Science.gov

Sample records for public health threats

  1. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  2. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past few years. Recent events in Iraq, Japan, and Russia cast an ominous shadow. Two candidate agents are of special concern--smallpox and anthrax. The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. Efforts in the United States to deal with possible incidents involving bioweapons in the civilian sector have only recently begun and have made only limited progress. Only with substantial additional resources at the federal, state, and local levels can a credible and meaningful response be mounted. For longer-term solutions, the medical community must educate both the public and policy makers about bioterrorism and build a global consensus condemning its use. PMID:9716981

  3. Zika virus: A public health threat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shashi; Tandel, Kundan; Dash, Paban K; Parida, Manmohan

    2017-10-01

    The resurgence of Zika virus as public health emergency of an international concern with increased incidence of microcephaly has drawn attention of scientific community for its detailed understanding with regard to virus evolution, epidemiology, geographical spread, pathogenesis, etc. The scope of the present review is to discuss the detailed updated information in respect of Zika virus evolution since its inception. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Soil: A Public Health Threat or Savior

    SciTech Connect

    IL Pepper; CP Gerba; DT Newby; CW Rice

    2009-05-01

    Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet due to complex soil architecture and billions of soil microbes with extreme biotic diversity. Soil is potentially a source of human pathogens, which can be defined as geo-indigenous, geo-transportable, or geotreatable. Such pathogens cumulatively can and do result in multiple human fatalities annually. A striking example is Helminths, with current infections worldwide estimated to be around two billion. However, soil can also be a source of antibiotics and other natural products that enhance human health. Soilborne antibiotics are used to treat human infections, but can also result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Natural products isolated from soil resulted in 60% of new cancer drugs between the period 1983–1994. Soils are also crucial to human health through their impact on human nutrition. Finally, from a global perspective, soils are vital to the future well-being of nations through their impact on climate change and global warming. A critical review of soil with respect to public health leads to the conclusion that overall soil is a public health savior. The value of soil using a systems approach is estimated to be $20 trillion, and is by far the most valuable ecosystem in the world.

  5. CHIKUNGUNYA - A SERIOUS THREAT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Hrnjaković Cvjetković, Ivana B; Cvjetković, Dejan; Patić, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Nataša; Stefan Mikić, Sandra; Milošević, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is a contagious disease caused by Chikungunya virus, an arbovirus from the Togaviridae family. This infection is mostly spread by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes, especially Aedes albopiclus, which have spread from Asia to America and Europe including some countries surrounding Serbia. EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES: The outbreak of epidemics has been reported in Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Indonesia, West Africa region (from Senegal to Cameroon), Congo, Nigeria, Angola, Uganda, Guinea, Malawi, Central African Republic, Burundi, South Africa and India. At the beginning of the 21st century, large outbreaks were recorded on the island of Réunion. During 2006, 1.400.000 cases of chikungunya infection were recorded in India. Local transmission of infection in continental Europe was reported from Northeast Italy (254 suspected and 78 laboratory confirmed cases in Emilia-Romagna region) and France (two cases in 2010). From December 2013 to June 2014, 5.294 confirmed cases and more than 180.000 suspected cases of chikungunya were reported in the Caribbean. The disease presents suddenly with fever, rush and arthralgia. In general, chikungunya is a mild self - limited disease. Less often, it may be presented with signs of meningoencephalitis or fulminant hepatitis, sometimes with fatal outcome. Fast developing international traffic and booming tourism as well as the vector spreading from its homeland make chikungunya a real threat to our country.

  6. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  7. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Cáceres, Sigfrido

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This review is guided by three questions: What is canine rabies? Why is it a looming threat to public health? Why should we care about canine rabies being a public health threat? It seeks to answer these questions and notes that canine rabies is viral zoonosis with dogs being the major vectors. The disease is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. We should care about this evolving situation because, in general, rabies is a neglected disease for which there are vaccines, preventive measures, post-exposure prophylaxis, and control protocols. Abstract Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:26486619

  8. Defining the public health threat of food fraud.

    PubMed

    Spink, John; Moyer, Douglas C

    2011-01-01

    Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food risk that is gaining recognition and concern. Regardless of the cause of the food risk, adulteration of food is both an industry and a government responsibility. Food safety, food fraud, and food defense incidents can create adulteration of food with public health threats. Food fraud is an intentional act for economic gain, whereas a food safety incident is an unintentional act with unintentional harm, and a food defense incident is an intentional act with intentional harm. Economically motivated adulteration may be just that-economically motivated-but the food-related public health risks are often more risky than traditional food safety threats because the contaminants are unconventional. Current intervention systems are not designed to look for a near infinite number of potential contaminants. The authors developed the core concepts reported here following comprehensive research of articles and reports, expert elicitation, and an extensive peer review. The intent of this research paper is to provide a base reference document for defining food fraud-it focuses specifically on the public health threat-and to facilitate a shift in focus from intervention to prevention. This will subsequently provide a framework for future quantitative or innovative research. The fraud opportunity is deconstructed using the criminology and behavioral science applications of the crime triangle and the chemistry of the crime. The research provides a food risk matrix and identifies food fraud incident types. This project provides a starting point for future food science, food safety, and food defense research. Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food protection threat that has not been defined or holistically addressed. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, led to the development of food defense as an autonomous area of

  9. Antimicrobial resistance: A global emerging threat to public health systems.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Maurizio; Ranucci, Elena; Romagnoli, Paola; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-09-02

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine have accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This article presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link between food producing-animals and humans and on the legal framework and policies currently implemented at the EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strengthening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena; and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around a holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.

  10. Invasive Lionfish (Pterosis volitans) Pose Public Health Threats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity. Lionfish pose several public health threats. New strategies to control the lionfish population explosion in coastal waters and offshore fisheries are needed now to ensure seafood safety and public health. The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, is native to the reefs of the western Indian and Pacific Oceans (Figure 1). Brightly colored with red, white, and black stripes and adorned with feathery fins, the lionfish is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins (Figure 2). Lionfish were introduced into the western North Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s after some specimens were discarded by dissatisfied amateur aquarists and others escaped from hurricane-flooded public aquariums.1 Since lionfish are voracious carnivores, have few natural predators, and reproduce prolifically, they have overpopulated and dispersed widely from Cape Hatteras to Florida, throughout the Caribbean Sea, and into the Gulf of Mexico.1 The population density of lionfish in its new, invaded territory now exceeds that of its native habitat.1 As a result, campaigns to control lionfish populations were launched in Florida and the Caribbean. Lionfish now pose several public

  11. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Arūne; Luksiene, Zivile; Zagminas, Kestutis; Surkiene, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism is one of the main public health categorical domains. According to sociological analytics, in postmodern society terrorism is one of the real threats of the 21st century. While rare, the use of biological weapons has a long history. Recently, anthrax has been evaluated as one of the most dangerous biological weapons. Naturally occurring anthrax in humans is a disease acquired from contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Usually anthrax infection occurs in humans by three major routes: inhalational, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. Inhalational anthrax is expected to account for most serious morbidity and most mortality. The clinical presentation of inhalation anthrax has been described as a two-stage illness. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola minor. Smallpox spreads from person to person primarily by droplet nuclei or aerosols expelled from the oropharynx of infected persons and by direct contact. In the event of limited outbreak with few cases, patients should be admitted to the hospital and confined to rooms that are under negative pressure and equipped with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. In larger outbreaks, home isolation and care should be the objective for most patients. Progress in detection, suitable vaccines, postexposure prophylaxis, infection control, and decontamination might be serious tools in fight against the most powerful biological weapon. To assure that the public health and healthcare system can respond to emergencies, the government should direct resources to strengthen the emergency-response system, create medication stockpiles, and improve the public health infrastructure.

  12. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review.

    PubMed

    Chandy, S; Abraham, S; Sridharan, G

    2008-11-01

    The emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. The hantavirus species causing HFRS include Hantaan virus,Seoul virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus while Sin Nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of HCPS in the Four Corners Region of the US. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine,feces and saliva of infected rodents. Rodents are the natural hosts of these viruses and develop persistent infection. Human to human infections are rare and the evolution of the virus depends largely on that of the rodent host. The first hantavirus isolate to be cultured, Thottapalayam virus,is the only indigenous isolate from India,isolated from an insectivore in 1964 in Vellore, South India. Research on hantaviruses in India has been slow but steady since 2005. Serological investigation of patients with pyrexic illness revealed presence of anti-hantavirus IgM antibodies in 14.7% of them. The seropositivity of hantavirus infections in the general population is about 4% and people who live and work in close proximity with rodents have a greater risk of acquiring hantavirus infections. Molecular and serological evidence of hantavirus infections in rodents and man has also been documented in this country. The present review on hantaviruses is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system.

  13. Tetanus: A Potential Public Health Threat in Times of Disaster.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Paige; Teisch, Laura; Allen, Casey J; Ruiz, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    for trauma and critical patients to become familiar with the protocols for treatment and immunization of patients that have tetanus-prone wounds, as well as recognize the potential for outbreaks in the settings of major natural disasters. Finkelstein P , Teisch L , Allen CJ , Ruiz G . Tetanus: a potential public health threat in times of disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):339-342.

  14. Community Response to a Public Health Threat-VEE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, John L.; Vuturo, Anthony F.

    1975-01-01

    After identifying the mosquito as the Venezuelan equine encephalitis vector, health officials worked with the community to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. By educating the public first, cooperation was received in opening drainage areas and stocking water collection areas with mosquito eating fish to interrupt the host-vector-recipient cycle.…

  15. Community Response to a Public Health Threat-VEE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, John L.; Vuturo, Anthony F.

    1975-01-01

    After identifying the mosquito as the Venezuelan equine encephalitis vector, health officials worked with the community to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. By educating the public first, cooperation was received in opening drainage areas and stocking water collection areas with mosquito eating fish to interrupt the host-vector-recipient cycle.…

  16. Understanding radiologic and nuclear terrorism as public health threats: preparedness and response perspectives.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Daniel J; Parker, Cindy L; Blodgett, David W; Wierzba, Rachel K; Links, Jonathan M

    2006-10-01

    Terrorism dates back to antiquity, but our understanding of it as a public health threat is still in its nascent stages. Focusing on radiation and nuclear terrorism, we apply a public health perspective to explore relevant physical health and psychosocial impacts, the evolving national response infrastructure created to address terrorism, and the potential roles of nuclear medicine professionals in preparing for and responding to radiologic and nuclear terrorism.

  17. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a) As... in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited...

  18. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a) As... in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited...

  19. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a) As... in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited...

  20. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a) As... in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited...

  1. Representative threats for research in public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael M; Dato, Virginia; Dowling, John N; Allswede, Michael

    2003-06-01

    A large number of biological agents can cause natural or bioterroristic disease outbreaks and each can present in a bewildering number of ways (e.g., a few cases versus many cases, confined to a building versus widely disseminated). This 'problem space' is a challenge for designers of early warning systems for disease outbreaks and the sheer size of this space is a barrier to progress. This paper addresses this problem by deriving nine categories of threats that represent a parsimonious characterization of the problem space. A literature search also identified one or more example outbreaks for each of the nine categories. These outbreaks have occurred in recent times and could be used by researchers in need of actual outbreak data for investigations of the role of different types of surveillance data and algorithms in outbreak detection. The methodological contribution of this research is a Criterion Set of threats for analysis and evaluation of detection systems. This set characterizes the problem space in a tractable manner with less loss of generality than analyses based on one or two selected diseases, which is representative of current analyses.

  2. Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    1995-02-01

    Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring.

  3. Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, P R

    1995-01-01

    Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring. PMID:7856775

  4. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada’s invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations. PMID:25110377

  5. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  6. Chagas disease in the 21st Century: a public health success or an emerging threat?

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. PMID:24626257

  7. Chagas disease in the 21st century: a public health success or an emerging threat?

    PubMed

    Bonney, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. © K.M. Bonney, published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  8. EU alerting and reporting systems for potential chemical public health threats and hazards.

    PubMed

    Orford, R; Crabbe, H; Hague, C; Schaper, A; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    A number of European and international IT platforms are used to notify competent authorities of new potential chemical exposures. Recently the European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted new legislation that aims to improve the co-ordinated response to cross border health threats (Decision 1082/2013/EU). The Decision, inter alia, sets provisions on notification, ad hoc monitoring and coordination of public health measures following serious cross border threats to health from biological, chemical and environmental events as well as events that have an unknown origin. The legal instrument applies to all European Union Member States and is comparable to the International Health Regulations in its content, requirements and adoption of a multiple hazards approach. An inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary response to events with potentially dangerous cross border exposure pathways is often required. For example, European Poisons Centres may be aware of cases of toxic exposure to a product and, in parallel, trading standards may be aware of the same product due to a breach of consumer product standards. Whilst both cases would have been recorded for separate purposes in different alerting systems, they relate to the same exposure pathway; therefore a process for linking these records would allow a more robust approach to risk assessment and risk mitigation. The Decision seeks to reconcile this issue for serious threats by linking relevant platforms into one overarching higher level risk management IT platform called the Early Warning Response System (EWRS). This system will serve to link other sectors within the European Commission (EC) to public health (e.g. medicines), as well as other EU agencies and international bodies via co-notification features. Other European alert systems will be linked to EWRS to facilitate information sharing at both the assessment and management levels. This paper provides a timely overview of the main systems run by the EC

  9. Policy guidance on threats to legislative interventions in public health: a realist synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Legislation is one of the most powerful weapons for improving population health and is often used by policy and decision makers. Little research exists to guide them as to whether legislation is feasible and/or will succeed. We aimed to produce a coherent and transferable evidence based framework of threats to legislative interventions to assist the decision making process and to test this through the 'case study' of legislation to ban smoking in cars carrying children. Methods We conceptualised legislative interventions as a complex social interventions and so used the realist synthesis method to systematically review the literature for evidence. 99 articles were found through searches on five electronic databases (MEDLINE, HMIC, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Social Policy and Practice) and iterative purposive searching. Our initial searches sought any studies that contained information on smoking in vehicles carrying children. Throughout the review we continued where needed to search for additional studies of any type that would conceptually contribute to helping build and/or test our framework. Results Our framework identified a series of transferable threats to public health legislation. When applied to smoking bans in vehicles; problem misidentification; public support; opposition; and enforcement issues were particularly prominent threats. Our framework enabled us to understand and explain the nature of each threat and to infer the most likely outcome if such legislation were to be proposed in a jurisdiction where no such ban existed. Specifically, the micro-environment of a vehicle can contain highly hazardous levels of second hand smoke. Public support for such legislation is high amongst smokers and non-smokers and their underlying motivations were very similar - wanting to practice the Millian principle of protecting children from harm. Evidence indicated that the tobacco industry was not likely to oppose legislation and arguments that such a law would be

  10. Leptospira infections in freshwater fish in Morogoro Tanzania: a hidden public health threat.

    PubMed

    Mgode, Georgis F; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Katkweba, Abdul S; Thomas, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Leptospirosis caused by spirochete bacterium of genus Leptospira affects humans and animals worldwide. Rodents are major reservoirs of leptospires whereas wetland and aquatic migratory birds also carry and transmit leptospires. Leptospirosis studies in fish are lacking in African countries despite favourable environment and abundant reservoirs, which can spread leptospires into aquatic habitats and infect fish. The objectives of this study were to determine presence of Leptospira in fish; the prevalent Leptospira serovars and whether are related to serovars reported in animals; and to ascertain potential public health risk. Live tilapia, catfish and eel fish (n = 48) were caught in Mindu Dam in Morogoro Municipality in eastern Tanzania. Blood sample was collected using syringes and needles to obtain serum for serological detection of leptospirosis using gold standard microagglutination test utilizing local and reference Leptospira serovars Sokoine, Kenya, Pomona and Hebdomadis. Twenty-six fish (54.2%) were positive for serovar Kenya (29.2%) and Sokoine (25%). Leptospira prevalence was high in both catfish (58.3%) and tilapia fish (47.8%). Thus, different fish types are infected with Leptospira found in animals. Fish could be source of Leptospira infection to humans since tilapia and catfish are the common fish type widely consumed in Tanzania. Further study covering lakes, rivers and dams is required to better understand the prevalence of Leptospira in fish and actual public health threats.

  11. Communicating With the Public About Emerging Health Threats: Lessons From the Pre-Event Message Development Project

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Steven M.; Henderson, Neil; Glik, Deborah; Jupka, Keri; Middleton, Sarah; Henderson, Carson; Drury, Allison; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to better understand the challenges of communicating with the public about emerging health threats, particularly threats involving toxic chemicals, biological agents, and radioactive materials. Methods. At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we formed an interdisciplinary consortium of investigative teams from 4 schools of public health. Over 2 years, the investigative teams conducted 79 focus group interviews with 884 participants and individual cognitive response interviews with 129 respondents, for a total sample of 1013 individuals. The investigative teams systematically compared their results with other published research in public health, risk communication, and emergency preparedness. Results. We found limited public understanding of emerging biological, chemical, and radioactive materials threats and of the differences between them; demand for concrete, accurate, and consistent information about actions needed for protection of self and family; active information seeking from media, local authorities, and selected national sources; and areas in which current emergency messaging can be improved. Conclusions. The public will respond to a threat situation by seeking protective information and taking self-protective action, underlining the critical role of effective communication in public health emergencies. PMID:18382011

  12. Local Public Health System Response to the Tsunami Threat in Coastal California following the Tōhoku Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer C; Crawley, Adam W; Petrie, Michael; Yang, Jane E; Aragón, Tomás J

    2012-07-16

    Background On Friday March 11, 2011 a 9.0 magnitude earthquake triggered a tsunami off the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in thousands of lives lost and billions of dollars in damage around the Pacific Rim. The tsunami first reached the California coast on Friday, March 11th, causing more than $70 million in damage and at least one death. While the tsunami's impact on California pales in comparison to the destruction caused in Japan and other areas of the Pacific, the event tested emergency responders' ability to rapidly communicate and coordinate a response to a potential threat. Methods To evaluate the local public health system emergency response to the tsunami threat in California, we surveyed all local public health, emergency medical services (EMS), and emergency management agencies in coastal or floodplain counties about several domains related to the tsunami threat in California, including: (1) the extent to which their community was affected by the tsunami, (2) when and how they received notification of the event, (3) which public health response activities were carried out to address the tsunami threat in their community, and (4) which organizations contributed to the response. Public health activities were characterized using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Public Health Preparedness Capabilities (PHEP) framework. Findings The tsunami's impact on coastal communities in California ranged widely, both in terms of the economic consequences and the response activities. Based on estimates from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), ten jurisdictions in California reported tsunami-related damage, which ranged from $15,000 to $35 million. Respondents first became aware of the tsunami threat in California between the hours of 10:00pm Pacific Standard Time (PST) on Thursday March 10th and 2:00pm PST on Friday March 11th, a range of 16 hours, with notification occurring through both formal and informal channels. In

  13. A Threat- and Efficacy-Based Framework to Understand Confidence in Vaccines among the Public Health Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Daniel J.; Errett, Nicole A.; Rutkow, Lainie

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) is an established threat- and efficacy-based behavioral framework for understanding health behaviors in the face of uncertain risk. A growing body of research has applied this model to understand these behaviors among the public health workforce. In this manuscript, we aim to explore the application of this framework to the public health workforce, with a novel focus on their confidence in vaccines and perceptions of vaccine injury compensation mechanisms. We characterize specific connections between EPPM’s threat and efficacy dimensions and relevant vaccine policy frameworks and highlight how these connections can usefully inform training interventions for public health workers to enhance their confidence in these vaccine policy measures. PMID:26343959

  14. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  15. Inhalation of computer duster spray among adolescents: an emerging public health threat?

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2010-11-01

    Anecdotal reports and recent medical examiner and poison control center studies suggest that computer duster spray (CDS) inhalation is an emerging public health threat. However, there is a current dearth of empirical data on CDS use. Study aims were to examine the prevalence, frequency, correlates, and modalities of CDS use among a treatment sample of antisocial youth. A battery of standardized psychosocial instruments was administered via interview of 723 Missouri adolescents in residential care for antisocial behavior. Lifetime CDS use was prevalent (14.7%) in this young service population (97.7% of whom participated). CDS users were significantly more likely to report histories of perinatal injuries or illness, traumatic experiences, suicidality and physician-diagnosed mental illness, and evidenced higher levels of psychiatric symptoms, antisocial attitudes and behaviors, and polydrug use than CDS nonusers. CDS use was endemic in this treatment sample of adolescents and associated with a range of clinically significant comorbidities. Current findings describe an underrecognized and potentially dangerous form of substance misuse that has rarely been studied but that may be of growing importance.

  16. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework

    PubMed Central

    Gushulak, BD; Weekers, J; MacPherson, DW

    2010-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  17. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework.

    PubMed

    Gushulak, Bd; Weekers, J; Macpherson, Dw

    2009-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  18. A profession under threat? An exploratory case study of changes in Norwegian public health nursing.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Anne

    2007-06-01

    The first courses for public health nurses in Norway were held in the 1920s-1930s. In 1957, the Act regulating public health nursing was passed. Norwegian public health nurses have a primary role in promoting health and preventing illnesses. Their role has changed with a changing society. This article shows some of the challenges the nurses have faced. It focuses on collaboration, tasks, leadership and authority/status. The study's intentions are exploratory. It looks into how the nurses experience their changing role. A single case with an embedded design is the method chosen; the case is 'Changes in the role of the Norwegian public health nurse during the period 1984-2005'. Document analysis and interviews are sources of evidence. The findings show that public health nurses' visibility seems to be an important issue. There are some divergences between relevant literature on the nurses' professional status and the views of the nurses in the study. Several other public health professionals have lost tasks and formal positions of authority. The nurses interviewed still feel that they are a respected and trusted profession despite being less visible. A recent study among parents who frequent local clinics confirms their important role. Can the nurses' lack of visibility have undesired outcomes? A profession that is unassuming, not visible and that fights silent battles may have problems being heard when it tries to promote issues concerning family health. Further studies are indicated.

  19. The Public Health Threat of Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Onyemaechi, NOC; Ofoma, UR

    2016-01-01

    Public health experts worldwide concede that there is a global epidemic of road traffic accidents (RTA). Globally, RTA is the leading cause of injury-related deaths. In Nigeria, injuries and deaths resulting from RTA are on the rise and are Nigeria's third-leading cause of overall deaths, the leading cause of trauma-related deaths and the most common cause of disability. Do RTA constitute a public health problem in Nigeria? If so, is there a pragmatic approach to combat this problem? A systematic literature search using the advanced features of various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google, and directory of open access journals was carried out using the key words “ RTA, public health problem, government response, Nigeria.” Out of initial 850 articles retrieved from the search 15 articles that suited the study were included in this review. There is need to view RTA s as an issue of urgent national importance that needs urgent attention aimed at reducing the health, social, and economic impact. Policy makers at the various levels of government need to recognize this growing problem as a public health crisis and design appropriate policy responses that will back up with meticulous implementation. PMID:28480093

  20. Land application of organic residuals: Public health threat or environmental benefit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Waste residuals consist of manure and biosolids produced by concentrated animal feeding operations and municipal waste water treatment plants. All wastes need to be disposed of in a proper manner, protecting public and environmental health, but also in a sustainable fashion to ensure that no system...

  1. Chevron v Echazabal: public health issues raised by the "threat-to-self" defense to adverse employment actions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Mark; Cleaveland, Kimberlee A; Florencio, Patrik S

    2003-04-01

    In June of 2002, the US Supreme Court upheld a regulation that allows employers, under the Americans with Disabilities Act, to make disability-related employment decisions based on risks to an employee's own personal health or safety. Previous judicial decisions had allowed employers to make employment decisions based on the threat that a worker's medical condition posed to others but had not addressed the issue of risk posed to an employee's health by his or her own disability. The authors comment on the potential effects of the court's decision for occupational health practitioners charged with assessing the degree of risk and harm of a particular workplace environment and for public health efforts aimed at curbing workplace injury and sickness.

  2. Legal access to medications: a threat to Brazil's public health system?

    PubMed

    Chieffi, Ana Luiza; Barradas, Rita De Cassia Barata; Golbaum, Moisés

    2017-07-19

    lawyers and physicians in filing lawsuits. The judicialization of health in the State of São Paulo with the characteristics presented herein is a threat to the SUS.

  3. Sociocultural perspectives on threats, risks, and health

    Treesearch

    Patricia L. Winter; Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural perspectives on threats, risks, and health are explored in this chapter. The authors begin with a discussion of the linkages between well-being in the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and public health and well-being to set the context of socioecological resilience. This is followed by a summary of how trust and confidence influence the management of threats and...

  4. Use of media and public-domain Internet sources for detection and assessment of plant health threats

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carla S.; Nelson, Noele P.; Jahn, Gary C.; Niu, Tianchan; Hartley, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Event-based biosurveillance is a recognized approach to early warning and situational awareness of emerging health threats. In this study, we build upon previous human and animal health work to develop a new approach to plant pest and pathogen surveillance. We show that monitoring public domain electronic media for indications and warning of epidemics and associated social disruption can provide information about the emergence and progression of plant pest infestation or disease outbreak. The approach is illustrated using a case study, which describes a plant pest and pathogen epidemic in China and Vietnam from February 2006 to December 2007, and the role of ducks in contributing to zoonotic virus spread in birds and humans. This approach could be used as a complementary method to traditional plant pest and pathogen surveillance to aid global and national plant protection officials and political leaders in early detection and timely response to significant biological threats to plant health, economic vitality, and social stability. This study documents the inter-relatedness of health in human, animal, and plant populations and emphasizes the importance of plant health surveillance. PMID:24149031

  5. Use of media and public-domain Internet sources for detection and assessment of plant health threats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carla S; Nelson, Noele P; Jahn, Gary C; Niu, Tianchan; Hartley, David M

    2011-09-05

    Event-based biosurveillance is a recognized approach to early warning and situational awareness of emerging health threats. In this study, we build upon previous human and animal health work to develop a new approach to plant pest and pathogen surveillance. We show that monitoring public domain electronic media for indications and warning of epidemics and associated social disruption can provide information about the emergence and progression of plant pest infestation or disease outbreak. The approach is illustrated using a case study, which describes a plant pest and pathogen epidemic in China and Vietnam from February 2006 to December 2007, and the role of ducks in contributing to zoonotic virus spread in birds and humans. This approach could be used as a complementary method to traditional plant pest and pathogen surveillance to aid global and national plant protection officials and political leaders in early detection and timely response to significant biological threats to plant health, economic vitality, and social stability. This study documents the inter-relatedness of health in human, animal, and plant populations and emphasizes the importance of plant health surveillance.

  6. Climate Change is Likely to Worsen the Public Health Threat of Diarrheal Disease in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen A.; Carzolio, Marcos; Goodin, Douglas; Vance, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is an important health challenge, accounting for the majority of childhood deaths globally. Climate change is expected to increase the global burden of diarrheal disease but little is known regarding climate drivers, particularly in Africa. Using health data from Botswana spanning a 30-year period (1974–2003), we evaluated monthly reports of diarrheal disease among patients presenting to Botswana health facilities and compared this to climatic variables. Diarrheal case incidence presents with a bimodal cyclical pattern with peaks in March (ANOVA p < 0.001) and October (ANOVA p < 0.001) in the wet and dry season, respectively. There is a strong positive autocorrelation (p < 0.001) in the number of reported diarrhea cases at the one-month lag level. Climatic variables (rainfall, minimum temperature, and vapor pressure) predicted seasonal diarrheal with a one-month lag in variables (p < 0.001). Diarrheal case incidence was highest in the dry season after accounting for other variables, exhibiting on average a 20% increase over the yearly mean (p < 0.001). Our analysis suggests that forecasted climate change increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation may increase dry season diarrheal disease incidence with hot, dry conditions starting earlier and lasting longer. Diarrheal disease incidence in the wet season is likely to decline. Our results identify significant health-climate interactions, highlighting the need for an escalated public health focus on controlling diarrheal disease in Botswana. Study findings have application to other arid countries in Africa where diarrheal disease is a persistent public health problem. PMID:23531489

  7. Climate change is likely to worsen the public health threat of diarrheal disease in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Carzolio, Marcos; Goodin, Douglas; Vance, Eric

    2013-03-26

    Diarrheal disease is an important health challenge, accounting for the majority of childhood deaths globally. Climate change is expected to increase the global burden of diarrheal disease but little is known regarding climate drivers, particularly in Africa. Using health data from Botswana spanning a 30-year period (1974-2003), we evaluated monthly reports of diarrheal disease among patients presenting to Botswana health facilities and compared this to climatic variables. Diarrheal case incidence presents with a bimodal cyclical pattern with peaks in March (ANOVA p < 0.001) and October (ANOVA p < 0.001) in the wet and dry season, respectively. There is a strong positive autocorrelation (p < 0.001) in the number of reported diarrhea cases at the one-month lag level. Climatic variables (rainfall, minimum temperature, and vapor pressure) predicted seasonal diarrheal with a one-month lag in variables (p < 0.001). Diarrheal case incidence was highest in the dry season after accounting for other variables, exhibiting on average a 20% increase over the yearly mean (p < 0.001). Our analysis suggests that forecasted climate change increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation may increase dry season diarrheal disease incidence with hot, dry conditions starting earlier and lasting longer. Diarrheal disease incidence in the wet season is likely to decline. Our results identify significant health-climate interactions, highlighting the need for an escalated public health focus on controlling diarrheal disease in Botswana. Study findings have application to other arid countries in Africa where diarrheal disease is a persistent public health problem.

  8. Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, S; Rivers, E P

    2003-09-01

    Numerous reports have questioned the ability of United States emergency departments to handle the increasing demand for emergency services. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is widespread in US cities and has reportedly reached crisis proportions. The purpose of this review is to describe how ED overcrowding threatens patient safety and public health, and to explore the complex causes and potential solutions for the overcrowding crisis. A review of the literature from 1990 to 2002 identified by a search of the Medline database was performed. Additional sources were selected from the references of the articles identified. There were four key findings. (1) The ED is a vital component of America's health care "safety net". (2) Overcrowding in ED treatment areas threatens public health by compromising patient safety and jeopardising the reliability of the entire US emergency care system. (3) Although the causes of ED overcrowding are complex, the main cause is inadequate inpatient capacity for a patient population with an increasing severity of illness. (4) Potential solutions for ED overcrowding will require multidisciplinary system-wide support.

  9. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  10. Leptospira interrogans at the human-wildlife interface in northern Botswana: a newly identified public health threat.

    PubMed

    Jobbins, S E; Sanderson, C E; Alexander, K A

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. In northern Botswana, humans live in close proximity to a diversity of wildlife and peridomestic rodents and may be exposed to a variety of zoonotic pathogens. Little is known regarding the occurrence and epidemiology of L. interrogans in Africa despite the recognized global importance of this zoonotic disease and the threat it poses to public health. In Botswana, banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) live in close proximity to humans across protected and unprotected landscapes and may be a useful sentinel species for assessing the occurrence of zoonotic organisms, such as L. interrogans. We utilized PCR to screen banded mongoose kidneys for leptospiral DNA and identified 41.5% prevalence of renal carriage of L. interrogans (exact binomial 95% CI 27.7-56.7%, n = 41). Renal carriage was also detected in one Selous' mongoose (Paracynictis selousi). This is the first published confirmation of carriage of L. interrogans in either species. This is also the first report of L. interrogans occurrence in northern Botswana and the only report of this organism in a wildlife host in the country. Pathogenic Leptospira are usually transmitted indirectly to humans through soil or water contaminated with infected urine. Other avenues, such as direct contact between humans and wildlife, as well as consumption of mongooses and other wildlife as bushmeat, may pose additional exposure risk and must be considered in public health management of this newly identified zoonotic disease threat. There is a critical need to characterize host species involvement and pathogen transmission dynamics, including human-wildlife interactions that may increase human exposure potential and infection risk. We recommend that public health strategy be modified to include sensitization of medical practitioners to the presence of L. interrogans in the region, the potential for human infection, and implementation of clinical screening. This study

  11. Zoonotic protozoa in the marine environment: a threat to aquatic mammals and public health.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Appelbee, A; Measures, L; Cole, R A; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J; Miller, M; Conrad, P; Gardner, I; Kreuder, C; Mazet, J; Jessup, D; Dodd, E; Harris, M; Ames, J; Worcester, K; Paradies, D; Grigg, M; Fayer, R; Lewis, E J; Trout, J M; Xiao, L; Howard, D W; Palmer, R; Ludwig, K; Tyler, S S

    2004-10-28

    This collection of abstracts provides an account of four presentations at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)(held in New Orleans, LA, USA from 10–14 August 2003) in a symposium session on zoonotic protozoan parasites found in the marine environment and chaired by Ronald Fayer and David Lindsay.The focus was on three genera of parasites of veterinary and public health concern—Toxoplasma,Giardia, and Cryptosporidium with emphasis on their epidemiology in the marine environment.

  12. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sally J.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, particularly in the industrialized world, and highlight selected examples to provide a comprehensive view of their range and diversity. PMID:20031035

  13. Risk communication: climate change as a human-health threat, a survey of public perceptions in Malta.

    PubMed

    DeBono, Roberto; Vincenti, Karen; Calleja, Neville

    2012-02-01

    Scientific evidence shows that climate change is very likely the product of human behaviour and lifestyle. The effects of climate change on human health are diverse in nature and range from direct effects due to extreme weather events such as heat waves, floods and storms, to indirect effects such as those caused by water and food shortages. A telephone survey was conducted between January and February 2009, on a stratified representative random sample of the Maltese population over the age of 18 years (N = 310,819). Five hundred and forty-three individuals successfully participated in the survey giving a response rate of 92.7%. The respondent sample was very similar to the target population by gender (P = 0.977), age (P = 0.767) and district (P = 0.812). The results of the study demonstrate a very strong relationship between the perception of climate change as a threat to health and well-being, support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to implement measures to address climate change. The findings of this study show that the perception that climate change may claim lives, cause disease, reduce the standard of living and worsen water shortages, may be the strongest driver behind support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to act. It is recommended that, in order to gain more public support, climate change campaigns and risk communication strategies should frame climate change as a threat to human health and general well-being.

  14. The rising prevalence of severe poverty in America: a growing threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steven H; Johnson, Robert E; Geiger, H Jack

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. poverty rate has increased since 2000, but the depth of poverty experienced by Americans has been inadequately studied. Of particular concern is whether severe poverty is increasing, a trend that would carry important public health implications. Income-to-poverty (I/P) ratios and income deficits/surpluses were examined for the 1990-2004 period. The severely poor, moderately poor, and near-poor were classified as those with I/P ratios of less than 0.5, 0.5 to 1.0, or 1.0 to 2.0, respectively. Income deficits/surpluses were classified relative to the poverty threshold as Tier I (deficit Dollars 8000 or more), Tier II (deficit or surplus less than Dollars 8000), or Tier III (surplus more than Dollars 8000). Odds ratios for severe poverty and Tier I were also calculated. Severe poverty increased between 2000 and 2004-those with I/P ratios of less than 0.5 grew by 20%, and Tier I grew by 45% to 55%-while the prevalence of higher levels of income diminished. The population in severe poverty was over-represented by children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, confidence interval [CI] = 1.63-1.75), African Americans (OR = 2.84, CI = 2.74-2.95), and Hispanics (OR = 1.64, CI = 1.58-1.71). From 2000 to 2004, the prevalence of severe poverty increased sharply while the proportion of Americans in higher income tiers diminished. These trends have broad societal implications. Likely health consequences include a higher prevalence of chronic illnesses, more frequent and severe disease complications, and increased demands and costs for healthcare services. Adverse effects on children warrant special concern. The growth in the number of Americans living in poverty calls for the re-examination of policies enacted in recent years to foster economic progress.

  15. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-01-01

    Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957

  16. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Zoonoses with wildlife reservoirs: a threat to public health and the economy].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Carlos; Cabello C, Felipe

    2008-03-01

    The world is experiencing an increase in emergent infections as a result of anthropogenic changes of the biosphere and globalization. Global warming unrestricted exploitation of natural resources such as forests and fisheries, urbanization, human migration, and industrialization of animal husbandry cause environmental destruction and fragmentation. These changes of the biosphere favor local emergence of zoonoses from their natural biotopes and their interaction with domestic animals and human populations. Subsequently, international commerce, human and animal migration and travel, favor the dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Chile is undergoing an important degradation of many wild-life biotopes, affecting their diversity and contributing to the dissemination of zoonoses such as Chagas disease, Hantavirus, rabies, fish tapeworms, and marine vibriosis. Moreover, agents of many other zoonoses such as inverted exclamation markeptospirosis, hydatidosis, salmonellosis, rabies, brucellosis and anthrax have been detected in different wild-life environments in the country. The intensification and accelerations of the anthropogenic deterioration of the biosphere in Chile, as results of the unrestricted utilization of natural resources and global climate change, suggests that emergence of new zoonoses in the near future will lead to important public health and economic problems. Forestalling of these problems will require active epidemiológica! surveillance of wild and domestic animals with a wide range of modern molecular and ancillary epidemiológica! tools. This also demands government and private sector (i.e., animal husbandry) intervention, funding and the collaboration of professionals in human and veterinary medicine with those in the environmental sciences including ecology, climatology and oceanography.

  18. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The flaviviruses Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex sp), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses. PMID:25287260

  19. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex spp.), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses.

  20. [The threat of antibiotic resistance: origin, impact and public health perspectives].

    PubMed

    Struelens, M J; Denis, O; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Hallin, M

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is as old as the living planet, i.e. over 3 billion years ago when bacterial life emerged together with its biological warfare weapons, the antibiotics. Bacteria can readily develop a diverse array of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including selection of mutants which produce modified low-affinity drug targets, exhibit reduced drug permeability or increased drug efflux. Another pathway is through acquisition of mobile genetic determinants of drug inactivating enzymes, target protection or bypass mechanisms. Antibiotic resistance has accelerated and spread across the community of human and animal bacteria following massive use of antibiotics for over half-a century in human and veterinary medicine and agriculture. Today, the increasing prevalence of resistance among many bacterial pathogens is no longer counter-balanced by the launching of innovative and active antibiotics. This imbalanced "arms race" undermines the escalating use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and increases the risk of therapeutic failure, drug side effets and excess costs of care. The accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes and their epidemic dissemination is fuelled by the selective pressure associated with excess and inappropriate use of antibiotics combined with insufficient infection prevention and control measures. Confronting this threat effectively requires new strategies to be implemented globally, nationally, and locally across all healthcare and agricultural sectors.

  1. Is transfusion-transmitted dengue fever a potential public health threat?

    PubMed Central

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arboviruses due to single-stranded enveloped ribonucleic acid viruses, named dengue viruses (DENV), that include four serotypes and are mainly transmitted via the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (A. aegypti and A. albopictus). The distribution of the disease was historically limited to intertropical areas; however, during the last thirty years, the perimeter of the disease extended considerably and temperate areas are now at risk of outbreaks. The present global burden of dengue is considerable: 2.5 billion people over more than 100 countries are concerned; 50 to 100 million infections occur every year, with a number of fatal cases of approximately 20000. Although frequently asymptomatic or limited to a mild fever, dengue is responsible for severe cases mainly consecutive to the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications that can lead to shock and death, notably in children from poor-resource settings. The place of DENV as a transfusion-transmitted pathogen has been recognized only in 2008. At the present time, only five cases of transfusion-transmitted dengue, including one case of dengue hemorrhagic fever, have been formerly documented. This review provides a general overview of dengue, its viruses and their vectors. It replaces the disease in the context of other viral diseases transmitted by arthropods. It discusses the threat of dengue on the supply of blood products in endemic and non endemic areas. Finally, it describes the specific and non specific measures available for improving the security of blood products with regards to this emerging risk. Interestingly, in 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks placed DENV in the highest category of emerging infectious agents for their potential impact on transfusion recipient safety for the next years in North America. PMID:25964876

  2. Is transfusion-transmitted dengue fever a potential public health threat?

    PubMed

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-05-12

    Dengue is an arboviruses due to single-stranded enveloped ribonucleic acid viruses, named dengue viruses (DENV), that include four serotypes and are mainly transmitted via the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (A. aegypti and A. albopictus). The distribution of the disease was historically limited to intertropical areas; however, during the last thirty years, the perimeter of the disease extended considerably and temperate areas are now at risk of outbreaks. The present global burden of dengue is considerable: 2.5 billion people over more than 100 countries are concerned; 50 to 100 million infections occur every year, with a number of fatal cases of approximately 20000. Although frequently asymptomatic or limited to a mild fever, dengue is responsible for severe cases mainly consecutive to the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications that can lead to shock and death, notably in children from poor-resource settings. The place of DENV as a transfusion-transmitted pathogen has been recognized only in 2008. At the present time, only five cases of transfusion-transmitted dengue, including one case of dengue hemorrhagic fever, have been formerly documented. This review provides a general overview of dengue, its viruses and their vectors. It replaces the disease in the context of other viral diseases transmitted by arthropods. It discusses the threat of dengue on the supply of blood products in endemic and non endemic areas. Finally, it describes the specific and non specific measures available for improving the security of blood products with regards to this emerging risk. Interestingly, in 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks placed DENV in the highest category of emerging infectious agents for their potential impact on transfusion recipient safety for the next years in North America.

  3. The threat of communicable diseases following natural disasters: a public health response.

    PubMed

    Waring, Stephen C; Brown, Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as the recent Indian Ocean tsunami, can have a rapid onset, broad impact, and produce many factors that work synergistically to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by communicable diseases. The primary goal of emergency health interventions is to prevent epidemics and improve deteriorating health conditions among the population affected. Morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases can be minimized providing these intervention efforts are implemented in a timely and coordinated fashion. This article presents a review of some of the major issues relevant to preparedness and response for natural disasters.

  4. Human skin wounds: a major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy.

    PubMed

    Sen, Chandan K; Gordillo, Gayle M; Roy, Sashwati; Kirsner, Robert; Lambert, Lynn; Hunt, Thomas K; Gottrup, Finn; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide. The annual wound care products market is projected to reach $15.3 billion by 2010. Chronic wounds are rarely seen in individuals who are otherwise healthy. In fact, chronic wound patients frequently suffer from "highly branded" diseases such as diabetes and obesity. This seems to have overshadowed the significance of wounds per se as a major health problem. For example, NIH's Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT; http://report.nih.gov/), directed at providing access to estimates of funding for various disease conditions does list several rare diseases but does not list wounds. Forty million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 2000, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries. The need for post-surgical wound care is sharply on the rise. Emergency wound care in an acute setting has major significance not only in a war setting but also in homeland preparedness against natural disasters as well as against terrorism attacks. An additional burden of wound healing is the problem of skin scarring, a $12 billion annual market. The immense economic and social impact of wounds in our society calls for allocation of a higher level of attention and resources to understand biological mechanisms underlying cutaneous wound complications.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Brucella melitensis Biovar 3 from Vaccinated Small Ruminants: A Public Health Threat in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Dreshaj, S; Robaj, A; Sylejmani, D; Ramadani, N; Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, a human brucellosis case with severe clinical symptoms was reported at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Prishtina, Kosovo. A trace-back investigation was conducted to find the source of human infection. A total of 49 blood samples and 15 corresponding milk samples from sheep and goats raised on the patient's farm were taken for serological and molecular analysis. Serology using RBT and CFT revealed 11 positive animals. Twelve milk samples were PCR positive. A Brucella strain isolated from a goat's milk sample was classified as Brucella melitensis biovar 3, indicating the first ever isolation and report in Kosovo. The use of the Bruce-ladder PCR provided differentiation between the field strain and the vaccine strain. Hence, the accidental transmission of the vaccine strain Rev 1 that was previously used for the vaccination of the farm animals could be excluded. The findings of this study show that brucellosis is still a public health threat in Kosovo despite control measures.

  6. Characteristics of the emerging chicken-origin highly pathogenic H7N9 viruses: a new threat to public health and poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Zhujun; He, Lihong; Gao, Zhao; Li, Juan; Gu, Min; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-09-20

    Two H7N9 chicken isolates showed amino acids insertion and mutation in the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin similar as those from the reported human cases. Phylogenetically, they formed a separate cluster. Animal infection test confirmed their high pathogenicity in chickens and varied virulence in mice, indicating the new threat to public health and poultry industry. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The debate on climate change and health in the context of ecological public health: a necessary corrective to Costello et al.'s 'biggest global health threat', or co-opted apologists for the neoliberal hegemony?

    PubMed

    Goodman, B

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed to global health by climate change has been widely discussed internationally. The United Kingdom public health community seem to have accepted this as fact and have called for urgent action on climate change, often through state interventionist mitigation strategies and the adoption of a risk discourse. Putting aside the climate change deniers' arguments, there are critics of this position who seem to accept climate change as a fact but argue that the market and/or economic development should address the issue. Their view is that carbon reduction (mitigation) is a distraction, may be costly and is ineffective. They argue that what is required is more economic development and progress even if that means a warmer world. Both positions however accept the fact of growth based capitalism and thus fail to critique neoliberal market driven capitalism or posit an alternative political economy that eschews growth. Ecological public health, however, appears to be a way forward in addressing not only social determinants of health but also the political and ecological determinants. This might allow us to consider not just public health but also planetary health and health threats that arise from growth based capitalism. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modernizing public health law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli throughout Europe highlights the need for modern and flexible public health laws to identify, control and treat infections and contamination that give significant concern for the health of the population. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah outline the amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 that adopt an all-hazards approach to threats to public health.

  9. Ethical models underpinning responses to threats to public health: a comparison of approaches to communicable disease control in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Sabina; Moran, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Shickle, Darren

    2008-11-01

    Increases in international travel and migratory flows have enabled infectious diseases to emerge and spread more rapidly than ever before. Hence, it is increasingly easy for local infectious diseases to become global infectious diseases (GIDs). National governments must be able to react quickly and effectively to GIDs, whether naturally occurring or intentionally instigated by bioterrorism. According to the World Health Organisation, global partnerships are necessary to gather the most up-to-date information and to mobilize resources to tackle GIDs when necessary. Communicable disease control also depends upon national public health laws and policies. The containment of an infectious disease typically involves detection, notification, quarantine and isolation of actual or suspected cases; the protection and monitoring of those not infected; and possibly even treatment. Some measures are clearly contentious and raise conflicts between individual and societal interests. In Europe national policies against infectious diseases are very heterogeneous. Some countries have a more communitarian approach to public health ethics, in which the interests of individual and society are more closely intertwined and interdependent, while others take a more liberal approach and give priority to individual freedoms in communicable disease control. This paper provides an overview of the different policies around communicable disease control that exist across a select number of countries across Europe. It then proposes ethical arguments to be considered in the making of public health laws, mostly concerning their effectiveness for public health protection.

  10. Genomic analysis of diversity, population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, an urgent threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Holt, Kathryn E; Wertheim, Heiman; Zadoks, Ruth N; Baker, Stephen; Whitehouse, Chris A; Dance, David; Jenney, Adam; Connor, Thomas R; Hsu, Li Yang; Severin, Juliëtte; Brisse, Sylvain; Cao, Hanwei; Wilksch, Jonathan; Gorrie, Claire; Schultz, Mark B; Edwards, David J; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Dao, Trinh Tuyet; Mensink, Martijn; Minh, Vien Le; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Schultsz, Constance; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Newton, Paul N; Moore, Catrin E; Strugnell, Richard A; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2015-07-07

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is now recognized as an urgent threat to human health because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks and hypervirulent strains associated with severe community-acquired infections. K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in the environment and can colonize and infect both plants and animals. However, little is known about the population structure of K. pneumoniae, so it is difficult to recognize or understand the emergence of clinically important clones within this highly genetically diverse species. Here we present a detailed genomic framework for K. pneumoniae based on whole-genome sequencing of more than 300 human and animal isolates spanning four continents. Our data provide genome-wide support for the splitting of K. pneumoniae into three distinct species, KpI (K. pneumoniae), KpII (K. quasipneumoniae), and KpIII (K. variicola). Further, for K. pneumoniae (KpI), the entity most frequently associated with human infection, we show the existence of >150 deeply branching lineages including numerous multidrug-resistant or hypervirulent clones. We show K. pneumoniae has a large accessory genome approaching 30,000 protein-coding genes, including a number of virulence functions that are significantly associated with invasive community-acquired disease in humans. In our dataset, antimicrobial resistance genes were common among human carriage isolates and hospital-acquired infections, which generally lacked the genes associated with invasive disease. The convergence of virulence and resistance genes potentially could lead to the emergence of untreatable invasive K. pneumoniae infections; our data provide the whole-genome framework against which to track the emergence of such threats.

  11. Climate change--the greatest public health threat of our time: seeing the wood, not just the trees.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    If asked to describe the key public health challenges of our time many practitioners might well cite issues such as health inequalities, obesity, smoking and poverty. However, with the greatest of respect to those agendas, they are not, in my view, the greatest priority at present. If we cannot learn to live within sustainable limits and damage beyond repair the essential life support systems that we depend on, they will fail catastrophically with horrific consequences for humanity. All credible, reliable scientific evidence suggests that without profound and significant change that is exactly where we are headed. However, there is time, albeit short, to avoid the very worst consequences of runaway climate change. But to do so requires collective and urgent action now! Public health practitioners have potentially so much to offer towards this effort. We have many of the skills and experience so critically needed to advocate for change--both political and behavioural; we have the ability to design creative, effective, and dynamic interventions to assist and facilitate communities and individuals make the journey; and equally importantly we have huge opportunities to do so. However to do so effectively means that we need to look at the problem through a different lens and make climate change a top public health priority. We need to see beyond many of the institutional and cultural barriers that exist, albeit not through deliberate design, within our organisations which can cause us to be focused on very specific agendas and see the whole wood, rather than individual trees within it. Climate change is not just an "environmental" problem and a priority therefore specifically for that sector. It is already costing lives and is life threatening on a scale that far surpasses current public health concerns and priorities. Equally critically, tackling climate change would and will significantly contribute towards addressing health inequalities. To use two well worn public

  12. Water and bioterrorism: preparing for the potential threat to U.S. water supplies and public health.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Patricia L

    2005-01-01

    Water supplies and water distribution systems represent potential targets for terrorist activity in the United States because of the critical need for water in every sector of our industrialized society. Even short-term disruption of water service can significantly impact a community, and intentional contamination of a municipal water system as part of a terrorist attack could lead to serious medical, public health, and economic consequences. Most practicing physicians and public health professionals in the United States have received limited training in the recognition and evaluation of waterborne disease from either natural or intentional contamination of water. Therefore, they are poorly prepared to detect water-related disease resulting from intentional contamination and may not be adequately trained to respond appropriately to a terrorist assault on water. The purpose of this review is to address this critical information gap and present relevant epidemiologic and clinical information for public health and medical practitioners who may be faced with addressing the recognition, management, and prevention of water terrorism in their communities.

  13. From past to better public health programme planning for possible future global threats: case studies applied to infection control.

    PubMed

    Manigat, Roberte; Wallet, France; André, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The impact of weather change and global pollution on the development and/or the transformation of microorganisms is no longer to be demonstrated. In this respect, heavy trends can be taken into account. This general context needs the development of anticipation procedures and the knowledge of the perception of prevention by the public for short, medium and long term actions. After a short discussion on the concept of emerging issues, the authors present some past examples of public health programs. These examples (malaria, dengue, chikungunya and cholera) are used to propose optimized ways of decision/action that may help to avoid possible crisis in a rapidly changing world. Then, the different lessons learnt are, under certain limits, associated with a forecasting analysis.

  14. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall conduct an evaluation of the threat posed, based on the OSC's experience in assessing other... discharging, or threatening to discharge, by whatever means are available. (c) In the case of a substantial...

  15. Ethics, privacy and the legal framework governing medical data: opportunities or threats for biomedical and public health research?

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Yves; Levêque, Alain

    2013-06-21

    Privacy is an important concern in any research programme that deals with personal medical data. In recent years, ethics and privacy have become key considerations when conducting any form of scientific research that involves personal data. These issues are now addressed in healthcare professional training programmes. Indeed, ethics, legal frameworks and privacy are often the subject of much confusion in discussions among healthcare professionals. They tend to group these different concepts under the same heading and delegate responsibility for "ethical" approval of their research programmes to ethics committees. Public health researchers therefore need to ask questions about how changes to legal frameworks and ethical codes governing privacy in the use of personal medical data are to be applied in practice. What types of data do these laws and codes cover? Who is involved? What restrictions and requirements apply to any research programme that involves medical data?

  16. Surviving the Storm : Expanding Public Health’s Capabilities in Response to the Increasing Threats Posed by Novel Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    pandemic viruses . In the late 1990s, the world watched the emergence of the H5N1 avian influenza virus (that continues to smolder in Asia); in 2003... VIRUSES AS A THREAT TO HOMELAND SECURITY ........14 B. CHARACTERISTICS OF PANDEMICS INVOLVING A NOVEL VIRUS ...HOSPITALIZATION RATE , AND MORTALITY RATE ASSOCIATED WITH A PANDEMIC STRAIN VIRUS ...........................35 C. EMPLOYING RATE CALCULATIONS TO DETERMINE

  17. [Horizon scanning in preparation for future health threats: a pilot exercise conducted by the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance in 2014].

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Daniel; Xerri, Bertrand; Viso, Anne-Catherine; Therre, Hélène; Gorza, Maud; Fuchs, Doriane; Pozuelos, Jérôme; Ioos, Sophie; Che, Didier; Bertrand, Edwige; El Yamani, Mounia; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal; Duport, Nicolas; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health surveillance is a reactive process, with no real hindsight for dealing with signals and alerts. It may fail to detect more radical changes with a major medium-term or long-term impact on public health. To increase proactivity, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance has opted for a prospective monitoring approach.Methods: Several steps were necessary: 1) Identification of public health determinants. 2) Identification of key variables based on a combination of determinants. Variables were classified into three groups (health event trigger factors, dissemination factors and response factors) and were submitted to future development assumptions. 3) Identification, in each of the three groups, of micro-scenarios derived from variable trends. 4) Identification of macro-scenarios, each built from the three micro-scenarios for each of the three groups. 5) Identification of issues for the future of public health.Results: The exercise identified 22 key variables, 17 micro-scenarios and 5 macro-scenarios. The topics retained relate to issues on social and territorial health inequalities, health burden, individual and collective responsibilities in terms of health, ethical aspects, emerging phenomena, ‘Big data’, data mining, new health technologies, interlocking of analysis scales.Conclusions: The approach presented here guides the programming of activities of a health safety agency, particularly for monitoring and surveillance. By describing possible future scenarios, health surveillance can help decision-makers to influence the context towards one or more favourable futures.

  18. Improved diagnosis as an aid to better surveillance of Taenia solium cysticercosis, a potential public health threat to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1995-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis has been recognized as a public health problem in Indonesian Irian Jaya since its unfortunate introduction in a number of infected pigs imported from Bali. From its original point of introduction in 1971, the infection has spread from the Wissel Lakes area to other places within Irian Jaya. The present situation at the border between Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (PNG) is difficult to assess accurately but, in light of the flow of refugees and the traditional rights of movement of people with their pigs in the border area, PNG populations are now at risk. Government health officers and veterinarians in PNG are well aware of this threat and have been watching closely for transmission of Taenia solium into PNG. A rigorous survey of Irianese refugees at the border and surrounding areas in PNG using recently developed immunodiagnostic procedures such as the EITB (enzyme immunoelectrotransfer blot) for detecting human and pig cysticercosis and the dipstick ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identifying T. solium carriers, coupled with careful assessment of medical history and clinical and stool examination, is, however, required. Such a study would allow evaluation of the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Irian Jayan refugees residing in camps in PNG. The study would also determine the extent to which the parasite has spread easterly and, importantly, whether cysticercosis/taeniasis has crossed the border and is endemic in PNG, thereby constituting a potentially serious public health problem.

  19. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia—A Threat to Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Renjel Encinas, Susana; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Condarco, Guido; Jørs, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10 lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions. In 20% of the lettuce samples, the measurements were above the maximum residue limits, and 2 or 3 pesticides were identified simultaneously. Washing almost halved the pesticide levels, but still 20% of the samples showed measurements above the limits. No samples contained concentrations of pesticides which alone or together would lead to exposures that exceeded the acceptable daily intake or the acute reference dose. To protect consumers from pesticide poisonings and chronic effects, the development of measures for prevention, control, and monitoring of food contamination by pesticides in Bolivia is suggested. PMID:28469451

  20. Pandemics, public health emergencies and antimicrobial resistance - putting the threat in an epidemiologic and risk analysis context.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, C Raina; Bui, Chau Minh

    2017-01-01

    Public health messaging about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) sometimes conveys the problem as an epidemic. We outline why AMR is a serious endemic problem manifested in hospital and community-acquired infections. AMR is not an epidemic condition, but may complicate epidemics, which are characterised by sudden societal impact due to rapid rise in cases over a short timescale. Influenza, which causes direct viral effects, or secondary bacterial complications is the most likely cause of an epidemic or pandemic where AMR may be a problem. We discuss other possible causes of a pandemic with AMR, and present a risk assessment formula to estimate the impact of AMR during a pandemic. Finally, we flag the potential impact of genetic engineering of pathogens on global risk and how this could radically change the epidemiology of AMR as we know it. Understanding the epidemiology of AMR is key to successfully addressing the problem. AMR is an endemic condition but can play a role in epidemics or pandemics, and we present a risk analysis method for assessing the impact of AMR in a pandemic.

  1. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia-A Threat to Public Health?

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Encinas, Susana Renjel; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Condarco, Guido; Jørs, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10 lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions. In 20% of the lettuce samples, the measurements were above the maximum residue limits, and 2 or 3 pesticides were identified simultaneously. Washing almost halved the pesticide levels, but still 20% of the samples showed measurements above the limits. No samples contained concentrations of pesticides which alone or together would lead to exposures that exceeded the acceptable daily intake or the acute reference dose. To protect consumers from pesticide poisonings and chronic effects, the development of measures for prevention, control, and monitoring of food contamination by pesticides in Bolivia is suggested.

  2. The role of humans in the importation of ticks to New Zealand: a threat to public health and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Heath, Allen C G; Hardwick, Scott

    2011-07-29

    Humans coming into New Zealand occasionally, and unwittingly, bring exotic ticks with them, either attached to their bodies or with luggage. Of the 172 available records for tick interception at New Zealand's border, half can be attributed to human agency. Here, together with an outline of tick biology and ecology, we present evidence of at least 17 species of ticks being brought in by humans, with Australia, North America and Asia the most frequent countries of origin. Risks posed by some of the nine species of ticks already in New Zealand are briefly examined. Sites of attachment of ticks and associated symptoms where these have been recorded are presented. Diseases transmitted by ticks and most likely to be encountered by travellers are briefly discussed together with the most practical method of tick removal. A plea is made for practitioners to increase their awareness of the risks to New Zealand's biosecurity and public health posed by ticks and to ensure that as many as possible of these unwelcome 'souvenirs' are collected and passed on for identification.

  3. Electronic cigarette: a threat or an opportunity for public health? State of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Protano, C; Di Milia, L M; Orsi, G B; Vitali, M

    2015-01-01

    The e-cigarette, also known as e-cig, represents an emerging issue of great concern for public health. The aim of the present report was to explore the scientific literature about the use of electronic cigarette (e-cig), with a particular reference to the features of "toxicological safety", "effectiveness in overcoming the addiction to smoking the traditional cigarette" and "necessary research agenda". The efficacy of e-cig for smoking cessation is uncertain: some authors found that it can be a valid support, but long-term cessation rate has not be assessed. Other studies evidenced that e-cig is often used not for quitting smoking but to avoid smoking ban for traditional cigarettes and, even, some researches evidenced that it appears to contribute to nicotine addiction. E-cig smoking seems to be less dangerous of conventional cigarettes, but its use is not risk-free. Besides, cases of accidental or intentional poisoning with liquid solutions of e-cig have been reported. Also, the smoke of e-cig decreases indoor air quality, releasing particulate matter and other toxics that can persist on surfaces for days and generating passive exposure. These phenomena are similar to environmental tobacco smoke produced by conventional smoking, that is the sum of second- and third-hand smoke. We propose to call them "environmental electronic smoke", "electronic-second- hand smoke" and "electronic-third-hand smoke", respectively. Uncertainties relating to e-cig features determined the sequence, in the short term, of warnings and regulations approved and then replaced. In conclusion, although in recent years many researches were performed, evidences is limited and there is a need to study in deep all these issues.

  4. Applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring quality of public oral health services as perceived by adult patients in Finland. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, T; Lahti, S; Leino-Kilpi, H

    1999-10-01

    To determine the applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring the quality of public oral health services from the adult client's perspective. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire developed in an earlier study. The study group consisted of all adult (over 18 years of age) clients (n = 256) using public municipal oral health services in Kirkkonummi, Finland, during 2 weeks in 1995. Before treatment, patients filled out a questionnaire that measured the importance of their expectations in different aspects of oral care. After the appointment, they filled out a similar questionnaire that measured the enactment of these expectations in the treatment situation. The response rate was 51%. The difference between subjective importance and enactment of expectations was tested by Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results were interpreted using both a conventional analysis of "expectation enacted or not" and SWOT analysis, which is used in strategic planning to identify areas of strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O) and threats (T) in an organisation. In 28 statements out of 35, the two analyses revealed similar interpretations. In most areas the patient-perceived quality of the services was good. Weaknesses were found in the following areas: communicating to patients the causes and risk of developing oral diseases, informing them about different treatment possibilities, and including patients in decision-making when choosing restorative materials. SWOT analysis provided more structured interpretation of the results, and can be more easily transferred to development of services.

  5. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff Do you know the greatest threats to men's health? The list is surprisingly short. ... advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy Advertising and sponsorship opportunities Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials ...

  6. Application of HACCP principles to control visitor health threats on dairy farms open to the general public.

    PubMed

    Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes.

  7. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC. PMID:24729829

  8. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, Lashanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2013-10-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC.

  9. Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health. PMID:24031887

  10. [Health threats and health system crises. An approach to early warning and response. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Simón Soria, Fernando; Guillén Enríquez, Francisco Javier

    2008-04-01

    The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The "International Health Regulations (2005)" reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the

  11. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  12. Climate change and ecological public health.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  13. Pregnancy threat to adolescent health.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is investigating factors which affect the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Benin, Cameroon, Ecuador, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and the Philippines. The research is funded through the US Agency for International Development's Office of Nutrition. 22.5% of women in Nepal marry before they reach age 14 years, with most marrying before age 18. The research in the country has found pregnancy to be a burden among these young women which threatens their nutritional and health status as well as that of their offspring. Unequal distribution of food in the household and heavy workloads increase the level of risk faced by adolescent females. Postponing pregnancy in adolescents, however, delays the onset of increased nutritional needs in girls who are already likely to be undernourished. Delayed pregnancy also gives girls more time to complete their physical growth and avoids the risk of medical emergencies in childbirth, such as hemorrhage which, if survived, can lead to anemia which is aggravated by nutritional deficiencies. The ICRW has therefore proposed four strategies for postponing first births among female adolescents: encouraging later marriage, providing family planning and reproductive health services specially for adolescents, providing family life education about options for the future, and increasing educational opportunities for girls.

  14. Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-27

    Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number...situations during peacetime, Federal regulations governing environmental , safety, and occupational health hazards were applied. At the strategic level o f...o f t h e Army for FHP-OEH matters. DASA–ESOH SUBJECT: Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats 3 b. The ASA

  15. Trust, terrorism and public health.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Policies to promote public health are based on trust. There is a danger that public trust may be lost, especially where policies are seen to be influenced by vested interests or conflict with available evidence. Although trust in public health policies in the UK is high, some commentators have questioned recent responses to the threat of pandemic flu, suggesting that they may be driven, in part, by those seeking to profit from health scares, and drawing a direct comparison with terrorist scares. We argue that the approach to evidence by the public health and counter-terrorist communities differ markedly. Public health professionals must ensure that their actions do not undermine their credibility, in particular those involved in response to the threat of bioterrorism.

  16. Understanding Public Responses to Domestic Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    to shortages and gray markets , including both black market activities and grayer ones, like preferential treatment for families of officials or the...government is creating sufficient stockpiles for them. Insufficient government stockpiling may lead to gray markets for masks, utilized by citizens to build...Potential threats to social resilience are gray markets , addressing shortages illegally or unethically (e.g., favored treatment for officials’ families

  17. AMIA advocates national health information system in fight against national health threats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Paul C

    2002-01-01

    To protect public health and national safety, AMIA recommends that the federal government dedicate technologic resources and medical informatics expertise to create a national health information infrastructure (NHII). An NHII provides the underlying information utility that connects local health providers and health officials through high-speed networks to national data systems necessary to detect and track global threats to public health. AMIA strongly recommends the accelerated development and wide-scale deployment of electronic public health surveillance systems, computer-based patient records, and disaster-response information technologies. Such efforts hold the greatest potential to protect our citizens from disaster and to deliver the best health care if disaster strikes.

  18. Institutionalising of public health.

    PubMed

    Karkee, R

    2014-01-01

    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  19. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yan, Wei-An; Hang, De-Rong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr(6+) and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria.

  20. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: Leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-12-15

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr{sup 6+} and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria.

  1. Medical aspects of expatriate health: health threats.

    PubMed

    Jones, S

    2000-11-01

    The globalisation of business activity can lead to the movement of key employees and their dependants from country to country. In their host country these expatriates often face health hazards not experienced at home. This paper describes the range of health issues of relevance to expatriates.

  2. Communicating Homeland Security Threats: Government and Public Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    further analyze public perception and involvement in homeland security, this research will continue beyond the evolution of the National Exercise Program...information continues to undermine the importance of threats to the homeland. Current research identifies a growing perception disparity relative to...localities, loss to tourism , and the indirect cost on the economy during a period of heightened threat level.”15 Yim also presents a perspective

  3. Globalisation and public health.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  4. Public Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earth observations can be used to address human health concerns in many ways: projecting occurrence of disease or disease outbreaks; rapid detection and tracking of events; construction of risk maps; targeting interventions; and enhancing knowledge of human health-environment int...

  5. Public Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earth observations can be used to address human health concerns in many ways: projecting occurrence of disease or disease outbreaks; rapid detection and tracking of events; construction of risk maps; targeting interventions; and enhancing knowledge of human health-environment int...

  6. The Impact Threat and Public Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chodas, Paul W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent popular movies have raised public consciousness of the very real possibility of a comet or asteroid collision with the Earth, and a news report last year implying that asteroid 1997 XF11 had a distinct chance of hitting the Earth in the year 2028 further caught the public's eye. The report of possible impact was withdrawn the very next day, and the public perceived either that astronomers had made mistaken calculations, or that the pre-discovery observations found that day had been responsible for the revised prediction. But in fact, the original report of the possibility of impact in 2028 was simply a premature assessment. The XF11 affair has demonstrated the need for clarity and precision in public communications dealing with the possibility of Earth impact, as well as the importance of peer review before results are released to the press. This year, another potentially hazardous asteroid, 1999 AN10, has made the news, and this time there is indeed a remote chance of collision. Although impact is not possible during the asteroid's primary close approach in 2027, the uncertainties allow for a remarkably close passage, and embedded within the encounter's uncertainty region are many narrow "keyholes" which could bring the asteroid back for a close approach in a later year. Three keyholes have been identified which could perturb the asteroid onto trajectories that collide with the Earth in the years 2044, 2046, or 2039. At the time of this writing, the estimated impact probability for 1999 AN10 is on the order of 1 in 500,000, larger than for any other known object, but still significantly less than the probability of an undiscovered asteroid of equivalent size striking the Earth before 2044. Additional astrometric measurements of 1999 AN10 will likely drive its impact probability down to near-zero, but this may not happen for years, testing the public's reaction to a lingering remote possibility of impact. A side effect of the increasing discovery rate for

  7. The public health threat of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs in Taiwan: the policies the government implemented and the lessons we learned.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Chia-Fang; Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Eric K; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    A major incident of phthalate-contaminated foodstuffs happened in Taiwan between April and July, 2011. Phthalates were deliberately added to foodstuffs as a substitute of emulsifier. We describe the course of this incident, government response and management of the crisis, and its future implications. Five major food categories, including sports drinks, fruit beverages, tea drinks, fruit jam or jelly, and health food or supplements in tablet or powder form, were contaminated with Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and/or Di-isononyl phthalate. At least 900 different food products were affected. Like the scandal of melamine-tainted infant formula, this event represents another large deliberate food contamination incident. It is important to be reminded that many governments in developing countries make rapid economic growth as their first priority, often compromising environmental safety and public health. The administration leaders need to find a balance between economic expansion and health and environmental safety.

  8. Ethics, Practice, and Research in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Buehler, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethical issues that can arise in distinguishing public health research from practice are highlighted in 2 case studies—an investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison and an evaluation of a program for improving HIV prevention services. Regardless of whether such public health investigations represent research or practice, we see a need for ethics oversight procedures that reflect actual risks and enable timely responses to crises. Such oversight should accommodate the perspectives of persons and communities affected by public health threats and by governmental responses to those threats; it should further recognize that public health ethics is a distinct field combining bioethics, political philosophy, human rights, and law. PMID:15249291

  9. Big Data and Health Economics: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brendan

    2016-02-01

    'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy.

  10. Lassa virus-infected rodents in refugee camps in Guinea: a looming threat to public health in a politically unstable region.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joseph; Jentes, Emily; Inapogui, Alphonse; Kourouma, Kerfella; Goba, Agustine; Bah, Alpha; Tounkara, Michel; Coulibaly, Mamadi; Garry, Robert F; Bausch, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    Rodent-borne and other communicable diseases are of particular concern to vulnerable populations in complex humanitarian emergencies. We assessed the risk of Lassa fever to refugees and humanitarian aid workers in the Forest Region of Guinea by trapping rodents and testing them for the presence of Lassa virus infection. Our study provides a point prevalence of Lassa virus-infected rodents in various refugee camps in Guinea, suggesting that the risk of disease may be highest in camps further south toward the border with Liberia. The methodology used represents a potential model for rapid public health assessments in the setting of complex humanitarian emergencies.

  11. The public health workforce, 2006: new challenges.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Kristine M; Turnock, Bernard J

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to develop the public health workforce since 2001 have benefited from increased funding resulting from concerns over terrorism and other public health threats. This largesse has been accompanied by the need for greater accountability for results. The size, composition, and distribution of the public health workforce have long been policy concerns. Production and retention of public health workers remain important issues, although new dimensions of readiness are also taking center stage. We offer here policy recommendations in the areas of assessing the public health workforce and its needs, organizing development efforts around essential competencies for public health practice, credentialing workers, and accrediting agencies.

  12. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful.

  13. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R.; Bherwani, Kamal M.; Henning, Kelly J.

    2008-01-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  14. First record of Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) in Morocco: a major threat to public health in North Africa?

    PubMed

    Bennouna, A; Balenghien, T; El Rhaffouli, H; Schaffner, F; Garros, C; Gardès, L; Lhor, Y; Hammoumi, S; Chlyeh, G; Fassi Fihri, O

    2017-03-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Asian forests, is a nuisance mosquito and is responsible for the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. It has colonized parts of all continents, except Antarctica, over the past 30-40 years. However, to date, the only records of S. albopicta in North Africa refer to occasional collections in 2010 and 2014 in Algeria. In early September 2015, S. albopicta larvae and adults were collected in a district of Rabat, Morocco. Morphological identification was confirmed by molecular analysis. This is the first record of this invasive mosquito in Morocco. A national surveillance programme will be implemented in 2016 to establish its geographical distribution in Morocco and to instigate control measures to prevent the establishment of new populations and the transmission of arboviruses. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. The case for transforming governmental public health.

    PubMed

    Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A

    2006-01-01

    Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.

  16. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Public Health? Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Climate Change Environmental Health Gun Violence Health Equity Health Reform ... 2017 EST Show More Oct 19 Climate Webinar Climate Changes Children's Health: Protecting Our Future Date: Oct 19 ...

  17. New threats to health data privacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengjun; Zou, Xukai; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jake Y

    2011-11-24

    Along with the rapid digitalization of health data (e.g. Electronic Health Records), there is an increasing concern on maintaining data privacy while garnering the benefits, especially when the data are required to be published for secondary use. Most of the current research on protecting health data privacy is centered around data de-identification and data anonymization, which removes the identifiable information from the published health data to prevent an adversary from reasoning about the privacy of the patients. However, published health data is not the only source that the adversaries can count on: with a large amount of information that people voluntarily share on the Web, sophisticated attacks that join disparate information pieces from multiple sources against health data privacy become practical. Limited efforts have been devoted to studying these attacks yet. We study how patient privacy could be compromised with the help of today's information technologies. In particular, we show that private healthcare information could be collected by aggregating and associating disparate pieces of information from multiple online data sources including online social networks, public records and search engine results. We demonstrate a real-world case study to show user identity and privacy are highly vulnerable to the attribution, inference and aggregation attacks. We also show that people are highly identifiable to adversaries even with inaccurate information pieces about the target, with real data analysis. We claim that too much information has been made available electronic and available online that people are very vulnerable without effective privacy protection.

  18. Unhealthy Interactions: The Role of Stereotype Threat in Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M.; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors. PMID:23153125

  19. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  20. Common ragweed: a threat to environmental health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Cecchi, L; Skjøth, C A; Karrer, G; Šikoparija, B

    2013-11-01

    Common or short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an annual herb belonging to the Asteraceae family that was described by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. It is a noxious invasive species that is an important weed in agriculture and a source of highly allergenic pollen. The importance placed on A. artemisiifolia is reflected by the number of international projects that have now been launched by the European Commission and the increasing number of publications being produced on this topic. This review paper examines existing knowledge about ragweed ecology, distribution and flowering phenology and the environmental health risk that this noxious plant poses in Europe. The paper also examines control measures used in the fight against it and state of the art methods for modelling atmospheric concentrations of this important aeroallergen. Common ragweed is an environmental health threat, not only in its native North America but also in many parts of the world where it has been introduced. In Europe, where the plant has now become naturalised and frequently forms part of the flora, the threat posed by ragweed has been identified and steps are being taken to reduce further geographical expansion and limit increases in population densities of the plant in order to protect the allergic population. This is particularly important when one considers possible range shifts, changes in flowering phenology and increases in the amount of pollen and allergenic potency that could be brought about by changes in climate.

  1. Training Public Health Advisors.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  2. Communicating the threat of emerging infections to the public.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, V; Linnan, H W; Potter, P

    2000-01-01

    Communication theory and techniques, aided by the electronic revolution, provide new opportunities and challenges for the effective transfer of laboratory, epidemiologic, surveillance, and other public health data to the public who funds them. We review the applicability of communication theory, particularly the audience-source-message-channel meta-model, to emerging infectious disease issues. Emergence of new infectious organisms, microbial resistance to therapeutic drugs, and increased emphasis on prevention have expanded the role of communication as a vital component of public health practice. In the absence of cure, as in AIDS and many other public health problems, an effectively crafted and disseminated prevention message is the key control measure. Applying communication theory to disease prevention messages can increase the effectiveness of the messages and improve public health.

  3. Communicating the threat of emerging infections to the public.

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, V.; Linnan, H. W.; Potter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Communication theory and techniques, aided by the electronic revolution, provide new opportunities and challenges for the effective transfer of laboratory, epidemiologic, surveillance, and other public health data to the public who funds them. We review the applicability of communication theory, particularly the audience-source-message-channel meta-model, to emerging infectious disease issues. Emergence of new infectious organisms, microbial resistance to therapeutic drugs, and increased emphasis on prevention have expanded the role of communication as a vital component of public health practice. In the absence of cure, as in AIDS and many other public health problems, an effectively crafted and disseminated prevention message is the key control measure. Applying communication theory to disease prevention messages can increase the effectiveness of the messages and improve public health. PMID:10905966

  4. Bioterrorism, public health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J

    2002-01-01

    It is unnecessary and counterproductive to sacrifice basic human rights to respond to bioterrorism. Constructive public health legislation, which must be federal, cannot be carefully drafted under panic conditions. When it is, like the "model act," it will predictably rely on broad, arbitrary state authority exercised without public accountability. Public health should resist reverting to its nineteenth-century practices of forced examination and quarantine, which will simply encourage people to avoid physicians, hospitals, and public health practitioners they now trust and actively seek out in emergencies. Upholding human rights is essential to public trust and is ultimately our best defense against the threat of terrorism in the twenty-first century.

  5. Scientists Engage With the Public During Lava Flow Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, Tricia

    2014-11-01

    On 27 June, lava from Kīlauea, an active volcano on the island of Hawai`i, began flowing to the northeast, threatening the residents in Pāhoa, a community in the District of Puna, as well as the only highway accessible to this area. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and the Hawai`i County Civil Defense have been monitoring the volcano's lava flow and communicating with affected residents through public meetings since 24 August. Eos recently spoke with Michael Poland, a geophysicist at HVO and a member of the Eos Editorial Advisory Board, to discuss how he and his colleagues communicated this threat to the public.

  6. Public health workforce enumeration.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Kristine M; Raziano, Amanda; Elliott, Sterling

    2009-05-01

    Comprehensive data on the public health workforce are fundamental to workforce development throughout the public health system. Such information is also a critical data element in public health systems research, a growing area of study that can inform the practice of public health at all levels. However, methodologic and institutional issues challenge the development of comparable indicators for the federal, state, and local public health workforce. A 2006-2007 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials workforce enumeration pilot project demonstrated the issues involved in collecting workforce data. This project illustrated key elements of an institutionalized national system of workforce enumeration, which would be needed for a robust, recurring count that provides a national picture of the public health workforce.

  7. Public health reform and health promotion in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita

    2014-06-01

    More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.

  8. Transportation and public health.

    PubMed

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  9. Appalachian Women's Perceptions of Their Community's Health Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Decades of behavioral research suggest that awareness of health threats is a necessary precursor to engage in health promotion and disease prevention, findings that can be extended to the community level. Purpose: We sought to better understand local perspectives on the main health concerns of rural Appalachian communities in order to…

  10. Appalachian Women's Perceptions of Their Community's Health Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Decades of behavioral research suggest that awareness of health threats is a necessary precursor to engage in health promotion and disease prevention, findings that can be extended to the community level. Purpose: We sought to better understand local perspectives on the main health concerns of rural Appalachian communities in order to…

  11. Public health legal preparedness in Indian country.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Ralph T; Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-04-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health-related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities.

  12. Zoological medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Osburn, Bennie I

    2006-01-01

    Public-health issues regarding zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife have historically been linked to the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases and accidents relating to bites or injection of venom or toxins by venomous animals. It is only recently that major consideration has been given worldwide to the role of the veterinary profession in contributing to investigating zoonotic diseases in free-ranging wildlife and integrating the concept of public health into the management activities of game preserves and wildlife parks. At the veterinary undergraduate level, courses in basic epidemiology, which should include outbreak investigation and disease surveillance, but also in population medicine, in infectious and parasitic diseases (especially new and emerging or re-emerging zoonoses), and in ecology should be part of the core curriculum. Foreign diseases, especially dealing with zoonotic diseases that are major threats because of possible agro-terrorism or spread of zoonoses, need to be taught in veterinary college curricula. Furthermore, knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired either during pre-veterinary studies or, at least, at the beginning of the veterinary curriculum. At the post-graduate level, master's degrees in preventive veterinary medicine, ecology and environmental health, or public health with an emphasis on infectious diseases should be offered to veterinarians seeking job opportunities in public health and wildlife management.

  13. Public Health Law Reform

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2001-01-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757

  14. Public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-09-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  17. Public Health Legal Preparedness in Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities. PMID:19150897

  18. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  19. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  20. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  1. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  2. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  3. Workplace threats to health and job turnover among women workers.

    PubMed

    Gucer, Patricia W; Oliver, Marc; McDiarmid, Melissa

    2003-07-01

    Is job turnover related to concern about workplace health risks? Using data from a national sample of working women, we examined the relationships among workplace risk communications, worker concerns about workplace threats from hazardous substances, indoor air quality, and job change. Eight percent reported changing a job as a result of concern over workplace threats to health. Previous workplace injury predicted concern about hazardous materials and indoor air quality as well as job change, but employer communication about workplace health risks was associated with less job change and less concern about indoor air quality. Women worry about workplace threats to their health enough to change their jobs, but employers may have the power to cut turnover costs and reduce disruption to workers' lives through the use of risk communication programs.

  4. Regulatory underpinnings of Global Health security: FDA's roles in preventing, detecting, and responding to global health threats.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Brooke; Bond, Katherine C; Maher, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, health officials from around the world announced the Global Health Security Agenda, a critical effort to strengthen national and global systems to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats and to foster stronger collaboration across borders. With its increasing global roles and broad range of regulatory responsibilities in ensuring the availability, safety, and security of medical and food products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is engaged in a range of efforts in support of global health security. This article provides an overview of FDA's global health security roles, focusing on its responsibilities related to the development and use of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for preventing, detecting, and responding to global infectious disease and other public health emergency threats. The article also discusses several areas-antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and supply chain integrity-in which FDA's global health security roles continue to evolve and extend beyond MCMs and, in some cases, beyond traditional infectious disease threats.

  5. Obesogens: an emerging threat to public health

    PubMed Central

    Janesick, Amanda S.; Blumberg, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are defined as exogenous chemicals, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The field of endocrine disruption is historically rooted in wildlife biology and reproductive endocrinology where EDCs are demonstrated contributors to infertility, premature puberty, endometriosis, and other disorders. Recently, EDCs have been implicated in metabolic syndrome and obesity. Adipose tissue is a true endocrine organ and, therefore, an organ which is highly susceptible to disturbance by EDCs. A subset of EDCs, called “obesogens” promote adiposity by altering programming of fat cell development, increasing energy storage in fat tissue, and interfering with neuroendocrine control of appetite and satiety. Obesity adds more than $200 billion to U.S. healthcare costs and the number of obese individuals continues to increase. Hence, there is an urgent, unmet need to understand the mechanisms underlying how exposures to certain EDCs may predispose our population to be obese. In this review, we discuss the history of obesogen discovery from its origins in reproductive biology to its latest role in the transgenerational inheritance of obesity in mice. We discuss the development of adipose tissue in an embryo, maintenance of adipocyte number in adults, how EDC disruption programs stem cells to preferentially make more adipocytes, the mechanisms by which chemicals can permanently alter the germline epigenome, and whether there are barriers to EDCs in the gametes. PMID:26829510

  6. What Ails Public Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcabes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…

  7. What Ails Public Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcabes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…

  8. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Chosy, Julia; Benson, Katherine; Belen, Dulce; Starr, Ranjani; Lowery St John, Tonya; Starr, Ranjani R; Ching, Lance K

    2015-01-01

    Data form the framework around which important public health decisions are made. Public health data are essential for surveillance and evaluating change. In Hawai‘i, public health data come from a multitude of sources and agencies. The Hawai‘i Health Data Warehouse (HHDW) was created to pull those data into a single location and to present results in a form that is easy for the public to access and utilize. In the years since its creation, HHDW has built a second consumer-focused web site, Hawai‘i Health Matters, and is now introducing new functionality on the original site that allows users to define their own enquiry. The newly adopted Indicator-Based Information System (IBIS) uses a web interface to perform real-time data analysis and display results. This gives users the power to examine health data by a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic dimensions, permitting them to pinpoint the data they need. PMID:26568903

  9. The health information system security threat lifecycle: an informatics theory.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Juanita I; Dawson, Linda L

    2009-12-01

    This manuscript describes the health information system security threat lifecycle (HISSTL) theory. The theory is grounded in case study data analyzing clinicians' health information system (HIS) privacy and security (P&S) experiences in the practice context. The 'questerview' technique was applied to this study of 26 clinicians situated in 3 large Australian (across Victoria) teaching hospitals. Questerviews rely on data collection that apply standardized questions and questionnaires during recorded interviews. Analysis (using Nvivo) involved the iterative scrutiny of interview transcripts to identify emergent themes. Issues including poor training, ambiguous legal frameworks containing punitive threats, productivity challenges, usability errors and the limitations of the natural hospital environment emerged from empirical data about the clinicians' HIS P&S practices. The natural hospital environment is defined by the permanence of electronic HISs (e-HISs), shared workspaces, outdated HIT infrastructure, constant interruption, a P&S regulatory environment that is not conducive to optimal training outcomes and budgetary constraints. The evidence also indicated the obtrusiveness, timeliness, and reliability of P&S implementations for clinical work affected participant attitudes to, and use of, e-HISs. The HISSTL emerged from the analysis of study evidence. The theory embodies elements such as the fiscal, regulatory and natural hospital environments which impede P&S implementations in practice settings. These elements conflict with improved patient care outcomes. Efforts by clinicians to avoid conflict and emphasize patient care above P&S tended to manifest as security breaches. These breaches entrench factors beyond clinician control and perpetuate those within clinician control. Security breaches of health information can progress through the HISSTL. Some preliminary suggestions for addressing these issues are proposed. Legislative frameworks that are not related to

  10. Civilization as a threat to human health?

    PubMed

    Trnovec, T; Cook, T; Kahayová, K; Nyulassy, S

    2001-02-01

    Civilization can be defined as the distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society. In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of human life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. A collection of problems referred to as 'civilization diseases' has become the subject of serious concern but review of available data indicates that this concept appears to add very little to our understanding of modern environmental influences on human health. Important limitations in the continued use of this term are its non-specificity, the lack of a unifying scientific foundation, and provision of virtually no direction for remediation of these diseases or for future research. In addition, the use of this term has been localized to primarily post-socialist European countries. In view of these limitations, it seems more productive for scientists, in all parts of the world, to embrace the discipline of environmental health science and to discontinue use of the term "civilization diseases".

  11. Public health and peace.

    PubMed

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  12. Children's Health Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  13. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162518.html Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months Public health ... doesn't necessarily mean the end of the Zika threat in the United States, a public health ...

  15. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  16. Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2012-12-01

    Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Arakaki, Lee-Ann; Uemoto, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The University of Hawai‘i at Manoa (UHM) has long provided public health graduate education. The University's Office of Public Health Studies (OPHS) has recently started to offer a Bachelor of Arts in Public Health (BA PH) degree in response to the growing need for professionals in the health field. The purpose of this paper is to describe how UHM operates the BA PH and how the program complements OPHS's mission and goals. First, we describe the overall scope of the BA PH within OPHS and within UHM. Then we provide examples of how the BA PH program and past undergraduate student projects align with OPHS's four main goals: (1) education, (2) research, (3) service, and (4) program development. PMID:28352496

  18. Future of Health Care Delivery in Iran, Opportunities and Threats

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, F; Esmailzadeh, H; Rostamigooran, N; Majdzadeh, R; Doshmangir, L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of important social and technological trends on health care delivery, in the context of developing “Iran’s Health System Reform Plan by 2025”. Methods: A detailed review of the national and international literature was done to identify the main trends affecting health system. To collect the experts’ opinions about important trends and their impact on health care delivery, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured in-depth interviews techniques were used. The study was based on the STEEP model. Final results were approved in an expert’s panel session. Results: The important social and technological trends, affecting health system in Iran in the next 15 years are demographic transition, epidemiologic transition, increasing bio-environmental pollution, increasing slums, increasing private sector partnership in health care delivery, moving toward knowledge-based society, development of information and communication technology, increasing use of high technologies in health system, and development of traditional and alternative medicine. The opportunities and threats resulting from the above mentioned trends were also assessed in this study. Conclusion: Increasing healthcare cost due to some trends like demographic and epidemiologic transition and uncontrolled increase in using new technologies in health care is one of the most important threats that the health system will be facing. The opportunities that advancement in technology and moving toward knowledge-based society create are important and should not be ignored. PMID:23865012

  19. Future of health care delivery in iran, opportunities and threats.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, F; Esmailzadeh, H; Rostamigooran, N; Majdzadeh, R; Doshmangir, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of important social and technological trends on health care delivery, in the context of developing "Iran's Health System Reform Plan by 2025". A detailed review of the national and international literature was done to identify the main trends affecting health system. To collect the experts' opinions about important trends and their impact on health care delivery, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured in-depth interviews techniques were used. The study was based on the STEEP model. Final results were approved in an expert's panel session. The important social and technological trends, affecting health system in Iran in the next 15 years are demographic transition, epidemiologic transition, increasing bio-environmental pollution, increasing slums, increasing private sector partnership in health care delivery, moving toward knowledge-based society, development of information and communication technology, increasing use of high technologies in health system, and development of traditional and alternative medicine. The opportunities and threats resulting from the above mentioned trends were also assessed in this study. Increasing healthcare cost due to some trends like demographic and epidemiologic transition and uncontrolled increase in using new technologies in health care is one of the most important threats that the health system will be facing. The opportunities that advancement in technology and moving toward knowledge-based society create are important and should not be ignored.

  20. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Hawai‘i had high insurance coverage rates even before the Affordable Health Care Act and continues to have a high percentage of the population with health insurance today. However, high insurance rates can disguise wide variation in what is covered and what it costs. In this essay, an Australian Masters in Public Health student from the University of Hawai‘i considers the strengths and weaknesses of insurance coverage in the US health-care system when her friend “Peter” becomes seriously ill. PMID:27688955

  1. Cyber threats to health information systems: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luna, Raul; Rhine, Emily; Myhra, Matthew; Sullivan, Ross; Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2016-01-01

    Recent legislation empowering providers to embrace the electronic exchange of health information leaves the healthcare industry increasingly vulnerable to cybercrime. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the biggest threats to healthcare via cybercrime. The rationale behind this systematic review is to provide a framework for future research by identifying themes and trends of cybercrime in the healthcare industry. The authors conducted a systematic search through the CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases to gather literature relative to cyber threats in healthcare. All authors reviewed the articles collected and excluded literature that did not focus on the objective. Researchers selected and examined 19 articles for common themes. The most prevalent cyber-criminal activity in healthcare is identity theft through data breach. Other concepts identified are internal threats, external threats, cyber-squatting, and cyberterrorism. The industry has now come to rely heavily on digital technologies, which increase risks such as denial of service and data breaches. Current healthcare cyber-security systems do not rival the capabilities of cyber criminals. Security of information is a costly resource and therefore many HCOs may hesitate to invest what is required to protect sensitive information.

  2. Meeting threats to global health: a call for American leadership.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon R; Fox, Renée C

    2005-01-01

    Although the application of major biomedical advances has yielded spectacular results for individual health, there has been little improvement in the health of whole populations. There is a "back to the future" irony in the fact that at the inception of the 21st century, the eruption and spread of a multitude of "old" and "new" infectious diseases has become the most serious global threat to the health of humankind. At this historical juncture, the United States is the country with the most potential for favorably influencing global health and health care. Although there are historical, cultural, economic, and political factors that impede the United States from rising to this challenge, there is both a moral imperative and a rational long-term self-interest basis for the U.S. medical profession and government to exercise leadership in facing the health challenges of tragic and genocidal proportions that threaten everyone in an increasingly interdependent world.

  3. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L.; Barnes, Michael D.; Davis, Siena F.; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes. PMID:28824899

  4. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    PubMed

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  5. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Canyon, Deon V

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. To meet these complex needs, the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health, the World Health Organization, and the Institute of Medicine promote systems thinking as the only sensible means to respond to issues that greatly exceed the normal capacity of health and medical services. This paper agrees with the application of systems thinking but argues that health organizations have misunderstood and misapplied systems thinking to the extent that the term has become meaningless. This paper presents the basic constructs of systems thinking, explains why systems thinking has been misapplied, examines some misapplications of systems thinking in health, and suggests how the concept can be applied correctly to medicine and public health to achieve the reason it was adopted in the first place. PMID:24377080

  6. Arsenic and human health: epidemiologic progress and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Argos, Maria; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H

    2012-09-10

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide, including severely affected populations in South and Southeast Asia. Although arsenic is an established human carcinogen and has been associated with a multitude of health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, a mode of action has yet to be determined for some aspects of arsenic toxicity. Herein, we emphasize the role of recent genetic and molecular epidemiologic investigations of arsenic toxicity. Additionally, we discuss considerations for the public health impacts of arsenic exposure through drinking water with respect to primary and secondary prevention efforts.

  7. Transforming Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    ALDOUS, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Historical assessments of the Occupation’s efforts to tackle enteric diseases (cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid and dysentery) have generally reflected a celebratory narrative of US-inspired public health reforms, strongly associated with the head of the Public Health and Welfare Section, Crawford F. Sams. Close inspection of the documentary record, however, reveals much greater continuity with pre-war Japanese public health practices than has hitherto been acknowledged. Indeed, there are strong grounds for disputing American claims of novelty and innovation in such areas as immunisation, particularly in relation to typhoid vaccine, and environmental sanitation, where disparaging comments about the careless use of night soil and a reluctance to control flies and other disease vectors reveal more about the politics of public health reform than the reality of pre-war practices. Likewise, the representation of American-inspired sanitary teams as clearly distinct from and far superior to traditional sanitary associations (eisei kumiai) was closer to propaganda than an accurate rendering of past and present developments. PMID:19048809

  8. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  9. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  10. Neuroenhancing public health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2014-06-01

    One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE). The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of 'cosmetic neurology', where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to (as many as 25% of US students already use nootropic cognitive enhancers such as ritalin). However, the potential for CE to improve public health has been neglected. This paper examines the prospect of improving health outcomes through CE among sections of the population where health inequalities are particularly pronounced. I term this enhancement of the public's health through CE 'neuroenhancing health'. It holds great promise, but raises several ethical issues. This paper provides an outline of these issues and related philosophical problems. These include the potential effectiveness of CE in reducing health inequalities; issues concerning autonomy and free will; whether moral enhancement might be more effective than CE in reducing health inequalities; and the problem of how to provide such CE, including the issue of whether to provide targeted or universal coverage.

  11. Managing facility risk: external threats and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Reid, Daniel J; Reid, William H

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and clinical administrators should have a basic understanding of physical and financial risk to mental health facilities related to external physical threat, including actions usually viewed as "terrorism" and much more common sources of violence. This article refers to threats from mentally ill persons and those acting out of bizarre or misguided "revenge," extortionists and other outright criminals, and perpetrators usually identified as domestic or international terrorists. The principles apply both to relatively small and contained acts (such as a patient or ex-patient attacking a staff member) and to much larger events (such as bombings and armed attack), and are relevant to facilities both within and outside the U.S. Patient care and accessibility to mental health services rest not only on clinical skills, but also on a place to practice them and an organized system supported by staff, physical facilities, and funding. Clinicians who have some familiarity with the non-clinical requirements for care are in a position to support non-clinical staff in preventing care from being interrupted by external threats or events such as terrorist activity, and/or to serve at the interface of facility operations and direct clinical care. Readers should note that this article is an introduction to the topic and cannot address all local, state and national standards for hospital safety, or insurance providers' individual facility requirements. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  13. Assuring a strong foundation for our nation's public health systems.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Zahner, Susan J; Kulbok, Pamela; Merrill, Jacqueline; Kub, Joan

    A strong public health infrastructure is necessary to assure that every community is capable of carrying out core public health functions (assessment of population health, assurance of accessible and equitable health resources, and development of policies to address population health) to create healthy conditions. Yet, due to budget cuts and inconsistent approaches to base funding, communities are losing critical prevention and health promotion services and staff that deliver them. This article describes key components of and current threats to our public health infrastructure and suggests actions necessary to strengthen public health systems and improve population health. National nursing and public health organizations have a duty to advocate for policies supporting strong prevention systems, which are crucial for well-functioning health care systems and are fundamental goals of the nursing profession. We propose strengthening alliances between nursing organizations and public health systems to assure that promises of a reformed health system are achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanotechnology and public health.

    PubMed

    Matsudai, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    Nanotechnology is developing very quickly, and Japan is in many respects leading the world in this convergence of nanoscale engineering techniques. The public health community in Japan must start to think about the public health impacts of nanotechnology over the next 20 years. The responsibility for the benefits and the harms of nanotechnology lies with government, with corporations and the business community, with scientists and specialists in all related fields, and with NPOs and the public. There are very many questions of public health which are not yet being asked about nanotechnology. If nanoparticles are to be used in cosmetics, food production and packaging, how will they react or interact with the human skin and organs? What chemical-toxic effects on life might there be from the nanoparticles in car tires and vehicle plastic mouldings when they are disposed of by incineration? Will they pass into the soil and groundwater and enter into the food-chain? It is now an urgent ethical demand, based on the precautionary principle, that Japan join the governments of the world to take an intergovernmental initiative to intervene in the further development, production and marketing of nanotechnological products with precautionary research and regulation.

  15. Publication Bias: A Threat to the Objective Report of Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri

    2009-01-01

    Ethical practices in education and research should take into consideration the publication of results that failed to conform to popular theories and models. This paper focuses on issues related to publication bias. It is possible that researchers are unaware of the threats publication bias poses to the validity and objectivity of research. [The…

  16. Health at the ballot box: disease threat does not predict attractiveness preference in British politicians

    PubMed Central

    Renberg, Adam

    2016-01-01

    According to disease avoidance theory, selective pressures have shaped adaptive behaviours to avoid people who might transmit infections. Such behavioural immune defence strategies may have social and societal consequences. Attractiveness is perceived as a heuristic cue of good health, and the relative importance of attractiveness is predicted to increase during high disease threat. Here, we investigated whether politicians' attractiveness is more important for electoral success when disease threat is high, in an effort to replicate earlier findings from the USA. We performed a cross-sectional study of 484 members of the House of Commons from England and Wales. Publicly available sexiness ratings (median 5883 ratings/politician) were regressed on measures of disease burden, operationalized as infant mortality, life expectancy and self-rated health. Infant mortality in parliamentary constituencies did not significantly predict sexiness of elected members of parliament (p = 0.08), nor did life expectancy (p = 0.06), nor self-rated health (p = 0.55). Subsample analyses failed to provide further support for the hypothesis. In conclusion, an attractive leader effect was not amplified by disease threat in the UK and these results did not replicate those of earlier studies from the USA concerning the relationship between attractiveness, disease threat and voting preference. PMID:27069671

  17. Frightfully funny: combining threat and humour in health messages for men and women.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Janssen, Loes

    2017-09-27

    It is imperative for public health to investigate what factors may reduce defensive responses and increase the effectiveness of health information. The present research investigated gender differences in responses to threatening health-promoting information communicated with humour. Male and female participants were exposed to a health message stressing the negative consequences of binge drinking (Experiment 1; N = 209) or caffeine consumption (Experiment 2; N = 242), that did or did not contain a funny visual metaphor (Experiment 1) or a slapstick cartoon (Experiment 2). Message evaluation, message attention, and attitudes and intentions towards the behaviour were measured. Results showed that health messages were more persuasive when communicated with humour, although humour played a different role for men and women. Whereas men responded more in line with message goals when the message combined high threat with humour, women preferred the low threat humour messages. By uncovering the moderating role of gender as a key audience characteristic, this research contributes to designing effective future health campaigns and provides important insights for future studies investigating the underlying mechanisms responsible for the different effects of threat and humour appeals for men and women.

  18. New technology for early detection of health threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern, Šárka O.; Lilienthal, Gerald W.

    2008-04-01

    Governmental agencies charged with protecting the health of the population and agriculture have several main strategic objectives including the detection of harmful agents, the identification of vulnerable biological targets, the prediction of health outcomes and the development of countermeasures. New technologies are urgently needed in several critical areas of bio-chemical defense: economical and minimally invasive biosensors for field use in humans and other species important for agriculture and infrastructure, universal analytical platforms for broad-based, early warnings of threats and technologies guiding the development of countermeasures. A new technology called Stress Response Profiling (SRP) was recently developed by the Gaia Medical Institute. SRP provides a universal analytical platform for monitoring health status based on measurements of physiological stress. The platform is implemented through handheld devices that can be used for noninvasive detection of early-stage health problems. This paper summarizes SRP features, advantages and potential benefits for critical areas of homeland defense.

  19. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  20. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong

    2014-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately half the births in the nation as well as locally. By providing nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and foods in addition to referrals, WIC plays a crucial role in promoting lifetime health for women, infants and children. WIC helps achieve national public health goals such as reducing premature births and infant mortality, increasing breastfeeding, and reducing maternal and childhood overweight. Though individuals and families can self-refer into WIC, physicians and allied health professionals have the opportunity and are encouraged to promote awareness of WIC and refer families in their care. PMID:25285258

  1. Media, racism and public health psychology.

    PubMed

    Nairn, Raymond; Pega, Frank; McCreanor, Tim; Rankine, Jenny; Barnes, Angela

    2006-03-01

    International literature has established that racism contributes to ill-health of migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples. Racism generally negates wellbeing, adversely affecting physical and psychological health. Numerous studies have shown that media contribute marginalizing particular ethnic and cultural groups depicting them primarily as problems for and threats to the dominant. This articles frames media representations of, and their effect on, the indigenous Maori of Aotearoa, New Zealand within the ongoing processes of colonization. We argue that reflects the media contribution to maintenance and naturalisation of colonial relationships and seek to include critical media scholarship in a critical public health psychology.

  2. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whelen, A Christian; Kitagawa, Kent; Maddock, Jay; Hayes, Donald; St John, Tonya Lowery; Rajan, Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    Chronically understaffed public health laboratories depend on a decreasing number of employees who must assume broader responsibilities in order to sustain essential functions for the many clients the laboratories support. Prospective scientists considering a career in public health are often not aware of the requirements associated with working in a laboratory regulated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). The purpose of this pilot internship was two-fold; introduce students to operations in a regulated laboratory early enough in their academics so that they could make good career decisions, and evaluate internship methodology as one possible solution to workforce shortages. Four interns were recruited from three different local universities, and were paired with an experienced State Laboratories Division (SLD) staff mentor. Students performed tasks that demonstrated the importance of CLIA regulations for 10–15 hours per week over a 14 week period. Students also attended several directed group sessions on regulatory lab practice and quality systems. Both interns and mentors were surveyed periodically during the semester. Surveys of mentors and interns indicated overall positive experiences. One-on-one pairing of experienced public health professionals and students seems to be a mutually beneficial arrangement. Interns reported that they would participate if the internship was lower paid, unpaid, or for credit only. The internship appeared to be an effective tool to expose students to employment in CLIA-regulated laboratories, and potentially help address public health laboratory staffing shortfalls. Longer term follow up with multiple classes of interns may provide a more informed assessment. PMID:23386992

  3. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-01-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  4. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-08-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  5. Public health through a different lens.

    PubMed

    Deber, Raisa; McDougall, Christopher; Wilson, Kumanan

    2007-01-01

    Although public health in Canada faces concerns similar to those noted by Tilson and Berkowitz in the US, a review we conducted of how public health is financed and delivered in Canada also highlights some key differences. In both systems, public health labours under similar disadvantages: it is invisible when it succeeds; it has overtones of a "nanny state" and it focuses on often unpopular vulnerable populations. Prevention is always at risk of being raided to finance treatment. Yet, Canada, because there are fewer financial barriers to receiving medically necessary personal services, can focus more attention on what Tilson and Berkowitz term "the ecology of health." We highlight some of the strengths and ongoing challenges of the Canadian public health system. We conclude that the issue appears less the need to measure performance, than the recognition that one size does not fit all. In particular, for threats to public health that transcend borders, local failure can affect wider populations and suggests a need to look beyond local, provincial or national sovereignty. Public health is heterogeneous, and many roads may lead us to the promised land.

  6. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Donald K; Calhoun, Candice R; Joseph, Lin; Farnsworth, JoAnn Y; Arakaki, Kimberly B

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai‘i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai‘i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed. The Collaborative has completed a strategic plan and accompanying Logic Model, The First 1,000 Days, aimed at achieving the outcomes of 8% reduction in preterm births and 4% reduction in infant mortality. To date over 120 people across Hawai‘i have been involved in the Collaborative. These members include physicians and clinicians, public health planners and providers, insurance providers and health care administrators. The work is divided into three primary areas and coordinated by a cross sector leadership team. Work is specific, outcome driven, informed by data and primarily accomplished in small work groups. PMID:27738566

  7. Canada: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Little, J; Potter, B; Allanson, J; Caulfield, T; Carroll, J C; Wilson, B

    2009-01-01

    Canada has a diverse population of 32 million people and a universal, publicly funded health care system provided through provincial and territorial health insurance plans. Public health activities are resourced at provincial/territorial level with strategic coordination from national bodies. Canada has one of the longest-standing genetics professional specialty organizations and is one of the few countries offering master's level training designed specifically for genetic counselors. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services with variable uptake. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and conditions screened for. The last decade has witnessed a four-fold increase in requests for genetic testing, especially for late onset diseases. Tests are performed in provincial laboratories or outside Canada. There is wide variation in participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are few regulatory frameworks in Canada that are directly relevant to genetics testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Canada is conducted by a diverse range of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Several large-scale population cohort studies are underway or planned, with initiatives to harmonize their conduct and the management of ethical issues, both within Canada and with similar projects in other countries.

  8. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Victoria Y; Le‘au, Ruth Faioso

    2015-01-01

    Independent and American Samoa have a shared cultural, genetic, ethnolinguistic, and historical background but have been politically separated since 1899. In this essay, we examine the health of these two polities and identify two key health patterns that have emerged even as American Samoa has achieved a higher per capita income than Independent Samoa. Whereas the gender gap in life expectancy at birth has narrowed in Independent Samoa, this gap has not narrowed in American Samoa and its male life expectancy now lags behind that of Independent Samoa. Neonatal mortality rates in American Samoa are slightly higher than in Independent Samoa. These patterns may be linked to the higher rates of obesity and urbanization observed in American Samoa compared to Independent Samoa, as well as the differing political and institutional arrangements of the two polities. Limited data remains a persistent challenge to conducting analysis of public health in the Pacific islands, particularly in American Samoa. PMID:26019989

  9. Public health significance of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them.

  10. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  11. Public health ethics. Public justification and public trust.

    PubMed

    Childress, J F; Bernheim, R Gaare

    2008-02-01

    Viewing public health as a political and social undertaking as well as a goal of this activity, the authors develop some key elements in a framework for public health ethics, with particular attention to the formation of public health policies and to decisions by public health officials that are not fully determined by established public policies. They concentrate on ways to approach ethical conflicts about public health interventions. These conflicts arise because, in addition to the value of public health, societies have a wide range of other values that sometimes constrain the selection of means to achieve public health goals. The authors analyze three approaches for resolving these conflicts (absolutist, contextualist, and presumptivist), argue for the superiority of the presumptivist approach, and briefly explicate five conditions for rebutting presumptions in a process of public justification. In a liberal, pluralistic, democratic society, a presumptivist approach that engages the public in the context of a variety of relationships can provide a foundation for public trust, which is essential to public health as a political and social practice as well as to achieving public health goals.

  12. Threat to Scientific Publication Seen in GPO Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Robin Marantz

    1979-01-01

    The controversy concerning H.R. 4572, the Public Printing Reorganization Act, is presented; the bill is scheduled to appear before Congress this month. The belief among the scientific community and publishing industry is that it will jeopardize the distribution of publications of scientists' research. (SA)

  13. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    PubMed

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-06-01

    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  14. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Roser-Renouf, Connie; Maibach, Edward W.; Li, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources. Methods We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011–2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%), and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%). Results Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed. PMID:26991658

  15. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Roser-Renouf, Connie; Maibach, Edward W; Li, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources. We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011-2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%), and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%). Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed.

  16. Lead in ammunition: a persistent threat to health and conservation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C K; Kelly, T R; Rideout, B A

    2013-12-01

    Many scavenging bird populations have experienced abrupt declines across the globe, and intensive recovery activities have been necessary to sustain several species, including the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Exposure to lead from lead-based ammunition is widespread in condors and lead toxicosis presents an immediate threat to condor recovery, accounting for the highest proportion of adult mortality. Lead contamination of carcasses across the landscape remains a serious threat to the health and sustainability of scavenging birds, and here we summarize recent evidence for exposure to lead-based ammunition and health implications across many species. California condors and other scavenging species are sensitive indicators of the occurrence of lead contaminated carcasses in the environment. Transdisciplinary science-based approaches have been critical to managing lead exposure in California condors and paving the way for use of non-lead ammunition in California. Similar transdisciplinary approaches are now needed to translate the science informing on this issue and establish education and outreach efforts that focus on concerns brought forth by key stakeholders.

  17. Public health implications of substandard correctional health care.

    PubMed

    Restum, Zulficar Gregory

    2005-10-01

    US citizens face a growing threat of contracting communicable diseases owing to the high recidivism rate in state and federal prisons, poor screening and treatment of prisoners, and inferior follow-up health care upon their release. Insufficient education about communicable diseases--for prisoners and citizens alike--and other problems, such as prejudice against prisoners, escalating costs, and an unreliable correctional health care delivery system for inmates, all contribute to a public health problem that requires careful examination and correction for the protection of everyone involved.

  18. Regulatory Underpinnings of Global Health Security: FDA's Roles in Preventing, Detecting, and Responding to Global Health Threats

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Katherine C.; Maher, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, health officials from around the world announced the Global Health Security Agenda, a critical effort to strengthen national and global systems to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats and to foster stronger collaboration across borders. With its increasing global roles and broad range of regulatory responsibilities in ensuring the availability, safety, and security of medical and food products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is engaged in a range of efforts in support of global health security. This article provides an overview of FDA's global health security roles, focusing on its responsibilities related to the development and use of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for preventing, detecting, and responding to global infectious disease and other public health emergency threats. The article also discusses several areas—antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and supply chain integrity—in which FDA's global health security roles continue to evolve and extend beyond MCMs and, in some cases, beyond traditional infectious disease threats. PMID:25254912

  19. Potential publication bias in the stereotype threat literature: Comment on Nguyen and Ryan (2008).

    PubMed

    Zigerell, L J

    2017-08-01

    Stereotype threat is a widely cited psychological phenomenon with purported important real-world consequences. Reanalysis of data from the Nguyen and Ryan (2008) stereotype threat meta-analysis indicated the presence of small study effects in which the effect size for less precise studies was larger than the effect size for more precise studies. Four methods to adjust the meta-analysis effect size for potential publication bias produced divergent estimates, from essentially no change, to a 50% decrease, to a reduction of the estimated effect size to near zero. Caution is therefore warranted both for citing Nguyen and Ryan (2008) as evidence of a meaningful stereotype threat effect and for claiming that the stereotype threat effect size is negligible based on these adjustments, given that the detected small study effects might be due to unexplored moderators instead of publication bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Absinthe--is its history relevant for current public health?

    PubMed

    Huisman, Martijn; Brug, Johannes; Mackenbach, Johan

    2007-08-01

    This paper briefly addresses the history of the social experience with absinthe in France during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. We draw on some important parallels of this history with that of smoking to demonstrate that public health threats in the form of (ill-)health related behaviour recur in different disguises, while the social causes if these threats are left to endure. Probably the most important of the parallels between absinthe and smoking is their association with social disadvantage. Nevertheless, it appears that it is not yet fully realized that tackling these threats requires an equity approach.

  1. Evolution and public health

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptibility to infectious agents or diets have evolved and are being discovered with modern methods. Some of these evolutionary relations require a perspective of tens of thousands of years, whereas other changes are observable in real time. The implications and applications of evolutionary understanding are important to our current programs and policies for infectious disease surveillance, gene–environment interactions, and health disparities globally. PMID:19966311

  2. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  3. [Phonoaudiology in public health].

    PubMed

    Freire, R M

    1992-06-01

    An undestanding of the activities and functions of a speech therapist within the specific context of the Basic Health Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde) is sought. Difficulties relating to the introduction of a new service on the basis of one of the health professions that has not hitherto belonged to the group of categories which are traditionally incorporated in these same Basic Units. When the statistical data on the demand for speech therapy services by the population who attend health centres were considered, it was discovered that 32% were of schooling age and had been referred by schools, allegedly due to "learning problems". Closer contact with these children, through speech therapy, has brought a different aspect to light i.e. that one cannot consider as disturbance/deviation/problem/pathology written signs which constitute indications of the shock between the process of literacy and that of learning how to read and write. To understand the problem from the point of view of public health, a programme of teacher counselling is proposed, with the purpose of helping the school to clarify its role as co-constructor of the child's literacy process and of returning to the teacher the responsibility for the success and/or failure of teaching how to read and write. A similar programme is proposed for creches where coincidently, a greater proportion (44%) of the younger children (2 to 5 years of age) are seen to have difficulties in oral language development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai‘i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public. PMID:26279966

  5. Virtue ethics and public health: a practice-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2004-01-01

    Public health plays an important, albeit often unnoticed, role in protecting and promoting the health of populations. The activities of public health are complex, performed by multiple professionals, and range from the innocuous to the intrusive. Ethical analyses in public health reflect some of this complexity and fragmentation, with no one approach able to capture the full range of ethical considerations raised by public health activities. There are however, good reasons why we should pursue such analyses. Providing a robust ethical framework for public health may promote the identity and function of public health, address some of the shortcomings of utilitarianism, and help to combat the threat that public health faces through lack of political will in many parts of the world. In this paper I argue that Alasdair MacIntyre's account of practices and virtues can make a valuable contribution to public health ethics. The first part of the paper argues that public health may properly be described as the type of practice that provides an arena for the exercise of virtues. This is followed by an analysis of the three virtues of honesty, courage and justice in public health practice. Using virtue theory captures morally important elements of public health and helps to maintain awareness of significant moral values in the practice of public health. Such awareness is crucial in maintaining and defending the integrity of public health.

  6. Feminism and public health ethics

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, W A

    2006-01-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

  7. Feminism and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  8. NHV and child public health.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Lennart

    2015-08-01

    One of the main interests of the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in both education and research was child public health, i.e. an area based on the broad World Health Organisation (WHO) health ideology and on public health methods, while concentrating on the special needs and characteristics of children. The fields of study and action, training, research and service, had the ultimate task to consider the health of children in their full social, economic and political context. Regular courses on child public health were offered as part of the general program in Public Health from 1979 until the closing down of the school, named: Social Paediatrics; Child Health; Child Public Health; and finally, Measuring Children's Health - A Public Health Perspective. Numerous national, Nordic and international conferences were held, and several textbooks were written and edited. A major research project, NordChild, was initiated as a cross-sectional postal study of a random sample of children aged 2-17 years from the five Nordic countries, performed in 1984, 1996 and 2011. So far, 10 doctoral theses and more than 130 other publications from the studies have been produced. Furthermore, the Nordic Network on Research of Refugee Children was created, and a special interest has been devoted to indicators for children's health, both internationally, nationally and locally, which has been demonstrated in major EU projects as well as locally in Sweden and Greenland. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Climate change. A global threat to cardiopulmonary health.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mary B; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2014-03-01

    Recent changes in the global climate system have resulted in excess mortality and morbidity, particularly among susceptible individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease. These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. In this Pulmonary Perspective, motivated by the American Thoracic Society Committees on Environmental Health Policy and International Health, we review the global human health consequences of projected changes in climate for which there is a high level of confidence and scientific evidence of health effects, with a focus on cardiopulmonary health. We discuss how many of the climate-related health effects will disproportionally affect people from economically disadvantaged parts of the world, who contribute relatively little to CO2 emissions. Last, we discuss the financial implications of climate change solutions from a public health perspective and argue for a harmonized approach to clean air and climate change policies.

  10. Climate Change. A Global Threat to Cardiopulmonary Health

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, George D.; Balmes, John R.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the global climate system have resulted in excess mortality and morbidity, particularly among susceptible individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease. These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. In this Pulmonary Perspective, motivated by the American Thoracic Society Committees on Environmental Health Policy and International Health, we review the global human health consequences of projected changes in climate for which there is a high level of confidence and scientific evidence of health effects, with a focus on cardiopulmonary health. We discuss how many of the climate-related health effects will disproportionally affect people from economically disadvantaged parts of the world, who contribute relatively little to CO2 emissions. Last, we discuss the financial implications of climate change solutions from a public health perspective and argue for a harmonized approach to clean air and climate change policies. PMID:24400619

  11. Public health law in a new century: part II: public health powers and limits.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2000-06-14

    The Constitution allocates public health powers among the federal government and the states. Federal public health powers include the authority to tax, spend, and regulate interstate commerce. These powers enable the federal government to raise revenues, allocate resources, economically penalize risk behavior, and broadly regulate in the public's interest. States have an inherent authority to protect, preserve, and promote the health, safety, morals, and general welfare of the people, termed police powers. Police powers enable states to preserve the public health in areas ranging from injury and disease prevention to sanitation, waste disposal, and environmental protection. The Rehnquist Court has emphasized the limits of federal powers and the primacy of states in public health issues affecting local concerns. Finally, the Constitution safeguards individual interests in autonomy, privacy, liberty, and property. The Supreme Court often defers to public health authorities in matters of public health, but engages in strict scrutiny if government interferes with fundamental freedoms or discriminates against a suspect class. Provided that they act justly and reasonably to avert a serious health threat, the Court should cede to agencies the power to act for the communal good. JAMA. 2000.

  12. Global Climate Change and Children’s Health: Threats and Strategies for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry E.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Global climate change will have multiple effects on human health. Vulnerable populations—children, the elderly, and the poor—will be disproportionately affected. Objective We reviewed projected impacts of climate change on children’s health, the pathways involved in these effects, and prevention strategies. Data sources We assessed primary studies, review articles, and organizational reports. Data synthesis Climate change is increasing the global burden of disease and in the year 2000 was responsible for > 150,000 deaths worldwide. Of this disease burden, 88% fell upon children. Documented health effects include changing ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue; increased diarrheal and respiratory disease; increased morbidity and mortality from extreme weather; changed exposures to toxic chemicals; worsened poverty; food and physical insecurity; and threats to human habitation. Heat-related health effects for which research is emerging include diminished school performance, increased rates of pregnancy complications, and renal effects. Stark variation in these outcomes is evident by geographic region and socioeconomic status, and these impacts will exacerbate health disparities. Prevention strategies to reduce health impacts of climate change include reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation through multiple public health interventions. Conclusions Further quantification of the effects of climate change on children’s health is needed globally and also at regional and local levels through enhanced monitoring of children’s environmental health and by tracking selected indicators. Climate change preparedness strategies need to be incorporated into public health programs. PMID:20947468

  13. Global climate change and children's health: threats and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Perry E; Landrigan, Philip J

    2011-03-01

    Global climate change will have multiple effects on human health. Vulnerable populations-children, the elderly, and the poor-will be disproportionately affected. We reviewed projected impacts of climate change on children's health, the pathways involved in these effects, and prevention strategies. We assessed primary studies, review articles, and organizational reports. Climate change is increasing the global burden of disease and in the year 2000 was responsible for > 150,000 deaths worldwide. Of this disease burden, 88% fell upon children. Documented health effects include changing ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue; increased diarrheal and respiratory disease; increased morbidity and mortality from extreme weather; changed exposures to toxic chemicals; worsened poverty; food and physical insecurity; and threats to human habitation. Heat-related health effects for which research is emerging include diminished school performance, increased rates of pregnancy complications, and renal effects. Stark variation in these outcomes is evident by geographic region and socioeconomic status, and these impacts will exacerbate health disparities. Prevention strategies to reduce health impacts of climate change include reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation through multiple public health interventions. Further quantification of the effects of climate change on children's health is needed globally and also at regional and local levels through enhanced monitoring of children's environmental health and by tracking selected indicators. Climate change preparedness strategies need to be incorporated into public health programs.

  14. Understanding the threats posed by non-native species: public vs. conservation managers.

    PubMed

    Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Burnard, Dean; Andreou, Demetra; Britton, J Robert

    2013-01-01

    Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone.

  15. Understanding the Threats Posed by Non-Native Species: Public vs. Conservation Managers

    PubMed Central

    Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Burnard, Dean; Andreou, Demetra; Britton, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone. PMID:23341931

  16. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  17. [Prostitution and public health].

    PubMed

    Aron, E; Froge, E

    1991-03-01

    The attitude of public services concerning prostitution was inspired by the fear of venereal diseases. In regimenting prostitution, the state recognised that they were trying to control it. This law was a total failure and was abolished in 1946. The worrying development of sexually contagious diseases (AIDS) will start again the that was dormant with the victory of antibiotherapy on venereal diseases. The proposition to return to regimentation with there opening of "maisons closes" will also restart the debate. These measures will be inefficient against illicit prostitution and are in contradiction with our convictions and morals, and of course with our international obligations. Prostitution is now part of our society and is longer illegal, but soliciting in a public place is still an offence. The prostitute is judged as being permanently in breach of the law, contrary to the opposite sex where no responsibility is acknowledged. We proposed to associate judges, doctors, police force and prostitutes to give some consideration and think of this problem so that this part of the population do not stay on the fringe of our society and that they can have the same rights, particularly the right for housing and health services, as, unfortunately the majority of prostitutes do not have "social security".

  18. Public health and media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns.

  19. Public Health Department Accreditation Implementation: Transforming Public Health Department Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Kaye; Lownik, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In response to a call for improved quality and consistency in public health departments, the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) is leading a voluntary public health accreditation initiative in the United States. The public health department accreditation system will implement a comprehensive set of standards that set uniform performance expectations for health departments to provide the services necessary to keep communities healthy. Continuous quality improvement is a major component of PHAB accreditation, demonstrating a commitment to empower and encourage public health departments to continuously improve their performance. The accreditation process was tested in 30 health departments around the country in 2009 and 2010, and was launched on a national level in September 2011 at the National Press Club in Washington, DC. PMID:22390438

  20. SOIL CADMIUM AS A THREAT TO HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cd contamination of soils has been a public concern since the demonstration that soil Cd from Zn mine wastes which contaminated rice paddies had caused excessive Cd absorption and adverse health effects in members of subsistence farm families who consumed rice grown on the contam...

  1. SOIL CADMIUM AS A THREAT TO HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cd contamination of soils has been a public concern since the demonstration that soil Cd from Zn mine wastes which contaminated rice paddies had caused excessive Cd absorption and adverse health effects in members of subsistence farm families who consumed rice grown on the contam...

  2. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Lisa J; McGee, Amelia; Baird, Shelagh; Viloria, Joanne; Nagatsuka, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Hawai‘i (HMHB) is a local nonprofit organization dedicated to eliminating health disparities and improving Hawai‘i's maternal, child, and family health though collaborative efforts in public education, advocacy, and partner development. A review of HMHB services revealed overwhelming requests for both breastfeeding and postpartum depression (PPD) support. The purpose of this article is to present the findings of two surveys that highlight the awareness of existing breastfeeding and PPD resources based on both parents and health care providers; perceptions of where and how care is accessed; and whether mothers throughout Hawai‘i have equitable access to support. Results helped assess gaps in resources and determine barriers to care, as well as provide suggestions for new services or resources. Web-based surveys were sent to 450 providers and 2,955 parents with response rates of 8.9% and 4.0%, respectively. Less than half of parent participants reported that their health provider discussed PPD with them. Participants identified a number of barriers to increasing access and utilization of PPD support resources, including: not feeling like symptoms were server enough, feeling embarrassed to seek help, not knowing where to find support/information, and not able to afford or insurance wouldn't cover PPD support. Only 40% of providers reported screening for PPD and 33% felt they had not received adequate training. Barriers identified by providers were a lack of trained providers, lack of PPD specific support groups, cultural stigma, and lack of PPD awareness among providers. Of the women who did not exclusively breastfeed for the full six-month recommendation, the most common breastfeeding concerns included: perceptions of low milk supply; lack of lactation support; medical reasons; and pain. Providers described an environment of uneven distribution of resources, general lack of awareness of available resources, along

  3. Native Americans in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Family Spirit Project provides health and parenting education and in-home support to Navajo and Apache teen parents. The public-health careers of Native professionals allied with the project are described, including a public health administrator, a trainer of field workers, and a medical researcher specializing in communicable diseases that…

  4. Public Health Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report documents issues related to the work of the Florida Comprehensive Health Professions Education Plan. Public health education prepares students for initial employment or advancement in a number of positions. While the public health work force is primarily employed in various units in local, state, and federal governments, industry also…

  5. TOWARDS EARLY DISCOVERY OF SALIENT HEALTH THREATS: A SOCIAL MEDIA EMOTION CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE.

    PubMed

    Ofoghi, Bahadorreza; Mann, Meghan; Verspoor, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Online social media microblogs may be a valuable resource for timely identification of critical ad hoc health-related incidents or serious epidemic outbreaks. In this paper, we explore emotion classification of Twitter microblogs related to localized public health threats, and study whether the public mood can be effectively utilized in early discovery or alarming of such events. We analyse user tweets around recent incidents of Ebola, finding differences in the expression of emotions in tweets posted prior to and after the incidents have emerged. We also analyse differences in the nature of the tweets in the immediately affected area as compared to areas remote to the events. The results of this analysis suggest that emotions in social media microblogging data (from Twitter in particular) may be utilized effectively as a source of evidence for disease outbreak detection and monitoring.

  6. Health for all: a public health vision.

    PubMed Central

    McBeath, W H

    1991-01-01

    The approach of a millennial passage invites public health to a review of past performance and a preview of future prospects toward assuring a healthy public. Since the 1974 Canadian Lalonde report, the best national plans for health progress have emphasized disease prevention and health promotion. WHO's multinational Health for All by the Year 2000 promotes basic health services essential to leading a socially and economically productive life. Healthy People 2000, the latest US guide, establishes three goals: increase healthy life span, reduce health disparities, and achieve universal access to preventive services. Its objectives can be used to excite public understanding, equip program development, evaluate progress, and encourage public accountability for health initiatives. Needed is federal leadership in defining requisite action and securing necessary resources. Elsewhere a "new public health" emphasizes community life-style and multisectoral "healthy public policy." In the United States, a national health program is needed to achieve equity in access to personal health care. Even more essential is equitable sharing in basic health determinants in society--nutritious food, basic education, safe water, decent housing, secure employment, adequate income, and peace. Vital to such a future is able and active leadership now from governments and public health professionals. PMID:1746649

  7. Social marketing in public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  8. The Professions of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    Law has been an essential tool of public health practice for centuries. From the 19th century until recent decades, however, most histories of public health described, approvingly, the progression of the field from marginally useful policy, made by persons learned in law, to effective policy, made by persons employing the methods of biomedical and behavioral science. Historians have recently begun to change this standard account by documenting the centrality of law in the development of public health practice. The revised history of public health offers additional justification for the program of public health law reform proposed in this issue of the Journal by Gostin and by Moulton and Matthews, who describe the new program in public health law of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:11527756

  9. Health for all: a fundamental goal of public health in our region.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation 30 years ago, the mission of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health has been promoting "health for all" through public health. "Health for all" became the theme of Walter Patrick's public health career and inspired his contribution to APACPH. However, the universality of health care is now under threat, more from economists and politicians than public health workers. Health for all remains a continuing challenge for all public health workers in our region. Progress is being made toward this goal as life expectancy in the Western Pacific has increased from 64 to 78 in the past 3 decades. Prof Walter Patrick was strong public health advocate, and this review was written as a tribute to good friend and inspiring colleague who believed in, and worked for "health for all."

  10. Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings.

  11. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health.

    PubMed

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-04-29

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees' natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests (Nosema, viruses, Varroa destructor, and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency.

  12. Fungal contamination in swine: a potential occupational health threat.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2013-01-01

    Poor air quality in a pig-confinement building may potentially place farmers at higher health risk than other workers for exposure to airborne pollutants that may reach infectious levels. The aim of this study was to assess worker exposure to fungi in indoor environments in Portuguese swine buildings. Air samples from 7 swine farms were collected at a flow rate of 140 L/min, at 1 m height, onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (MEA). Surfaces samples of the same indoor sites were obtained by swabbing the surfaces. Samples from the floor covering were also collected from four of seven swine farms. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5-7 days. After lab processing and incubation of obtained samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), CFU/cm(2), and CFU/g and qualitative results were determined with identification of isolated fungal species. Aspergillus versicolor was the most frequent species found in air (21%), followed by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17%) and Penicillium sp. (14%). Aspergillus versicolor was also the most frequent species noted on surfaces (26.6%), followed by Cladosporium sp. (22.4%) and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17.5%). Chrysosporium was the most frequently found genera in the new floor covering (38.5%), while Mucor was the most prevalent genera (25.1%) in used floor covering. Our findings corroborate a potential occupational health threat due to fungi exposure and suggest the need for a preventive strategy.

  13. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S.; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees’ natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests (Nosema, viruses, Varroa destructor, and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency. PMID:28468244

  14. Reproductive health and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2007-10-01

    Individuals' reproductive choices are private matters, but sexual conduct and pregnancy impose significant public health burdens. Ethical principles of public health are distinguishable from principles applied in modern bioethics. Bioethical principles have been developed at the clinical or microethical level, affecting relations among individuals, whereas pubic health ethics applies at the population-based or macroethical level. Resolution of issues, for instance of consent to healthcare interventions and preservation of privacy, is different in public health practice from in clinical medicine. Public health aspects of human reproduction concern reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in resource-poor countries, and the contribution to high rates of each of unsafe abortion, most prevalent where abortion laws are restrictive. Further aspects of public health ethics concern limited access to contraceptive services, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, causes of infertility, especially due to STIs, and responses to each of these concerns.

  15. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Marisela B

    2016-04-01

    Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.

  17. Reenergizing Public Health Through Precaution

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, David; Tickner, Joel

    2001-01-01

    The precautionary principle has provoked a spirited debate among environmentalists worldwide, but it is equally relevant to public health and shares much with primary prevention. Its central components are (1) taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; (2) shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; (3) exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and (4) increasing public participation in decision making. Precaution is relevant to public health, because it can help to prevent unintended consequences of well-intentioned public health interventions by ensuring a more thorough assessment of the problems and proposed solutions. It can also be a positive force for change. Three aspects are stressed: promoting the search for safer technologies, encouraging greater democracy and openness in public health policy, and stimulating reevaluation of the methods of public health science. PMID:11527753

  18. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  19. 25 CFR 1000.304 - What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.304 What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety? Imminent jeopardy to public health and safety means an immediate and significant threat of serious harm to...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.304 - What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.304 What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety? Imminent jeopardy to public health and safety means an immediate and significant threat of serious harm to...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.304 - What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.304 What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety? Imminent jeopardy to public health and safety means an immediate and significant threat of serious harm to...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.304 - What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.304 What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety? Imminent jeopardy to public health and safety means an immediate and significant threat of serious harm to...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.304 - What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.304 What is imminent jeopardy to public health and safety? Imminent jeopardy to public health and safety means an immediate and significant threat of serious harm to...

  4. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  5. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    PubMed

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    mticrobiologys. food tox icolmpx. public health. molecular biology, cell biology. ecoinomilcs. microbial genetics . parasitol- ox.In fect ions diseases...infectious agents are subject to genetic change and evolution. This quality is manifested by their ability to infect new hosts, by alterations in...similar organismns). its Molecular biology. rate of transmission, pathogenesis. how the humnan inullutie system responds to natural infection , and the

  7. Public health week: marketing the concept of public health.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Margolis, L A

    1992-01-01

    The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in expanding public health services to a changing community. Health promotion was acknowledged as a critical target of the strategic planning process. Among the most significant results of the health promotion directive was the establishment of an annual Public Health Week in Los Angeles County. Beginning in 1988, 1 week per year was selected to enhance the community's awareness of public health programs and the leadership role PHP&S plays in providing these programs to nearly 9 million residents of Los Angeles County. Events in Public Health Week include a professional lecture series and the honoring of an outstanding public health activist and a media personality who has fostered health promotion. Other free community activities such as mobile clinics, screenings, and health fairs are held throughout the county. With intensive media coverage of Public Health Week, PHP&S has been aggressive in promoting its own services and accomplishments while also educating the community on vital wellness issues. The strategic methodology employed by PHP&S, with its emphasis on long-range proactive planning, is receiving national recognition and could be adopted by similar agencies wishing to enhance their image and develop unique health promotion projects in their communities.

  8. The Role of Health Educators in Dealing with Biological Threats in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Sowby, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    Health educators play a key role in assisting the nation deal with and be prepared for potential biological attacks. This article summarizes information found in the literature about likely bioterrorist threats to the U.S. population and discusses the responsibilities of health educators in regard to these threats. Among the important roles health…

  9. The Psychological Effects of Pregnancy and Neonatal Health Threats on Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Henry S.; And Others

    This study followed a small group of children exposed to pre- and perinatal health threats to determine whether any psychological effects of the health threat could be identified and if so, whether there is potential in pediatric care to prevent such consequences. The 67 infants were all members of low income families. The tests used included the…

  10. The Psychological Effects of Pregnancy and Neonatal Health Threats on Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Henry S.; And Others

    This study followed a small group of children exposed to pre- and perinatal health threats to determine whether any psychological effects of the health threat could be identified and if so, whether there is potential in pediatric care to prevent such consequences. The 67 infants were all members of low income families. The tests used included the…

  11. Social media in public health.

    PubMed

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  12. Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong

    2014-01-01

    Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues. PMID:25506298

  13. Working together for public health.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Pompeo

    2009-06-01

    Italy's recent economic growth and strategic position in the Mediterranean Sea have made it a prime destination for immigrants and asylum seekers in Europe. Despite its well-developed health care system, statistics on foreign citizens' health are worrisome. In 1998 public health services were extended to illegal immigrants, giving them the right to necessary urgent and non-urgent medical assistance, even for a prolonged period. This paper examines a two-year joint intervention project between Centre for the Study and Research of Public Health (Mental Health), Local Health Agency ROMA E (LHA RME) and the non-governmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Rome.

  14. When Public Health Becomes Politicized.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Barron H

    2017-09-01

    Perhaps nothing symbolizes the current polarized political climate in the United States more than the world of public health. Public health schools and health departments are full of "true believers," people willing to crusade for any program designed to reduce morbidity and mortality. But in the "real world," proven programs and strategies-such as gun-control measures, universal vaccination, and improved traffic safety-are routinely thwarted. Why do critics oppose efforts to improve the public's health? History can provide some answers. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  15. Exploring the international arena of global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Threats posed by new, emerging or re-emerging communicable diseases are taking a global dimension, to which the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat has been responding with determination since 1995. Key to the global strategy for tackling epidemics across borders is the concept of global public health surveillance, which has been expanded and formalized by WHO and its technical partners through a number of recently developed instruments and initiatives. The adoption by the 58th World Health Assembly of the revised (2005) International Health Regulations provides the legal framework for mandating countries to link and coordinate their action through a universal network of surveillance networks. While novel environmental threats and outbreak-prone diseases have been increasingly identified during the past three decades, new processes of influence have appeared more recently, driven by the real or perceived threats of bio-terrorism and disruption of the global economy. Accordingly, the global surveillance agenda is being endorsed, and to some extent seized upon by new actors representing security and economic interests. This paper explores external factors influencing political commitment to comply with international health regulations and it illustrates adverse effects generated by: perceived threats to sovereignty, blurred international health agendas, lack of internationally recognized codes of conduct for outbreak investigations, and erosion of the impartiality and independence of international agencies. A companion paper (published in this issue) addresses the intrinsic difficulties that health systems of low-income countries are facing when submitted to the ever-increasing pressure to upgrade their public health surveillance capacity.

  16. No, Your Cat Isn't a Threat to Your Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163700.html No, Your Cat Isn't a Threat to Your Mental Health ... 22, 2017 TUESDAY, Feb. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cat owners can breathe a sigh of relief: Your ...

  17. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  18. Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shain, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While industrial wind turbines (IWTs) clearly raise issues concerning threats to the health of a few in contrast to claimed health benefits to many, the trade-off has not been fully considered in a public health framework. This article reviews public health ethics justifications for the licensing and installation of IWTs. It concludes that the…

  19. Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shain, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While industrial wind turbines (IWTs) clearly raise issues concerning threats to the health of a few in contrast to claimed health benefits to many, the trade-off has not been fully considered in a public health framework. This article reviews public health ethics justifications for the licensing and installation of IWTs. It concludes that the…

  20. NCDs, health promotion and public health.

    PubMed

    McQueen, David V

    2013-12-01

    Though not necessarily using the same terminology historically, people concerned with the public's health have long been addressing the social context of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the actions of promoting health. This commentary places the current interest in NCDs within that history and discusses the challenges that continue to face institutions in dealing with NCDs. It makes a particular plea for the role of health promotion as the area of public health that takes actions to address the global burden of NCDs. Without a health promotion focus, we will just continue to describe the NCD burden rather than reduce it.

  1. Assessing barriers to health insurance and threats to equity in comparative perspective: The Health Insurance Access Database

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Typologies traditionally used for international comparisons of health systems often conflate many system characteristics. To capture policy changes over time and by service in health systems regulation of public and private insurance, we propose a database containing explicit, standardized indicators of policy instruments. Methods The Health Insurance Access Database (HIAD) will collect policy information for ten OECD countries, over a range of eight health services, from 1990–2010. Policy indicators were selected through a comprehensive literature review which identified policy instruments most likely to constitute barriers to health insurance, thus potentially posing a threat to equity. As data collection is still underway, we present here the theoretical bases and methodology adopted, with a focus on the rationale underpinning the study instruments. Results These harmonized data will allow the capture of policy changes in health systems regulation of public and private insurance over time and by service. The standardization process will permit international comparisons of systems’ performance with regards to health insurance access and equity. Conclusion This research will inform and feed the current debate on the future of health care in developed countries and on the role of the private sector in these changes. PMID:22551599

  2. [Tuberculosis and refusal of treatment: resorting to legislation on serious health threats].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are regularly confronted with the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. For several years, the French public health authorities have been studying the possibility of compelling treatment or isolation, but no plan has been implemented even though European and American experiences have shown the effectiveness of restrictive measures. Neither the statutory exceptions to the principle of consent to medical treatment nor the conditions of implementation of "required care" allow legally binding measures against patients refusing care or isolation. The legislation on serious health threats has recently been applied to the situation of a refusal of treatment in the context of tuberculosis. It allowed the patient to be ordered to observe prescribed care and the possibility of forced isolation in the event of breach of this order. The legislation on serious health threats is a response to the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. However the opinion of the legal authority as to its necessity and proportionality to the risk remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  4. Emergency preparedness and public health systems lessons for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2008-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries, where emerging diseases often make their debut, are also likely to bear the harshest consequences of a potential influenza pandemic. Yet public health systems in developing countries are underfunded, understaffed, and in many cases struggling to deal with the existing burden of disease. As a result, developed countries are beginning to expand assistance for emergency preparedness to the developing world. Given developing countries' weak infrastructure and many competing public health priorities, it is not clear how to best direct these resources. Evidence from the U.S. and other developed countries suggests that some investments in bioterror and pandemic emergency preparedness, although initially implemented as vertical programs, have the potential to strengthen the general public health infrastructure. This experience may hold some lessons for how global funds for emergency preparedness could be invested in developing countries to support struggling public health systems in responding to current health priorities as well as potential future public health threats.

  5. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  6. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach.

    PubMed

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice.

  7. Pathways in dental public health.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven J

    2005-07-01

    Dental public health is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation. Dental public health has been defined as the "science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than as an individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis." This article will describe the many career and educational pathways dentists may follow to become irvolved in the practice of dental public health.

  8. Alaska public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2008-04-01

    The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act (Turning Point Act), published in September 2003, provides a comprehensive template for states seeking public health law modernization. This case study examines the political and policy efforts undertaken in Alaska following the development of the Turning Point Act. It is the first in a series of case studies to assess states' consideration of the Turning Point Act for the purpose of public health law reform. Through a comparative analysis of these case studies and ongoing legislative tracking in all fifty states, researchers can assess (1) how states codify the Turning Point Act into state law and (2) how these modernized state laws influence or change public health practice, leading to improved health outcomes.

  9. Health-Related Stereotype Threat Predicts Health Services Delays Among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Dampeer-Moore, Jodi; Van Allen, Katherine L.; Saunders, Darlene R.; Snowden, Cecelia B.; Johnson, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no published research has developed an individual difference measure of health-related stereotype threat (HRST). We adapted existing measures of academic stereotype threat to the health domain on a sample of black college students (N = 280). The resulting health-related stereotype threat scale-24 (HRST-24) was assessed for internal consistency, construct and incremental validity, and whether it explains variance in self-reported delays among four preventive health behaviors—blood pressure and cholesterol assays, physical exams, and routine checkups. After adjusting for several control variables, the HRST-24’s (full scale α = 0.96) perceived black health inferiority (18 items; α = 0.96) and perceived physician racial bias (6 items; α = 0.85) sub-scales explained unique variance in delays among two of the four behaviors including a blood cholesterol check (p < .01) and routine checkup—albeit at marginal levels (p = .063) in the case of the latter. Overall, these data provide preliminary evidence of construct and incremental validity for the HRST-24 among blacks. Recommendations for administering the scale are provided and future directions for HRST research are discussed. PMID:24163710

  10. Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-07-01

    When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

  11. Expert searching in public health

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

  12. Sexual orientation and self-rated health: the role of social capital, offence, threat of violence, and violence.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin

    2013-07-01

    To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.

  13. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health. PMID:11584732

  14. Disasters and their consequences for public health.

    PubMed

    Giorgadze, T; Maisuradze, I; Japaridze, A; Utiashvili, Z; Abesadze, G

    2011-05-01

    Humanitarian emergencies, including natural and human-made disasters, conflicts and complex emergencies, constitute what has traditionally been considered the main threat to health security worldwide. Each year millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters around the world. Tornados, hurricanes, heavy rains and earthquakes resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and many more affected. Indeed, disasters would not be disastrous if it were not for their effect on the human population. Links between the natural environment and human health have been suggested for centuries. Disasters throughout history have had significant impact on the numbers, health status and life style of populations. It induce: Deaths, Severe injuries, requiring extensive treatments, Increased risk of communicable diseases, Damage to the health facilities, Damage to the water systems, Food shortage, Population movements. The authors focused on the natural disasters, caused by natural forces rather than by acts associated with human behavior and that affect a large population in a widespread geographic region. Describing the general effects of disasters on health, it does not pretend to cover every contingency. Review of recent literature on humanitarian emergencies has shown that the public health consequences of natural disasters are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease and emotional trauma. In addition, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic disease and infectious disease through the impact on the health care system.

  15. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W

    2014-07-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women.

  16. [Anomie and public mental health].

    PubMed

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  17. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  18. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  19. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.

  20. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Douglas; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom; Russell, Margaret; Predy, Gerald

    2006-12-28

    Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  1. Dispositional and comparative optimism interact to predict avoidance of a looming health threat.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie L; Geers, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that when confronted with a health threat, individuals high in both dispositional and comparative optimism employ a more avoidant style of coping than individuals high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. We examined the hypothesis that threat distance moderates this interactive optimism association. In two studies, participants were randomly assigned to a looming or distant threat condition. Study 1 revealed that in the looming threat condition, participants high in both forms of optimism were more likely to minimise the threat and less inclined to seek additional health information relative to participants high in dispositional but low in comparative optimism. In Study 2, the same interaction pattern emerged on a measure of psychological abstraction suggesting these variables combine to alter broad information processing strategies. Implications for considering multiple forms of optimism when delivering health status information are discussed.

  2. Healthcare Stereotype Threat in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W; Jackson, James S; Wheaton, Felicia

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare stereotype threat is the threat of being personally reduced to group stereotypes that commonly operate within the healthcare domain, including stereotypes regarding unhealthy lifestyles and inferior intelligence. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which people fear being judged in healthcare contexts on several characteristics, including race/ethnicity and age, and to test predictions that experience of such threats would be connected with poorer health and negative perceptions of health care. Data were collected as part of the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). A module on healthcare stereotype threat, designed by the research team, was administered to a random subset (n=2,048 of the total 20,555) of HRS participants. The final sample for the present healthcare stereotype threat experiment consists of 1,479 individuals. Logistic regression was used to test whether healthcare stereotype threat was associated with self-rated health, reported hypertension, and depressive symptoms, as well as with healthcare-related outcomes, including physician distrust, dissatisfaction with health care, and preventative care use. Seventeen percent of respondents reported healthcare stereotype threat with respect to one or more aspects of their identities. As predicted, healthcare stereotype threat was associated with higher physician distrust and dissatisfaction with health care, poorer mental and physical health (i.e., self-rated health, hypertension, and depressive symptoms), and lower odds of receiving the influenza vaccine. The first of its kind, this study demonstrates that people can experience healthcare stereotype threat on the basis of various stigmatized aspects of social identity, and that these experiences can be linked with larger health and healthcare-related outcomes, thereby contributing to disparities among minority groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Personalism for public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  4. An integrated process and management tools for ranking multiple emerging threats to animal health.

    PubMed

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Voller, Fay; Montibeller, Gilberto; Franco, L Alberto; Sribhashyam, Sumitra; Watson, Eamon; Hartley, Matt; Gibbens, Jane C

    2013-02-01

    The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs supports the use of systematic tools for the prioritisation of known and well defined animal diseases to facilitate long and medium term planning of surveillance and disease control activities. The recognition that emerging events were not covered by the existing disease-specific approaches led to the establishment of the Veterinary Risk Group (VRG), constituted of government officials, and supporting structures such as the Risk Management Cycle and the Emerging Threat Highlight Report (ETHiR), to facilitate the identification, reporting and assessment of emerging threats to UK's animal health. Since its inception in November 2009 to the end of February 2011, the VRG reviewed 111 threats and vulnerabilities (T&V) reported through ETHiR. In July 2010 a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria-decision-analysis (MCDA) improved ETHiR to allow the systematic prioritisation of emerging T&V. The DSS allows the regular ranking of emerging T&V by calculating a set of measurement indices related to the actual impact, possible impact on public perception and level of available capabilities associated with every T&V. The systematic characterisation of the processes leading to the assessment of T&V by the VRG has led to a consistent, auditable and transparent approach to the identification and assessment of emerging risks. The regular use of MCDA to manage a portfolio of emerging risks represents a different and novel application of MCDA in a health related context. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Social marketing for public health.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D C; Rudd, R E; Moeykens, B A; Moloney, T W

    1993-01-01

    Marketing techniques and tools, imported from the private sector, are increasingly being advocated for their potential value in crafting and disseminating effective social change strategies. This paper describes the field of social marketing as it is used to improve the health of the public. A disciplined process of strategic planning can yield promising new insights into consumer behavior and product design. But the "technology" cannot simply be transferred without some translation to reconcile differences between commercial marketing and public health.

  6. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Michelle; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-01-01

    Chinese Americans constitute the largest percentage of Asian Americans. In Hawai‘i, Chinese Americans make up approximately 4.7% of the total state population. Accurately assessing health disparities across specific Asian American subgroups is critically important to health research and policy, as there is often substantial variability in risk and outcomes. However, even for Chinese Americans, the largest of the Asian American subgroups, such analyses can present challenges in population-based surveys. This article considers these challenges generally and then specifically in terms of the issue of health literacy and heart disease in Chinese Americans using existing population-based survey data sets in the United States, California, and Hawai‘i. PMID:28090401

  7. Protecting health through public health law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The report into the outbreak of measles in the Swansea area in 2013 has recommended that public health law be used as a routine response to minimising the spread of infectious diseases. In this article, the author considers what powers are available to health and local authorities to minimise the spread of an infectious disease outbreak.

  8. Ethical analysis in public health.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy.

  9. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Delafield, Rebecca; Wright, Tricia E

    2016-01-01

    Substance use can have serious consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. The problem is of particular concern when it involves pregnant women due to health risks for the mother and the fetus. In utero exposure to either legal (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and certain prescription drugs) or illicit (eg, amphetamines, cocaine, and opioids) substances can result in potentially serious and long-lasting health problems for infants. Available data from Hawai‘i indicate that substance use among pregnant women is higher than national targets, which reflect the fact that there is essentially no acceptable rate of use of these substances. Developing an effective system to support virtual elimination of substance use in pregnancy requires broad-based strategies. Progress is being made in Hawai‘i to better identify and address substance use in pregnancy. These efforts are being guided by a variety of stakeholders who are dedicated to improving the healthcare and health outcomes for this population. However, significant challenges to the system remain, including provider shortages, lack of local investment, and limited capacity of appropriate, individualized treatment. PMID:27920946

  10. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infectious Diseases has a new Spanish language website! https://t.co… RT @CDCgov: Know when you need ... Together we can fight antibiotic resistance. Be #AntibioticSmart. https://t.… RT @AMJPublicHealth: Whiteness of the #opioidepidemic is ...

  11. Disasters and public health

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the health effects of disasters have shown that epidemiological indices can be of value in planning preventive and relief measures and in evaluating their effectiveness. Mortality rates naturally vary considerably, but in earthquakes, for example, the number of deaths per 100 houses destroyed can give an indication of the adequacy of building techniques. Age-specific mortality rates can help to identify particularly vulnerable groups and perhaps indicate what form of education would be valuable. Except in earthquakes, the number of casualties after a disaster is usually low in relation to the number of deaths, and study of the distribution and types of lesions would help in planning the amounts and types of relief supplies and personnel required. Disasters also affect the general level of morbidity in a district because of either interruption of normal health care services or of spraying or other disease control measures. Mental health and nutrition following disasters are particular problems that require further investigation. Study of all these features of disasters has been handicapped by a lack of data, particularly concerning the health situation immediately after the impact. The provision of surveillance teams in disaster-prone areas would appear to be a field in which international cooperation could yield immense benefits. PMID:311707

  12. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, D Kaulana; Robertson, N Tod; Hayes, Donald K

    2014-01-01

    Home visiting services are cost-effective and improve the health of children and families among those at increased risk. From 1985–2008, home visiting services in Hawai‘i were provided primarily through state funding of the Hawai‘i Healthy Start Program, but the program was severely reduced due to the economy and state budget changes over the past decade. The Maternal and Child Health Branch (MCHB) in the Family Health Services Division responded to these changes by seeking out competitive grant opportunities and collaborations in order to continue to promote home visiting services to those children and families in need. In 2010, the MCHB was awarded a federally funded Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grant for home visiting services to promote maternal, infant, and early childhood health, safety and development, strong parent-child relationships, and responsible parenting. In 2011, the MCHB was also awarded a competitive MIECHV development grant that funded the re-establishment of the hospital Early Identification program. Families in need of additional support identified through this program are referred for family strengthening services to a network of existing home visiting programs called the Hawai‘i Home Visiting Network (HHVN). The HHVN is supported by MIECHV and a small amount of state funds to assist programs with capacity building, training, professional development, quality assurance, and accreditation/certification support. The MIECHV grant requires that programs are evidence-based and address specific outcome measures and benchmarks. The HHVN provides home visiting services to families prenatally through 5 years of age that reside in specific at-risk communities, and is aimed at fostering positive parenting and reducing child maltreatment using a strength-based approach by targeting six protective factors: (1) social connections, (2) nurturing and attachment, (3) knowledge of parenting and child development, (4

  13. Stigmatization and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Courtwright, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Encouraged by the success of smoking denormalization strategies as a tobacco-control measure, public health institutions are adopting a similar approach to other health behaviors. For example, a recent controversial ad campaign in New York explicitly aimed to denormalize HIV/AIDS amongst gay men. Authors such as Scott Burris have argued that efforts like this are tantamount to stigmatization and that such stigmatization is unethical because it is dehumanizing. Others have offered a limited endorsement of denormalization/stigmatization campaigns as being justified on consequentialist grounds; namely, that the potential public health benefits outweigh any stigmatizing side effects. In this paper, I examine and reject the blanket condemnation of stigmatization efforts in public health. I argue that the moral status of such efforts are best evaluated within a contractualist, as opposed to a consequentialist, framework. Contractualism in public health ethics asks whether a particular stigmatizing policy could be justified to reasonable individuals who do not know whether they will be affected by that policy. Using this approach, I argue that it is sometimes permissible for public health institutions to engage in health-related stigmatization.

  14. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  15. Emergency Preparedness in Georgia: An Assessment of Public Health Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Wendy; Alperin, Melissa; Miner, Kathleen R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to maintain a strong front against both terrorist and natural threats, it is incumbent upon the public health system to employ workers who possess the skills and knowledge required to protect the health of the nation. The aim of this study is to contribute to an understanding of the learning needs of the public health workforce as the…

  16. Endocrine disrupters--a threat to women's health?

    PubMed

    Waring, R H; Harris, R M

    2011-02-01

    Endocrine disruption has been a topic of public concern for many years and its study remains high on the scientific agenda. Endocrine disrupters (EDs) are compounds which may be of industrial or natural origin and which act to dysregulate steroid function and metabolism. As well as their actions on nuclear steroid receptors, EDs can inhibit the pathways of steroid synthesis and degradation. They not only affect reproductive function but also affect a range of tissues which are steroid sensitive such as the central nervous system and thyroid. Results from the latest studies suggest that EDs may also affect the immune system, glucose homeostasis and can act as epigenetic modulators resulting in transgenerational effects. Research in this area has led to the development of drugs used in the treatment of several types of hormone-sensitive cancer. However, despite many years of effort, the effects on human health of long-term environmental exposure to EDs, whether singly or as mixtures, remain unknown.

  17. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  18. Climate Change and Public Health Surveillance: Toward a Comprehensive Strategy.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Anthony Drummond; Schramm, Paul John

    Climate change poses a host of serious threats to human health that robust public health surveillance systems can help address. It is unknown, however, whether existing surveillance systems in the United States have adequate capacity to serve that role, nor what actions may be needed to develop adequate capacity. Our goals were to review efforts to assess and strengthen the capacity of public health surveillance systems to support health-related adaptation to climate change in the United States and to determine whether additional efforts are warranted. Building on frameworks issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we specified 4 core components of public health surveillance capacity relevant to climate change health threats. Using standard methods, we next identified and analyzed multiple assessments of the existing, relevant capacity of public health surveillance systems as well as attempts to improve that capacity. We also received information from selected national public health associations. Multiple federal, state, and local public health agencies, professional associations, and researchers have made valuable, initial efforts to assess and strengthen surveillance capacity. These efforts, however, have been made by entities working independently and without the benefit of a shared conceptual framework or strategy. Their principal focus has been on identifying suitable indicators and data sources largely to the exclusion of other core components of surveillance capacity. A more comprehensive and strategic approach is needed to build the public health surveillance capacity required to protect the health of Americans in a world of rapidly evolving climate change. Public health practitioners and policy makers at all levels can use the findings and issues reviewed in this article as they lead design and execution of a coordinated, multisector strategic plan to create and sustain that capacity.

  19. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  20. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  1. Perspectives on the place of environmental health and protection in public health and public health agencies.

    PubMed

    Kotchian, S

    1997-01-01

    The field of environmental health and protection and the entire field of public health have repeatedly found themselves isolated from one another, unable to articulate the definition, mission, and goals of public health and the essential role for environmental health and protection in the provision of a healthy ecological and human environment. Environmental agencies often forget that they, too, are public health agencies; public health agencies that have had environmental health functions have divided and abdicated their environmental responsibilities, considering these to be "regulatory" rather than public health. This article reviews the history of environmental health and protection, its involvement within the field of public health, its eventual separation from other public health programs with resulting benefits and consequences, and what the future may hold for environmental health and protection activities as well as for the broader scope of public health of which these activities are a part.

  2. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  3. Recording and measuring public health effect.

    PubMed

    2017-08-30

    It is important to record and measure public health impact, not least because they highlight the work of healthcare professionals, encourage continued investment in public health and demonstrate the value of public health services to commissioners.

  4. USGS Science Serves Public Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health

  5. Undergraduate Environmental Public Health Education.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Lacey, Steven E

    2017-05-01

    Environmental, occupational, and public health in the United States are practiced across a fragmented system that makes work across those areas more difficult. A large proportion of currently active environmental and occupational health professionals, advocates, policy makers, and activists are nearing retirement age, while some of our major health challenges are heavily influenced by aspects of environment. Concurrently, programs that educate undergraduate college students in environmental health are faced with multiple, often competing demands which can impede progressive movement toward dynamic curricula for the needs of the twenty-first century. We describe our use of developmental evaluation to negotiate these challenges in our specific undergraduate education program, with the dual aims of drawing attention to developmental evaluation as a useful tool for people involved in environmental and occupational health advocacy, policy-making, activism, research, or education for change, as well as to promote discussion about how best to educate the next generation of environmental public health students.

  6. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  7. Targeted marketing and public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  8. Health education and public policy.

    PubMed

    Service, A

    1986-01-01

    The UK's Minister for Health has again raised the debate about the role of health educators, and in particular that of the Health Education Council, in what is termed public policy work. 1 possible definition of public policy work as regards health education is that aspect that seeks to establish certain health promoting principles as part of the conscious factors always to be considered by individuals, by opinion leaders, by manufacturers, by employers and trade unions, by service providers, by local authorities, and by central government in their plans and decisions. The Health Education Council (HEC) has no power to make or impose public policy; the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) has that task. The world of health education providers includes the Health Education Officers working for the Health Authorities and with the Education Authorities, an increasing number of important academic workers in the field, the HEC, the Scottish Health Education Group (SHEG), the DHSS, and some of the members of various professions who provide health education to the public as part of their daily work. Most of the HEC's work consists of providing these people with health educational tools. If the HEC begins to do more in the public policy field, it will not be at the cost of providing health educational tools. At the HEC a staff of 4 liaison workers is responsible for keeping field workers informed about future and imminent HEC work programs. They also assess needs and ideas by holding periodic meetings with Health Education Officers and others in various parts of the country. HEC's efforts have contributed substantially to increasing attention to preventive health measures on the part of the DHSS, parliamentary committees, the Royal Colleges, other professional bodies, and the media. In regard to the future, several paths deserve exploration as part of the HEC's education of decision-makers and opinion-formers. These include: local authorities, relevant

  9. Avian influenza pandemic threat and health systems response.

    PubMed

    Bradt, David A; Drummond, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza is a panzootic and recurring human epidemic with pandemic potential. Pandemic requirements for a viral pathogen are: a novel virus must emerge against which the general population has little or no immunity; the new virus must be able to replicate in humans and cause serious illness; and the new virus must be efficiently transmitted from person to person. At present, only the first two conditions have been met. Nonetheless, influenza pandemics are considered inevitable. Expected worldwide human mortality from a moderate pandemic scenario is 45 million people or more than 75% of the current annual global death burden. Although mathematical models have predicted that an emerging pandemic could be contained at its source, this conclusion remains controversial among public health experts. The Terrestrial Animal Health Code and International Health Regulations are enforceable legal instruments integral to pandemic preparedness. Donor support in financial, material and technical assistance remains critical to disease control efforts - particularly in developing countries where avian influenza predominately occurs at present. Personal protective equipment kits, decontamination kits and specimen collection kits in lightweight, portable packages are becoming standardized. Air transport border control measures purporting to delay importation and spread of human avian influenza are scientifically controversial. National pandemic plans prioritize beneficiary access to antiviral drugs and vaccines for some countries. Other medical commodities including ventilators, hospital beds and intensive care units remain less well prioritized in national plans. These resources will play virtually no role in care of the overwhelming majority of patients worldwide in a pandemic. Prehospital care, triage and acute care all require additional professional standardization for the high patient volumes anticipated in a pandemic.

  10. [Mental health reform in Israel: how to increase the opportunities and reduce the threats].

    PubMed

    Elisha, David; Grinshpoon, Alexander

    2007-04-01

    Since the publication in 1990 of the Netanyahu Commission Report on Health Reform in Israel the issue of Mental Health Reform (MHR) has been discussed extensively. As steps toward the implementation of the MHR progressed, concerns were increasingly voiced that it would adversely affect the accessibility, availability and quality of mental health services. The main source of threat is attributed to the mechanisms of Managed Behavioral Health Care (MBHC) expected to be applied by the Health Funds. The authors review recent evaluation studies of MBHC in the US with a special reference to issues pertaining to ambulatory treatment of those suffering from mental illness and to outpatient psychotherapy. The findings reviewed suggest that the key to the success of MBHC systems is a strategy endeavoring to bring together the professional and the economic management mechanisms of the service system in a mutually supporting effort to bring about a paradigmatic change in the organization, payment methods and evaluation of the services. The authors also refer to recent studies of outpatient psychotherapy that provide information about trends and utilization patterns and provide support for its overall effectiveness. The authors discuss the implications of the findings reviewed to the implementation of the MHR in Israel.

  11. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe Mather, Carolyn M; McGurk, Meghan D

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the adults in Hawai‘i are overweight or obese, exposing them to increased risk for chronic diseases and resulting in higher health care expenses. Poor dietary habits and physical inactivity are important contributors to obesity and overweight. Because adults spend most of their waking hours at work, the workplace is an important setting for interventions to solve this growing problem. Changing the nutrition environment to support healthy eating is a recommended practice for worksite wellness interventions. Following this recommendation, the Hawai‘i State Department of Health (DOH) launched the Choose Healthy Now! Healthy Vending Pilot Project to increase access to healthy options in worksites. Choose Healthy Now! utilized an education campaign and a traffic light nutrition coding system (green = go, yellow = slow, red = uh-oh), based on federal nutrition guidelines, to help employees identify the healthier options in their worksite snack shops. Inventory of healthy items was increased and product placement techniques were used to help make the healthy choice the easy choice. DOH partnered with the Department of Human Services' Ho‘opono Vending Program to pilot the project in six government buildings on O‘ahu between May and September of 2014. Vendors added new green (healthy) and yellow (intermediate) options to their snack shop and cafeteria inventories, and labeled their snacks and beverages with green and yellow point-of-decision stickers. The following article outlines background and preliminary findings from the Choose Healthy Now! pilot. PMID:25414808

  12. Citizen Science for public health.

    PubMed

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants.

  13. Mobilising "vulnerability" in the public health response to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Niamh; Davis, Mark; Flowers, Paul; MacGregor, Casimir; Waller, Emily

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of public health's growing interest in "vulnerability" has largely focused on health policy, with little interrogation of how vulnerability is being actively appropriated, countered, ignored or reworked by the publics whose health such policy is designed to protect. Once the assemblage of public health is understood as comprised of different forms of expertise and actors, including publics, addressing this gap matters. We examine the use of vulnerability in the specific context of pandemic influenza preparedness. Pandemic preparedness raises some familiar dilemmas for public health governance: how to engage with publics without fuelling social divisions and disruption; and whether to invoke publics as passive recipients of public health advice or to recognise publics as collective agents responding to the threat of pandemic influenza. Thus, we ask how the mobilisation of vulnerability connects with these dilemmas. To examine vulnerability in pandemic preparedness, two forms of qualitative data are analysed: 1) interviews and focus groups with "vulnerable" and "healthy" people (conducted 2011-12) discussing seasonal and pandemic influenza and; 2) international, Australian national and state level pandemic plans (1999-2013). Vulnerability is variously used in plans as a way to identify groups at particular risk of infection because of pre-existing clinical conditions, and as a free-floating social category that could apply to a broad range of people potentially involved in the social disruption a pandemic might entail. Our interview and focus group data indicate that healthy people rework the free-floating extension of vulnerability, and that people designated vulnerable encounter an absence of any collective responsibility for the threat of pandemic influenza. Our analysis suggests that vulnerability's mobilisation in pandemic preparedness limits the connection between public health governance and its publics: here, the openness and unpredictability of

  14. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders.

  15. Training Physicians for Public Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…

  16. Training Physicians for Public Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…

  17. Public health. A tale of two counties.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, S; Wright, J; Grice, D

    2001-02-22

    The development of primary care trusts requires health authority public health departments to work in new ways. Reviews of the public health function in two counties found widely varying views. A common understanding of organisations' responsibilities is crucial when developing public health in primary care. Public health networks can play a key role. Significant investment in training is required.

  18. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-03

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  19. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  20. An Assessment of Coherence Between Early Warning and Response Systems and Serious Cross-Border Health Threats in the European Union and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreaks have attracted the attention of the public health community to early warning and response systems (EWRS) for communicable diseases and other cross-border threats to health. The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published regulations in this area. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought a new approach the management of public health threats in EU member states. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought several innovations, which included establishing a Health Security Committee; preparedness and response planning; joint procurement of medical countermeasures; ad hoc monitoring for biological, chemical, and environmental threats; EWRS; and recognition of an emergency situation and interoperability between various sectors. Turkey, as an acceding country to the EU and a member of the WHO, has been improving its national public health system to meet EU legislations and WHO standards. This article first explains EWRS as defined in Decision 1082/2013/EU and Turkey's obligations to align its public health laws to the EU acquis. EWRS in Turkey are addressed, particularly their coherence with EU policies regarding preparedness and response, alert notification, and interoperability between health and other sectors. Finally, the challenges and limitations of the current Turkish system are discussed and further improvements are suggested. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:883-892).

  1. Public health financial management competencies.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Costich, Julia F

    2009-01-01

    The absence of appropriate financial management competencies has impeded progress in advancing the field of public health finance. It also inhibits the ability to professionalize this sector of the workforce. Financial managers should play a critical role by providing information relevant to decision making. The lack of fundamental financial management knowledge and skills is a barrier to fulfilling this role. A national expert committee was convened to examine this issue. The committee reviewed standards related to financial and business management practices within public health and closely related areas. Alignments were made with national standards such as those established for government chief financial officers. On the basis of this analysis, a comprehensive set of public health financial management competencies was identified and examined further by a review panel. At a minimum, the competencies can be used to define job descriptions, assess job performance, identify critical gaps in financial analysis, create career paths, and design educational programs.

  2. Causal inference in public health.

    PubMed

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  3. Crowdsourcing applications for public health.

    PubMed

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-01

    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  4. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  5. [Public health education in Austria. An overview].

    PubMed

    Diem, Günter; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2014-04-01

    The future challenges for the Austrian health care system require an increasing number of public health experts of different professions in all fields of public health. In this article the offer of public health education in Austrian universities and universities for applied sciences was searched based on the predominantly online available information on web platforms of the schools. Currently (2013), there are three postgraduate public health university courses and two public health doctoral programs in Austria. Additionally, 34 degree programmes could be identified, in which parts of public health are covered. But also in medical curricula at Austrian medical schools, public health contents have found their place. In Austria, there is already a multifaceted offer for public health education. However, to build an appropriate public health work force, capable to manage the public health challenges in all its dimensions in terms of health in all policies, this offer should still be intensified.

  6. Obesity: a public health approach.

    PubMed

    Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is an epidemic that likely will worsen without substantive changes to the current environment. Although treatment of the individual has conventionally been the focus of the obesity field, prevention using a public health model will be essential for making progress on a population level. There are encouraging signs that communities across the country are acknowledging the complex causes of obesity and making impressive reforms to improve their health and that of their children. Public policy changes long have been used to combat infectious and chronic diseases and will be vital in the attempt to reduce the toll of poor diet, physical inactivity, and obesity.

  7. Systemic Intervention for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Many calls have been made for a systems approach to public health. My response is to offer a methodology for systemic intervention that (1) emphasizes the need to explore stakeholder values and boundaries for analysis, (2) challenges marginalization, and (3) draws upon a wide range of methods (from the systems literature and beyond) to create a flexible and responsive systems practice. I present and discuss several well-tested methods with a view to identifying their potential for supporting systemic intervention for public health. PMID:16449577

  8. Stereotype Threat and Health Disparities: What Medical Educators and Future Physicians Need to Know

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jennifer; Phelan, Sean; Dovidio, John; van Ryn, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Patients’ experience of stereotype threat in clinical settings and encounters may be one contributor to health care disparities. Stereotype threat occurs when cues in the environment make negative stereotypes associated with an individual’s group status salient, triggering physiological and psychological processes that have detrimental consequences for behavior. By recognizing and understanding the factors that can trigger stereotype threat and understanding its consequences in medical settings, providers can prevent it from occurring or ameliorate its consequences for patient behavior and outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the implications of stereotype threat for medical education and trainee performance and offer practical suggestions for how future providers might reduce stereotype threat in their exam rooms and clinics. PMID:20352514

  9. Stereotype threat and health disparities: what medical educators and future physicians need to know.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana J; Warren, Jennifer; Phelan, Sean; Dovidio, John; van Ryn, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    Patients' experience of stereotype threat in clinical settings and encounters may be one contributor to health care disparities. Stereotype threat occurs when cues in the environment make negative stereotypes associated with an individual's group status salient, triggering physiological and psychological processes that have detrimental consequences for behavior. By recognizing and understanding the factors that can trigger stereotype threat and understanding its consequences in medical settings, providers can prevent it from occurring or ameliorate its consequences for patient behavior and outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the implications of stereotype threat for medical education and trainee performance and offer practical suggestions for how future providers might reduce stereotype threat in their exam rooms and clinics.

  10. Governmental public health in the United States: the implications of federalism.

    PubMed

    Turnock, Bernard J; Atchison, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Governmental public health activities in the United States have evolved over time as a result of two forces: the nature and perceived importance of threats to the population's health and safety, and changing relationships among the various levels of government. Shifts toward a more state-centered form of federalism in the second half of the twentieth century weakened key aspects of the governmental public health enterprise, including its leadership and coordination, by the century's end. These developments challenge governmental public health responses to the new threats and increased societal expectations of the early twenty-first century.

  11. Public Health System Response to Extreme Weather Events.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Hunter, Jennifer C; Yang, Jane E; Crawley, Adam W; Aragón, Tomás J

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events, unpredictable and often far-reaching, constitute a persistent challenge for public health preparedness. The goal of this research is to inform public health systems improvement through examination of extreme weather events, comparing across cases to identify recurring patterns in event and response characteristics. Structured telephone-based interviews were conducted with representatives from health departments to assess characteristics of recent extreme weather events and agencies' responses. Response activities were assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Emergency Preparedness Capabilities framework. Challenges that are typical of this response environment are reported. Forty-five local health departments in 20 US states. Respondents described public health system responses to 45 events involving tornadoes, flooding, wildfires, winter weather, hurricanes, and other storms. Events of similar scale were infrequent for a majority (62%) of the communities involved; disruption to critical infrastructure was universal. Public Health Emergency Preparedness Capabilities considered most essential involved environmental health investigations, mass care and sheltering, surveillance and epidemiology, information sharing, and public information and warning. Unanticipated response activities or operational constraints were common. We characterize extreme weather events as a "quadruple threat" because (1) direct threats to population health are accompanied by damage to public health protective and community infrastructure, (2) event characteristics often impose novel and pervasive burdens on communities, (3) responses rely on critical infrastructures whose failure both creates new burdens and diminishes response capacity, and (4) their infrequency and scale further compromise response capacity. Given the challenges associated with extreme weather events, we suggest opportunities for organizational learning and

  12. Funding Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Attal-Juncqua, Aurelia; Fischer, Julie E

    2017-09-01

    The historical precedents that support state and local leadership in preparedness for and response to disasters are in many ways at odds with the technical demands of preparedness and response for incidents affecting public health. New and revised laws and regulations, executive orders, policies, strategies, and plans developed in response to biological threats since 2001 address the role of the federal government in the response to public health emergencies. However, financial mechanisms for disaster response-especially those that wait for gubernatorial request before federal assistance can be provided-do not align with the need to prevent the spread of infectious agents or efficiently reduce the impact on public health. We review key US policies and funding mechanisms relevant to public health emergencies and clarify how policies, regulations, and resources affect coordinated responses.

  13. Funding Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Attal-Juncqua, Aurelia; Fischer, Julie E.

    2017-01-01

    The historical precedents that support state and local leadership in preparedness for and response to disasters are in many ways at odds with the technical demands of preparedness and response for incidents affecting public health. New and revised laws and regulations, executive orders, policies, strategies, and plans developed in response to biological threats since 2001 address the role of the federal government in the response to public health emergencies. However, financial mechanisms for disaster response—especially those that wait for gubernatorial request before federal assistance can be provided—do not align with the need to prevent the spread of infectious agents or efficiently reduce the impact on public health. We review key US policies and funding mechanisms relevant to public health emergencies and clarify how policies, regulations, and resources affect coordinated responses. PMID:28892446

  14. Application of PHEL - ‘Public Health Epidemiological Logic’ of Public Health Intervention and Public Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing tendency where medicalization of public health through mass therapeutics and secondary preventive measures are being substituted for primary preventive activity. Scaled-up mass therapeutic intervention in the community is being confused with public health intervention. The objective of this paper is to provide a broad public health and epidemiological criteria for public health intervention and public health impact PMID:24404371

  15. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    PubMed

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.

  16. 28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Direct threat. 35.139 Section 35.139... LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.139 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require a... activities of that public entity when that individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others...

  17. Public Health Systems: A Social Networks Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wholey, Douglas R; Gregg, Walter; Moscovice, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between public health system network density and organizational centrality in public health systems and public health governance, community size, and health status in three public health domains. Data Sources/Study Setting During the fall and the winter of 2007–2008, primary data were collected on the organization and composition of eight rural public health systems. Study Design Multivariate analysis and network graphical tools are used in a case comparative design to examine public health system network density and organizational centrality in the domains of adolescent health, senior health, and preparedness. Differences associated with public health governance (centralized, decentralized), urbanization (micropolitan, noncore), health status, public health domain, and collaboration area are described. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Site visit interviews with key informants from local organizations and a web-based survey administered to local stakeholders. Principal Findings Governance, urbanization, public health domain, and health status are associated with public health system network structures. The centrality of local health departments (LHDs) varies across public health domains and urbanization. Collaboration is greater in assessment, assurance, and advocacy than in seeking funding. Conclusions If public health system organization is causally related to improved health status, studying individual system components such as LHDs will prove insufficient for studying the impact of public health systems. PMID:19686252

  18. Community Public Health Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Community Public Health (CPH) project in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) produces high quality science and tools to understand and assess environmental risks and ecosystem goods and services (EGS) to decision-makers at all levels.

  19. Public health and national security: the critical role of increased federal support.

    PubMed

    Frist, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Protecting the public's health historically has been a state and local responsibility. However, the growing threat of bioterrorism has highlighted the importance of a strong public health infrastructure to the nation's homeland security and has focused increased attention on the preparedness of the public health system. As a result, federal public health funding has increased exponentially since the anthrax attacks of late 2001, and Congress has passed sweeping new federal legislation intended to strengthen the nation's public health system. This heightened level of federal interest and support should yield important public health benefits. Most recognize that after years of neglect the public health infrastructure cannot be rebuilt overnight. As we implement a comprehensive strategy to increase the capabilities and capacity of our nation's public health system, it is essential to address a series of important policy questions, including the appropriate level of ongoing public health investments from local, state, and federal sources.

  20. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Flahault, A; Bar-Hen, A; Paragios, N

    2016-11-10

    The aim of this manuscript is to provide a brief overview of the scientific challenges that should be addressed in order to unlock the full potential of using data from a general point of view, as well as to present some ideas that could help answer specific needs for data understanding in the field of health sciences and epidemiology. A survey of uses and challenges of big data analyses for medicine and public health was conducted. The first part of the paper focuses on big data techniques, algorithms, and statistical approaches to identify patterns in data. The second part describes some cutting-edge applications of analyses and predictive modeling in public health. In recent years, we witnessed a revolution regarding the nature, collection, and availability of data in general. This was especially striking in the health sector and particularly in the field of epidemiology. Data derives from a large variety of sources, e.g. clinical settings, billing claims, care scheduling, drug usage, web based search queries, and Tweets. The exploitation of the information (data mining, artificial intelligence) relevant to these data has become one of the most promising as well challenging tasks from societal and scientific viewpoints in order to leverage the information available and making public health more efficient.

  1. [Cellular phones and public health].

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Alex; Karsenty, Eric; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2004-08-01

    The increased use of mobile cellular phone by the public is associated with a wave of contradictory reports about the possible health effects, due to the exposure of the users to electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation. This article reviews the state of the art of the present knowledge concerning the biological and medical effects of exposure to cellular phones, with an emphasis on its possible carcinogenic effect. Health conditions, which have been ascribed to the use of mobile phones mainly include some types of cancer and changes of brain activity. However, the balance of evidence from available studies has not yet supported these claims. Following the recommendation of special international expert committees, the IARC (International Association for Research on Cancer) is conducting a multi-center study to determine the possible effect of cellular phone use on brain and salivary gland tumors. Israel is one of the participants of this study. The only established health effect associated with the use of such technology is an increased risk for road accidents, unrelated to the amount of radiation emitted by phone. The challenge posed by this new technology to health authorities all over the world has lead to the definition of a new principle, the so-called "prudent avoidance", used as guidelines for the definition of an adequate public health policy. The public policy in Israel has used the prudent avoidance principles, while awaiting the results of the multi-national epidemiological studies.

  2. Chaos, criticality, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Fullilove, R. E.; Edgoose, J. C.; Fullilove, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    Self-organized criticality offers more than a descriptive model or a doomsday forecast. We have tried to suggest that it is a paradigm for understanding the interconnections between apparently complex processes. At best, it suggests a method for finding the pressure points that can be used to bring unstable systems of public health services into greater levels of stability. The model enjoins us to understand that our goal is not to achieve equilibrium--that perfect match between the demand for health services and its delivery--but rather stability (or, more precisely, metastability). As is true of the sandpile, our systems of public health are constantly evolving. If we are correct, then the mechanism driving this ostensibly complex pattern of change and growth reflects the existence of simpler and, hopefully, more manageable processes. By monitoring these processes, it may be increasingly possible to adapt to change and even manage it effectively. PMID:9170831

  3. A national public health service.

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, N S

    1981-01-01

    The development of the British public health services is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that two types of epidemiologist (Community Physician) are necessary in each locality: one concerned with medical administration and health care planning-the medical administrator, and the other with the prevention of disease-the clinical epidemiologist. A new nation public health service is proposed to revive disease prevention with four main features: (1) A district Clinical Epidemiologist who is a member of the district department of community medicine with responsibility for prevention but with no district administrative duties. (2) A District Epidemiology Unit comprising other appropriate staff. (3) National specialist epidemiology units within the NHS with service roles to support and coordinate the District Clinical Epidemiologists. (4) A national authority within the NHS with responsibility for prevention and for administering the national specialist units. PMID:7007637

  4. Viable but nonculturable bacteria: food safety and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Fakruddin, Md; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-09-26

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety.

  5. 76 FR 63927 - Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Resistance (ITFAR): An Update on A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY... report on progress by Federal agencies in accomplishing activities outlined in A Public Health Action... (AR) in recognition of the increasing importance of AR as a public health threat. The Task Force is co...

  6. Antibiotic innovation for future public health needs.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, U

    2017-10-01

    The public health threat of antibiotic resistance has gained attention at the highest political levels globally, and recommendations on how to respond are being considered for implementation. Among the recommended responses being explored for their feasibility is the introduction of economic incentives to promote research and development of new antibiotics. There is broad agreement that public investment should stimulate innovation and be linked to policies promoting sustainable and equitable access to antibiotics. Though commonly used, the term 'innovation' is not based on a common understanding. This article aims to initiate discussion on the meaning of 'innovation' in this context. Literature and expert opinion. As the definition of a novel class (novel scaffold, novel pharmacophore), a novel target (novel binding site) and a novel mode of action-the three traditional criteria for 'innovation' in this context-may be confounded by the complexities of antibacterial drug discovery, a biological and outcome-oriented definition of innovation is presented to initiate discussion. Such an expanded definition of innovation in this specific context is based on the overarching requirement that a drug not be affected by cross-resistance to existing drugs in the organisms and indications for which it is intended to be used, and that it have low potential for high-frequency, high-level single-step resistance if intended as a single drug therapy. Policy makers, public health authorities and funders could use such a comprehensive definition of innovation to prioritize where publicly funded incentives should be applied. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Public Health Educational Information Other Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides educational information and resources to assist public health officials, air quality managers, health care providers and others in providing information on the health effects of wildfire and wildland fire smoke to the public.

  8. For-Profit Charter Schools and Threats to the Publicness of Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Media portrayals and education policies have combined with anecdotes about charter school successes to produce a favorable assessment of charter schools by two-thirds of Americans. Such media celebrations often group an array of charter school types together, thereby disguising their differences. Indeed, the public seems unaware there are…

  9. Interjurisdictional collaboration: local public health officials versus county commissioners.

    PubMed

    Felton, John; Golbeck, Amanda L

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary objective was to determine where the viewpoints of public health officials and county commissioners differed on interjurisdictional collaboration in public health service delivery. After cataloging literature findings on interjurisdictional collaboration, an original questionnaire for 2 population groups within a cross-sectional design was developed. The questionnaire was administered in a rural or frontier state (Montana) that operates a generally decentralized public health system. Respondents (n = 83) were 29 lead local public health officials representing 34 counties, and 54 county commissioners representing 33 counties. Sixteen reasons to collaborate, 13 barriers to collaboration, and 18 policy considerations that would lead respondents to support or oppose a collaborative system were assessed, along with perceptions of current and ideal levels of interjurisdictional collaboration using the 4-level National Association of County and City Health Officials scale. Viewpoints of public health officials and county commissioners were found to differ significantly on 7 of 47 items. The potential benefit of improved surge capacity to manage large-scale events or emergencies was found by public health officials to be a more important reason to collaborate across jurisdictional lines. Long-standing commitment to home rule, current political climate, perceived threats to local elected officials, loss of local input into public health services and priorities, and lack of collaborative government and staffing models were all identified by public health officials as greater barriers to interjurisdictional collaboration. County commissioners were more likely to neither support nor oppose using existing disaster and emergency services district boundaries to define public health regional boundaries. Public health officials and county commissioners seem to have similar viewpoints on reasons to collaborate and policy considerations, but different viewpoints

  10. Lost Dollars Threaten Research in Public Academic Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Henry R; Vermillion, Eric B

    2017-03-01

    The decrease of federal and state support threatens long-term sustainability of research in publicly supported academic health centers. In weathering these financial threats, research at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), has undergone 3 substantial changes: institutional salary support goes preferentially to senior faculty, whereas the young increasingly depend on grants; private and government support for research grows apace in clinical departments but declines in basic science departments; and research is judged more on its quantity (numbers of investigators and federal and private dollars) than on its goals, achievements, or scientific quality. We propose specific measures to alleviate these problems. Other large public academic health centers probably confront similar issues, but-except for UCSF-such centers have not been subjected to detailed public analysis.-Bourne, H. R., Vermillion, E. B. Lost dollars threaten research in public academic health centers.

  11. Law and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  12. Public Health Ethics and Liberalism

    PubMed Central

    Radoilska, Lubomira

    2009-01-01

    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit the unobvious, republican background of these proposals. Finally, I expand on the liberal understanding of freedom as non-interference and show its advantages over the republican alternative of freedom as non-domination within the context of public health. The views of freedom I discuss in the paper do not overlap with the classical distinction between negative and positive freedom. In addition, my account differentiates the concepts of freedom and autonomy and does not rule out substantive accounts of the latter. Nor does it confine political liberalism to an essentially procedural form. PMID:19655049

  13. Public Health Ethics and Liberalism.

    PubMed

    Radoilska, Lubomira

    2009-07-01

    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit the unobvious, republican background of these proposals. Finally, I expand on the liberal understanding of freedom as non-interference and show its advantages over the republican alternative of freedom as non-domination within the context of public health. The views of freedom I discuss in the paper do not overlap with the classical distinction between negative and positive freedom. In addition, my account differentiates the concepts of freedom and autonomy and does not rule out substantive accounts of the latter. Nor does it confine political liberalism to an essentially procedural form.

  14. Health Education in India: A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the health education profession and discipline in India. Materials from CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Internet were collected to conduct the open coding of the SWOT analysis. Strengths of health education in India include an elaborate…

  15. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    PubMed Central

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice. PMID:24560263

  16. The public health impact of hurricanes and major flooding.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2004-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the public health impact of hurricanes and major flooding are hampered by the absence of a dose-response relationship between hurricane-associated flooding and human health and the imprecise, often conflicting, meteorological models of climate change and hurricane landfall. Flooding is now the most common type of disaster worldwide, and flash flooding, usually associated with tropical storms, is the leading cause of weather-related deaths in the United States. As a result of climate changes and more frequently alternating ocean oscillations, hurricanes of category 3 or greater now strike the continental US approximately every 18 months. Public health officials are obligated to educate policymakers and the public about the significant threats posed to population health and quality of life by the inexorable progression of global climate change, including more water-centered disasters, such as tropical storms and hurricanes.

  17. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  18. Jails, public health, and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Potter, Roberto Hugh

    2010-10-01

    This article outlines and discusses five categories of information about individual jails that should be considered before making general statements about jails. These are (a) the process by which individuals come to and are processed through the jail, (b) the size of the jail, (c) the region of the country where the jail is situated, (d) classification/assessment techniques, and (e) architecture and supervision styles. It is hoped that this discussion will generate a better understanding of the complexity of jail systems across the nation and help public health professionals better target their research, programs, and policies directed at the jail/community health nexus.

  19. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  20. Public Health Impact of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the public health impact of osteoporosis including the magnitude of the problem and important consequences of osteoporotic fractures. Methods. Literature review of key references selected by author. Results. Current demographic trends leading to an increased number of individuals surviving past age 65 will result in an increased number of osteoporotic fractures. Important consequences of osteoporotic fractures include an increased mortality that for hip fractures extends to 10 years after the fracture. Increased mortality risk also extends to major and minor fractures, especially, in those over 75 years. Hip and vertebral fractures have important functional consequences and reductions in quality of life. The economic impact of osteoporotic fractures is large and growing. Significant health care resources are required for all fractures. Conclusions. To alleviate the public and private burden of osteoporosis related fractures, assessment of risk and reduction of individual risk is critical. PMID:23902935

  1. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1): a Threat to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, J. S. Malik; de Jong, Menno D.; Guan, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. Therefore, H5N1 virus has rightly received attention as a potential pandemic threat. However, it is noted that the pandemics of 1957 and 1968 did not arise from highly pathogenic influenza viruses, and the next pandemic may well arise from a low-pathogenicity virus. The rationale for particular concern about an H5N1 pandemic is not its inevitability but its potential severity. An H5N1 pandemic is an event of low probability but one of high human health impact and poses a predicament for public health. Here, we review the ecology and evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, assess the pandemic risk, and address aspects of human H5N1 disease in relation to its epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. PMID:17428885

  2. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health.

    PubMed

    Peiris, J S Malik; de Jong, Menno D; Guan, Yi

    2007-04-01

    Pandemic influenza virus has its origins in avian influenza viruses. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is already panzootic in poultry, with attendant economic consequences. It continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. Therefore, H5N1 virus has rightly received attention as a potential pandemic threat. However, it is noted that the pandemics of 1957 and 1968 did not arise from highly pathogenic influenza viruses, and the next pandemic may well arise from a low-pathogenicity virus. The rationale for particular concern about an H5N1 pandemic is not its inevitability but its potential severity. An H5N1 pandemic is an event of low probability but one of high human health impact and poses a predicament for public health. Here, we review the ecology and evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, assess the pandemic risk, and address aspects of human H5N1 disease in relation to its epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

  3. National environmental public health tracking program: bridging the information gap.

    PubMed

    McGeehin, Michael A; Qualters, Judith R; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2004-10-01

    In January 2001 the Pew Environmental Health Commission called for the creation of a coordinated public health system to prevent disease in the United States by tracking and combating environmental health threats. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program to integrate three distinct components of hazard monitoring and exposure and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Uniform and acceptable data standards, easily understood case definitions, and improved communication between health and environmental agencies are just a few of the challenges that must be addressed for this network to be effective. The nascent EPHT program is attempting to respond to these challenges by drawing on a wide range of expertise from federal agencies, state health and environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the program's academic Centers of Excellence. In this mini-monograph, we present innovative strategies and methods that are being applied to the broad scope of important and complex environmental public health problems by developing EPHT programs. The data resulting from this program can be used to identify areas and populations most likely to be affected by environmental contamination and to provide important information on the health and environmental status of communities. EPHT will develop valuable data on possible associations between the environment and the risk of noninfectious health effects. These data can be used to reduce the burden of adverse health effects on the American public.

  4. National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program: Bridging the Information Gap

    PubMed Central

    McGeehin, Michael A.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2004-01-01

    In January 2001 the Pew Environmental Health Commission called for the creation of a coordinated public health system to prevent disease in the United States by tracking and combating environmental health threats. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program to integrate three distinct components of hazard monitoring and exposure and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Uniform and acceptable data standards, easily understood case definitions, and improved communication between health and environmental agencies are just a few of the challenges that must be addressed for this network to be effective. The nascent EPHT program is attempting to respond to these challenges by drawing on a wide range of expertise from federal agencies, state health and environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the program’s academic Centers of Excellence. In this mini-monograph, we present innovative strategies and methods that are being applied to the broad scope of important and complex environmental public health problems by developing EPHT programs. The data resulting from this program can be used to identify areas and populations most likely to be affected by environmental contamination and to provide important information on the health and environmental status of communities. EPHT will develop valuable data on possible associations between the environment and the risk of noninfectious health effects. These data can be used to reduce the burden of adverse health effects on the American public. PMID:15471734

  5. Causal Inference in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A.; Goodman, Steven N.; Hernán, Miguel A.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action’s consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor’s causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world. PMID:23297653

  6. [Internal medicine and public health].

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    A special Committee on Internal Medicine and Public Health was established by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) in April 2007 with the duty to write a Consensus Paper on the interaction between both branches of medical profession. The main objective was to find the common grounds on which to construct a positive approach to regain space for Internal Medicine, based on prevalent epidemiológical features related to adult health issues. The authors describe the reasons to explain the gap between clinical medicine and population health and identify the nature and evolution of chronic diseases as the point of encounter between both. With Chilean health surveys data, they state that chronic diseases explain the high proportion of burden of disease, mortality and disability, and stress that by the year 2025 one in every five inhabitants will be over 65 years of age, with ageing as another main problem for the health care sector. Population with multiple risks and multimorbidity is the most important challenge for the Chilean Health Care System. A new model of care is needed to tackle this scenario with new skills regarding psychosocial determinants of health. The leading role of internists and ideally geriatricians, will be crucial in this process and will help the implementation of sound population based interventions. Both individual and community level interventions will help to improve quality of life of Chilean families.

  7. Melioidosis: Clinical impact and public health threat in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G.; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H. K.

    2017-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective. Despite therapy, the overall case fatality rate of septicemia in melioidosis remains significantly high. Intracellular survival of the bacteria within macrophages may progress to chronic infections, and about 10% of patients suffer relapses. In the coming decades, melioidosis will increasingly afflict travelers throughout many global regions. Clinicians managing travelers returning from the subtropics or tropics with severe pneumonia or septicemia should consider acute melioidosis as a differential diagnosis. Patients with open skin wounds, diabetes, or chronic renal disease are at higher risk for melioidosis and should avoid direct contact with soil and standing water in endemic regions. Furthermore, there are fears that B. pseudomallei may be used as a biological weapon. Technological advancements in molecular diagnostics and antibiotic therapy are improving the disease outcomes in endemic areas throughout Asia. Research and development efforts on vaccine candidates against melioidosis are ongoing. PMID:28493905

  8. Drinking Water in Nigeria: A Public Health Threat and Burden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    inter-agencies, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGO). viii 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Fairchild Research Information Center (MSFRIC). Nigeria “The U.N. Human Development Index ranks Nigeria as having one of the worst standards of living...of human civilization in the country was discovered. Highlights of its history include: • The arrival of traders from Portugal (late 15th century

  9. 'Loneliness Epidemic' Called a Major Public Health Threat

    MedlinePlus

    ... fail to thrive and often die, and indeed, social isolation or solitary confinement has been used as a form of punishment," said Julianne Holt-Lunstad. She is a professor of psychology at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. "Yet ...

  10. Melioidosis: Clinical impact and public health threat in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-05-01

    This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective. Despite therapy, the overall case fatality rate of septicemia in melioidosis remains significantly high. Intracellular survival of the bacteria within macrophages may progress to chronic infections, and about 10% of patients suffer relapses. In the coming decades, melioidosis will increasingly afflict travelers throughout many global regions. Clinicians managing travelers returning from the subtropics or tropics with severe pneumonia or septicemia should consider acute melioidosis as a differential diagnosis. Patients with open skin wounds, diabetes, or chronic renal disease are at higher risk for melioidosis and should avoid direct contact with soil and standing water in endemic regions. Furthermore, there are fears that B. pseudomallei may be used as a biological weapon. Technological advancements in molecular diagnostics and antibiotic therapy are improving the disease outcomes in endemic areas throughout Asia. Research and development efforts on vaccine candidates against melioidosis are ongoing.

  11. Integrating public health and medical intelligence gathering into homeland security fusion centres.

    PubMed

    Lenart, Brienne; Albanese, Joseph; Halstead, William; Schlegelmilch, Jeffrey; Paturas, James

    Homeland security fusion centres serve to gather, analyse and share threat-related information among all levels of governments and law enforcement agencies. In order to function effectively, fusion centres must employ people with the necessary competencies to understand the nature of the threat facing a community, discriminate between important information and irrelevant or merely interesting facts and apply domain knowledge to interpret the results to obviate or reduce the existing danger. Public health and medical sector personnel routinely gather, analyse and relay health-related inform-ation, including health security risks, associated with the detection of suspicious biological or chemical agents within a community to law enforcement agencies. This paper provides a rationale for the integration of public health and medical personnel in fusion centres and describes their role in assisting law enforcement agencies, public health organisations and the medical sector to respond to natural or intentional threats against local communities, states or the nation as a whole.

  12. Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Neil A. R.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon. Their notoriety stems from their causing plagues and famines, driving species extinctions, and the difficulty in treating human mycoses alongside the increase of their resistance to antifungal drugs. This special issue comprises a collection of articles resulting from a Royal Society discussion meeting examining why pathogenic fungi are causing more disease now than they did in the past, and how we can tackle this rapidly emerging threat to the health of plants and animals worldwide. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080997

  13. Climate change and public health policy: translating the science.

    PubMed

    Braks, Marieta; van Ginkel, Rijk; Wint, William; Sedda, Luigi; Sprong, Hein

    2013-12-19

    Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.

  14. Prescription Tracking and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Monitoring and modifying physicians’ prescribing behavior through prescription tracking is integral to pharmaceutical marketing. Health information organizations (HIOs) combine prescription information purchased from pharmacies with anonymized patient medical records purchased from health insurance companies to determine which drugs individual physicians prefer for specific diagnoses and patient populations. This information is used to tailor marketing strategies to individual physicians and to assess the effect of promotions on prescribing behavior. DISCUSSION The American Medical Association (AMA) created the Prescription Data Restriction Plan in an attempt to address both the privacy concerns of physicians and industry concerns that legislation could compromise the availability of prescribing data. However, the PDRP only prohibits sales representatives and their immediate supervisors from accessing the most detailed reports. Less than 2% of US physicians have registered for the PDRP, and those who have signed up are not the physicians who are targeted for marketing. CONCLUSION Although it has been argued that prescription tracking benefits public health, data gathered by HIOs is designed for marketing drugs. These data are sequestered by industry and are not generally available for genuine public health purposes. PMID:18473146

  15. Noise exposure and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728

  16. Electromagnetic fields and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature is provided for the topic of health-related research and power frequency electromagnetic fields. Minimal evidence for concern is present on the basis of animal and plant research. General observation would accord with the implication that there is no single and manifest health effect as the result of exposure to these fields. There are persistent indications, however, that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action, possibly in the presence of other factors. Power frequency electromagnetic field exposures are essentially ubiquitous in modern society, and their implications in the larger perspective of public health are unclear at this time. Electromagnetic fields represent a methodological obstacle for epidemiologic studies and a quandary for risk assessment; there is need for more data. PMID:3319560

  17. Preparing for climate change: a perspective from local public health officers in California.

    PubMed

    Bedsworth, Louise

    2009-04-01

    The most recent scientific findings show that even with significant emission reductions, some amount of climate change is likely inevitable. The magnitude of the climate changes will depend on future emissions and climate sensitivity. These changes will have local impacts, and a significant share of coping with these changes will fall on local governmental agencies. Public health is no exception, because local public health agencies are crucial providers of disease prevention, health care, and emergency preparedness services. This article presents the results of a survey of California's local pubic health officers conducted between August and October 2007. The survey gauged health officers' concerns about the public health impacts of climate change, programs in place that could help to mitigate these health effects, and information and resource needs for better coping with a changing climate. The results of this survey show that most public health officers feel that climate change poses a serious threat to public health but that they do not feel well equipped in terms of either resources or information to cope with that threat. Nonetheless, public health agencies currently implement a number of programs that will help these agencies handle some of the challenges posed by a changing climate. Overall, the results suggest that local public health agencies in California are likely in a better position than they perceive to address the threats associated with climate change but that there is a larger role for them to play in climate policy.

  18. Preparing for Climate Change: A Perspective from Local Public Health Officers in California

    PubMed Central

    Bedsworth, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Background The most recent scientific findings show that even with significant emission reductions, some amount of climate change is likely inevitable. The magnitude of the climate changes will depend on future emissions and climate sensitivity. These changes will have local impacts, and a significant share of coping with these changes will fall on local governmental agencies. Public health is no exception, because local public health agencies are crucial providers of disease prevention, health care, and emergency preparedness services. Methods This article presents the results of a survey of California’s local pubic health officers conducted between August and October 2007. The survey gauged health officers’ concerns about the public health impacts of climate change, programs in place that could help to mitigate these health effects, and information and resource needs for better coping with a changing climate. Results The results of this survey show that most public health officers feel that climate change poses a serious threat to public health but that they do not feel well equipped in terms of either resources or information to cope with that threat. Nonetheless, public health agencies currently implement a number of programs that will help these agencies handle some of the challenges posed by a changing climate. Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that local public health agencies in California are likely in a better position than they perceive to address the threats associated with climate change but that there is a larger role for them to play in climate policy. PMID:19440502

  19. Surfing the net for public health resources.

    PubMed

    Angell, C; Hemingway, A; Hartwell, H

    2011-08-01

    To identify public health open educational resources (OER) available online, map the identified OER to The Public Health Skills and Career Framework (PHSCF), and triangulate these findings with public health practitioners. Systematic online search for public health OER. An online search was undertaken using a pre-defined set of search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Public health OER were then mapped against the UK PHSCF. The findings of the search were discussed with public health specialists to determine whether or not they used these resources. A number of public health OER were identified, located on 42 websites from around the world. Mapping against the UK PHSCF demonstrated a lack of coverage in some areas of public health education. It was noted that many of the OER websites identified were not those generally used in practice, and those sites preferred by public health specialists were not identified by the online search. Public health OER are available from a number of providers, frequently universities and government organizations. However, these reflect a relatively small pool of original OER providers. Tagging of websites does not always identify their public health content. In addition, users of public health OER may not use search engines to identify resources but locate them using other means. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Drug use: a life choice or health threat].

    PubMed

    Pfaff, M

    2000-04-01

    The term "enjoyment" is used to denote a pleasurable, utility-creating activity or an act of consumption, which, however, may often be accompanied by subsequent risks, health-care costs or reduction in the quality of life. If viewed from the vantage point of health policy, we may quote several examples of consumer behaviour of this type, ranging first and foremost from the consumption of alcohol and nicotine to the use of "hard" drugs. But certain sports activities or sexual behaviour that may prove damaging to other persons must also be mentioned in this context. All these forms of consumption often lead to direct or indirect consequences to health and thereby result in increased health spending amounting to several thousand million DM. The decline in quality of life resulting from the above-mentioned forms of behaviour could be avoided through health promotion and prevention or, at the very least, through measures of rehabilitation, above all, information, counselling, and education, which represent medium- or long-term measures to that effect. Financial incentives or disincentives, for example, via an increase in co-payment in case of illness caused by risky behaviour, have not been as effective as had been expected by many proponents. Product-specific levies, risk-related payments and other financial incentives and disincentives are generally also not as effective as desired. Health policy measures aimed at influencing behaviour via financial measures are particularly ineffective in case of persons addicted to particular types of consumables, especially to drugs: Information, counselling and education represent non-financial forms of influencing and guiding behaviour with a greater scope for success.

  1. Issues in public health entomology.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A; Pollack, R J; Kiszewski, A E; Telford, S R

    2001-01-01

    Public health entomology focuses on the population biology of vector-borne infections, seeking to understand how such pathogens perpetuate over time and attempting to devise methods for reducing the burden that they impose on human health. As public health entomology passes its centennial, a series of pervasive research themes and spirited debates characterize the discipline, many reflecting a tension between field and laboratory research. In particular, institutional support for population-based research and training programs has fallen behind that for those using modern lab-based approaches. Discussion of modes of intervention against vector-borne infections (such as deployment of genetically modified vectors, the role of DDT in malaria control, host-targeted acaricides for Lyme disease risk reduction, and truck-mounted aerosol spraying against West Nile virus transmission) illustrates the discipline's need for strengthening population-based research programs. Even with the advent of molecular methods for describing population structure, the basis for anophelism without malaria (or its eastern North American counterpart, ixodism without borreliosis) remains elusive. Such methods have not yet been extensively used to examine the phylogeography and geographical origins of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. Basic ecological questions remain poorly explored: What regulates vector populations? How may mixtures of pathogens be maintained by a single vector? What factors might limit the invasion of Asian mosquitoes into North American sites? Putative effects of "global warming" remain speculative given our relative inability to answer such questions. Finally, policy and administrative issues such as the "no-nits" dictum in American schools, the Roll Back Malaria program, and legal liability for risk due to vector-borne infections serve to demonstrate further the nature of the crossroads that the discipline of public health entomology faces at the start of the 21st Century.

  2. Nutrigenomics, individualism and public health.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Ruth

    2004-02-01

    Issues arising in connection with genes and nutrition policy include both nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics considers the relationship between specifc nutrients or diet and gene expression and, it is envisaged, will facilitate prevention of diet-related common diseases. Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effects of individual genetic variation (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on response to diet, and in the longer term may lead to personalised dietary recommendations. It is important also to consider the surrounding context of other issues such as novel and functional foods in so far as they are related to genetic modification. Ethical issues fall into a number of categories: (1) why nutrigenomics? Will it have important public health benefits? (2) questions about research, e.g. concerning the acquisition of information about individual genetic variation; (3) questions about who has access to this information, and its possible misuse; (4) the applications of this information in terms of public health policy, and the negotiation of the potential tension between the interests of the individual in relation to, for example, prevention of conditions such as obesity and allergy; (5) the appropriate ethical approach to the issues, e.g. the moral difference, if any, between therapy and enhancement in relation to individualised diets; whether the 'technological fix' is always appropriate, especially in the wider context of the purported lack of public confidence in science, which has special resonance in the sphere of nutrition.

  3. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Information Technology Risks, Errors, External Threats, and Human Complacency

    PubMed Central

    Felkey, Bill G.; Fox, Brent I.

    2015-01-01

    It may seem that our position is one of unwavering support for all things health information technology (HIT). However, we like to believe that we are cautious and deliberate in our evaluation of HIT. This month, we explore some of the common overt and covert challenges to optimal use of HIT. PMID:26405348

  5. Propolis counteracts some threats to honey bee health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations in North America and Europe are currently experiencing high and unsustainable annual losses. It is critically important to understand the impact of individual stressors and the interactions among stressors in order to develop solutions to increase colony health...

  6. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  7. The Precautionary Principle Also Applies to Public Health Actions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Bernard D.

    2001-01-01

    The precautionary principle asserts that the burden of proof for potentially harmful actions by industry or government rests on the assurance of safety and that when there are threats of serious damage, scientific uncertainty must be resolved in favor of prevention. Yet we in public health are sometimes guilty of not adhering to this principle. Examples of actions with unintended negative consequences include the addition of methyl tert-butyl ether to gasoline in the United States to decrease air pollution, the drilling of tube wells in Bangladesh to avoid surface water microbial contamination, and villagewide parenteral antischistosomiasis therapy in Egypt. Each of these actions had unintended negative consequences. Lessons include the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to public health and the value of risk–benefit analysis, of public health surveillance, and of a functioning tort system—all of which contribute to effective precautionary approaches. PMID:11527755

  8. Does More Public Health Spending Buy Better Health?

    PubMed

    Marton, James; Sung, Jaesang; Honore, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to address a persistent question in the health policy literature: Does more public health spending buy better health? This is a difficult question to answer due to unobserved differences in public health across regions as well as the potential for an endogenous relationship between public health spending and public health outcomes. We take advantage of the unique way in which public health is funded in Georgia to avoid this endogeneity problem, using a twelve year panel dataset of Georgia county public health expenditures and outcomes in order to address the "unobservables" problem. We find that increases in public health spending lead to increases in mortality by several different causes, including early deaths and heart disease deaths. We also find that increases in such spending leads to increases in morbidity from heart disease. Our results suggest that more public health funding may not always lead to improvements in health outcomes at the county level.

  9. Enhancing public health law communication linkages.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ross D

    2008-01-01

    Although interest in the field of public health law has dramatically increased over the past two decades, there remain significant challenges in communicating and sharing public health law-related knowledge. Access to quality information, which may assist in a public health department's efforts to protect the public's health, welfare, and safety, varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and interjurisdictional communication remains at best a patchwork quilt with many holes. What follows is an analysis of several approaches the Public Health Law Association or other public health law-related organizations might undertake to serve as a conduit for the identification, gathering, and dissemination of extant public health law information, as well as the development of new public health law-related content, with a particular focus on the use of electronic means for such efforts.

  10. WILDLIFE HEALTH AND PUBLIC TRUST RESPONSIBILITIES FOR WILDLIFE RESOURCES.

    PubMed

    Decker, Daniel J; Schuler, Krysten; Forstchen, Ann B; Wild, Margaret A; Siemer, William F

    2016-10-01

    A significant development in wildlife management is the mounting concern of wildlife professionals and the public about wildlife health and diseases. Concurrently, the wildlife profession is reexamining implications of managing wildlife populations as a public trust and the concomitant obligation to ensure the quality (i.e., health) and sustainability of wildlife. It is an opportune time to emphasize the importance of wildlife health, specifically to advocate for comprehensive and consistent integration of wildlife health in wildlife management. We summarize application of public trust ideas in wildlife population management in the US. We argue that wildlife health is essential to fulfilling public trust administration responsibilities with respect to wildlife, due to the central responsibility of trustees for ensuring the well-being of wildlife species (i.e., the core resources of the trust). Because both health of wildlife and risk perceptions regarding threats posed by wildlife disease to humans and domestic animals are issues of growing concern, managing wildlife disease and risk communication vis-à-vis wildlife health is critical to wildlife trust administration. We conclude that wildlife health professionals play a critical role in protecting the wildlife trust and that current conditions provide opportunities for important contributions by wildlife health professionals in wildlife management.

  11. The Orewa Speech: another threat to Maori health?

    PubMed

    Towns, Cindy; Watkins, Nathan; Salter, Arapera; Boyd, Patricia; Parkin, Lianne

    2004-11-05

    In early 2004, Dr Don Brash, leader of the National Party (New Zealand's opposition political party), gave a speech to a community group regarding what he perceived to be the preferential treatment of Maori in health and education policies. This viewpoint article is written by a group of concerned medical students at Otago University. It argues that epidemiological data provide strong support for specifically addressing Maori health need, whilst the Treaty of Waitangi represents a contractual obligation on behalf of the New Zealand Government to ensure equity of outcome for Maori. Underpinning both the epidemiological and legal arguments, are ethical principles. The central tenets of medicine (ie, to reduce suffering, and to improve and prolong the quality and length of life) should provide a strong driving force to address these inequalities.

  12. [Work community--a threat and support to mental health].

    PubMed

    Sinokki, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    The absolute and relative amount of employees who have disability pensions due to mental disorders has increased over the last few decades. During the last ten years, both disability pensions and absences due to sickness have increased about 1.5-fold. The significance of a good work environment and community to an employee's mental health is and has been widely studied. Many of these studies have shown that poor organization and problems with social relationships and management at work may increase the probability of mental disorders. At the same time, a positive environment and atmosphere at work with suitable challenges for the employees can motivate them to commit to their work. This can increase the employees willingness to continue working until the proper retirement age and promote mental health.

  13. [1946: hygienics and public health].

    PubMed

    Bucci, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In Italy, the year 1946 was characterized, on one hand, by the growing concern for the lack of public structures and, on the other, by the hopes placed in the research sector, namely the apparently inexhaustible properties of penicillin and antibiotics. Consistently, Igiene e Sanità Pubblica reflected the general mood of the hygienists, swinging between the strong protests against a far too slow political system incapable of spurring scientific research, and the constant engagement aimed at enhancing the future role of public health. Besides facing many institutional problems, such as claiming an official recognition for their profession, hygienists also managed to make Italians understand the real value of a discipline conceived for the community service.

  14. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Strain on the spine--professional threat to nurses' health.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Z; Paszek, T; Wrońska, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate correlation between strain on the spine, work place and years spent in work. Research was carried out on a group of 937 nurses working in health care units in the Warsaw district area. The study was conducted using the method of diagnostic survey and as a research tool a questionnaire sheet including 70 questions divided into 6 categories was used. Research was carried out voluntarily and anonymously. The case study confirmed earlier hypotheses that strain on skeleton and muscles, non psychological and constrained body positions in relation to years worked in profession have significantly statistical correlation on a level of 0.005, chi2 = 16.768. Strain on the spine is also dependent upon ward in which nurses work and upon characteristic of executed work. 79% of tested people fears of degenerative changes of the spinal column. Health problems that are connected to lower back pain are reported by 61% of nurses. 67% of ward nurses and 79% of scrub nurses, more often than departmental nurses and these working in other basic and specialised units, complain about pain symptoms after duty. The greatest strain placed on the spine affects tested nurses working in gastrology department (74%), department of internal medicine and neurology department (70%). Strain on the spine is a serious issue as it creates a vast number of health problems which results in decreasing the work quality.

  16. Dietary protein oxidation: A silent threat to human health?

    PubMed

    Estévez, M; Luna, C

    2017-11-22

    Protein oxidation has become a topic of great scientific interest in the field of food science and nutrition. Food proteins are known to be preferential targets of radical species, and protein oxidation has relevant consequences on protein functionality and food quality. Current trends in this field call attention to the nutritional and health dimensions of oxidized foods. Both lipid and protein oxidation products are accumulated in food during processing and storage and also upon food intake during the subsequent digestion phases. The gastrointestinal tract and internal organs are exposed to the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of these species. While the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of particular dietary lipid oxidation products is well known, the impact of dietary oxidized proteins on human health has been largely ignored. The well-established association between in vivo protein oxidation and aging and age-related diseases urges scientists to investigate the contribution of dietary protein oxidation to particular pathological conditions. Recent reports indicate the involvement of dietary protein oxidation species on particular health disorders, which emphasizes the link between dietary and in vivo protein oxidation.

  17. Public health ethics: the voices of practitioners.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare

    2003-01-01

    Public health ethics is emerging as a new field of inquiry, distinct not only from public health law, but also from traditional medical ethics and research ethics. Public health professional and scholarly attention is focusing on ways that ethical analysis and a new public health code of ethics can be a resource for health professionals working in the field. This article provides a preliminary exploration of the ethical issues faced by public health professionals in day-to-day practice and of the type of ethics education and support they believe may be helpful.

  18. Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nsubuga, Peter; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nkengasong, John N; Mukanga, David; Trostle, Murray

    2010-12-03

    There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening.With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention.We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obama's Global Health Initiative (GHI) to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM]) can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems.

  19. Dead bodies, disasters, and the myths about them: is public health law misinformed?

    PubMed

    Gionis, Thomas A; Wecht, Cyril H; Marshall, Lewis W; Hagigi, Fred A

    2007-01-01

    While the mission of public health is to fulfill society's interest in ensuring a healthy society as "public health is what we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions for people to be healthy," the mission of public health law is to assist in the creation of those conditions. However, at times of disaster, threats or risks caused by dead bodies often cause dramatic media coverage and public panic, which incite the passage of emergency public health laws. The unfortunate result of such emergency public health laws mandating immediate dead body disposal, often through mass burial, is that proper identification of the deceased is severely hampered, and families are frequently precluded from experiencing the grieving process and are unable to bring closure to such a traumatic event. Are such emergency public health laws misinformed? Are the threats of dead bodies of disasters a threat to the public's health? Are the perceived public health threats of dead bodies merely a myth-or is their cause for justified concern? Such a rush to burial not only may add to the psychological distress of survivors but it also forbids them the opportunity of seeing their loved ones being treated with dignity and respect. Additional consequence of "emergency" mass burial legislation without proper identification include legal problems associated with inheritance, life insurance, remarriage of spouses, parenting of surviving children, and even the threat of diplomatic tensions between nation states resulting from burial of foreign tourists. Disaster medicine specialists are often called upon to comment to the media, advise governmental agencies, and console families, as to the disposition of dead bodies and to the existence of any public health threats caused by the accumulation of human cadavers. Because disaster medicine specialists play a vital role in preserving the public's health, and because public fears of spread of infectious disease often escalate paralleling the

  20. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  1. Where Is the Public Health Pharmacist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Patricia J.; Johnson, Keith W.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that not nearly enough pharmacists are now engaged in public health activities, and that pharmacy education has failed to recognize the potential for pharmacists in public health as well as to acquaint pharmacy students with role models in public health. Suggestions are offered to remedy the situation. (JMD)

  2. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  3. The Nation's Top HIV/AIDS Researcher Discusses This Continuing Health Threat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS The Nation's Top HIV/AIDS Researcher Discusses This Continuing Health Threat Past Issues / ... For more than 30 years, the NIH's HIV/AIDS research program has been led by Dr. Anthony S. ...

  4. [Sleep impairment is a threat to good health].

    PubMed

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Bonke, Jens; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Garde, Anne Helene; Hermansen, Kjeld; Krogholm, Kirstine; Møller, Morten; Sjödin, Anders; Zachariae, Bobby; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-05-09

    Long-term sleep impairment is related to an increased risk of somatic health problems, e.g. overweight, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature death. Avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, energy-rich or fatty foods and light from computer screens close to bedtime may counteract impaired sleep. A quiet, dark and well-tempered bedroom and physical activity during the day may have a positive impact on sleep. Impaired sleep may be related to stress and conditions at home or at work. Psychological sleep treatment is free of adverse side effects with effects comparable to effects of medical treatment.

  5. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Matthew C.; Henk, Daniel. A.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brownstein, John S.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; McCraw, Sarah L.; Gurr, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  6. [Social medicine, public health and governance for health].

    PubMed

    Holčík, Jan

    Social medicine, public health and governance for health have a long tradition in the Czech Republic but some problems persist. Possible solutions are reliable information, research, education and training. Action plans for Health 2020 implementation are appreciated as well as a valuable help of the WHO Country Office, Czech Republic.Key words: social medicine, public health, health, health governance, governance for health, Health 2020, World Health Organization.

  7. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibon, Thomas; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Arvesen, Anders; Singh, Bhawna; Verones, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Stabilizing global temperature will require a shift to renewable or nuclear power from fossil power and the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) for remaining fossil fuel use. Non-climate co-benefits of low-carbon energy technologies, especially reduced mortalities from air pollution and decreased ecosystem damage, have been important arguments for policies to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking into account a wide range of environmental mechanisms and the complex interactions of the supply chains of different technologies, we conducted the first life cycle assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts of a global low-carbon electricity scenario. Our assessment indicates strong human health benefits of low-carbon electricity. For ecosystem quality, there is a significant trade-off between reduced pollution and climate impacts and potentially significant ecological impacts from land use associated with increased biopower utilization. Other renewables, nuclear power and CCS show clear ecological benefits, so that the climate mitigation scenario with a relatively low share of biopower has lower ecosystem impacts than the baseline scenario. Energy policy can maximize co-benefits by supporting other renewable and nuclear power and developing biomass supply from sources with low biodiversity impact.

  8. Chemical mutagenesis: an emerging issue for public health.

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, L D; Barry, P Z

    1977-01-01

    Chemical mutagens are recognized as prevalent in the environment and a potential threat to the health of future generations. This paper presents an overview of chemical mutagenesis as an issue for public health. Several problems in the determination of risk to human populations are discussed, including difficulties of extrapolating scientific data to humans, the latency period between exposure and recognizable genetic damage, and the large number of chemicals which must be tested. Test systems are described. Possibilities of control through federal regulation are discussed. PMID:911015

  9. Public health in China: 1978.

    PubMed

    Alderman, M H; Reader, G G

    1979-07-01

    Only a generation ago, health conditions in China were similar to those found in the least developed nations; but today, Chinese mortality rates resemble those found in the most highly industrialized nations. The incidence of infectious diseases and other diseases associated with deprivation has decreased markedly, especially in urban areas, and degenerative diseases are now a major health concern in China. In Peking cardiac disease is the leading cause of death and 45% of these deaths are due to strokes. While China has made great strides in improving sanitation and hygiene standards, efforts to control chronic diseases have not been as effective. Little effort has been made to collect information on health problems at the national level, and this dearth of information prevents effective planning for the continuing services needed for the treatment of individuals with chronic disease. These observations on the state of public health in China were made by 2 groups of medical personnel who visited China for several weeks in 1978 and toured medical facilities in 7 cities and 3 communes. The visitors also noted that most deliveries of babies in rural areas are performed by trained midwives and that most urban women deliver at hospitals. In the urban areas many women are sterilized after the 2nd birth. Most childhood diseases are under control, but respiratory tract infections and mastoiditis are still common problems. Acupuncture as an anesthetic for major surgery is widely used. A table comparing cardiovascular and cancer mortality rates in China and the U.S. is included.

  10. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of a...

  11. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  12. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  13. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  14. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  15. Uses of electronic health records for public health surveillance to advance public health.

    PubMed

    Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klompas, Michael; Shah, Nirav R

    2015-03-18

    Public health surveillance conducted by health departments in the United States has improved in completeness and timeliness owing to electronic laboratory reporting. However, the collection of detailed clinical information about reported cases, which is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, to understand transmission, or to determine disease-related risk factors, is still heavily dependent on manual processes. The increasing prevalence and functionality of electronic health record (EHR) systems in the United States present important opportunities to advance public health surveillance. EHR data have the potential to further increase the breadth, detail, timeliness, and completeness of public health surveillance and thereby provide better data to guide public health interventions. EHRs also provide a unique opportunity to expand the role and vision of current surveillance efforts and to help bridge the gap between public health practice and clinical medicine.

  16. Strategic planning for public health practice using macroenvironmental analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ginter, P M; Duncan, W J; Capper, S A

    1991-01-01

    Macroenvironmental analysis is the initial stage in comprehensive strategic planning. The authors examine the benefits of this type of analysis when applied to public health organizations and present a series of questions that should be answered prior to committing resources to scanning, monitoring, forecasting, and assessing components of the macroenvironment. Using illustrations from the public and private sectors, each question is examined with reference to specific challenges facing public health. Benefits are derived both from the process and the outcome of macroenvironmental analysis. Not only are data acquired that assist public health professionals to make decisions, but the analytical process required assures a better understanding of potential external threats and opportunities as well as an organization's strengths and weaknesses. Although differences exist among private and public as well as profit and not-for-profit organizations, macroenvironmental analysis is seen as more essential to the public and not-for-profit sectors than the private and profit sectors. This conclusion results from the extreme dependency of those areas on external environmental forces that cannot be significantly influenced or controlled by public health decision makers. PMID:1902305

  17. Report: EPA Is Documenting How It Addresses Time-Critical Public Health Risks Under Its Superfund Authority

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0059, December 9, 2015. We found that the EPA can provide documentation that imminent and substantial endangerment threats to public health at Superfund time-critical removal sites have been addressed.

  18. Public health workforce: challenges and policy issues

    PubMed Central

    Beaglehole, Robert; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the challenges facing the public health workforce in developing countries and the main policy issues that must be addressed in order to strengthen the public health workforce. The public health workforce is diverse and includes all those whose prime responsibility is the provision of core public health activities, irrespective of their organizational base. Although the public health workforce is central to the performance of health systems, very little is known about its composition, training or performance. The key policy question is: Should governments invest more in building and supporting the public health workforce and infrastructure to ensure the more effective functioning of health systems? Other questions concern: the nature of the public health workforce, including its size, composition, skills, training needs, current functions and performance; the appropriate roles of the workforce; and how the workforce can be strengthened to support new approaches to priority health problems. The available evidence to shed light on these policy issues is limited. The World Health Organization is supporting the development of evidence to inform discussion on the best approaches to strengthening public health capacity in developing countries. WHO's priorities are to build an evidence base on the size and structure of the public health workforce, beginning with ongoing data collection activities, and to map the current public health training programmes in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. Other steps will include developing a consensus on the desired functions and activities of the public health workforce and developing a framework and methods for assisting countries to assess and enhance the performance of public health training institutions and of the public health workforce. PMID:12904251

  19. Disability from a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Möller, Anders

    2015-08-01

    At the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV), methods to alleviate problems with disability have been seen as an important part of actions to support public health. A programme for universal design was started in 2006. Some issues of public health perspectives on disability are presented in this paper, based on discussions from a PhD course held at the NHV. During the course, the students presented papers in which they reflected on the relationship between disability and public health. These essays were collected and published in 2012 at NHV. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. A National Agenda for Public Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Yasnoff, William A.; Overhage, J. Marc; Humphreys, Betsy L.; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The AMIA 2001 Spring Congress brought together members of the the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions of funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes—that all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research; and that informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. PMID:11687561

  1. A Journey in Public Health Ethics.

    PubMed

    Kass, Nancy E

    2017-01-01

    While medical ethics has a long history, and research ethics guidance emerged more formally in the 1960s and 1970s, frameworks for public health ethics began to appear in the 1990s. The author's thinking about public health ethics evolved from consideration of some of the ethics and policy questions surfacing regularly in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This essay discusses some of the shared commitments of public health and ethics, as well as how one might apply an ethics lens to public health programs, both generally and in the contexts of public health preparedness and obesity prevention.

  2. Physical Education's Role in Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…

  3. Public Criticism of Health Science Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Peter Barton

    1978-01-01

    Major criticisms of health science policy are that (1) health science research is not presently designed to help the public which pays for it; (2) the public should have greater control over health science research; and (3) federal funding of training for health science research is an inappropriate use of tax funds. (Author/DB)

  4. Vaccine research and development: tuberculosis as a global health threat

    PubMed Central

    Usman, Mohammed Maikudi; Teoh, Teow Chong

    2017-01-01

    One of the aims of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce the number of cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection by the year 2015. However, 9 million new cases were reported in 2013, with an estimated 480,000 new cases of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) globally. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most available and currently used candidate vaccine against tuberculosis; it prevents childhood TB, but its effectiveness against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents is disputed. To achieve the goal of the WHO MDG, the need for a new improved vaccine is of primary importance. This review highlights several articles that have reported vaccine development. There are about 16 TB vaccines in different phases of clinical trials at the time of writing, which include recombinant peptide/protein, live-attenuated and recombinant live-attenuated, protein/adjuvant, viral-vectored, and immunotherapeutic vaccine. Further studies in reverse vaccinology and massive campaigns on vaccination are needed in order to achieve the target for TB eradication by 2050. PMID:28867962

  5. Cold surge: a sudden and spatially varying threat to health?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Wu, Pei-Chih; Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Su, Huey-Jen

    2009-05-01

    While cold surge is one of the most conspicuous features of the winter monsoon in East Asia, its impact on human health remains underexplored. Based on the definition by the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan, we identified four cold surges between 2000 and 2003 and collected the cardiovascular disease mortality data 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after these events. We attempted to answer the following research questions: 1) whether the cold surges impose an adverse and immediate effect on cardiovascular mortality; 2) whether the people living in temperate zones have a higher tolerance of extreme temperature drop than those in the subtropics. With geographic weighting techniques, we not only found that the cardiovascular disease mortality rates increased significantly after the cold surges, but also discovered a spatially varying pattern of tolerance to cold surges. Even within a small study area such as Taiwan, human reaction to severe weather drop differs across space. Needless to say, in the U.S., these findings should be considered in redirecting policy to address populations living in warm places when extreme temperature drops occur.

  6. Protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in Asia.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza A (H5N1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. These pandemic viral diseases originated in South East Asia. Many human and animal lives were lost. Economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. The question arises of why did the pandemics originate from South East Asian areas. Human influenza A consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the SARS virus and the avian influenza (H5N1) that are all variants of RNA of avian coronavirus. Variants are formed during infection of a coronavirus through not only birds but also mammals, including human beings. There are hot spots where viral infection rates are accelerated among birds, mammals and human beings. Suspicious areas are in South East Asia, where living conditions of birds, mammals and human beings are so close that there are always risks of viral infection. When we see the living conditions of farmers in southern China, northern Vietnam, Laos and northern Myanmar, they commonly raise ducks/chickens with pigs sharing ponds into which they discharge household wastewater, including human excreta, and pig excreta that are significant carriers of viruses. Bird faeces are also key carriers of the viruses. In the ponds, they raise ducks and conduct fish culture. Other important players are migrating birds from North Asia, which are principal vectors of avian influenza viruses. There is an urgent necessity of improving human and ecological health in South East Asia to control viral infection among birds, mammals and human beings. We can hinder the vicious cycle of virus infection through water contamination in ponds by providing good human, pig and chicken sanitation. It is easy to provide good sanitation practices for human, pigs and chickens, introducing collection and treatment of excreta. Our modern water technology can find good solutions for the problem.

  7. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  8. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  9. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  10. Public Health, the APHA, and Urban Renewal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities. PMID:19608955

  11. Public health, the APHA, and urban renewal.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ P

    2009-09-01

    Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities.

  12. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  13. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  14. Public health ethics related training for public health workforce: an emerging need in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  15. Measuring the Value of Public Health Systems: The Disconnect Between Health Economists and Public Health Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Peter D.; Palmer, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ways of defining and measuring the value of services provided by governmental public health systems. Our data sources included literature syntheses and qualitative interviews of public health professionals. Our examination of the health economic literature revealed growing attempts to measure value of public health services explicitly, but few studies have addressed systems or infrastructure. Interview responses demonstrated no consensus on metrics and no connection to the academic literature. Key challenges for practitioners include developing rigorous, data-driven methods and skilled staff; being politically willing to base allocation decisions on economic evaluation; and developing metrics to capture “intangibles” (e.g., social justice and reassurance value). Academic researchers evaluating the economics of public health investments should increase focus on the working needs of public health professionals. PMID:18923123

  16. On Management Matters: Why We Must Improve Public Health Management Through Action: Comment on "Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health".

    PubMed

    Willacy, Erika; Bratton, Shelly

    2015-09-30

    Public health management is a pillar of public health practice. Only through effective management can research, theory, and scientific innovation be translated into successful public health action. With this in mind, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an innovative program called Improving Public Health Management for Action (IMPACT) which aims to address this critical need by building an effective cadre of public health managers to work alongside scientists to prepare for and respond to disease threats and to effectively implement public health programs. IMPACT is a 2-year, experiential learning program that provides fellows with the management tools and opportunities to apply their new knowledge in the field, all while continuing to serve the Ministry of Health (MoH). IMPACT will launch in 2016 in 2 countries with the intent of expanding to additional countries in future years resulting in a well-trained cadre of public health managers around the world.

  17. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631

  18. Arsenic exposure in drinking water: an unrecognized health threat in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura; Arias, M Helena Jahuira; Mihalic, Jana; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Danz, David; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the extent of arsenic contamination of groundwater and surface water in Peru and, to evaluate the accuracy of the Arsenic Econo-Quick™ (EQ) kit for measuring water arsenic concentrations in the field. Methods Water samples were collected from 151 water sources in 12 districts of Peru, and arsenic concentrations were measured in the laboratory using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The EQ field kit was validated by comparing a subset of 139 water samples analysed by laboratory measurements and the EQ kit. Findings In 86% (96/111) of the groundwater samples, arsenic exceeded the 10 µg/l arsenic concentration guideline given by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. In 56% (62/111) of the samples, it exceeded the Bangladeshi threshold of 50 µg/l; the mean concentration being 54.5 µg/l (range: 0.1–93.1). In the Juliaca and Caracoto districts, in 96% (27/28) of groundwater samples arsenic was above the WHO guideline; and in water samples collected from the section of the Rímac river running through Lima, all had arsenic concentrations exceeding the WHO limit. When validated against laboratory values, the EQ kit correctly identified arsenic contamination relative to the guideline in 95% (106/111) of groundwater and in 68% (19/28) of surface water samples. Conclusion In several districts of Peru, drinking water shows widespread arsenic contamination, exceeding the WHO arsenic guideline. This poses a public health threat requiring further investigation and action. For groundwater samples, the EQ kit performed well relative to the WHO arsenic limit and therefore could provide a vital tool for water arsenic surveillance. PMID:25177071

  19. Actions for prevention and control of health threats related to maritime transport in European Union.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Guglielmetti, Paolo; Lemos, Cinthia Menel; Nichols, Gordon; Paux, Thierry; Schlaich, Clara; Cornejo, Miguel Davila; Martinez, Carmen Varela; Dionisio, Mauro; Rehmet, Sybille; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Actions at European Union level for International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 implementation and maritime transport were focused on two European projects implemented between 2006 and 2011. Situation analysis and needs assessment were conducted, a Manual including European standards and best practice and training material was developed and training courses were delivered. Ship-to-port and port-to-port communication web-based network and database for recording IHR Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSC) were established. Fifty pilot inspections based on the Manual were conducted on passenger ships. A total of 393 corrective actions were implemented according to recommendations given to Captains during pilot inspections. The web-based communication network of competent authorities at ports in EU Member States was used to manage 13 events/outbreaks (dengue fever, Legionnaires' disease, gastroenteritis, meningitis, varicella and measles). The European information database system was used for producing and recording 1018 IHR SSC by 156 inspectors in 6 countries in accordance with the WHO Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of SSC. Implementation of corrective actions after pilot inspections increased the level of compliance with the hygiene standards in passenger ships sailing within the EU waters and improved hygiene conditions. The communication tool contributed to improvement of outbreak identification and better management through rapid sharing of public health information, allowing a more timely and coordinated response. After the implementation of actions on passenger ships, the European Commission co-funded a Joint action that will expand the activities to all types of ships and chemical, biological and radio-nuclear threats (deliberate acts/accidental). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Arsenic exposure in drinking water: an unrecognized health threat in Peru.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Sima, Laura; Arias, M Helena Jahuira; Mihalic, Jana; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Danz, David; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    To assess the extent of arsenic contamination of groundwater and surface water in Peru and, to evaluate the accuracy of the Arsenic Econo-Quick(™) (EQ) kit for measuring water arsenic concentrations in the field. Water samples were collected from 151 water sources in 12 districts of Peru, and arsenic concentrations were measured in the laboratory using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The EQ field kit was validated by comparing a subset of 139 water samples analysed by laboratory measurements and the EQ kit. In 86% (96/111) of the groundwater samples, arsenic exceeded the 10 µg/l arsenic concentration guideline given by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. In 56% (62/111) of the samples, it exceeded the Bangladeshi threshold of 50 µg/l; the mean concentration being 54.5 µg/l (range: 0.1-93.1). In the Juliaca and Caracoto districts, in 96% (27/28) of groundwater samples arsenic was above the WHO guideline; and in water samples collected from the section of the Rímac river running through Lima, all had arsenic concentrations exceeding the WHO limit. When validated against laboratory values, the EQ kit correctly identified arsenic contamination relative to the guideline in 95% (106/111) of groundwater and in 68% (19/28) of surface water samples. In several districts of Peru, drinking water shows widespread arsenic contamination, exceeding the WHO arsenic guideline. This poses a public health threat requiring further investigation and action. For groundwater samples, the EQ kit performed well relative to the WHO arsenic limit and therefore could provide a vital tool for water arsenic surveillance.

  1. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    PubMed

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  2. Public concern about chemicals in the environment: Regional differences based on threat potential

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, H.L. )

    1990-03-01

    While the hazards of chronic environmental pollution remain unclear, people are making decisions about their exposure to pollution and its possible effects on their health. To compare people's concerns about environmental problems, a systematic, stratified sample was surveyed. The sample was made up of residents, ages 25 through 74 years, of three areas of New York State. The three areas were western New York, with a high density of toxic dump sites; Long Island, with a major shallow ground water aquifer; and the remainder of the State, excluding New York City, as a comparison area. The sampling list was obtained from records of licensed drivers of the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles. A 66 percent response rate was obtained to the mailed survey. As expected, most concerns were greater for western New York and Long Island, the two areas with highest threat potential for exposure or contamination, than for the comparison area. The single exception was that no regional differences were noted for concerns about environmental pollution and contamination. All concerns were associated with perceived distance between one's residence and a source of potential exposure. Regardless of region, women were more concerned than men about exposures, pollution, and related health effects. No sex differences, however, were noted for economic concerns.

  3. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. Methods We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Results Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Conclusions Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness

  4. Linking public health agencies and hospitals for improved emergency preparedness: North Carolina's public health epidemiologist program.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Milissa; Bevc, Christine A; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; Davies, Megan; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2012-02-23

    In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness and response system.

  5. Physicians' preparedness for bioterrorism and other public health priorities.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G Caleb; Larkin, G Luke; Wynia, Matthew K

    2006-11-01

    Potential bioterrorism challenges policy makers to balance competing public health priorities. Earlier surveys showed low physician bioterrorism preparedness but did not assess physicians' general public health preparedness, compare the preparedness of emergency and primary care physicians, or assess temporal trends. This was a national, cross-sectional, random-sample survey conducted in 2003. Overall, 744 of 1,200 eligible physicians responded (response rate, 62%). Of these, 58% of emergency physician respondents and 48% of primary care physician respondents reported having learned a lot about responding to bioterror since September 11, 2001 (p < 0.01). However, only 43% of emergency physicians and 21% of primary care physicians agreed they are generally "well prepared to play a role in responding to a bioterror attack" (p < 0.001). Beliefs about balancing public health priorities were similar among emergency and primary care respondents. Seventy-eight percent of respondents believed that local health care systems need to be prepared for bioterrorism, and 92% believed that local health care systems need to be prepared for natural epidemics. By contrast, only 23% and 46% of respondents reported that their local health care systems are well prepared for bioterrorism and natural epidemics, respectively. Meanwhile, 77% agreed that "influenza is a greater threat to public health than bioterrorism," and 21% reported that bioterrorism preparedness efforts are diverting resources from more important public health problems. In 2003, most emergency and primary care physicians reported that they and their local health care systems were not yet well prepared to respond to a bioterror attack, and many believed that more resources should go toward preparing for natural epidemics. These findings highlight the importance of expanding bioterrorism preparedness efforts to improve the public health system more broadly.

  6. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  7. Public and private health initiatives in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Fonner, E

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes several health initiatives in Kansas that are being forwarded by way of public/private partnerships. Consensus is being shaped on the standardization of health data and use of actionable indicators. Statewide public health improvement planning is also being pursued. A group of large employers and state agencies are creating a basis for group purchasing, consumer assessments of health plans, and coordinated public policy formulation.

  8. Political Theory, Values and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    This article offers some general criticisms of the idea that any political theory can legitimate public health interventions, and then some particular criticisms of Civic Republicanism as a political theory for public health. Civic Republicanism, I argue, legitimizes liberty-infringing public health interventions by demanding high levels of civic engagement in framing and reviewing them; to demand such engagement in pursuit of such a baseline value as health will leave insufficient civic energy for the pursuit of higher values. PMID:27551295

  9. Political Theory, Values and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Latham, Stephen R

    2016-07-01

    This article offers some general criticisms of the idea that any political theory can legitimate public health interventions, and then some particular criticisms of Civic Republicanism as a political theory for public health. Civic Republicanism, I argue, legitimizes liberty-infringing public health interventions by demanding high levels of civic engagement in framing and reviewing them; to demand such engagement in pursuit of such a baseline value as health will leave insufficient civic energy for the pursuit of higher values.

  10. Critical public health ethics and Canada's role in global health.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Stephanie A

    2006-01-01

    This commentary introduces critical public health ethics as an innovative lens for considering Canada's role in global health. Arising from the relatively young field of public health ethics, this analytic perspective sheds light on questions regarding public health policy, research and practice that often remain shaded from view because of traditional ways of thinking about public health. The advantage of a critical public health ethics lens is illustrated through the example of Canada's role in scaling up access to HIV treatments in developing countries.

  11. Sharing Public Health Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that effective and appropriate data sharing requires the development of models of good data-sharing practice capable of taking seriously both the potential benefits to be gained and the importance of ensuring that the rights and interests of participants are respected and that risk of harms is minimized. Calls for the greater sharing of individual-level data from biomedical and public health research are receiving support among researchers and research funders. Despite its potential importance, data sharing presents important ethical, social, and institutional challenges in low-income settings. In this article, we report on qualitative research conducted in five low- and middle-income countries exploring the experiences of key research stakeholders and their views about what constitutes good data-sharing practice. PMID:26297744

  12. Public health problems of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Mutatkar, R K

    1995-10-01

    Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope.

  13. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  14. Assessing Entrepreneurship in Governmental Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W.; Lauer, Johanna R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Methods. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Results. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Conclusions. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs’ reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs’ current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative. PMID:25689182

  15. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2012-07-09

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations - and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole.

  16. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  17. Carbon pricing in New Zealand: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Divya; Macmillan, Alexandra; Lindsay, Graeme; Woodward, Alistair

    2009-02-27

    The likely health effects of climate change make it one of the most pressing global public health issues of our time. Effects range from more intense and frequent cyclones, flooding, and heat waves through to changing infectious disease patterns, food and water insecurity, sea-level rise, and economic and social disruption. The governments of almost all developed nations are now focusing their attention on national policy responses to the threat of climate change. In New Zealand, it is currently unclear what path our current government will take to contribute to the global response and fulfil our Kyoto obligations. In this paper we discuss the main carbon pricing options currently under consideration, and their implications for health and health inequities in New Zealand. We summarise the literature about the likely health and equity implications of different kinds of carbon pricing policy. A health sector voice in these significant policy decisions is vital to ensuring a policy that both addresses the threats to wellbeing of climate change, and maximises the potential health and equity win-wins of an adequate and well-designed response.

  18. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    PubMed

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology.

  19. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  20. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant…

  1. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant…

  2. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  3. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters.

  4. A Review of Model Public Health Laws

    PubMed Central

    Hartsfield, DeKeely; Moulton, Anthony D.; McKie, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Model public health laws (public health laws or private policies publicly recommended by at least 1 organization for adoption by government bodies or by specified private entities) are promoted as exemplary. We assessed the information sponsors of model public health laws provide on the methods used in developing their models and on their models’ adoption and effectiveness. Through a systematic search, we identified 107 model public health laws published from 1907 to 2004. As of our assessment in 2005, only 18 (44%) of the sponsors presented any information on the procedures and evidence used in developing their model public health laws; information on adoption was provided for only 7 (6.5%) model laws. No sponsors provided information on model effectiveness. We recommend sponsors improve their disclosure of information about the methods and evidence used in developing model public health laws and about their adoption and effectiveness. PMID:17413072

  5. Public Health and Midwifery in Indonesia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS: ^472 21 March 1961 PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY IN INDONESIA 3y M. Joedono DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. ,-^’ JPRS: J^72 CSO: 1335-S/d PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY

  6. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  7. Public health governance: views of key stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Marks, L; Cave, S; Hunter, D J

    2010-01-01

    To identify views of key stakeholders on public health governance. Focus groups and interviews. Key national and regional stakeholders in England were invited to participate in focus groups. Three focus groups and four additional interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis was carried out. Focus groups and interviewees identified points of transition in public health governance including changes in the notion of stewardship, governance across a local public health system and a shift from organizational governance to 'governance of place'. Different governance arrangements and approaches to governance can influence health outcomes through their impact on commissioning strategies, public health practice and performance management regimes. Failure to address these issues will hamper the development of a stewardship role in local organizations and across a local public health system. Copyright 2009 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice.

  10. A comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey of State Public Health Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Stanley L; Wilcke, Burton W; Downes, Frances Pouch; Adjanor, Oluwatosin Omolade; Cada, Ronald; Ford, James R

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) conducted a Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey of State Public Health Laboratories (SPHLs) in order to establish the baseline data necessary for Healthy People 2010 Objective 23-13. This objective aims to measure the increase in the proportion of health agencies that provide or assure access to comprehensive laboratory services to support essential public health services. This assessment addressed only SPHLs and served as a baseline to periodically evaluate the level of improvement in the provision of laboratory services over the decade ending 2010. The 2004 survey used selected questions that were identified as key indicators of provision of comprehensive laboratory services. The survey was developed in consultation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics, based on newly developed data sources. Forty-seven states and one territory responded to the survey. The survey was based on the 11 core functions of SPHLs as previously defined by APHL. The range of performance among individual laboratories for the 11 core functions (subobjectives) reflects the challenging issues that have confronted SPHLs in the first half of this decade. APHL is now working on a coordinated effort with other stakeholders to create seamless state and national systems for the provision of laboratory services in support of public health programs. These services are necessary to help face the threats raised by the specter of terrorism, emerging infections, and natural disasters.

  11. The Big Society in an age of austerity: threats and opportunities for Health Consumer and Patients' Organizations in England.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Rob; Jones, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    Health consumer and patients' organizations (HCPOs) seek to influence policy. But how are they affected by developments in the policy context and political environment? The article draws on original research into HCPOs in the UK by the authors, including a major survey undertaken in 1999 and interviews with HCPOs and policymakers between 2000 and 2003 as well as a further survey in 2010. It also draws on a review of key government policies on health and the voluntary sector since 1997. Developments in the political environment and policy context have created both opportunities and threats for HCPOs as they seek to influence policy. These include policies to promote choice and competition in public services; support for a greater role for the voluntary sector and civil society in health and welfare (including the current government's 'Big Society' idea); NHS reorganization; changes to the system of patient and public involvement; and austerity measures. Devolution of powers within the UK with regard to health policy and the rising profile of the EU in health matters have also had implications for HCPOs. This analysis raises key issues for future research in the UK and elsewhere, such as how will HCPOs be able to maintain independence in an increasingly competitive environment? And how will they fare in an era of retrenchment? There are also challenges for HCPOs in relation to maintaining relationships in a new institutional setting characterized by multilevel governance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  13. Global public health today: connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead to a serious rethinking of education

  14. Global public health today: connecting the dots.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  15. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  16. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  17. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  18. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  19. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  20. Using Health Information Exchange to Improve Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Mostashari, Farzad; Hripcsak, George; Soulakis, Nicholas; Kuperman, Gilad

    2011-01-01

    Public health relies on data reported by health care partners, and information technology makes such reporting easier than ever. However, data are often structured according to a variety of different terminologies and formats, making data interfaces complex and costly. As one strategy to address these challenges, health information organizations (HIOs) have been established to allow secure, integrated sharing of clinical information among numerous stakeholders, including clinical partners and public health, through health information exchange (HIE). We give detailed descriptions of 11 typical cases in which HIOs can be used for public health purposes. We believe that HIOs, and HIE in general, can improve the efficiency and quality of public health reporting, facilitate public health investigation, improve emergency response, and enable public health to communicate information to the clinical community. PMID:21330598

  1. Engaging local public health system partnerships to educate the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2013-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine concluded that keeping the public healthy required a well-educated public health workforce, thus leading to its recommendation that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health" [2]. In response to this call, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in strengthening (or building) a functional collaborative model between academic institutions and practitioners from local health departments to educate tomorrow's public health workforce. Local and regional health departments in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of collaborations with academic partners; (3) assess how they jointly promote public health workforce development; and (4) analyze which essential public health services their partnership addresses. Despite the lack of financial resources often cited for the absence of academic-local health department collaborations, some New England states reported that their academic institution and local public health department partnerships were valued and productive. The authors discuss how effective academic-community collaborations have the potential to facilitate a broad-based appreciation of public health among students via a wide array of public health curricula and applied experiential learning opportunities in public health settings. The authors propose a model for how to combine basic public health lessons with practical experience and leadership offered by local health departments, in order to foster a real understanding of public health, its importance, practice, and relevance in today's society from a public health workforce perspective.

  2. [The public health as social economic system].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the public health as a social system because its main elements are human beings and their relationships. The conceptual foundations of characteristics of medical services are discussed as kinds of public benefits and nonmaterial values.

  3. Coping with threats to health: effects of persuasive appeals on depressed, normal, and antisocial personalities.

    PubMed

    Self, C A; Rogers, R W

    1990-08-01

    Why do people frequently persist with unhealthy life-styles when they know they are harming themselves? To investigate the role of several personality variables, 114 depressed, antisocial, and normal individuals read health promotion and disease prevention communications about alcohol abuse, lack of exercise, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The results revealed that, compared to a low-coping ability information condition, a high-coping ability condition motivated normal individuals to protect themselves but did not motivate either depressed or antisocial individuals. Additional findings indicated that threat appeals worked only if people were persuaded that they could cope with the health threats; attempts to frighten people without reassuring them had a deleterious effect. Men were more concerned than women about the costs of drinking in moderation, exercising, and protection against STDs and were more reluctant than women to give up the pleasures associated with heavy drinking and unprotected sex.

  4. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  5. [Professionalization of public health officers in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I describe how public health officers in Japan in the period of the late Taisho and early Showa eras claimed their position as professionals in the sanitary administrations of central and local governments. In the background of this push for recognition, there were related international and national movements. Internationally, public health ministries were established in developed countries and the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) was created. LNHO wanted to improve the level of public health officials world-wide, so the organization sponsored international exchanges of officials. These activities made a strong impression on Japanese public health officials, who realized that they belonged to an internationally recognized profession and that they needed to work hard to improve the substandard Japanese public health situation. Meanwhile, at the level of domestic politics, there were several movements of technical experts in different fields of government administration that worked to fight the unfair treatment of administrative officials, a situation that had existed since Meiji Period. The public health officers collaborated with the other technical experts to improve their positions and to play key roles in society. But while the other technical experts actively pursued social leadership, public health officials wanted to remain scientists. This is because the sanitary departments in the local governments were organized within police departments. In this environment, the law was dominant and science was secondary. But public health officials insisted that the basis of public health should be science, so they emphasized their scientific expertise.

  6. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes. Images p[498]-a p499-a p500-a p501-a p502-a p503-a p504-a p506-a PMID:9847921

  7. Preparedness: medical ethics versus public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Burns, Kelly A; Etkind, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Medical ethics generally applies to individual interactions between physicians and patients. Conversely, public health ethics typically applies to interactions between an agency or institution and a community or population. Four main principles underlie medical ethics: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. By contrast, public health ethical principles address issues such as interdependence, community trust, fundamentality, and justice. In large part because of the significant community-level effects of public health issues, medical ethics are suboptimal for assessing community-level public health interventions or plans-especially in the area of emergency preparedness. To be effective, as well as ethical, public health preparedness efforts must address all of the core principles of public health ethics.

  8. Pharmacogenomics and public health: implementing 'populationalized' medicine.

    PubMed

    Mette, Lindsey; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Vozikis, Athanassios; Patrinos, George P

    2012-05-01

    Pharmacogenomics are frequently considered in personalized medicine to maximize therapeutic benefits and minimize adverse drug reactions. However, there is a movement towards applying this technology to populations, which may produce the same benefits, while saving already scarce health resources. We conducted a narrative literature review to examine how pharmacogenomics and public health can constructively intersect, particularly in resource-poor settings. We identified 27 articles addressing the research question. Real and theoretical connections between public health and pharmacogenomics were presented in the areas of disease, drugs and public policy. Suggested points for consideration, such as educational efforts and cultural acceptability, were also provided. Including pharmacogenomics in public health can result in both health-related and economic benefits. Including pharmacogenomics in public health holds promise but deserves extensive consideration. To fully realize the benefits of this technology, support is needed from private, public and governmental sectors in order to ensure the appropriateness within a society.

  9. The Public Health Approach to Eliminating Disparities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Satcher, David; Higginbotham, Eve J.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing and eliminating disparities in health is a matter of life and death. Each year in the United States, thousands of individuals die unnecessarily from easily preventable diseases and conditions. It is critical that we approach this problem from a broad public health perspective, attacking all of the determinants of health: access to care, behavior, social and physical environments, and overriding policies of universal access to care, physical education in schools, and restricted exposure to toxic substances. We describe the historical background for recognizing and addressing disparities in health, various factors that contribute to disparities, how the public health approach addresses such challenges, and two successful programs that apply the public health approach to reducing disparities in health. Public health leaders must advocate for public health solutions to eliminate disparities in health. PMID:18235057

  10. The Public Health Approach to Eliminating Disparities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Satcher, David; Higginbotham, Eve J.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing and eliminating disparities in health is a matter of life and death. Each year in the United States, thousands of individuals die unnecessarily from easily preventable diseases and conditions. It is critical that we approach this problem from a broad public health perspective, attacking all of the determinants of health: access to care, behavior, social and physical environments, and overriding policies of universal access to care, physical education in schools, and restricted exposure to toxic substances. We describe the historical background for recognizing and addressing disparities in health, various factors that contribute to disparities, how the public health approach addresses such challenges, and two successful programs that apply the public health approach to reducing disparities in health. Public health leaders must advocate for public health solutions to eliminate disparities in health. PMID:18687626

  11. Agricultural Use of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) Cepacia: A Threat to Human Health?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Benson D. Pyrrolnitrin and phenazine production by Pseudomonas cepacia strain 5.5B, a biocontrol agent of Rhizoctonia solani. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol...INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A. Report Title: Agricultural Use of Burkholderia ( Pseudomonas ) cepacia: A Threat to Human Health? B. DATE...questions, contact the above OCA Representative for resolution. rIfllC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 O-* Synopses Agricultural Use of Burkholderia ( Pseudomonas

  12. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-09

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  15. The public health risks of cervid production in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    VanTiem, J S

    1997-08-01

    Cervid species represent a growing livestock enterprise in the United States of America (USA). The zoonotic threat of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) is the only significant public health risk posed by this alternative livestock industry. This paper examines the potential sources of tuberculosis exposure as related to public health and compares and contrasts the status of tuberculosis in Cervidae with the situation in the cattle industry in the USA. Based on the existing prevalence of the disease and the limited potential of human exposure to infected meat or meat products, bovine tuberculosis in Cervidae poses a minimal threat to public health. The only significant public health concern is exposure to infected free-ranging cervids of hunters who field-dress carcasses and may unknowingly incise tuberculous lesions. This risk is mitigated only by the small size of the cervid population at risk when compared to the general population of cervids hunted yearly.

  16. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  17. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  18. Defining the functions of public health governance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance.

  19. Defining the Functions of Public Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Marita J.; Corso, Liza C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  20. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...