notables de su estructura, como así también la distribución de su extinción interna y la variación del grado de excitación de las mismas. Del análisis de las velocidades radiales se determina que se trata de dos galaxias de tipo disco que se están interpenetrando y que conforman un sistema triple junto con una galaxia de contorno elíptico y tamaño considerablemente menor (0.2') que se encuentra a ~ 1.3' del punto de intersección de las dos primeras, ubicada sobre la dirección que contiene a una de éstas y hacia la que se extienden unas débiles y largas prolongaciones de la otra.

  17. The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility under Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Paufique, Jerome; La Penna, Paolo; Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Pirard, Jean-François; Hackenberg, Wolfgang; Kuntschner, Harald; Kolb, Johann; Muller, Nicolas; Le Louarn, Miska; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Ridings, Rob; Abad, Jose; Fischer, Gert; Heinz, Volker; Kiekebusch, Mario; Argomedo, Javier; Conzelmann, Ralf; Tordo, Sebastien; Donaldson, Rob; Soenke, Christian; Duhoux, Philippe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Delabre, Bernard; Jost, Andrea; Duchateau, Michel; Downing, Mark; Moreno, Javier; Manescau, Antonio; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Quattri, Marco; Dupuy, Christophe; Guidolin, Ivan; Comin, Mauro; Guzman, Ronald; Buzzoni, Bernard; Quentin, Jutta; Lewis, Steffan; Jolley, Paul; Kraus, Max; Pfrommer, Thomas; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Stuik, Remko

    2013-12-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility project has received most of its subsystems in Garching and the ESO Integration Hall has become the central operation location for the next phase of the project. The main test bench ASSIST and the 2nd Generation M2-Unit (hosting the Deformable Secondary Mirror) have been granted acceptance late 2012. The DSM will now undergo a series of tests on ASSIST to qualify its optical performance which launches the System Test Phase of the AOF. The tests will validate the AO modules operation with the DSM: first the GRAAL adaptive optics module for Hawk-I in natural guide star AO mode on-axis and then its Ground Layer AO mode. This will be followed by the GALACSI (for MUSE) Wide-Field-Mode (GLAO) and then the more challenging Narrow-Field-Mode (LTAO). We will report on the status of the subsystems at the time of the conference but also on the performance of the delivered ASSIST test bench, the DSM and the 20 Watt Sodium fiber Laser pre-production unit which has validated all specifications before final manufacturing of the serial units. We will also present some considerations and tools to ensure an efficient operation of the Facility in Paranal.

  18. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  19. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    papers in peer-reviewed journals, ESO is now one of the leading astronomical facilities in the world. Coupled with cutting edge optical telescopes and astronomical instruments at the Chile sites, the DFS has contributed to this success by providing the fundamental IT infrastructure for observation and data management." The case study about ESO, together with the case studies from the other winners and laureates of the 2005 Collection, is available on the Computerworld Honors Program Archives On-Line, www.cwheroes.org, and also distributed to more than 134 members of the Computerworld Honors Global Archives. According to Dan Morrow, a founding director and chief historian for the Honors Program, "This year's award recipients exemplify the very best in the creative use of IT in service to mankind. Their work and their stories are outstanding contributions to the history of the information technology revolution in every sense of the word, and, for the archives we serve all over the world, they are, truly, priceless." From more than 250 nominations submitted this year by the industry chairmen and CEO's who serve on the program's Chairmen's Committee, 162 were honoured as laureates at ceremonies in San Francisco, on April 3, 2005, when their case studies officially became part of the Computerworld Honors 2005 Collection. Of these, 48 finalists were chosen by an academy of distinguished judges to attend the June 6 gala in Washington, D.C., at which 10 were announced recipients of the award, one in each of the following categories: Business and Related Services; Education and Academia; Environment, Energy and Agriculture; Finance, Insurance and Real Estate; Government and Non-Profit Organizations; Manufacturing; Media, Arts and Entertainment; Medicine; Science; and Transportation. Additional information about the 2005 Collection is available at www.cwheroes.org, where the entire collection is available to scholars, researchers and the general public. The ESO Data Management and

  20. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Today, forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers are concluding a one-week, educational `working visit' to the ESO Headquarters in Garching (See ESO Press Release 14/95 of 8 November 1995). They are the winners of the Europe-wide contest `Europe Towards the Stars', organised by ESO with the support of the European Union, under the auspices of the Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. From November 14-20, they have worked with professional ESO astronomers in order to get insight into the methods and principles of modern astronomy and astrophysics, as carried out at one of the world's foremost international centres. This included very successful remote observations with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the 1.4-m Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) via a satellite link between the ESO Headquarters and the La Silla observatory in Chile, 12,000 kilometres away. After a general introduction to modern astronomy on the first day of the visit, the participants divided into six teams, according to their interests. Some chose to observe distant galaxies, others prefered to have a closer look on binary stars, and one team decided to investigate a star which is thought to be surrounded by a proto-planetary system. Each team was supported by an experienced ESO astronomer. Then followed the observations at the remote consoles during three nights, the first at the NTT and the following at the CAT. Each team had access to the telescope during half a night. Although the work schedule - exactly as in `real' science - was quite hard, especially during the following data reduction and interpretative phase, all teams managed extremely well and in high spirits. The young astronomers' observations were favoured by excellent atmospheric conditions. At the NTT, the seeing was better than 0.5 arcsecond during several hours, an exceptional value that allows very good images to be obtained. All observations represent solid and interesting science, and

  1. Science data management for ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    Providing the best science data is at the core of ESO's mission to enable major science discoveries from its science community. We describe here the steps that ESO undertakes to fulfill this, namely ensuring that instruments are working properly, that the science content can be extracted from the data and, finally, delivering the science data to our users, PIs and archive researchers alike. Metrics and statistics that gauge the results and impact of these efforts are discussed.

  2. Preliminary Results from the ESO Slice Project (ESP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G.; Zamorani, G.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Alimi, J.; Blanchard, A.; Cayatte, V.; Felenbock, P.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Ramella, M.

    We present the first results of a galaxy redshift survey, ESO Slice Project (ESP), we are accomplishing as an ESO Key-Project over about 30 square degrees in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The limiting magnitude is b_J = 19.4. Observations have been almost completed and about 90% of the data obtained so far has been reduced providing about 3000 galaxy redshifts. We present some preliminary results concerning the large scale galaxy distribution and their luminosity function.

  3. Adaptive Optics For The ESO-VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Fritz

    1990-07-01

    This paper discusses the principles of adaptive optics, its performance, and its requirements for applications in astronomy to overcome limitations due to atmospheric turbulence. Guidelines for the implementation of these devices in telescopes are given in particular for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory. It is intended to equip each (me of the four 8-meter telescopes of the ESO- VLT, which are arranged in a linear array with an independent adaptive optical system. These systems will serve the individual and the combined Coude foci. In a first approach diffraction limited imaging for 3.5μm and longer is envisaged resulting a resolution of a few hundredths of an arcseconds. Currently, a small scale prototype adaptive system is under development. It is equipped with a 19 piezoelectric actuator deformable mirror, a Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensor, and a dedicated wavefront computer for closing the feedback loop. This system is based on a polychromatic approach, i.e. it senses the wavefront in the visible but the adaptive correction loop works for the infrared wavelength range from .1 to 5 μm. The experience with this system will be used for the development of the final VLT systems, requiring a minimum of 150 to 200 subapertures. To solve the reference source problems experiments to generate artificial reference stars by scattering a laser pulse in the upper atmosphere are in preparation. Major developments are still necessary to solve the data processing problems which are associated with large numbers of subapertures and high correction bandwidth, especially if one plans later to extend the wavelength range towards the visible. In the VLT project adaptive optics is of particular importance for its synthetic aperture observation mode as a long baseline interferometer with resolutions in the range of a few milliarseconds on the sky. In this application a complete phasing of the telescope array is required in order to have the

  4. The ESO astronomical site monitor upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Sommer, Heiko; Sarazin, Marc; Bierwirth, Thomas; Dorigo, Dario; Vera Sequeiros, Ignacio; Navarrete, Julio; Del Valle, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and prediction of astronomical observing conditions are essential for planning and optimizing observations. For this purpose, ESO, in the 90s, developed the concept of an Astronomical Site Monitor (ASM), as a facility fully integrated in the operations of the VLT observatory[1]. Identical systems were installed at Paranal and La Silla, providing comprehensive local weather information. By now, we had very good reasons for a major upgrade: • The need of introducing new features to satisfy the requirements of observing with the Adaptive Optics Facility and to benefit other Adaptive Optics systems. • Managing hardware and software obsolescence. • Making the system more maintainable and expandable by integrating off-the-shelf hardware solutions. The new ASM integrates: • A new Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) paired with a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) to measure the vertical distribution of turbulence in the high atmosphere and its characteristic velocity. • A new SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) telescope, for measuring the altitude and intensity of turbulent layers in the low atmosphere. • A water vapour radiometer to monitor the water vapour content of the atmosphere. • The old weather tower, which is being refurbished with new sensors. The telescopes and the devices integrated are commercial products and we have used as much as possible the control system from the vendors. The existing external interfaces, based on the VLT standards, have been maintained for full backward compatibility. All data produced by the system are directly fed in real time into a relational database. A completely new web-based display replaces the obsolete plots based on HP-UX RTAP. We analyse here the architectural and technological choices and discuss the motivations and trade-offs.

  5. ESO Reflex: Using a Workflow Engine for Data Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgrén, M.; Maisala, S.; Oittinen, T.; Hook, R. N.; Romaniello, M.; Péron, M.; Licha, T.; Izzo, C.; Solin, O.; Savolainen, V.; Lindroos, J.; Järveläinen, P.

    2007-10-01

    Sampo {http://www.eso.org/sampo} (Hook et al. 2005) is a three year project that began in 2005 January. It is led by ESO and conducted by a software development team from Finland as an in-kind contribution to joining ESO. The goal of the project is to assess the needs of the ESO community in the area of data reduction and analysis environments, and to create pilot software products that illustrate critical steps along the road to a new system. Those prototypes will not only be used to validate concepts and understand requirements, but will also be tools of immediate value for the community. The Sampo team has been researching new ways in which instrument pipeline recipes can be executed in a more flexible way. The requirements gathering process resulted in a prototype application called ESO Reflex {http://www.eso.org/sampo/reflex/} that offers a novel approach to astronomical data reduction. The integration of a modern graphical user interface and robust legacy data reduction algorithms gives the astronomer user the best of both worlds: ease of use combined with the re-use of well-tested algorithms.

  6. Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Hayward, Thomas L. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c and others

    2014-05-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (Y{sub S} , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10{sup –5}. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH {sub 4S,1%} (1.58 μm), K{sub S} (2.18 μm), and K {sub cont} (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L {sub bol}/L {sub ☉}) = –3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M {sub Jup} for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L {sub bol}-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T {sub eff} = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R {sub Jup}, this T {sub eff} is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

  7. Magellan Adaptive Optics First-light Observations of the Exoplanet β Pic B. I. Direct Imaging in the Far-red Optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the Near-ir with NICI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2014-05-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (YS , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10-5. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH 4S,1% (1.58 μm), KS (2.18 μm), and K cont (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L bol/L ⊙) = -3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M Jup for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L bol-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T eff = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R Jup, this T eff is ~250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

  8. Autoimmune thyroid disease elicited by NY-ESO-1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Vita, Roberto; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Agah, Ravin; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Immunotherapies and targeted therapies are frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction, which is in contrast with the rare thyroid abnormalities induced by cytotoxic agents. Immunotherapy with NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen expressed by a number of malignancies, was reported to trigger hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism in two HLA-A2 patients with ovarian cancer. We describe now a case of Graves' disease triggered by NY-ESO-1 in a HLA-A2-negative woman. A 32-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma received radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and finally NY-ESO-1 vaccine. The patient was found to have HLA A11/A33(19), B13/B56(22), Cw3/-. One month after the beginning of immunotherapy, thyroid dysfunction was clinically suspected and Graves' disease was biochemically confirmed. Fearful of the antithyroid drugs' side effects, the patient was treated with a beta-blocker (propranolol, 80-20 mg/day). As hyperthyroidism progressively worsened, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. We hypothesized that NY-ESO-1 shared partial homology with thyroid autoantigens (the so-called molecular mimicry mechanism) and that at least one pair of homologous sequences contained amino acid sequence binding motifs to a restricted number of HLA molecules. We used BLAST software to search amino acid sequence homologies between NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], thyroperoxidase, and thyroglobulin), and the HLA ligand/motif database to look for HLA/T-cell receptor binding motifs in the regions of NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens that were homologous. We found 15 epitopic regions of NY-ESO-1 homologous to 15 regions of thyroid autoantigens, some of which epitopic: 5 of TSH-R, 8 of thyroglobulin, and 2 of thyroperoxidase. These homologous sequences contain binding motifs belonging to several HLA class I antigens, including HLA A2 and the patient's A11 and A33. Genetically predisposed patients who receive NY-ESO-1 vaccination are at risk to develop thyroid

  9. ESO Council Resolves to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    The ESO Council has just met at the ESO Headquarters in Garching during two days of intensive consultations. Among the important items on the agenda were the recent developments around the Very Large Telescope Project at Paranal, and also the possible membership of other countries. RELATIONS WITH CHILE The ESO Council appreciated the continued efforts by the Government of the Republic of Chile to bring to a successful conclusion the various pending matters concerning the relations between the Republic of Chile and this Organisation. It noted the solution of serious problems which have interfered with ESO's operations in its host country, and now awaits formal confirmation from the Chilean Government that also the legal proceedings around the land dispute around the Paranal site are cleared. Council expects that the ratification of the "Intermediate, Supplementary and Amending Agreement" will occur without undue delay and it reiterates its intention to approve this Agreement at the same time as the Chilean Parliament. Meanwhile, Council expressed its pleasure to welcome those Chilean scientists now nominated by the Chilean Government as observers to the ESO committees. Council instructed the ESO Management to continue work at Paranal. Although the delegates were increasingly optimistic that the VLT project can ultimately remain at Paranal, they nevertheless also requested the Management to pursue, until further notice, the ongoing comparative study of first-class astronomical sites in the world. In connection with the pending issues in the relationship with Chile, Council remained preoccupied about the recognition of ESO's immunities by the Chilean judiciary and it requested from the Management that the assessment of the financial and other implications of the recent events which have interfered with the VLT construction work at Paranal be completed. Finally, in order to provide additional avenues for frequent contacts, the ESO Council invited the Chilean Government

  10. Austria to join ESO on 1 July 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at a ceremony in Vienna, the Austrian Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, signed the formal Accession Agreement between Austria and ESO, paving the way for Austria to join ESO as its 14th member state by 1 July this year. Signing Austria Agreement ESO PR Photo 20a/08 The Signing Ceremony "This will not only give the high-quality Austrian astronomical community full access to ESO's facilities, it will give Austrian scientists a say, together with their colleagues from the other member-states, in shaping the future of our science," said Tim de Zeeuw. The signing of the Agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during its meeting in Prague on 3 June and the decision by the Austrian Government on 25 June. At the ceremony, Minister Hahn emphasised that the accession of Austria to ESO is a strong commitment to fundamental research and particularly to astronomy. "This sustainable investment enables Austrian science to gain access to a leading, international research infrastructure, and provides an important impulse for the attractiveness of Austria as a place for research," he said. "With the signature of the agreement today we bring a long discussion to a happy end and Austrian astronomy to new horizons." Since the Agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Austrian Parliament for ratification. "It is not possible to plan for radical changes, but ideal conditions will be created by this accession, which will strengthen Austrian and European astronomy. It is now for the scientists to use this opportunity," concluded the Austrian Minister.

  11. A Physical Model-based Correction for Charge Traps in the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 Near-IR Detector and Its Applications to Transiting Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-IR channel is extensively used in time-resolved observations, especially for transiting exoplanet spectroscopy as well as brown dwarf and directly imaged exoplanet rotational phase mapping. The ramp effect is the dominant source of systematics in the WFC3 for time-resolved observations, which limits its photometric precision. Current mitigation strategies are based on empirical fits and require additional orbits to help the telescope reach a thermal equilibrium. We show that the ramp-effect profiles can be explained and corrected with high fidelity using charge trapping theories. We also present a model for this process that can be used to predict and to correct charge trap systematics. Our model is based on a very small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the detector. We find that these parameters are very stable between the different data sets, and we provide best-fit values. Our model is tested with more than 120 orbits (∼40 visits) of WFC3 observations and is proved to be able to provide near photon noise limited corrections for observations made with both staring and scanning modes of transiting exoplanets as well as for starting-mode observations of brown dwarfs. After our model correction, the light curve of the first orbit in each visit has the same photometric precision as subsequent orbits, so data from the first orbit no longer need to be discarded. Near-IR arrays with the same physical characteristics (e.g., JWST/NIRCam) may also benefit from the extension of this model if similar systematic profiles are observed.

  12. Global Near-IR Maps of Io from Gemini-N and Keck Observations in 2010, with a Specific Emphasis on Kanehekili Fluctus, Janus Patera, and Loki Patera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pater, I.; Davies, A. G.; Adamkovics, M.; McGregor, A.; Observing Team, G.

    2013-12-01

    We have constructed global maps of Io from observations obtained at 1-5 μm in 2010 using the adaptive optics systems on the Keck and Gemini telescopes. We compare these maps with those obtained in 2001 [1]. Although the total emission from all hot spots combined at each wavelength is similar for the two years, the spatial brightness distribution is very different, a reflection of evolving style and magnitude of volcanic activity. In 2010 thermal emission in the near-infrared was dominated by Loki Patera and Kanehekili Fluctus. We also present new timelines of thermal emission from Kanehekili Fluctus and Loki and Janus Paterae, updating timelines in recent publications [2, 3] with additional Keck adaptive optics data obtained between 2003 and 2010. These new timelines are the most comprehensive plots ever produced of the volcanic thermal emission variability for these or any other locations on Io, utilizing data from multiple ground- and space-based assets. The timeline plot shows that in 2010 Kanehekili Fluctus (as seen by Gemini) was briefly exceptionally brighter than ever seen before, evidence of a short-lived but highly-energetic eruption episode. Acknowledgements: AGD is supported by a grant from the NASA OPR Program. References: [1] Marchis et al. (2005) Icarus, 176, 96-122. [2] Davies et al. (2012) Icarus, 221, 466-470. [3] Rathbun and Spencer (2010) Icarus, 209, 625-630.

  13. 1–2.4 μm Near-IR Spectrum of the Giant Planet β Pictoris b Obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey; Pueyo, Laurent; De Rosa, Robert J.; Vargas, Jeffrey; Macintosh, Bruce; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Bulger, Joanna; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine H.; Cotten, Tara; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2017-04-01

    Using the Gemini Planet Imager located at Gemini South, we measured the near-infrared (1.0–2.4 μm) spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby, young star β Pictoris. We compare the spectrum obtained with currently published model grids and with known substellar objects and present the best matching models as well as the best matching observed objects. Comparing the empirical measurement of the bolometric luminosity to evolutionary models, we find a mass of 12.9 ± 0.2 {{ M }}{Jup}, an effective temperature of 1724 ± 15 K, a radius of 1.46 ± 0.01 {{ R }}{Jup}, and a surface gravity of {log}g=4.18+/- 0.01 [dex] (cgs). The stated uncertainties are statistical errors only, and do not incorporate any uncertainty on the evolutionary models. Using atmospheric models, we find an effective temperature of 1700–1800 K and a surface gravity of {log}g=3.5–4.0 [dex] depending upon the model. These values agree well with other publications and with “hot-start” predictions from planetary evolution models. Further, we find that the spectrum of β Pic b best matches a low surface gravity L2 ± 1 brown dwarf. Finally, comparing the spectrum to field brown dwarfs, we find the the spectrum best matches 2MASS J04062677–381210 and 2MASS J03552337+1133437.

  14. Deep Sky Diving with the ESO New Technology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Preparations for future cosmological observations with the VLT Within a few months, the first 8.2-meter Unit Telescope of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) array will open its eye towards the sky above the Atacama desert. As documented by recent Press Photos from ESO, the construction work at the Paranal VLT Observatory is proceeding rapidly. Virtually all of the telescope components, including the giant Zerodur mirror (cf. ESO PR Photos 35a-l/97 ), are now on the mountain. While the integration of the telescope and its many optical, mechanical and electronic components continues, astronomers in the ESO member countries and at ESO are now busy defining the observing programmes that will be carried out with the new telescope, soon after it enters into operation. In this context, new and exciting observations have recently been obtained with the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, 600 km to the south of Paranal. How to record the faintest and most remote astronomical objects With its very large mirror surface (and correspondingly great light collecting power), as well as an unsurpassed optical quality, the VLT will be able to look exceedingly far out into the Universe, well beyond current horizons. The best technique to record the faintest possible light and thus the most remote celestial objects, is to combine large numbers of exposures of the same field with slightly different telescope pointing. This increases the total number of photons recorded and by imaging the stars and galaxies on different areas (pixels) of the detector, the signal-to-noise ratio and hence the visibility of the faintest objects is improved. The famous Hubble Deep Field Images were obtained in this way by combining over 300 single exposures and they show myriads of faint galaxies in the distant realms of the Universe. The NTT as test bench for the VLT ESO is in the fortunate situation of possessing a `prototype' model of the Very Large Telescope, the 3.5-m New

  15. ESO Council Decides to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    The Council [1] of the European Southern Observatory has met in extraordinary session at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich on August 8 and 9, 1994. The main agenda items were concerned with the recent developments around ESO's relations with the host state, the Republic of Chile, as well as the status of the organisation's main project, the 16-metre equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will become the world's largest optical telescope. Council had decided to hold this special meeting [2] because of various uncertainties that have arisen in connection with the implementation of the VLT Project at Cerro Paranal, approx. 130 kilometres south of Antofagasta, capital of the II Region in Chile. Following continued consultations at different levels within the ESO member states and after careful consideration of all aspects of the current situation - including various supportive actions by the Chilean Government as well as the incessive attacks against this international organisation from certain sides reported in the media in that country - Council took the important decision to continue the construction of the VLT Observatory at Paranal, while at the same time requesting the ESO Management to pursue the ongoing studies of alternative solutions. THE COUNCIL DECISIONS In particular, the ESO Council took note of recent positive developments which have occurred since the May 1994 round of discussions with the Chilean authorities in Santiago. The confirmation of ESO's immunities as an International Organization in Chile, contained in a number of important statements and documents, is considered a significant step by the Chilean Government to insure to ESO the unhindered erection and later operation of the VLT on Paranal. Under these circumstances and in order to maintain progress on the VLT project, the ESO Council authorized the ESO Management to continue the on-site work at Paranal. Council also took note of the desire expressed by the Chilean Government

  16. United Kingdom to Join ESO on July 1, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    ESO and PPARC Councils Endorse Terms of Accession [1] The Councils of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , at their respective meetings on December 3 and 5, 2001, have endorsed the terms for UK membership of ESO, as recently agreed by their Negotiating Teams. All members of the Councils - the governing bodies of the two organisations - welcomed the positive spirit in which the extensive negotiations had been conducted and expressed great satisfaction at the successful outcome of a complex process. The formal procedure of accession will now commence in the UK and is expected to be achieved in good time to allow accession from July 2002. The European Southern Observatory is the main European organisation for astronomy and the United Kingdom will become its tenth member state [2]. ESO operates two major observatories in the Chilean Atacama desert where the conditions for astronomical observations are second-to-none on earth and it has recently put into operation the world's foremost optical/infrared telescope, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal. With UK membership, British astronomers will join their European colleagues in preparing new projects now being planned on a global scale. They will also be able to pursue their research on some of the most powerful astronomical instruments available. The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , is "delighted that we have come this far after the lengthy negotiations needed to prepare properly the admission of another major European country to our organisation. When ESO was created nearly 40 years ago, the UK was planning for its own facilities in the southern hemisphere, in collaboration with Australia, and decided not to join. However, the impressive scientific and technological advances since then and ESOs emergence as a prime player on the European research scene have convinced our UK colleagues of the great advantages of presenting a

  17. Gaia-ESO Survey: Properties of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 4815

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friel, E. D.; Donati, P.; Bragaglia, A.; Jacobson, H. R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Randich, S.; Tosi, M.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Vallenari, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Carraro, G.; Sordo, R.; Maiorca, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Sestito, P.; Zaggia, S.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Gilmore, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Alfaro, E.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A. J.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Franciosini, E.; Hill, V.; Jackson, R. J.; de Laverny, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Hourihane, A.; Costado, M. T.; Jofré, P.; Lind, K.

    2014-03-01

    .65, and a distance modulus (m - M)0 = 11.95 to 12.20, depending on the choice of theoretical models, leading to a Galactocentric distance of 6.9 kpc. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).

  18. ESO Archive Operations in support of Services in Garching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourniol, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    ESO Science Archive Facility (SAF) is the unique access point to the La Silla Paranal Observatory (LPO) raw data. It also services data products created at ESO with state-of-the-art pipelines, or fed back by the external astronomical community. ESO SAF is a big success in the sense that users access the data every single day, and they want their data fast! A copy of the ALMA Science Archive (ASA) is also accessible at Garching to the European ALMA community via the European ALMA Regional Center. A data portal allows users to get access to the data. In this poster we present the Archive Operations in support of services in Garching, from archiving the data to making them available to the community.

  19. hFits: From Storing Metadata to Publishing ESO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Dobrzycki, A.; Vuong, M.; Da Rocha, C.

    2012-09-01

    The ESO Archive holds ca. 20 million FITS files: raw observations taken at the La Silla Paranal Observatory in Chile, data from APEX and UKIRT(WFCAM) telescopes, pipeline-processed data generated by the Quality Control and Data Processing Group in ESO Garching and, since recently, reduced data delivered by the PI's through the ESO Phase 3 infrastructure. A metadata repository has been developed at the ESO Archive (Dobrzycki et al. 2007), (Vera et al. 2011), to hold all the FITS file headers with up-to-date information using data warehouse technology. Presently, the repository contains more that 10 billion keywords from headers of all ESO FITS files. We have added to the repository a mechanism for keeping track of header ingestion and modification, allowing to build incremental applications on top of it. The aim is to provide a framework allowing for creation of fast and good quality metadata query services. We present hFits, a tool for data publishing allowing for metadata enhancement. The tool reads from the metadata repository and inserts the metadata into the conventional relational database systems using a simple configuration framework. It utilises the metadata repository tracking mechanism to incrementally refresh the services and transparently propagate any metadata updates. It supports the use of user defined functions where, for example, WCS coordinates can be calculated or related metadata can be extracted from other information systems, and for each new header file it provides to the archived file the access attributes following ESO data access policy, publishing the data to the community.

  20. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  1. NGC 3293 revisited by the Gaia-ESO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semaan, Thierry; Morel, Thierry; Gosset, Eric; Zorec, Juan; Frémat, Yves; Blomme, Ronny; Lobel, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the Gaia-ESO survey we have determined the fundamental parameters of a large number of B-type stars in the Galactic, young open cluster NGC 3293. The determination of the stellar parameters is based on medium-resolution spectra obtained with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO-VLT. As a second step, we adopted the accurate parameters to determine the chemical abundances of these hot stars. We present a comparison of our results with those obtained by the 'VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars' (Evans et al. 2005). Our study increases the number of objects analysed and provides an extended view of this cluster.

  2. 6th ESO/OHP Summer School in Astrophysical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, M.-P.; Meylan, G.

    1998-09-01

    The 6th ESO/OHP Summer School was hosted again at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) from 15 to 25 July 1998. The school, held only every second years, selects 18 of Europe's most promising young doctoral students in astronomy. Courses of lectures, observations, and analysis form the intellectual menu which is aimed at teaching the process of extracting astrophysically digestible results from the photons harvested at the telescopes, such as the ESO VLT, whose four telescopes will become available to the community in turn during the next few years.

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: membership and initial mass function of the γ Velorum cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisinzano, L.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Jeffries, R. D.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonito, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Caramazza, M.; Vallenari, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Understanding the properties of young open clusters, such as the initial mass function (IMF), star formation history, and dynamic evolution, is crucial for obtaining reliable theoretical predictions of the mechanisms involved in the star formation process. Aims: We want to obtain a list that is as complete as possible of confirmed members of the young open cluster γ Velorum, with the aim of deriving general cluster properties such as the IMF. Methods: We used all available spectroscopic membership indicators within the Gaia-ESO public archive, together with literature photometry and X-ray data, and for each method, we derived the most complete list of candidate cluster members. Then, we considered photometry, gravity, and radial velocities as necessary conditions for selecting a subsample of candidates whose membership was confirmed by using the lithium and Hα lines and X-rays as youth indicators. Results: We found 242 confirmed and 4 possible cluster members for which we derived masses using very recent stellar evolutionary models. The cluster IMF in the mass range investigated in this study shows a slope of α = 2.6 ± 0.5 for 0.5 ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A70

  4. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  5. Broadband Near IR Laser Hazard Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    the first quarter of this program, we procured high quality gelatin and ammonium dichromate . It is well known that there are several kinds of...composition of gelatin, ammonium dichromate and water. We attempted to find the optimum coating thickness for 50 nm and 90 nm bandwidth range filters. Annual...fabrication is based on volume Bragg holography using photopolymers and dichromated gelatins. The successful performance of broad- band IR filters

  6. Near IR observations of Quiet Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi; Deng, N.; Tejamoortula, U.; Penn, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    We have carried out the observations of quiet solar limb during April 29 to May 1, 2008, March 9-13, 2009 using the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The solar limb was mostly featureless during the observations. The New Infrared Array (NAC) at the exit port of the spectrograph has been used to record the limb spectrum at HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen beta at 1281.8 nm and Brackett gamma 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024 x 1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of about 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. In this presentation, we shall compare the line parameters of these lines around the solar disk. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NSF under grant ATM 05-48952 and by NASA under grant NNX08AQ32G.

  7. Materials for near-IR light modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, Alexander M.; Robertson, Neil

    2016-10-01

    The work reported outlines the synthesis, film formation and application of NIR-absorbing metal dithiolene and metal diimine molecules suitable for film formation with varying ligands and central metals. Formation of an electroactive film on conducting glass or mesoporous TiO2 support can be achieved through electropolymerisation, electrodeposition, spin/drop coating or chemical attachment. In this context, we will outline the synthesis, characterisation and properties of a new family of NIR-absorbing aromatic metal diimine complexes. These complexes are shown to give rise to planar, delocalised structures with small HOMO-LUMO gaps, through the use of extended non-innocent ligands o-semibenzoquinonediimines. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of metal diimine complexes, modified to extend the electronic conjugation and shift the intense low-energy absorption from the visible to the NIR region. This study extends the range of available NIR absorping metal-complex chromophores and opens up new possibilities for wavelength tuning and application.

  8. Novel Wavelength Standards in the Near IR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-15

    Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004). 6. A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa , E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K...Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa , E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, "Saturation spectroscopy of an acetylene molecule in the 1550 nm region using an erbium

  9. Nova Cephei 2014; Near-IR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, N. M.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Venkataraman, V.; Joshi, Vishal

    2014-03-01

    Spectra of Nova Cephei 2014, discovered on 9 March 2014 (CBET 2825) were obtained on 13, 15 and 20 March at R ~ 1000 (0.85 to 2.4 micron range) with the 1.2m Mount Abu Telescope + the recently commissioned Near-Infrared Camera Spectrograph (NICS). The spectra show P Cygni features and are typical of the Fe II class of novae which in the NIR show prominent HI and OI lines but are distinguished from the He/N class by displaying numerous strong lines of Carbon (see Banerjee and Ashok, 2012, BASI, for the NIR templates of both classes).

  10. Science with ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator - MAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Marchetti, Enrico; Amico, Paola

    2012-07-01

    ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator (MAD) was a prototype designed and built to demonstrate wide-field adaptive optics science on large telescopes. The outstanding results obtained during commissioning and guaranteed time observations (GTO) prompted ESO to issue and open call to the community for 23 science demonstration (SD) observing nights distributed in three runs (in order to provide access to the summer an winter skies). Thus, in total MAD was used for science for 33 nights including the 10 nights of GTO time. date, 19 articles in refereed journals (including one in Nature) have been published based fully or partially o MAD data. To the best of our knowledge, these are not only the first, but also the only scientific publication from MCAO instruments world-wide to date (at least in Astronomy). The scientific impact of these publication, as measured by the h-index, is comparable to that of other AO instruments on the VLT, although over the years these instruments have been allocated many more nights than MAD. In this contribution we present an overview of the scientific results from MAD and a more detailed discussion of the most cited papers.

  11. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories III: Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Nesvorný, D.; Davies, R.

    2016-06-01

    The zodiacal light is often seen at the ESO observatories in the hours after sunset and before sunrise. The origin of the zodiacal light is described and recent research briefly summarised. Some fine images of the zodiacal light from Paranal and La Silla, including the full extent of the night sky are presented.

  12. Elaborated Student Talk in an Elementary ESoL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Maureen P.; Rubin, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the discourse in an English as a second or other language (ESoL) classroom in a best-case scenario that contrasted dramatically with more typical school settings. Samples student critical turns (SCTs) across a six-week literature-rich science unit. Shows that the teacher played a crucial role in extended dialogue among students. (SG)

  13. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  14. Therapeutical solutions for non-malignant eso-bronchial fistulas.

    PubMed

    Galie, N; Grigorie, V

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of surgical treatment for the patients with eso-respiratory fistulas. The following cases revealed the anesthesic and surgical difficulties, and also intraoperative and postoperative complications that can occur when the esophageal contents get into the respiratory system. In these situations, therapy must be adapted according to fistula's topography and etiology, and also to patients' biological conditions.

  15. Elaborated Student Talk in an Elementary ESoL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Maureen P.; Rubin, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the discourse in an English as a second or other language (ESoL) classroom in a best-case scenario that contrasted dramatically with more typical school settings. Samples student critical turns (SCTs) across a six-week literature-rich science unit. Shows that the teacher played a crucial role in extended dialogue among students. (SG)

  16. ESO Ultra HD Expedition: New clarity for astronomy outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, R. J. M.; Christensen, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 2014 a team of ESO Photo Ambassadors embarked on a pioneering expedition to the European Southern Observatory's observing sites in Chile. Their mission was to capture time-lapses, stills, videos and panoramas in crisp Ultra High Definition from some of the darkest night skies on Earth.

  17. ESO Representative in Chile - Head of the Office for Science Santiago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Assignment: The ESO representative reports directly to the Director General for the ESO representation duties in Chile and regarding the science activities to the Head of Office for Science in Garching . The main task will be:

  18. NY-ESO-1 Cancer Testis Antigen Demonstrates High Immunogenicity in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ademuyiwa, Foluso O.; Bshara, Wiam; Attwood, Kristopher; Morrison, Carl; Edge, Stephen B.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; O’Connor, Tracey L.; Levine, Ellis G.; Miliotto, Anthony; Ritter, Erika; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose NY-ESO-1 cancer testis (CT) antigen is an attractive candidate for immunotherapy as a result of its high immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for NY-ESO-1 antigen directed immunotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by determining the frequency of expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the degree of inherent immunogenicity to NY-ESO-1. Experimental Design 168 TNBC and 47 ER+/HER2- primary breast cancer specimens were used to determine NY-ESO-1 frequency by IHC. As previous studies have shown that patients with a robust innate humoral immune response to CT antigens are more likely to develop CD8 T-cell responses to NY-ESO-1 peptides, we evaluated the degree to which patients with NY-ESO-1 expression had inherent immunogenicity by measuring antibodies. The relationship between NY-ESO-1 expression and CD8+ T lymphocytes was also examined. Results The frequency of NY-ESO-1 expression in the TNBC cohort was 16% versus 2% in ER+/HER2- patients. A higher NY-ESO-1 score was associated with a younger age at diagnosis in the TNBC patients with NY-ESO-1 expression (p = 0.026). No differences in OS (p = 0.278) or PFS (p = 0.238) by NY-ESO-1 expression status were detected. Antibody responses to NY-ESO-1 were found in 73% of TNBC patients whose tumors were NY-ESO-1 positive. NY-ESO-1 positive patients had higher CD8 counts than negative patients (p = 0.018). Conclusion NY-ESO-1 is expressed in a substantial subset of TNBC patients and leads to a high humoral immune response in a large proportion of these individuals. Given these observations, patients with TNBC may benefit from targeted therapies directed against NY-ESO-1. PMID:22761704

  19. NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigen demonstrates high immunogenicity in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Bshara, Wiam; Attwood, Kristopher; Morrison, Carl; Edge, Stephen B; Karpf, Adam R; James, Smith A; Ambrosone, Christine B; O'Connor, Tracey L; Levine, Ellis G; Miliotto, Anthony; Ritter, Erika; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2012-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 cancer testis (CT) antigen is an attractive candidate for immunotherapy as a result of its high immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for NY-ESO-1 antigen directed immunotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by determining the frequency of expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the degree of inherent immunogenicity to NY-ESO-1. 168 TNBC and 47 ER+/HER2- primary breast cancer specimens were used to determine NY-ESO-1 frequency by IHC. As previous studies have shown that patients with a robust innate humoral immune response to CT antigens are more likely to develop CD8 T-cell responses to NY-ESO-1 peptides, we evaluated the degree to which patients with NY-ESO-1 expression had inherent immunogenicity by measuring antibodies. The relationship between NY-ESO-1 expression and CD8+ T lymphocytes was also examined. The frequency of NY-ESO-1 expression in the TNBC cohort was 16% versus 2% in ER+/HER2- patients. A higher NY-ESO-1 score was associated with a younger age at diagnosis in the TNBC patients with NY-ESO-1 expression (p = 0.026). No differences in OS (p = 0.278) or PFS (p = 0.238) by NY-ESO-1 expression status were detected. Antibody responses to NY-ESO-1 were found in 73% of TNBC patients whose tumors were NY-ESO-1 positive. NY-ESO-1 positive patients had higher CD8 counts than negative patients (p = 0.018). NY-ESO-1 is expressed in a substantial subset of TNBC patients and leads to a high humoral immune response in a large proportion of these individuals. Given these observations, patients with TNBC may benefit from targeted therapies directed against NY-ESO-1.

  20. The Gaia-ESO Survey: A globular cluster escapee in the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, K.; Koposov, S. E.; Battistini, C.; Marino, A. F.; Ruchti, G.; Serenelli, A.; Worley, C. C.; Alves-Brito, A.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Bensby, T.; Bergemann, M.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Bragaglia, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Feltzing, S.; Gruyters, P.; Heiter, U.; Jofre, P.; Korn, A. J.; Nordlander, T.; Ryde, N.; Soubiran, C.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Romano, D.; Smiljanic, R.; Bellazzini, M.; Damiani, F.; Hill, V.; de Laverny, P.; Jackson, R. J.; Lardo, C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-03-01

    A small fraction of the halo field is made up of stars that share the light element (Z ≤ 13) anomalies characteristic of second generation globular cluster (GC) stars. The ejected stars shed light on the formation of the Galactic halo by tracing the dynamical history of the clusters, which are believed to have once been more massive. Some of these ejected stars are expected to show strong Al enhancement at the expense of shortage of Mg, but until now no such star has been found. We search for outliers in the Mg and Al abundances of the few hundreds of halo field stars observed in the first eighteen months of the Gaia-ESO public spectroscopic survey. One halo star at the base of the red giant branch, here referred to as 22593757-4648029 is found to have [ Mg/Fe ] = -0.36 ± 0.04 and [ Al/Fe ] = 0.99 ± 0.08, which is compatible with the most extreme ratios detected in GCs so far. We compare the orbit of 22593757-4648029 to GCs of similar metallicity andfind it unlikely that this star has been tidally stripped with low ejection velocity from any of the clusters. However, both chemical and kinematic arguments render it plausible that the star has been ejected at high velocity from the anomalous GC ω Centauri within the last few billion years. We cannot rule out other progenitor GCs, because some may have disrupted fully, and the abundance and orbital data are inadequate for many of those that are still intact. Based on data acquired by the Gaia-ESO Survey, programme ID 188.B-3002. Observations were made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Towards a VO compliant ESO science archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    Data centres have a major role in the Virtual Observatory (VO), as they are the primary source of astronomical data. The VO cannot (and does not) dictate how a data centre handles its own archive. However, ‘VO-layer’ is needed to ‘translate’ any locally defined parameter to the standard (i.e., International Virtual Observatory Alliance compliant) ones. The longer term vision of the VO is also to hide away any observatory/telescope/instrument specific detail and work in astronomical units, for example, ‘wavelength range’ and not grism or filter name. Data providers are then advised to systematically collect metadata (‘data about data’) about the curation process, assign unique identifiers, describe the general content (e.g., physical coverage) of a collection, and provide interface and capability parameters of public services. Finally, the VO will work at its best with high-level (‘science-ready’) data, so that the VO user is spared as much as possible any complex and time consuming data reduction. Data centres should then make an effort to provide such data.

  2. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo

  3. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  4. If we build it, will they come? Curation and use of the ESO telescope bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta; Meakins, Silvia; Bordelon, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    The ESO Telescope Bibliography (telbib) is a database of refereed papers published by the ESO users community. It links data in the ESO Science Archive with the published literature, and vice versa. Developed and maintained by the ESO library, telbib also provides insights into the organization's research output and impact as measured through bibliometric studies. Curating telbib is a multi-step process that involves extensive tagging of the database records. Based on selected use cases, this talk will explain how the rich metadata provide parameters for reports and statistics in order to investigate the performance of ESO's facilities and to understand trends and developments in the publishing behaviour of the user community.

  5. PIONIER: from a Expert mode to an ESO facility instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percheron, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The PIONIER (Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment) at the VLT Interferometer instrument was originally a visitor instrument from IPAG (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble). It is now offered to the ESO community as a facility instrument. As a Visitor monde instrument, it was operated on selected nights by the instrument team/consortium, the goal is now for the Paranal staff to run and monitor the instrument as any other VLT/VLTI instrument. This is done by fully integrating PIONIER in the ESO scheme. I will present here how this was done for the data reduction and the quality assurance of the science data and their related calibrations.

  6. ESO Future Facilities to Probe Fundamental Physical Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo; Liske, Jochen

    Following HARPS, two ESO projects are aimed at the ambitious goal of trying to reach the highest possible precision in measuring the radial velocity of astronomical sources. ESPRESSO spectrograph, located at the incoherent combined 4VLT focus, but able to work either with one or all VLT units, and CODEX for E-ELT will mark ESO roadmap towards the cm s - 1level of precision and possibly to an unlimited temporal baseline. By providing photon noise limited measures their promise is to improve the present limits in the variability of fundamental physical constants by one and two orders of magnitude, respectively, thus allowing for instance to verify the claim discussed at this conference by John Webb of a possible spatial dipole in the variation of the fine structure constant.

  7. Near-IR irradiation of the S2 state of the water oxidizing complex of photosystem II at liquid helium temperatures produces the metalloradical intermediate attributed to S1Y(Z*).

    PubMed

    Koulougliotis, Dionysios; Shen, Jian-Ren; Ioannidis, Nikolaos; Petrouleas, Vasili

    2003-03-18

    Near-IR (NIR) excitation at liquid He temperatures of photosystem II (PSII) membranes from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus or from spinach poised in the S2 state results in the production of a g = 2.035 EPR resonance, reminiscent of metalloradical signals. The signal is smaller in the spinach preparations, but it is significantly enhanced by the addition of exogenous quinones. Ethanol (2-3%, v/v) eliminates the ability to trap the signal. The g = 2.035 signal is identical to the one recently obtained by Nugent et al. by visible-light illumination of the S1 state, and preferably assigned to S1Y(Z*) [Nugent, J. H. A., Muhiuddin, I. P., and Evans, M. C. W. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 4117-4126]. The production of the g = 2.035 signal by liquid He temperature NIR excitation of the S2 state is paralleled by a significant reduction (typically 40-45% in S. vulcanus) of the S2 state multiline signal. This is in part due to the conversion of the Mn cluster to higher spin states, an effect documented by Boussac et al. [Boussac, A., Un, S., Horner, O., and Rutherford, A. W. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 4001-4007], and in part due to the conversion to the g = 2.035 configuration. Following the decay of the g = 2.035 signal at liquid helium temperatures (decay halftimes in the time range of a few to tens of minutes depending on the preparation), annealing at elevated temperatures (-80 degrees C) results in only partial restoration of the S2 state multiline signal. The full size of the signal can be restored by visible-light illumination at -80 degrees C, implying that during the near-IR excitation and subsequent storage at liquid helium temperatures recombination with Q(A-) (and therefore decay of the S2 state to the S1 state) occurred in a fraction of centers. In support of this conclusion, the g = 2.035 signal remains stable for several hours (at 11 K) in centers poised in the S2...Q(A) configuration before the NIR excitation. The extended stability of the signal under these

  8. Therapeutical solutions for non-malignant eso-bronchial fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Galie, N; Grigorie, V

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of surgical treatment for the patients with eso-respiratory fistulas. The following cases revealed the anesthesic and surgical difficulties, and also intraoperative and postoperative complications that can occur when the esophageal contents get into the respiratory system. In these situations, therapy must be adapted according to fistula’s topography and etiology, and also to patients’ biological conditions. PMID:20108499

  9. Earthquake in Antofagasta - Eso's Solidarity with the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    The Antofagasta Earthquake of last Sunday, July 30, 1:15 hours, violently shook Cerro Paranal, the site where ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is building the VLT, the world's largest optical telescope. The quake's intensity in Paranal was estimated at grade 8 on the Richter scale. Fortunately no casualties or victims occurred at the site. Studies are under way to assess possible displacements of the concrete and steel structures of the telescope units. The contractor for the construction of the telescope enclosure structures has reported damages which are not yet quantified. The filled-in area on the South East side of the Telescope Platform shows large settlement cracks and considerable damages have been reported inside the Base Camps. In these difficult moments, ESO wants to express its solidarity with the local community and its authorities and has made 25 million Chilean pesos (US $66,000) available for the reconstruction of the Region. Addition on August 22, 1995: Fortunately, only minor damages were found at Paranal; they have been repaired in the meantime. For the most recent information, see ESO Press Photos 16-20/95, issued on August 22,1995.

  10. Reaching New Heights in Astronomy - ESO Long Term Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw, T.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive description of ESO in the current global astronomical context, and its plans for the next decade and beyond, are presented. This survey covers all aspects of the Organisation, including the optical-infrared programme at the La Silla Paranal Observatory, the submillimetre facilities ALMA and APEX, the construction of the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope and the science operation of these facilities. An extension of the current optical/infrared/submillimetre facilities into multi-messenger astronomy has been made with the decision to host the southern Cherenkov Telescope Array at Paranal. The structure of the Organisation is presented and the further development of the staff is described within the scope of the long-range financial planning. The role of Chile is highlighted and expansion of the number of Member States beyond the current 15 is discussed. The strengths of the ESO model, together with challenges as well as possible new opportunities and initiatives, are examined and a strategy for the future of ESO is outlined.

  11. First Giant Mirror for the ESO VLT Ready at REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    The REOSC Contract In 1989, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the European Organisation for Astronomy, awarded to REOSC, a subsidiary of the SFIM Group and located in Saint Pierre du Perray (France), a comprehensive contract for the polishing of four 8.2-metre diameter mirrors for the unit telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) project. These mirrors are the largest ever manufactured and polished. This contract comprises not only the polishing and high-precision optical testing of each giant mirror, but also the safe condition of transportation of the blanks which were manufactured by Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). In order to fulfill the contract, REOSC conceived, built and equipped a novel, high-tech workshop which would allow to polish and test the mirrors, each of which has a surface area of more than 50 square metres. First 8.2-Metre Mirror is Ready and within Specifications The REOSC polishing facility for giant mirrors was built in Saint Pierre du Perray, just south of Paris. It is equipped with two machines: one for grinding and the other for polishing the mirrors, and both with 150-actuator systems that support the thin and flexible mirrors. All equipment is computer controlled. State-of-the-art interferometers probe the accuracy of the mirror surface as the polishing proceeds; they are installed at the top level of the facility in a 30-metre high tower, at the centre of the mirror's radius of curvature. The success of the work at REOSC is now evident by the fact that careful measurements of the first mirror earlier this month have shown that the final optical surface is correct to within 0.00005 millimetres. For illustration, this corresponds to an accuracy of only 1 millimetre deviation over a surface with a diameter of 165 kilometres (equivalent to the entire Paris area)! ESO Receives the First VLT Mirror After having been carefully placed in a special transport box designed by REOSC, the first mirror blank, weighing 23.5 tons and

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: chemical signatures of rocky accretion in a young solar-type star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, L.; Palla, F.; Randich, S.; Sacco, G.; Jeffries, R.; Magrini, L.; Franciosini, E.; Meyer, M. R.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Gilmore, G.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Costado, M. T.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that newly formed planetary systems undergo processes of orbital reconfiguration and planetary migration. As a result, planets or protoplanetary objects may accrete onto the central star, being fused and mixed into its external layers. If the accreted mass is sufficiently high and the star has a sufficiently thin convective envelope, such events may result in a modification of the chemical composition of the stellar photosphere in an observable way, enhancing it with elements that were abundant in the accreted mass. The recent Gaia-ESO Survey observations of the 10-20 Myr old Gamma Velorum cluster have enabled identifying a star that is significantly enriched in iron with respect to other cluster members. In this Letter we further investigate the abundance pattern of this star, showing that its abundance anomaly is not limited to iron, but is also present in the refractory elements, whose overabundances are correlated with the condensation temperature. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis of a recent accretion of rocky material. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).

  13. NY-ESO-1 expression and immunogenicity in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gati, Asma; Lajmi, Nesrine; Derouiche, Amine; Marrakchi, Raja; Chebil, Mohamed; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2011-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of men cancer-related death. Cancer immunotherapy has been investigated as a treatment which might be instituted at the point of detection of androgen-independent metastatic disease. to investigate the expression and humoral response against NYESO-1 in patients with prostate cancer (PC) and to analyze the relationship between expression of NY-ESO-1 and clinicopathological features. NY-ESO-1 mRNA in surgically resected PC and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were examined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The antibody response to NY-ESO-1 was examined by enzyme-linked Elisa assay using recombinant NYESO-1 protein. NY-ESO-1 mRNA was detected in 9 of 23 (39%) PC patients. Antibodies against NY-ESO-1 protein were detected in 12 of 23 (52%) sera of PC patients and in 5 of 9 (55%) of NY-ESO-1 expressing tumors. However, no mRNA copy or NY-ESO-1 antibodies were detected in all BPH patients tested. The present study has demonstrated the expression of NY-ESO-1mRNA in prostate Cancer patients and NY-ESO-1 antibody production. Our data suggest that NY-ESO-1 could be used as a tumor marker and constitute a good candidate for vaccine-based immunotherapy for hormonal resistant prostate cancer patients.

  14. NY-ESO-1 antibody as a novel tumour marker of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Wada, H; Kawada, J; Kawabata, R; Takahashi, T; Fujita, J; Hirao, T; Shibata, K; Makari, Y; Iijima, S; Nishikawa, H; Jungbluth, A A; Nakamura, Y; Kurokawa, Y; Yamasaki, M; Miyata, H; Nakajima, K; Takiguchi, S; Nakayama, E; Mori, M; Doki, Y

    2013-03-19

    NY-ESO-1 antibodies are specifically observed in patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing tumours. We analysed whether the NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response is a useful tumour marker of gastric cancer. Sera from 363 gastric cancer patients were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect NY-ESO-1 antibodies. Serial serum samples were obtained from 25 NY-ESO-1 antibody-positive patients, including 16 patients with curative resection and 9 patients who received chemotherapy alone. NY-ESO-1 antibodies were detected in 3.4% of stage I, 4.4% of stage II, 25.3% of stage III, and 20.0% of stage IV patients. The frequency of antibody positivity increased with disease progression. When the NY-ESO-1 antibody was used in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9 to detect gastric cancer, information gains of 11.2% in stages III and IV, and 5.8% in all patients were observed. The NY-ESO-1 immune response levels of the patients without recurrence fell below the cutoff level after surgery. Two of the patients with recurrence displayed incomplete decreases. The nine patients who received chemotherapy alone continued to display NY-ESO-1 immune responses. When combined with conventional tumour markers, the NY-ESO-1 humoral immune response could be a useful tumour marker for detecting advanced gastric cancer and inferring the post-treatment tumour load in seropositive patients.

  15. Vaccination with NY-ESO-1 overlapping peptides mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and montanide ISA-51 in patients with cancers expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Mizote, Yu; Eikawa, Shingo; Sato, Eiichi; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Udono, Heiichiro; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Oka, Mikio; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial of an NY-ESO-1 cancer vaccine using 4 synthetic overlapping long peptides (OLP; peptides #1, 79-108; #2, 100-129; #3, 121-150; and #4, 142-173) that include a highly immunogenic region of the NY-ESO-1 molecule. Nine patients were immunized with 0.25 mg each of three 30-mer and a 32-mer long NY-ESO-1 OLP mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 mL Montanide ISA-51. The primary endpoints of this study were safety and NY-ESO-1 immune responses. Five to 18 injections of the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine were well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection site reaction (grade 1 and 2). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. An NY-ESO-1-specific humoral immune response was observed in all patients and an antibody against peptide #3 (121-150) was detected firstly and strongly after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in these patients and their epitopes were identified. Using a multifunctional cytokine assay, the number of single or double cytokine-producing cells was increased in NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after vaccination. Multiple cytokine-producing cells were observed in PD-1 (-) and PD-1 (+) CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 was well tolerated and elicited NY-ESO-1-specific humoral and CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in immunized patients.

  16. High-velocity extended molecular outflow in the star-formation dominated luminous infrared galaxy ESO 320-G030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Colina, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Cazzoli, S.; Emonts, B.; Piqueras López, J.; Planesas, P.; Storchi Bergmann, T.; Usero, A.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze new high spatial resolution (~60 pc) ALMA CO(2-1) observations of the isolated luminous infrared galaxy ESO 320-G030 (d = 48 Mpc) in combination with ancillary Hubble Space Telescope optical and near infrared (IR) imaging, as well as VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy. We detect a high-velocity (~450 km s-1) spatially resolved (size~2.5 kpc; dynamical time ~3 Myr) massive (~107 M⊙; Ṁ ~ 2-8 M⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow that has originated in the central ~250 pc. We observe a clumpy structure in the outflowing cold molecular gas with clump sizes between 60 and 150 pc and masses between 105.5 and 106.4 M⊙. The mass of the clumps decreases with increasing distance, while the velocity is approximately constant. Therefore, both the momentum and kinetic energy of the clumps decrease outwards. In the innermost (~100 pc) part of the outflow, we measure a hot-to-cold molecular gas ratio of 7 × 10-5, which is similar to that measured in other resolved molecular outflows. We do not find evidence of an ionized phase in this outflow. The nuclear IR and radio properties are compatible with strong and highly obscured star-formation (Ak ~ 4.6 mag; star formation rate ~ 15 M⊙ yr-1). We do not find any evidence for the presence of an active galactic nucleus. We estimate that supernova explosions in the nuclear starburst (νSN ~ 0.2 yr-1) can power the observed molecular outflow. The kinetic energy and radial momentum of the cold molecular phase of the outflow correspond to about 2% and 20%, respectively, of the supernovae output. The cold molecular outflow velocity is lower than the escape velocity, so the gas will likely return to the galaxy disk. The mass loading factor is ~0.1-0.5, so the negative feedback owing to this star-formation-powered molecular outflow is probably limited. The reduced images and datacubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  17. Plans for a fast image recording system at ESO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosboel, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A 256 diode-array will be installed as detector on the ESO OPTRONICS S-3000 measuring machine in order to increase the acquisition rate. A high intensity LED will be used as light source in a pulse mode. The data will be stored on a random access mass storage device as density values for later education. The scanning time for a 30 cm x 30 cm plate with a step size of 10 micron will be less than 10 hours while the dynamic range of the data is expected to be 2.5 density units with an offset of at least 1 unit.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Acker+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Stenholm, B.; Tylenda, R.; Marcout, J.; Schohn, C.

    1994-11-01

    The electronic version of the catalogue referenced above includes 1143 true and probable planetary nebulae (Table 1 of publication); 347 objects which status is still unclear were classified among the "possible" planetary nebulae (file pospn, Table 2 of publication); and 330 objects have been rejected (file notpn, Table 3 of publication). The designation system of the planetary nebulae of this catalogue follows the recommendations of IAU Commission 5 (Astronomical Nomenclature) with the structure: PN Glll.l+bb.b where PN means "Planetary Nebula", G stands for "Galactic Coordinates", and lll.l+bb.b stand for the galactic longitude and latitude respectively, truncated to one decimal place. The designations following this system appear in the columns labelled "PNG" in the tables described below, where the "PN G" prefix has been stripped. Data concerning the 1143 true and probable planetary nebulae (part II of the publication) have been grouped in a set of related tables described below, all sorted by the "PNG" column. Note that, unlike the printed volume, only the bibliographic references corresponding to data listed in the tables are provided here, in the "refs.dat" file. Copies of the complete catalogue, including the Finding Charts (Part I) can still be ordered at the ESO Information Service, Karl-Schwarzschildstr. 2, D-85748