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Sample records for public marine beaches

  1. Seasonal trends in abundance and composition of marine debris in selected public beaches in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman Bin; Hassan, Ruhana

    2015-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris were investigated at Saujana (in the state of Negeri Sembilan) and Batu Rakit (in the state of Terengganu) beaches during surveys conducted in December 2012 (northeast monsoon), May 2013 (intermediate monsoon) and July 2013 (southwest monsoon). A total of 4,682 items of debris weighing 231.4 kg were collected and sorted. Batu Rakit received substantially greater quantities of debris (815±717 items/km or 40.4±13.0 kg/km) compared to Saujana (745±444 items/km or 36.7±18.0 kg/km). Total debris item was more abundant during the southwest monsoon (SWM) (1,122±737 items/km) compared to the northeast monsoon (NEM) (825±593 items/ km) and the intermediate monsoon (IM) (394±4 items/km) seasons. Plastic category (88%) was the most numerous items collected and object items contributed 44.18% includes packaging, plastic fragments, cups, plastic shopping bags, plastic food wrapper, clear plastic bottles from the total debris items collected. Object items associated with common source (47%) were the highest debris accumulated, followed by terrestrial (30%) and marine (23%) sources. The high percentage of common and terrestrial sources during SWM season requires immediate action by marine environment stakeholders to develop and introduce strategies to reduce if not totally eliminates the marine debris in the marine environment. Awareness should be continued and focused on beach users and vessels' crew to alert them on the alarming accumulation rate of marine debris and its pathways into the marine environment.

  2. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from US West Coast public marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Soge, Olusegun O.; Meschke, John S.; No, David B.; Roberts, Marilyn C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (MRCoNS) from marine water and intertidal beach sand from public beaches in Washington State, USA. Methods Fifty-one staphylococci from Washington State beaches were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, carriage of acquired tetracycline and/or macrolide resistance genes, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, the BBL Crystal™ Gram-Positive ID System and/or 16S rRNA sequencing, coagulase test and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for MRSA. Results Five multidrug-resistant MRSA SCCmec type I, of which three were MLST type ST45, one ST59 and one a new MLST type, ST1405, plus one susceptible non-typeable (NT) MRSA ST30 were characterized. Thirty-three MRCoNS isolates, representing 21 strains from 9 Staphylococcus spp., carried a range of SCCmec types [I (2), II (6), III (3), V (2), I/II (1) and NT (7)] and varied in their antibiotic susceptibility to other antibiotic classes and carriage of acquired tetracycline/macrolide resistance gene(s). MRSA and MRCoNS donors co-transferred tet(M) and erm(A) genes to an Enterococcus faecalis recipient at a frequency of 10−8. Conclusions This is the first report of MRSA and MRCoNS isolated from marine water and intertidal beach sand. The MLST types and antibiotic carriage of five MRSA isolates were similar to hospital MRSA isolates rather than US community-acquired MRSA isolates. Our results suggest that public marine beaches may be a reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors as well as an ecosystem for exchange of antibiotic resistance genes among staphylococci and related genera. PMID:19837712

  3. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  4. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  5. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved.

  6. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. PMID:22704152

  7. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do

  8. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  9. Tidal forcing of enterococci at marine recreational beaches at fortnightly and semidiurnal frequencies.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2005-08-01

    Marine beach water quality is typically monitored in early morning once a week without respect to tidal condition. To assess the effect of tide on this public health warning system, we analyzed enterococci (ENT) data from 60 southern California marine beaches with differing geomorphology, orientation, and proximity to runoff sources. ENT concentrations during spring tides were significantly higher (p < 0.1) than those during neap tides at 50 of the beaches, and at the majority of these, water samples were also more than twice as likely to be out of compliance with the ENT single-sample standard during spring tides compared to neap tides. When tide range (spring/neap) and tide stage (ebb/flood) conditions were considered together, spring-ebb tides yielded the highest ENT concentrations and the greatest chance of exceeding the single-sample standard at the majority of beaches. The proximity to a terrestrial runoff source, the slope of the runoff source, the slope of the beach, and the orientation of the beach had minimal influence on the tidal modulation of ENT concentrations. The presence of spring and spring-ebb tide signals at such a great percentage of beaches suggests that tide should be considered in the design and interpretation of beach monitoring program data. It also suggests that ENT delivered by tidally forced sources other than terrestrial surficial runoff are widespread. Possibilities include ENT-laden groundwater (saline and fresh) from the beach aquifer as well as ENT-enriched sands, decaying wrack, and bird feces near the high water line.

  10. Tidal forcing of enterococci at marine recreational beaches at fortnightly and semidiurnal frequencies.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2005-08-01

    Marine beach water quality is typically monitored in early morning once a week without respect to tidal condition. To assess the effect of tide on this public health warning system, we analyzed enterococci (ENT) data from 60 southern California marine beaches with differing geomorphology, orientation, and proximity to runoff sources. ENT concentrations during spring tides were significantly higher (p < 0.1) than those during neap tides at 50 of the beaches, and at the majority of these, water samples were also more than twice as likely to be out of compliance with the ENT single-sample standard during spring tides compared to neap tides. When tide range (spring/neap) and tide stage (ebb/flood) conditions were considered together, spring-ebb tides yielded the highest ENT concentrations and the greatest chance of exceeding the single-sample standard at the majority of beaches. The proximity to a terrestrial runoff source, the slope of the runoff source, the slope of the beach, and the orientation of the beach had minimal influence on the tidal modulation of ENT concentrations. The presence of spring and spring-ebb tide signals at such a great percentage of beaches suggests that tide should be considered in the design and interpretation of beach monitoring program data. It also suggests that ENT delivered by tidally forced sources other than terrestrial surficial runoff are widespread. Possibilities include ENT-laden groundwater (saline and fresh) from the beach aquifer as well as ENT-enriched sands, decaying wrack, and bird feces near the high water line. PMID:16124289

  11. Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isaac R; Friedrich, Ana Cláudia; Ivar do Sul, Juliana Assunção

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along approximately 150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches.

  12. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth's environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  13. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth’s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments. PMID:27156433

  14. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-05-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth’s environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments.

  15. Semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Shi, Huahong; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Li, Daoji

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of anthropogenic marine debris is pervading the earth's environmental systems, resulting in an enormous threat to living organisms. Additionally, the large amount of marine debris around the world has been investigated mostly through tedious manual methods. Therefore, we propose the use of a new technique, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), for the semi-automatic recognition of marine debris on a beach because of its substantially more efficient role in comparison with other more laborious methods. Our results revealed that LIDAR should be used for the classification of marine debris into plastic, paper, cloth and metal. Additionally, we reconstructed a 3-dimensional model of different types of debris on a beach with a high validity of debris revivification using LIDAR-based individual separation. These findings demonstrate that the availability of this new technique enables detailed observations to be made of debris on a large beach that was previously not possible. It is strongly suggested that LIDAR could be implemented as an appropriate monitoring tool for marine debris by global researchers and governments. PMID:27156433

  16. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  17. An Alternative Approach to Water Regulations for Public Health Protection at Bathing Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Phillips, Matthew C.; Elmir, Samir M.; Fleming, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    New approaches should be considered as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) moves rapidly to develop new beach monitoring guidelines by the end of 2012, as these guidelines serve as the basis by which states and territories with coasts along the oceans and Great Lakes can then develop and implement monitoring programs for recreational waters. We describe and illustrate one possible approach to beach regulation termed as the “Comprehensive Toolbox within an Approval Process (CTBAP).” The CTBAP consists of three components. The first is a “toolbox” consisting of an inventory of guidelines on monitoring targets, a series of measurement techniques, and guidance to improve water quality through source identification and prevention methods. The second two components are principles of implementation. These include first, “flexibility” to encourage and develop an individualized beach management plan tailored to local conditions and second, “consistency” of this management plan to ensure a consistent national level of public health protection. The results of this approach are illustrated through a case study at a well-studied South Florida recreational marine beach. This case study explores different monitoring targets based on two different health endpoints (skin versus gastrointestinal illness) and recommends a beach regulation program for the study beach that focuses predominately on source prevention. PMID:23431320

  18. Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Rebecca; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2007-08-01

    Beach-cast wrack is a prominent feature of beaches of south-western Australia. We examined the fauna of these beaches to explore the generalisation [Polis, G.A., Hurd, S.D., 1995. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation. Ecology 92, 4382-4386] that beach-cast wrack from highly productive marine ecosystems subsidises low productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, to establish whether this generalisation is relevant to oligotrophic marine systems. We sampled three beaches with high and three beaches with low volumes of beach-cast wrack to determine if: (1) the presence of wrack influences the abundance of macroinvertebrates; (2) wrack acts as a food source for beach macroinvertebrates; and (3) the influence of wrack varies between zones above the high water mark. We measured wrack volume and composition, sediment characteristics, the abundance of different epibenthic and infaunal macroinvertebrates taxa, and δ13C and δ15N of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates. The mean volume of wrack on high-wrack beaches was 0.27-1.07 m 3 wrack m -2 compared to 0.00-0.09 m 3 wrack m -2 on low-wrack beaches. There were no significant differences in sediment grain size, moisture content or loss on ignition between the two types of beaches or zones. Epibenthic fauna and infauna were consistently abundant on high-wrack beaches (20-291 and 0.5-3.5 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively), but either absent or extremely rare in low-wrack beaches (0-3 and 0-0.1 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively). Within high-wrack beaches, there were no significant differences in the abundance of epifauna or infauna among beaches or between zones. The δ13C values of macroinvertebrates at all sites were most similar to red and brown algae, with the exception of beetles from two beaches, which were closest to seagrasses. Mixing model (Isosource) results for mesograzing amphipods and dipteran flies suggested carbon

  19. 75 FR 67214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Beach, NC in the Federal Register (75 FR 56024). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon,'' to be held on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach... 13, 2010, the Wilmington YMCA will sponsor the ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron...

  20. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  1. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  2. Assessment of swimming associated health effects in marine bathing beach: an example from Morib beach (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Pauzi, Norfasmawati Mohd; Hamdan, Munashamimi; Sham, Shaharuddin Mohd

    2015-03-15

    A survey among beachgoers was conducted to determine the swimming associated health effects experienced and its relationship with beach water exposure behaviour in Morib beach. For beach water exposure behaviour, the highest frequency of visit among the respondents was once a year (41.9%). For ways of water exposure, whole body exposure including head was the highest (38.5%). For duration of water exposure, 30.8% respondents prefer to be in water for about 30 min with low possibilities of accidental ingestion of beach water. A total of 30.8% of beachgoers in Morib beach were reported of having dermal symptoms. Bivariate analysis showed only water activity, water contact and accidental ingestion of beach water showed significant association with swimming associated health effects experienced by swimmers. This study output showed that epidemiological study can be used to identify swimming associated health effects in beach water exposed to faecal contamination.

  3. Water quality prediction of marine recreational beaches receiving watershed baseflow and stormwater runoff in southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Ming Lee; He, Zhen-Li

    2008-05-01

    Beach advisories are issued to the public in California when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform, fecal coliform (or Escherichia coli), and Enterococcus, exceed their recreational water health standards, or when the amount of a rainfall event is above the pre-determined threshold. However, it is not fully understood about how and to what degree stormwater runoff or baseflow exerts impacts on beach water quality. Furthermore, current laboratory methods used to determine the FIB levels take 18-96 h, which is too slow to keep pace with changes in FIB levels in water. Thus, a beach may not be posted when it is contaminated, and may be posted under advisory when bacterial levels have already decreased to within water quality standards. The study was designed to address the above critical issues. There were large temporal and spatial variations in FIB concentrations along two popular State Beaches in San Diego, CA, USA. The rainstorm-induced runoff from the watersheds exerts significant impacts on the marine recreational water quality of the beaches adjacent to lagoons during the first 24-48 h after a rain event. The large volume of stormwater runoff discharging to beaches caused high FIB concentrations in beach water not only at the lagoon outlet channel and the mixing zone, but also at the locations 90 m away from the channel northward or southward along the shoreline. The geomorphology of beach shoreline, distance from the outlet channel, wind strength, wind direction, tide height, wave height, rainfall, time lapse after a rainstorm, or channel flow rate played a role in affecting the distribution of FIB concentrations in beach water. Despite the great temporal and spatial variability of FIB concentrations along a shoreline, the artificial neural network-based models developed in this study are capable of successfully predicting FIB concentrations at different beaches, different locations, and different times under baseflow or

  4. Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Klavitter, John

    2012-08-01

    Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008-July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April-August, while pieces were at their lowest during June-August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami. PMID:22575495

  5. Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Klavitter, John

    2012-08-01

    Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008-July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April-August, while pieces were at their lowest during June-August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

  6. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  7. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  8. Fisheries as a source of marine debris on beaches in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Unger, Antonia; Harrison, Nancy

    2016-06-15

    Marine debris from ships has persisted and remains a concern despite international agreements such as MARPOL. We report on an analysis of beach litter based on a data set established by the Marine Conservation Society (MSC) Beachwatch weekends. Debris collected around the UK was divided into three main types of debris: (1) plastic, (2) fishing, and (3) fishing related plastic and rubber. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to examine patterns in the occurrence of debris types on a total of 1023 beaches and debris attributable to fishing was identified on clusters of beaches mainly located on the coasts of Scotland and along the English Channel. General Linear model (GLM) identified fishing as the highest explanatory factor when testing for relationships between litter and proximity to fishing ports and grounds. The results add to the growing body of evidence that the fishing industry is largely responsible for marine debris. PMID:27156038

  9. Fisheries as a source of marine debris on beaches in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Unger, Antonia; Harrison, Nancy

    2016-06-15

    Marine debris from ships has persisted and remains a concern despite international agreements such as MARPOL. We report on an analysis of beach litter based on a data set established by the Marine Conservation Society (MSC) Beachwatch weekends. Debris collected around the UK was divided into three main types of debris: (1) plastic, (2) fishing, and (3) fishing related plastic and rubber. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to examine patterns in the occurrence of debris types on a total of 1023 beaches and debris attributable to fishing was identified on clusters of beaches mainly located on the coasts of Scotland and along the English Channel. General Linear model (GLM) identified fishing as the highest explanatory factor when testing for relationships between litter and proximity to fishing ports and grounds. The results add to the growing body of evidence that the fishing industry is largely responsible for marine debris.

  10. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  11. Levels of Viable Enterococci Fecal Indicator Bacteria at a Marine Subtropical Beach: Assessing Temporal and Spatial Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach water quality monitoring is an important tool to inform the public of health risks from recreational beach use, as well as to assess the impacts of land-based sources of pollution on coastal ecosystems. Many beach monitoring programs in the US currently utilize a strategy o...

  12. Sources of plastic marine debris on beaches of Korea: More from the ocean than the land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jong Su; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyoung

    2014-06-01

    Reduction of marine debris requires knowledge of its sources. Sources of plastic marine debris found on six beaches of Korea were estimated. Samples larger than 25 mm were collected from 10 quadrats of 5 × 5 m for each beach in spring 2013. The total 752 items (12,255 g) of debris comprised fiber and fabric (415 items, 6,909 g), hard plastic (120 items, 4,316 g), styrofoam (93 items, 306 g), film (83 items, 464 g), foamed plastic other than styrofoam (21 items, 56 g), and other polymer (20 items, 204 g). With the probable sources allocated to each of 55 debris types, the source of 56% of all the collected debris appeared to be oceanbased and 44% was land-based. Priorities of policy measures to reduce marine debris should be different from regions to regions as the main sources of debris may differ.

  13. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale.

  14. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  15. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  16. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  17. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  18. 33 CFR 3.55-10 - Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-10 Section 3.55-10 Navigation and Navigable...-Long Beach Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Los Angeles-Long Beach's...

  19. 33 CFR 100.35T05-0482 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. 100.35T05-0482 Section 100.35T05-0482..., Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. (a) Regulated area. The following location is a regulated area... Bascule Bridge, mile 283.1, latitude 34°13′06″ North, longitude 077°48′44″ West, at Wrightsville...

  20. 33 CFR 100.35T05-0482 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. 100.35T05-0482 Section 100.35T05-0482..., Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC. (a) Regulated area. The following location is a regulated area... Bascule Bridge, mile 283.1, latitude 34°13′06″ North, longitude 077°48′44″ West, at Wrightsville...

  1. 75 FR 56024 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon'', to be held on the waters of Banks Channel... will sponsor the ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon'' on the waters of...

  2. 78 FR 19155 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 35321). We received no comments on...

  3. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: implications to public health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabino, Raquel; Rodrigues, R.; Costa, I.; Carneiro, Carlos; Cunha, M.; Duarte, A.; Faria, N.; Ferriera, F.C.; Gargate, M.J.; Julio, C.; Martins, M.L.; Nevers, Meredith; Oleastro, M.; Solo-Gabriele, H.; Verissimo, C.; Viegas, C.; Whitman, Richard L.; Brandao, J.

    2014-01-01

    Beaches worldwide provide recreational opportunities to hundreds of millions of people and serve as important components of coastal economies. Beach water is often monitored for microbiological quality to detect the presence of indicators of human sewage contamination so as to prevent public health outbreaks associated with water contact. However, growing evidence suggests that beach sand can harbor microbes harmful to human health, often in concentrations greater than the beach water. Currently, there are no standards for monitoring, sampling, analyzing, or managing beach sand quality. In addition to indicator microbes, growing evidence has identified pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi in a variety of beach sands worldwide. The public health threat associated with these populations through direct and indirect contact is unknown because so little research has been conducted relating to health outcomes associated with sand quality. In this manuscript, we present the consensus findings of a workshop of experts convened in Lisbon, Portugal to discuss the current state of knowledge on beach sand microbiological quality and to develop suggestions for standardizing the evaluation of sand at coastal beaches. The expert group at the “Microareias 2012” workshop recommends that 1) beach sand should be screened for a variety of pathogens harmful to human health, and sand monitoring should then be initiated alongside regular water monitoring; 2) sampling and analysis protocols should be standardized to allow proper comparisons among beach locations; and 3) further studies are needed to estimate human health risk with exposure to contaminated beach sand. Much of the manuscript is focused on research specific to Portugal, but similar results have been found elsewhere, and the findings have worldwide implications.

  4. The use of beached bird surveys for marine plastic litter monitoring in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Heidi; Lyashevska, Olga; Van Franeker, Jan Andries; O'Connor, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Marine plastic litter has become a major threat to wildlife. Marine animals are highly susceptible to entanglement and ingestion of debris at sea. Governments all around the world are being urged to monitor litter sources and inputs, and to mitigate the impacts of marine litter, which is primarily composed of plastics. European policies, such as Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) have adopted the monitoring of a seabird species, the Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), as an environmental quality indicator through the analysis of stomach contents of beached Fulmar specimens. The aims of this research were to: firstly set a baseline investigation of multispecies of seabirds in Ireland affected by the ingestion of litter and, secondly to investigate the feasibility of using Fulmar and/or other potential species of seabird as an indicator for marine debris in Ireland through beached bird surveys. Within 30 months, 121 birds comprising 16 different species were collected and examined for the presence of litter. Of these, 27.3% (n = 33) comprising 12 different species were found to ingest litter, mainly plastics. The average mass of ingested litter was 0.141 g. Among 14 sampled Northern Fulmars, 13 (93%) had ingested plastic litter, all of them over the 0.1 g threshold used in OSPAR and MSFD policy target definitions. Results show that seabirds in Ireland are ingesting marine litter, as in many other countries in the world. Monitoring seabird litter ingestion has the potential to form part of a wider marine litter monitoring programme that can help to inform mitigation and management measures for marine litter. PMID:27500454

  5. Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Jong Su; Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Su Yeon; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Kang, Daeseok; Hong, Sunwook

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of the distribution of plastic marine debris were determined on 12 beaches in South Korea in 2013 and 2014. The abundances of large micro- (1-5 mm), meso- (5-25 mm), and macroplastics (>25 mm) were 880.4, 37.7, and 1.0 particles/m(2), respectively. Styrofoam was the most abundant debris type for large microplastics and mesoplastics (99.1 and 90.9 %, respectively). Fiber (including fabric) was the most abundant of the macroplastics (54.7 %). There were no statistical differences in the mean numbers and weights of plastic debris among three beach groups from west, south, and east coasts. No significant differences were detected between the abundances of beached plastics in high strandline and backshore for all three size groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationships between the three debris size classes. The abundance of large microplastics was strongly correlated with that of mesoplastics for most material types, which suggests that the contamination level of large microplastics can be estimated from that of mesoplastics. As surveying of smaller particles is more labor intensive, the surveying of mesoplastics with a 5-mm sieve is an efficient and useful way to determine "hot-spots" on beaches contaminated with large microplastics. PMID:26285904

  6. Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Jong Su; Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Su Yeon; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Kang, Daeseok; Hong, Sunwook

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of the distribution of plastic marine debris were determined on 12 beaches in South Korea in 2013 and 2014. The abundances of large micro- (1-5 mm), meso- (5-25 mm), and macroplastics (>25 mm) were 880.4, 37.7, and 1.0 particles/m(2), respectively. Styrofoam was the most abundant debris type for large microplastics and mesoplastics (99.1 and 90.9 %, respectively). Fiber (including fabric) was the most abundant of the macroplastics (54.7 %). There were no statistical differences in the mean numbers and weights of plastic debris among three beach groups from west, south, and east coasts. No significant differences were detected between the abundances of beached plastics in high strandline and backshore for all three size groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationships between the three debris size classes. The abundance of large microplastics was strongly correlated with that of mesoplastics for most material types, which suggests that the contamination level of large microplastics can be estimated from that of mesoplastics. As surveying of smaller particles is more labor intensive, the surveying of mesoplastics with a 5-mm sieve is an efficient and useful way to determine "hot-spots" on beaches contaminated with large microplastics.

  7. Evaluating spatial-temporal variations and correlation between fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in marine bathing beaches.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfeng; Ming, Hongxia; Li, Lili; Su, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The horizontal distribution and temporal variation of bacterial indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), enterococcus (EC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli)) were investigated to identify the proper bacterial indicators for a marine bathing beach in China. Two different sampling efforts were conducted during dry weather and two large rain events at Xinghai Bathing Beach in Dalian, China. Samples were collected from three different water depths and analyzed for the four indicator bacteria. The results indicated that all four bacterial indicators exceeded the single sample standards at different levels. Specifically, the water quality exceeded the standard for TC, FC, EC and E. coli in 7%, 28%, 38% and 10% of the samples, respectively. Comparison of the rate of the indicators before and after rainfall revealed a significant increasing post-rainfall. The concentrations of bacteria differed significantly with distance from the shoreline, with knee-depth near the shore exceeding the standard most frequently. This was primarily due to contamination by excessive sewage discharge and rainfall. Based upon the concentration of indicators and exceedance rates, as well as the correlation between indicators, both EC and FC should be evaluated at the same time as fecal pollution bacterial indicators in marine bathing beaches in China.

  8. Evaluating spatial-temporal variations and correlation between fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in marine bathing beaches.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfeng; Ming, Hongxia; Li, Lili; Su, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The horizontal distribution and temporal variation of bacterial indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), enterococcus (EC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli)) were investigated to identify the proper bacterial indicators for a marine bathing beach in China. Two different sampling efforts were conducted during dry weather and two large rain events at Xinghai Bathing Beach in Dalian, China. Samples were collected from three different water depths and analyzed for the four indicator bacteria. The results indicated that all four bacterial indicators exceeded the single sample standards at different levels. Specifically, the water quality exceeded the standard for TC, FC, EC and E. coli in 7%, 28%, 38% and 10% of the samples, respectively. Comparison of the rate of the indicators before and after rainfall revealed a significant increasing post-rainfall. The concentrations of bacteria differed significantly with distance from the shoreline, with knee-depth near the shore exceeding the standard most frequently. This was primarily due to contamination by excessive sewage discharge and rainfall. Based upon the concentration of indicators and exceedance rates, as well as the correlation between indicators, both EC and FC should be evaluated at the same time as fecal pollution bacterial indicators in marine bathing beaches in China. PMID:26608764

  9. Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hisashi; Takada, Hideshige; Ogata, Yuko; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Kwan, Charita; Moore, Charles; Gray, Holly; Laursen, Duane; Zettler, Erik R; Farrington, John W; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily E; Ward, Marc W

    2011-08-01

    To understand the spatial variation in concentrations and compositions of organic micropollutants in marine plastic debris and their sources, we analyzed plastic fragments (∼10 mm) from the open ocean and from remote and urban beaches. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols and bisphenol A were detected in the fragments at concentrations from 1 to 10,000 ng/g. Concentrations showed large piece-to-piece variability. Hydrophobic organic compounds such as PCBs and PAHs were sorbed from seawater to the plastic fragments. PCBs are most probably derived from legacy pollution. PAHs showed a petrogenic signature, suggesting the sorption of PAHs from oil slicks. Nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and PBDEs came mainly from additives and were detected at high concentrations in some fragments both from remote and urban beaches and the open ocean. PMID:21719036

  10. Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hisashi; Takada, Hideshige; Ogata, Yuko; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Kwan, Charita; Moore, Charles; Gray, Holly; Laursen, Duane; Zettler, Erik R; Farrington, John W; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily E; Ward, Marc W

    2011-08-01

    To understand the spatial variation in concentrations and compositions of organic micropollutants in marine plastic debris and their sources, we analyzed plastic fragments (∼10 mm) from the open ocean and from remote and urban beaches. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols and bisphenol A were detected in the fragments at concentrations from 1 to 10,000 ng/g. Concentrations showed large piece-to-piece variability. Hydrophobic organic compounds such as PCBs and PAHs were sorbed from seawater to the plastic fragments. PCBs are most probably derived from legacy pollution. PAHs showed a petrogenic signature, suggesting the sorption of PAHs from oil slicks. Nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and PBDEs came mainly from additives and were detected at high concentrations in some fragments both from remote and urban beaches and the open ocean.

  11. Estimates of Marine Debris Accumulation on Beaches Are Strongly Affected by the Temporal Scale of Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical. PMID:24367607

  12. Estimates of marine debris accumulation on beaches are strongly affected by the temporal scale of sampling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical.

  13. Estimates of marine debris accumulation on beaches are strongly affected by the temporal scale of sampling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Markic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Marine debris is a global issue with impacts on marine organisms, ecological processes, aesthetics and economies. Consequently, there is increasing interest in quantifying the scale of the problem. Accumulation rates of debris on beaches have been advocated as a useful proxy for at-sea debris loads. However, here we show that past studies may have vastly underestimated the quantity of available debris because sampling was too infrequent. Our study of debris on a small beach in eastern Australia indicates that estimated daily accumulation rates decrease rapidly with increasing intervals between surveys, and the quantity of available debris is underestimated by 50% after only 3 days and by an order of magnitude after 1 month. As few past studies report sampling frequencies of less than a month, estimates of the scale of the marine debris problem need to be critically re-examined and scaled-up accordingly. These results reinforce similar, recent work advocating daily sampling as a standard approach for accurate quantification of available debris in coastal habitats. We outline an alternative approach whereby site-specific accumulation models are generated to correct bias when daily sampling is impractical. PMID:24367607

  14. Survey of microbial populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at two Chicago public beaches.

    PubMed

    Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lake Michigan is a critical resource for the residents of Chicago, providing drinking water to its 9+ million area residents. Along Chicago׳s 26 miles of public beaches the populous urban environment and this freshwater environment meet. While city-led monitoring initiatives investigate pathogenic bacteria in these nearshore waters, very little is known about other microbial species present. We collected surface water samples from two Chicago public beaches - Montrose Beach and 57th Street Beach - every ten days from June 5 through August 4, 2013 as well as once in early Fall (October 4, 2013). Sixteen bacterial communities in total were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). OTU calls for each read are also available at our online repository: www.lakemichiganmicrobes.com/bacteria/.

  15. Survey of microbial populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at two Chicago public beaches

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Lake Michigan is a critical resource for the residents of Chicago, providing drinking water to its 9+ million area residents. Along Chicago׳s 26 miles of public beaches the populous urban environment and this freshwater environment meet. While city-led monitoring initiatives investigate pathogenic bacteria in these nearshore waters, very little is known about other microbial species present. We collected surface water samples from two Chicago public beaches – Montrose Beach and 57th Street Beach – every ten days from June 5 through August 4, 2013 as well as once in early Fall (October 4, 2013). Sixteen bacterial communities in total were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). OTU calls for each read are also available at our online repository: www.lakemichiganmicrobes.com/bacteria/. PMID:26958608

  16. Survey of microbial populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at two Chicago public beaches.

    PubMed

    Malki, Kema; Bruder, Katherine; Putonti, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lake Michigan is a critical resource for the residents of Chicago, providing drinking water to its 9+ million area residents. Along Chicago׳s 26 miles of public beaches the populous urban environment and this freshwater environment meet. While city-led monitoring initiatives investigate pathogenic bacteria in these nearshore waters, very little is known about other microbial species present. We collected surface water samples from two Chicago public beaches - Montrose Beach and 57th Street Beach - every ten days from June 5 through August 4, 2013 as well as once in early Fall (October 4, 2013). Sixteen bacterial communities in total were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802). OTU calls for each read are also available at our online repository: www.lakemichiganmicrobes.com/bacteria/. PMID:26958608

  17. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of human illness from exposure to marine beach sand.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2012-03-01

    Currently no U.S. federal guideline is available for assessing risk of illness from sand at recreational sites. The objectives of this study were to compute a reference level guideline for pathogens in beach sand and to compare these reference levels with measurements from a beach impacted by nonpoint sources of contamination. Reference levels were computed using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) coupled with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to reach an equivalent level of risk of illness as set by the U.S. EPA for marine water exposure (1.9 × 10(-2)), levels would need to be at least about 10 oocysts/g (about 1 oocyst/g for a pica child) for Cryptosporidium, about 5 MPN/g (about 1 MPN/g for pica) for enterovirus, and less than 10(6) CFU/g for S. aureus. Pathogen levels measured in sand at a nonpoint source recreational beach were lower than the reference levels. More research is needed in evaluating risk from yeast and helminth exposures as well as in identifying acceptable levels of risk for skin infections associated with sand exposures.

  18. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  19. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  20. Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches.

    PubMed

    Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the north-western Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies. PMID:26725754

  1. Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches.

    PubMed

    Munari, Cristina; Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto; Mistri, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the north-western Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies.

  2. Efficacy of monitoring and empirical predictive modeling at improving public health protection at Chicago beaches.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2011-02-01

    Efforts to improve public health protection in recreational swimming waters have focused on obtaining real-time estimates of water quality. Current monitoring techniques rely on the time-intensive culturing of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) from water samples, but rapidly changing FIB concentrations result in management errors that lead to the public being exposed to high FIB concentrations (type II error) or beaches being closed despite acceptable water quality (type I error). Empirical predictive models may provide a rapid solution, but their effectiveness at improving health protection has not been adequately assessed. We sought to determine if emerging monitoring approaches could effectively reduce risk of illness exposure by minimizing management errors. We examined four monitoring approaches (inactive, current protocol, a single predictive model for all beaches, and individual models for each beach) with increasing refinement at 14 Chicago beaches using historical monitoring and hydrometeorological data and compared management outcomes using different standards for decision-making. Predictability (R(2)) of FIB concentration improved with model refinement at all beaches but one. Predictive models did not always reduce the number of management errors and therefore the overall illness burden. Use of a Chicago-specific single-sample standard-rather than the default 235 E. coli CFU/100 ml widely used-together with predictive modeling resulted in the greatest number of open beach days without any increase in public health risk. These results emphasize that emerging monitoring approaches such as empirical models are not equally applicable at all beaches, and combining monitoring approaches may expand beach access.

  3. Efficacy of monitoring and empirical predictive modeling at improving public health protection at Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to improve public health protection in recreational swimming waters have focused on obtaining real-time estimates of water quality. Current monitoring techniques rely on the time-intensive culturing of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) from water samples, but rapidly changing FIB concentrations result in management errors that lead to the public being exposed to high FIB concentrations (type II error) or beaches being closed despite acceptable water quality (type I error). Empirical predictive models may provide a rapid solution, but their effectiveness at improving health protection has not been adequately assessed. We sought to determine if emerging monitoring approaches could effectively reduce risk of illness exposure by minimizing management errors. We examined four monitoring approaches (inactive, current protocol, a single predictive model for all beaches, and individual models for each beach) with increasing refinement at 14 Chicago beaches using historical monitoring and hydrometeorological data and compared management outcomes using different standards for decision-making. Predictability (R2) of FIB concentration improved with model refinement at all beaches but one. Predictive models did not always reduce the number of management errors and therefore the overall illness burden. Use of a Chicago-specific single-sample standard-rather than the default 235 E. coli CFU/100 ml widely used-together with predictive modeling resulted in the greatest number of open beach days without any increase in public health risk. These results emphasize that emerging monitoring approaches such as empirical models are not equally applicable at all beaches, and combining monitoring approaches may expand beach access.

  4. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. PMID:27128352

  5. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  6. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine debris on beaches of Niterói, RJ, Brazil: Itaipu and Itacoatiara.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Melanie Lopes; de Araújo, Fábio Vieira; Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Sales, Alessandro Souza

    2015-03-15

    In many areas of the world, studies of marine debris are conducted with an emphasis on analyzing their composition, quantification and distribution on sandy beaches. However, in Brazil, studies are still restricted to some areas of the coast, and the quantities and the spatial and temporal patterns are unknown. To enhance the marine debris information in these areas, we selected the Itaipu and Itacoatiara beaches in Niterói, RJ, to collect, quantify and qualify the solid residues present in their sands. We collected 12 samples and recorded 118.39 kg of residues in Itaipu and 62.94 kg in Itacoatiara. At both beaches, the largest portion of debris was located on the upper part of the beach. Several debris items were related to food and drink consumption on the beaches, which indicated the contribution of beach users to pollution. Most of the debris was plastic. The greatest amount of debris was found at Itaipu in January and February and at Itacoatiara in January and March, months related to both the holiday season and abundant rainfall. The results demonstrated the necessity to implement an Environmental Education project for these areas to reduce its degradation.

  7. Sedimentology, geochemistry and rock magnetic properties of beach sands in Galapagos Islands - implications for nesting marine turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F.; Carranza-Edwards, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine turtles are well known for their navigation ability in the open ocean and fidelity to nesting beaches. Green turtle adult females migrate from foraging areas to island nesting beaches, traveling hundreds or thousands of kilometers each way. The marine turtle breeding in the Galapagos Islands is the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas agassisi); fairly common throughout the islands but with nesting sites located at Las Bachas (Santa Cruz), Barahona and Quinta Playa (Isabela), Salinas (Baltra), Gardner Bay (Española) and Bartolomé Islet. In order to characterize and to identify the geochemical signature of nesting marine turtle beaches in Galapagos Islands, sedimentological, geochemical and rock magnetic parameters are used. A total of one hundred and twenty sand samples were collected in four beaches to relate compositional characteristics between equivalent areas, these are: Las Bachas, Salinas, Barahona and Quinta Playa. Grain size is evaluated using laser particle analysis (Model Coulter LS 230). Bulk ICP-MS geochemical analysis is performed, following trace elements are analyzed: Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Mg, Sr, Ca and Hg; and low-field magnetic susceptibility is measured in all samples at low and high frequencies. Granulometric analysis showed that Barahona and Quinta Playa are characterized for fine grained sands. In contrast, Salinas and Las Bachas exhibit medium to coarse sands. Trace metals concentrations and magnetic susceptibility show different distribution patterns in the beach sands. Calcium is the most abundant element in the samples. In particular, Co, K, and Na show similar concentrations in the four beaches. Las Bachas beach shows highest concentrations of Pb and Hg (maximum values 101.1 and 118.5 mg/kg, respectively), we suggest that the enrichment corresponds to an anthropogenic signal. Salinas beach samples show high concentrations of Fe, V, Cr, Zn, Mn and the highest values of magnetic susceptibility (maximum

  8. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in public beach waters in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Patricia; Michel, Pascal; Levallois, Patrick; Chevalier, Pierre; Daignault, Danielle; Crago, Bryanne; Irwin, Rebecca; McEwen, Scott A; Neumann, Norman F; Louie, Marie

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may result in the transfer of resistance to commensal or pathogenic microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract, which may lead to severe health consequences and difficulties in treatment of future bacterial infections. It was hypothesized that the recreational waters from beaches represent a source of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli for people engaging in water activities. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E coli in the recreational waters of beaches in southern Quebec. METHODS: Sampling occurred over two summers; in 2004, 674 water samples were taken from 201 beaches, and in 2005, 628 water samples were taken from 177 beaches. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antimicrobial-resistant E coli isolates against a panel of 16 antimicrobials were determined using microbroth dilution. RESULTS: For 2004 and 2005, respectively, 28% and 38% of beaches sampled had at least one water sample contaminated by E coli resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and more than 10% of the resistant isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial of clinical importance for human medicine. The three antimicrobials with the highest frequency of resistance were tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. DISCUSSION: The recreational waters of these beaches represent a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria for people engaging in water activities. Investigations relating the significance of these findings to public health should be pursued. PMID:23730315

  9. Swimming in the USA: Beachgoer Characteristics and Health Outcomes at U.S. Marine and Freshwater Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swimming in lakes and oceans is popular, but tittle is known about the demographic characteristics, behaviors, and health risks of beachgoers on a national level. Data from a prospective cohort study of beachgoers at multiple marine and freshwater beaches in the USA were used to ...

  10. Land Use for Marsh Beach. 4-H Marine Science Simulation Game. Member's Guide [and] Agent's Supplement. MSp 5 [and] 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    A six-part marine science simulation game for 4-H members concerning land use in a hypothetical community is provided. The major problem is to decide what are some possible uses of a three-mile (1,250 acre) Marsh Beach which the city recently purchased. Members assume the roles of decision-makers in the simulated environment and compete for…

  11. Distribution and characteristics of marine litter on the Marina beach, Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanapal, R.

    2013-05-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the beach of the Marina, Chennai, India were surveyed during 2010-2011 season wise. Litter items were sorted into material and usage categories. The counts and weights of the litter were counted and measured. The plastic-type litter (63.4 kg) is the most dominant material category followed by polythene (10.6 kg), metal (5.3 kg) and glass (15.2 kg). Cloth (66.0 kg) is the dominant usage category followed by rubber (45.7 kg) and wood (70.0 kg). Based on the typological results three dominant litter sources were identified viz., land-based, vessel-based and fishery-based sources. t test help recognize dominant litter sources.t; t;

  12. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality and swimming-associated illness at marine beaches: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water quality is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to help prevent swimming-associated illnesses. Standard methods to measure these bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can estimate these bacteria faster, in under 3 hours. Previously, we demonstrated that measurements of the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus using qPCR were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness among swimmers at freshwater beaches. In this paper, we report on results from three marine beach sites. Methods We interviewed beach-goers and collected water samples at marine beaches affected by treated sewage discharges in Mississippi in 2005, and Rhode Island and Alabama in 2007. Ten to twelve days later, we obtained information about gastrointestinal, respiratory, eye, ear and skin symptoms by telephone. We tested water samples for fecal indicator organisms using qPCR and other methods. Results We enrolled 6,350 beach-goers. The occurrence of GI illness among swimmers was associated with a log10-increase in exposure to qPCR-determined estimates of fecal indicator organisms in the genus Enterococcus (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.1) and order Bacteroidales (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9). Estimates of organisms related to Clostridium perfringens and a subgroup of organisms in the genus Bacteroides were also determined by qPCR in 2007, as was F+ coliphage, but relationships between these indicators and illness were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of a relationship between gastrointestinal illness and estimates of fecal indicator organisms determined by qPCR at marine beaches. PMID:21040526

  13. Marine recreation and public health microbiology: quest for the ideal indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Rose, Joan B.

    2001-01-01

    Four-fifths of the population of the United States live in close proximity to the oceans or Great Lakes, and approximately 100 million Americans use the marine environment for recreation each year (Thurman 1994). Consequently, contamination of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters raises significant public health issues. Among the leading sources of chemical and biological contamination of these waters and associated beaches are sewer systems, septic tanks, stormwater runoff, industrial wastes, wastewater injection wells, cesspits, animal wastes, commercial and private boat wastes, and human recreation. In 1997, 649 beach closings or advisories were caused by sewage spills and overflows (NRDC 1998). In Florida alone, approximately 500 million gallons of sewage were released along the coast each year during the late 1980s (Neshyba 1987). Thus one of the primary concerns in public health is the risk that humans using the marine environment for recreational activities will encounter microbial pathogens.

  14. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A... events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  15. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California Annual Marine Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15 to the... Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California Annual Marine Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  16. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A... events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  17. Comparative analysis of time series of marine litter surveyed on beaches and the seafloor in the southeastern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Krone, Roland; Dederer, Gabriele; Wätjen, Kai; Matthies, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The comparative analysis of marine litter in different marine compartments has rarely been attempted. In this study, long-term time series of marine litter abundance on the seafloor and on the coast, both from the southeastern North Sea, were analyzed for temporal trends and correlations. On four beach sections of 100 m length, mean abundances of total beach litter collected four times a year from 2002 to 2008 varied between 105 and 435 items. Mean densities of total inorganic litter on the seafloor amounted to 10.6 ± 9.7 kg km(-2) in the offshore region (2001-2010) and 13.7 ± 12.6 kg km(-2) in the Wadden Sea (1998-2007), respectively. In the offshore region, there was no significant long-term trend, while in the Wadden Sea, densities of marine litter declined significantly. Correlations between time series were weak, indicating different sources and transport processes responsible for compositions of beach litter and litter on the seafloor. Decreases in inputs from fisheries and substantial export due to resuspension are discussed as reasons for the decrease in litter on the seafloor in the Wadden Sea.

  18. Where Has All the Oil Gone? The use of trace metals as potential indicators of oil contamination in marine sediments and beach sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, T. K.; Hastings, D. W.; Holzinger, C.; Playle, E.; Brooks, G.; Huettel, M. H.; Kostka, J. E.; Larson, R. A.; Flower, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    We report initial results to determine if select trace metals are effective indicators for the magnitude and spatial extent of Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil contamination in Gulf of Mexico marine sediments and beach sands. Since crude oil is known to have elevated concentrations of nickel and vanadium, contamination can be detected even after the degradation of oil by measuring enrichment of these metals within marine sediments and beach sands. A sample of crude oil from the Macondo Prospect, source of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, was fully digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the College of Marine Science, University of South Florida. Results indicate the crude oil is enriched in nickel, vanadium, and cobalt, with concentrations of 0.86 ppm, 2.76 ppm, and 84 ppb, respectively. With this known trace metal enrichment in DWH oil, Gulf of Mexico marine sediments from 400 and 1100m water depth near DeSoto Canyon and beach sands from Pensacola, FL were examined for enrichment of V, Ni, and Co. Both marine sediment and beach sand samples were partially digested with HNO3 before analysis via ICP-MS. With marine sediments, the visually contaminated layer at or near the surface typically exhibited an enrichment in Ni, V, and Co compared to the pristine control sediments. Vanadium and nickel enrichment in marine sediments varied from 10 to 32% and 0 to 22%, respectively. Visible contamination in beach sands was found between 20-60cm beneath the surface and, likewise, showed Ni, V, and Co enrichment up to 33%, 45%, and 100%. This data shows that enrichment of V, Ni, and Co in marine sediments and beach sands may be an effective proxy for contamination even after the degradation of oil. Marine sediments and beach sands will continue to be monitored for trace metal enrichment in an effort to assess the continuing impacts of the DWH spill on the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Huang, Chuguang; Fang, Hongda; Cai, Weixu; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Hansheng

    2011-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282-16.891) items/km², with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size floating marine debris. The SMD and BMD densities of were 0.693 (0.147-5.000) and 32.82 (2.83-375.00) items/km², respectively. SMD was composed of plastics (47.0%), wood (15.2%), fabric/fiber (13.6%) and glass (12.1%), while BMD was composed of plastics (42.0%) and wood (33.7%). More than 90% of FMD, 75% of SMD and 95% of BMD were not ocean-based sources but land-based sources, mostly attributed to coastal/recreational activity, because of the effect of human activities in the areas.

  20. The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Huang, Chuguang; Fang, Hongda; Cai, Weixu; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Hansheng

    2011-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282-16.891) items/km², with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size floating marine debris. The SMD and BMD densities of were 0.693 (0.147-5.000) and 32.82 (2.83-375.00) items/km², respectively. SMD was composed of plastics (47.0%), wood (15.2%), fabric/fiber (13.6%) and glass (12.1%), while BMD was composed of plastics (42.0%) and wood (33.7%). More than 90% of FMD, 75% of SMD and 95% of BMD were not ocean-based sources but land-based sources, mostly attributed to coastal/recreational activity, because of the effect of human activities in the areas. PMID:21764082

  1. Swimming in the USA: beachgoer characteristics and health outcomes at US marine and freshwater beaches.

    PubMed

    Collier, Sarah A; Wade, Timothy J; Sams, Elizabeth A; Hlavsa, Michele C; Dufour, Alfred P; Beach, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Swimming in lakes and oceans is popular, but little is known about the demographic characteristics, behaviors, and health risks of beachgoers on a national level. Data from a prospective cohort study of beachgoers at multiple marine and freshwater beaches in the USA were used to describe beachgoer characteristics and health outcomes for swimmers and non-swimmers. This analysis included 54,250 participants. Most (73.2%) entered the water; of those, 65.1% put their head under water, 41.3% got water in their mouth and 18.5% swallowed water. Overall, 16.3% of beachgoers reported any new health problem. Among swimmers, 6.6% reported gastrointestinal (GI) illness compared with 5.5% of non-swimmers (unadjusted χ² p < 0.001); 6.0% of swimmers and 4.9% of non-swimmers reported respiratory illness (p < 0.001); 1.8% of swimmers and 1.0% of non-swimmers reported ear problems (p < 0.001); and 3.9% of swimmers and 2.4% of non-swimmers experienced a rash (p < 0.001). Overall, swimmers reported a higher unadjusted incidence of GI illness and earaches than non-swimmers. Current surveillance systems might not detect individual cases and outbreaks of illness associated with swimming in natural water. Better knowledge of beachgoer characteristics, activities, and health risks associated with swimming in natural water can improve disease surveillance and prioritize limited resources.

  2. Swimming in the USA: beachgoer characteristics and health outcomes at US marine and freshwater beaches

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Sarah A.; Wade, Timothy J.; Sams, Elizabeth A.; Hlavsa, Michele C.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Beach, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Swimming in lakes and oceans is popular, but little is known about the demographic characteristics, behaviors, and health risks of beachgoers on a national level. Data from a prospective cohort study of beachgoers at multiple marine and freshwater beaches in the USA were used to describe beachgoer characteristics and health outcomes for swimmers and non-swimmers. This analysis included 54,250 participants. Most (73.2%) entered the water; of those, 65.1% put their head under water, 41.3% got water in their mouth and 18.5% swallowed water. Overall, 16.3% of beachgoers reported any new health problem. Among swimmers, 6.6% reported gastrointestinal (GI) illness compared with 5.5% of non-swimmers (unadjusted χ2 p < 0.001); 6.0% of swimmers and 4.9% of non-swimmers reported respiratory illness (p < 0.001); 1.8% of swimmers and 1.0% of non-swimmers reported ear problems (p < 0.001); and 3.9% of swimmers and 2.4% of non-swimmers experienced a rash (p < 0.001). Overall, swimmers reported a higher unadjusted incidence of GI illness and earaches than non-swimmers. Current surveillance systems might not detect individual cases and outbreaks of illness associated with swimming in natural water. Better knowledge of beachgoer characteristics, activities, and health risks associated with swimming in natural water can improve disease surveillance and prioritize limited resources. PMID:26042984

  3. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring.

  4. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring. PMID:24642440

  5. 76 FR 60729 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon'', to be held on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach... participate in the Wilmington YMCA ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon'', scheduled for... Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon'' on the waters of Banks, Motts and Wrightsville...

  6. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  7. Predictive Modeling of a Fecal Indicator at a Subtropical Marine Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Model Builder (VBMB) is a software tool that can be used to develop predictive models at beaches based on microbial data and observations (explanatory variables) that describe hydrometeorological and biogeochemical conditions. During the summer of 2008, a study...

  8. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events.

  9. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  10. Beach debris on Aruba, Southern Caribbean: Attribution to local land-based and distal marine-based sources.

    PubMed

    de Scisciolo, Tobia; Mijts, Eric N; Becker, Tatiana; Eppinga, Maarten B

    2016-05-15

    Accumulation of marine (plastic) debris from local land-based and distal marine-based sources along coastlines is a pressing modern issue. Hitherto, assessing the relative contribution of pollution sources through beach surveys is methodologically challenging. We surveyed ten beaches along the leeward and windward coastlines of Aruba (southern Caribbean) to determine differences in macro- and meso-debris densities. Differences were quantified using three metrics: 1) the gradient in macro-debris density away from the waterfront; 2) the proportion of plastic within macro-debris; 3) the meso-:macro-debris ratio. Overall 42,585 macro-debris items and 884 meso-debris items were collected. The density of near-shore macro-debris, proportion of plastic debris herein, and meso-:macro-debris ratio were highest on the windward coastline. These results suggest that southern Caribbean windward coastlines are mainly exposed to debris originating from distal marine-based sources, and leeward coastlines to local land-based sources. Our metrics clearly reflect these differences, providing novel means to survey debris source origin.

  11. Beach debris on Aruba, Southern Caribbean: Attribution to local land-based and distal marine-based sources.

    PubMed

    de Scisciolo, Tobia; Mijts, Eric N; Becker, Tatiana; Eppinga, Maarten B

    2016-05-15

    Accumulation of marine (plastic) debris from local land-based and distal marine-based sources along coastlines is a pressing modern issue. Hitherto, assessing the relative contribution of pollution sources through beach surveys is methodologically challenging. We surveyed ten beaches along the leeward and windward coastlines of Aruba (southern Caribbean) to determine differences in macro- and meso-debris densities. Differences were quantified using three metrics: 1) the gradient in macro-debris density away from the waterfront; 2) the proportion of plastic within macro-debris; 3) the meso-:macro-debris ratio. Overall 42,585 macro-debris items and 884 meso-debris items were collected. The density of near-shore macro-debris, proportion of plastic debris herein, and meso-:macro-debris ratio were highest on the windward coastline. These results suggest that southern Caribbean windward coastlines are mainly exposed to debris originating from distal marine-based sources, and leeward coastlines to local land-based sources. Our metrics clearly reflect these differences, providing novel means to survey debris source origin. PMID:27039956

  12. Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside Beach: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.

  13. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring methods for microbial indicators of fecal contamination are an integral component for protecting the health of swimmers exposed to potentially contaminated bathing beach waters. The design of monitoring systems which will accurately characterize the quality of water is...

  14. Rapid method demonstration project at four New Jersey marine beaches using real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, James A; Tran, Hiep V; Peterson, Sarah J; Loftin, Virginia

    2013-06-15

    Real time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used at four marine bathing beaches in New Jersey as part of a demonstration project to evaluate the potential for use of qPCR as part of a routine beach monitoring program. Split sample analyses for Enterococcus spp. using membrane filtration (MF) and qPCR were performed for 11weeks during the summer of 2011 using swimming advisories based on qPCR results. Comparison of qPCR and MF results from split samples indicated that there was an 82% overall agreement rate between the two methods. Results from the qPCR tests were available by noon the same day of sample collection and swimming advisories were posted on a dedicated website. The qPCR method can be more labor intensive and requires a higher level of training to perform, however, qPCR was able to assess beach water quality in a timelier manner compared to conventional MF techniques. PMID:23623653

  15. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  16. Use of indicator items to monitor marine debris on a New Jersey beach from 1991 to 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The US National Marine Debris Monitoring Program is using indicator items from beach surveys to identify whether amounts of marine debris are changing over time. Indicator items were selected through expert opinion and assumed to reflect the trend of all debris. We used monthly data from a 1991-1996 study of debris on a New Jersey beach to determine if indicator and non-indicator items showed similar trends. Total indicator debris levels did not change; this was true regardless of probable source. Non-indicator debris increased about 40% annually. Plastic non-indicator items increased regardless of whether items were whole items, cigarette filters, or pieces. Of the whole items, almost 50% were plastic lids, cups, and utensils, and about 25% were drug-related paraphernalia, tobacco-related products, plastic stirrers, pull rings, and fireworks. When indicator items are used in a monitoring programme to reflect total debris patterns, concordance of trends in indicator and non-indicator debris should be checked.

  17. RELATIONSHIP OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS TO HEALTH EFFECTS AT MARINE BATHING BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Finds are described from the second year of an epidemiological-microbiological study conducted at New York City beaches as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program to develop health effects-recreational water quality criteria. Symptomatology rates among swimmers (...

  18. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers

  19. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H M

    2013-06-15

    Monitoring beach litter is essential for reducing ecological threats towards humans and wildlife. In Monterey Bay, CA information on seasonal and spatial patterns is understudied. Central California's coastal managers require reliable information on debris abundance, distribution, and type, to support policy aimed at reducing litter. We developed a survey method that allowed for trained citizen scientists to quantify the types and abundance of beach litter. Sampling occurred from July 2009-June 2010. Litter abundance ranged from 0.03 to 17.1 items m(-2). Using a mixed model approach, we found season and location have the greatest effect on litter abundance. Styrofoam, the most numerically abundant item, made up 41% of the total amount of litter. Unexpected items included fertilizer pellets. The results of this study provide a baseline on the types and abundance of litter on the central coast and have directly supported policy banning Styrofoam take out containers from local municipalities. PMID:23499538

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Van, Almira; Rochman, Chelsea M; Flores, Elisa M; Hill, Kish L; Vargas, Erica; Vargas, Serena A; Hoh, Euhna

    2012-01-01

    Plastic debris were collected from eight beaches around San Diego County, California. Debris collected include: pre-production pellets and post-consumer plastics including fragments, polystyrene (PS) foam, and rubber. A total of n = 2453 pieces were collected ranging from <5 mm to 50 mm in size. The plastic pieces were separated by type, location, and appearance and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its breakdown products, and chlordanes. PAH concentrations ranged from 30 ng g(-1) to 1900 ng g(-1), PCBs from non-detect to 47 ng g(-1), chlordanes from 1.8 ng g(-1) to 60 ng g(-1), and DDTs from non-detect to 76 ng g(-1). Consistently higher PAH concentrations found in PS foam samples (300-1900 ng g(-1)) led us to examine unexposed PS foam packaging materials and PS virgin pellets. Unexposed PS foam contained higher concentrations of PAHs (240-1700 ng g(-1)) than PS virgin pellets (12-15 ng g(-1)), suggesting that PAHs may be produced during manufacturing. Temporal trends of debris were investigated at one site, Ocean Beach, where storm events and beach maintenance were found to be important variables influencing debris present at a given time.

  1. Presence of Pathogens and Indicator Microbes at a Non-Point Source Subtropical Recreational Marine Beach ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Wright, Mary E.; Ortega, Cristina; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Miller, Gary; Elmir, Samir; Newman, Xihui; Shih, Peter; Bonilla, J. Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D.; Palmer, Carol J.; Scott, Troy; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J.; McQuaig, Shannon; Sinigalliano, Chris; Gidley, Maribeth; Plano, Lisa R. W.; Zhu, Xiaofang; Wang, John D.; Fleming, Lora E.

    2010-01-01

    Swimming in ocean water, including ocean water at beaches not impacted by known point sources of pollution, is an increasing health concern. This study was an initial evaluation of the presence of indicator microbes and pathogens and the association among the indicator microbes, pathogens, and environmental conditions at a subtropical, recreational marine beach in south Florida impacted by non-point sources of pollution. Twelve water and eight sand samples were collected during four sampling events at high or low tide under elevated or reduced solar insolation conditions. The analyses performed included analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens), human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers (human polyomaviruses [HPyVs] and Enterococcus faecium esp gene), and pathogens (Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp.). The enterococcus concentrations in water and sand determined by quantitative PCR were greater than the concentrations determined by membrane filtration measurement. The FIB concentrations in water were below the recreational water quality standards for three of the four sampling events, when pathogens and MST markers were also generally undetectable. The FIB levels exceeded regulatory guidelines during one event, and this was accompanied by detection of HPyVs and pathogens, including detection of the autochthonous bacterium V. vulnificus in sand and water, detection of the allochthonous protozoans Giardia spp. in water, and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in sand samples. The elevated microbial levels were detected at high tide and under low-solar-insolation conditions. Additional sampling should be conducted to further explore the relationships between tidal and solar insolation conditions and between indicator microbes and pathogens in subtropical recreational marine waters impacted

  2. Activity of extracellular enzymes on the marine beach differing in the level of antropopressure.

    PubMed

    Perliński, P; Mudryk, Z J

    2016-03-01

    The level of activity of extracellular enzymes was determined on two transects characterised by different anthropic pressure on a sandy beach in Ustka, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Generally, the level of activity of the studied enzymes was higher on the transect characterised by high anthropic pressure. The ranking order of the mean enzyme activity rates in the sand was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > chitinase. Each enzyme had its characteristic horizontal profile of activity. The levels of activity of the studied enzymes were slightly higher in the surface than subsurface sand layer. Extracellular enzymatic activities were strongly influenced by the season. PMID:26911592

  3. 76 FR 52596 - Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach, CA; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class C Airspace for Long Beach... airspace users and others, concerning a proposal to establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA. The... on or before December 12, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meetings will be held at the Holiday Inn Long...

  4. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ(15)N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    A fine-scale survey of δ(15)N, δ(13)C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM(∗), COU(∗)). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ(15)N signatures and N contents at GM(∗) and COU(∗). Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ(15)N at GM(∗) were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae.

  5. Origin and abundance of marine litter along sandy beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Topçu, Eda N; Tonay, Arda M; Dede, Ayhan; Öztürk, Ayaka A; Öztürk, Bayram

    2013-04-01

    Beach debris abundance was estimated from surveys on 10 beaches of the Turkish Western Black Sea Coast. Debris was collected from 20 m long transects during four different seasons; sorted and categorized by type, usage and origin. Litter density varied from 0.085 to 5.058 items m(-2). Debris was mainly composed of unidentifiable small size (2-7 cm) plastic pieces and beverage-related litter such as bottles and bottle caps. About half of the labeled litter was of foreign origin, including 25 different countries, 23% of which are in the Black Sea region. The south-western Black Sea Coast seems to receive foreign litter from two main sources: land-based debris from the neighboring countries and seaborne debris due to international shipping. Standardized methodology and indicators need to be designated all over the Black Sea basin in order to quantify and qualify coastal litter pollution, monitor compliance with MARPOL and develop regionally effective mitigation measures.

  6. Public health response to an incident of secondary chemical contamination at a beach in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, F; Murray, V; Ouki, S; Iversen, A; Sparks, A; Bartlett, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To gather enough data from a large scale investigation involving two health authorities, to assess the possible concentrations and routes of exposure and the consequent health implications.To use the data to decide whether a polluted beach should remain open to the public. In Spring 1997, a chemical incident came to light at a beach on the south coast of England when a local resident reported a sulphurous smell, visible signs of oil, and reduced numbers of fishing bait. The beach was situated adjacent to a former gasworks site and was accessible to the public. The incident was reported to the local authority and was initially investigated by the Environment Agency and the local authority. An Environment Agency report confirmed contamination of the beach with cyanide, ammonia, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with associated potential health risks. The incident was then referred to the local health authorities for investigation.
METHODS—The investigation was carried out in four stages: comprehensive sampling and analysis to identify the extent of contamination, followed by an assessment of risk to health; establishment of a long term monitoring programme to identify any changes in contaminant concentrations; investigation of the effects of the contamination on shellfish; and review of the routine monitoring data and current sampling strategy.
RESULTS—The initial investigation confirmed that the beach was contaminated, with the most likely source being the adjacent former gasworks site. The level of contamination was not found to be likely to pose a hazard to users of the beach. However, subsequent investigation of shellfish in the area led to warning signs being erected on the beach to prevent human consumption of mussels contaminated with PAHs.
CONCLUSIONS—Several lessons can be learnt from this investigation, which can be applied to incident management more generally: the importance of collaboration and coordination; the need

  7. Man-made marine debris and sea turtle strandings on beaches of the upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coasts, June 1987 through September 1989. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Duronslet, M.J.; Revera, D.B.; Stanley, K.M.

    1991-02-01

    The upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coastlines were divided into six sampling zones to survey the amounts, types and rates of accumulation of man-made marine debris, the number of sea turtle strandings, the incidence of sea turtle entanglements in marine debris and the incidence of ingestion of such debris by sea turtles. From June 1987 through September 1989, 473 sample plots were examined for marine debris. Significant differences were detected in mean number of debris items per 100 sq m of beach sampled by year, zone and month. Significant differences in mean weight of debris items per 100 sq m of beach sampled were detected by month and zone. Both number and weights (per 100 sq m) of debris were lowest in the winter months. Number per 100 sq m was greatest in August while weight per 100 sq m peaked in May. Tar balls and plastic items were the most frequently encountered marine debris items. Wooden items had the highest average weights while tar balls and polystyrene foam were the lightest items collected. A total of 171 sea turtles stranded on the surveyed beaches during the study. Of 26 gastrointestinal tracts examined, 16 had ingested some form of man-made debris. Six turtles were entangled in man-made debris and 9 were live stranded.

  8. Number of bacteria decomposing organic phosphorus compounds and phosphatase activity in the sand of two marine beaches differing in the level of anthropopressure.

    PubMed

    Mudryk, Z J; Perliński, P; Antonowicz, J; Robak, D

    2015-12-30

    Number of heterotrophic bacteria ability to decompose organic phosphorus compounds and the level of phosphatase activity in the sand of two marine beaches (southern coast of the Baltic Sea) differing in the level of anthropopressure were studied. The study showed that the number of bacteria and level phosphatase activity were higher in the sand of the beach subjected to stronger anthropopressure. In both studied beaches bacteria hydrolysing DNA were the most numerous (92.7-302.8 CFU·g(-1) d.w.). The least numerous were phytin (26.0·10(3) CFU·g(-1) d.w.) and phenolphthalein diphosphate (11.1·10(3) CFU·g(-1) d.w.) decomposing bacteria. Number of bacteria able to attack tested organic phosphorus compounds were the most numerous in dry zones (10.77-739.92 CFU·g(-1) d.w.) then wet zones (3.34-218.15 CFU·g(-1) d.w.). In both studied beaches bacteria hydrolysing organic phosphorus compounds and phosphatase activity generally were more numerous in surface sand layer. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of bacteria in both studied beaches was observed.

  9. Number of bacteria decomposing organic phosphorus compounds and phosphatase activity in the sand of two marine beaches differing in the level of anthropopressure.

    PubMed

    Mudryk, Z J; Perliński, P; Antonowicz, J; Robak, D

    2015-12-30

    Number of heterotrophic bacteria ability to decompose organic phosphorus compounds and the level of phosphatase activity in the sand of two marine beaches (southern coast of the Baltic Sea) differing in the level of anthropopressure were studied. The study showed that the number of bacteria and level phosphatase activity were higher in the sand of the beach subjected to stronger anthropopressure. In both studied beaches bacteria hydrolysing DNA were the most numerous (92.7-302.8 CFU·g(-1) d.w.). The least numerous were phytin (26.0·10(3) CFU·g(-1) d.w.) and phenolphthalein diphosphate (11.1·10(3) CFU·g(-1) d.w.) decomposing bacteria. Number of bacteria able to attack tested organic phosphorus compounds were the most numerous in dry zones (10.77-739.92 CFU·g(-1) d.w.) then wet zones (3.34-218.15 CFU·g(-1) d.w.). In both studied beaches bacteria hydrolysing organic phosphorus compounds and phosphatase activity generally were more numerous in surface sand layer. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of bacteria in both studied beaches was observed. PMID:26522162

  10. Regional Public Health Cost Estimates of Contaminated Coastal Waters: A Case Study of Gastroenteritis at Southern California Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, S.; Pendleton, L.; Boehm, A.

    2007-05-01

    We present estimates of annual public health impacts, both illnesses and cost of illness,attributable to excess gastrointestinal illnesses caused by swimming in contaminated coastal waters at beaches in southern California, USA. Beach-specific enterococci densities are used as inputs to two epidemiological dose-response models to predict the risk of gastrointestinal illness at 28 beaches spanning 160 km of coastline in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. We use attendance data along with the health cost of gastrointestinal illness to estimate the number of illnesses among swimmers . We estimate that between 627,800 and 1,479,200 excess gastrointestinal illnesses occur at beaches in Los Angeles and Orange Counties each year. Using a conservative health cost of gastroenteritis, this corresponds to an annual economic loss of 21 or 51 million depending upon the underlying epidemiological model used (in year 2000 dollars). Results demonstrate that improving coastal water quality could result in a reduction of gastrointestinal illnesses locally and a concurrent savings in expenditures on related health care costs.

  11. 78 FR 34881 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Rulemaking for this event in the Federal Register (78 FR 19155). We received no comments on the proposed rule... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Marine Events,...

  12. 77 FR 35321 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request for... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... proposes a Special Local Regulation for the ``Swim Harbor Island'' swim event, to be held on the...

  13. Occurrence and origin of Escherichia coli in water and sediments at two public swimming beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Camden County, Missouri, 2011-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    In the past several years, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has closed two popular public beaches, Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1, at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Osage Beach, Missouri when monitoring results exceeded the established Escherichia coli (E. coli) standard. As a result of the beach closures, the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, led an investigation into the occurrence and origins of E. coli at Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1. The study included the collection of more than 1,300 water, sediment, and fecal source samples between August 2011 and February 2013 from the two beaches and vicinity. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coli concentrations in water and sediments combined with measurements of environmental variables, beach-use patterns, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources water-tracing results were used to identify possible sources of E. coli contamination at the two beaches and to corroborate microbial source tracking (MST) sampling efforts. Results from a 2011 reconnaissance sampling indicate that water samples from Grand Glaize Beach cove contained significantly larger E. coli concentrations than adjacent coves and were largest at sites at the upper end of Grand Glaize Beach cove, indicating a probable local source of E. coli contamination within the upper end of the cove. Results from an intensive sampling effort during 2012 indicated that E. coli concentrations in water samples at Grand Glaize Beach cove were significantly larger in ankle-deep water than waist-deep water, trended downward during the recreational season, significantly increased with an increase in the total number of bathers at the beach, and were largest during the middle of the day. Concentrations of E. coli in nearshore sediment (sediment near the shoreline) at Grand Glaize Beach were significantly larger in foreshore samples

  14. Zooshikella marina sp. nov. a cycloprodigiosin- and prodigiosin-producing marine bacterium isolated from beach sand.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Bharti, Dave; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A red-pigmented bacterium producing a metallic green sheen, designated strain JC333T, was isolated from a sand sample collected from Shivrajpur-Kachigad beach, Gujarat, India. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC333T showed highest sequence similarity to Zooshikella ganghwensis JC2044T (99.24 %) and less than 91.94 % similarity with other members of the class Gammaproteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridizations between JC333T and Z. ganghwensis JC2044T showed low relatedness values of 19 ± 1.3 % (reciprocal 21 ± 2.2 %). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q9) and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The presence of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and C12 : 0 as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain JC333T to the genus Zooshikella. Prodigiosin, cycloprodigiosin and eight other prodigiosin analogues were the pigments of JC333T. Characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, physiological parameters, pigment analysis, ubiquinone, and polar lipid and fatty acid compositions revealed that JC333T represents a novel species of the genus Zooshikella, for which the name Zooshikella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC333T ( = KCTC 42659T = LMG 28823T).

  15. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years.

  16. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years. PMID:24559735

  17. Metals in marine environment (mollusc Patella sp., fish Labrus bergylta, crustacean Cancer pagurus, beach sand) in a nuclear area, the North Cotentin (France).

    PubMed

    Connan, Olivier; Tack, Karine

    2010-06-01

    The results of a 1-year long survey of trace metals concentrations (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured in beach sand, limpets and, occasionally, in fish and shellfish from the North Cotentin area (France), where nuclear industries are implanted, are presented. The objective of these study was to provide useful data for the validation of models predicting the impact of these industries on the marine environment. Even if differences were noted between sites for various metals, the levels are consistent with existing data published for similar site and do not appear to give evidence of contamination by industrial sites.

  18. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution.

  19. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. PMID:26092255

  20. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (<100 km2) coastal catchments, and seacliff erosion. Littoral sediment traverses the 1.8 km wide dune system from NW to SE via aeolian transport. Ammophila colonization occurred initially adjacent to the shoreface, inducing deposition of a ~10 meter-high foredune and has subsequently encroached the ~0.5 km2 region between the foredune and Bodega Harbor. Comparison of historical topographic maps via raster subtraction indicates rapid construction of both the foredune and a ~15 meter-high transverse dune (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for

  1. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  2. PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy beach shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick

    2014-06-15

    The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy beaches of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle beaches to monitor PAH contamination to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the beaches and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle beaches. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy beach shorelines. PMID:24775069

  3. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  4. Analysis of a beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system of marine litter.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2013-12-15

    The exponential decay of the amount of new litter on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan revealed by 20-month mark-recapture experiments demonstrates a linear response of the beach to the input of target items. Here we show the amplitude and phase characteristics of the beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system and discuss the hydrodynamic and geomorphological factors that would determine the characteristics with the aid of a diffusion equation. The characteristics are fully determined by the residence time of the items (τ(r)=209 days) and can be described as functions of the ratio of τ(r) to the period of input variability. The decay is reproduced well by the analytical solution of the equation with a constant diffusion coefficient (D), whose order was estimated by τ(r) and the backshore width. Generally, D would depend on hydrodynamical statistics and beach geomorphology as well as the dimensions and density of the items. PMID:24143956

  5. Analysis of a beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system of marine litter.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2013-12-15

    The exponential decay of the amount of new litter on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan revealed by 20-month mark-recapture experiments demonstrates a linear response of the beach to the input of target items. Here we show the amplitude and phase characteristics of the beach as a time-invariant linear input/output system and discuss the hydrodynamic and geomorphological factors that would determine the characteristics with the aid of a diffusion equation. The characteristics are fully determined by the residence time of the items (τ(r)=209 days) and can be described as functions of the ratio of τ(r) to the period of input variability. The decay is reproduced well by the analytical solution of the equation with a constant diffusion coefficient (D), whose order was estimated by τ(r) and the backshore width. Generally, D would depend on hydrodynamical statistics and beach geomorphology as well as the dimensions and density of the items.

  6. The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached bird surveys 1984-1999.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Francis K; Ryan, Pierre C

    2003-09-01

    The Grand Banks south of Newfoundland provide year-round feeding habitat for tens of millions of seabirds of numerous species, an abundance and diversity unparalleled in the North Atlantic. Dense ship traffic routes traverse this productive environment as vessels travel the Great Circle Route between Europe and North America. Oiled seabirds have washed up on beaches in Newfoundland for many decades. Most oil on their feathers is heavy fuel oil mixed with lubricants, the mixture found in bilges of large vessels. Beached bird surveys conducted between 1984 and 1999 indicate that chronic oil pollution along the southeast coast of Newfoundland is among the highest in world. Sixty two percent of all dead birds found over the 16-year period had oil on their feathers; 74% during the last five years. Auks, especially Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), are the most affected. The mean number of oiled birds per kilometer was 0.77 and thus higher than in other regions of the world during a comparable time period (0.02-0.33). Oiling rates correlated with weather patterns and degree of the regional murre hunt, indicate that illegal dumping of oil may occur year round, and point out that it is critical to assess all possible environmental and anthropogenic factors influencing the number of clean and oiled dead birds found on beaches before inferring trends in oiling rates over time.

  7. Anthropogenic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): results from a national survey supported by volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Macarena; de Los Angeles Gallardo, Ma; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Núñez, Paloma; Vásquez, Nelson; Thiel, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is an ubiquitous problem, which has motivated public participation in activities such as beach surveys and clean-up campaigns. While it is known that beaches in the SE Pacific are also affected by this problem, the quantities and types of AMD remain largely unknown. In the context of an outreach project, volunteers (approximately 1500 high-school students) participated in a nation-wide survey of AMD on 43 beaches distributed randomly along the entire Chilean coast (18 degrees S to 53 degrees S). The mean density of AMD was 1.8 items m(-2) and the major types were plastics, cigarette butts and glass. Densities in central Chile were lower than in northern and southern Chile, which could be due to different attitudes of beach users or to intense beach cleaning in central regions. We suggest that public participation in surveys and cleaning activities will raise awareness and thereby contribute to an improvement of the situation.

  8. Influence of waste management policy on the characteristics of beach litter in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Ping

    2013-07-15

    Marine debris is a ubiquitous problem that poses a serious threat to the global oceans; it has motivated public participation in clean-up campaigns, as well as governmental involvement in developing mitigation strategies. While it is known that the problem of marine litter may be affected by waste management practices on land, beach survey results have seldom been compared with them. In this study, marine litter surveys on four beaches of Cijin Island were conducted to explore the effects of waste management and policy implications. Indirect evidence shows that chances for land-based litter, such as plastic bags and bottles, entering the marine environment can be greatly decreased if they can be properly reduced, reused and recycled. We suggest that mitigation measures should focus on source reduction, waste recycling and management, utilizing effective economic instruments, and pursuing a long-term public education campaign to raise the public awareness of this problem. PMID:23673204

  9. Epidemic Escherichia coli ST131 and Enterococcus faecium ST17 in coastal marine sediments from an Italian beach.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, C; Luna, G M; Pasquaroli, S; Di Cesare, A; Petruzzella, R; Paroncini, P; Biavasco, F

    2013-12-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used worldwide to assess water quality in coastal environments, but little is known about their genetic diversity and pathogenicity. This study examines the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and genetic diversity of FIB isolated from marine sediments from a central Adriatic seaside resort. FIB, recovered from 6 out of 7 sites, were significantly more abundant at sampling stations 300 m offshore than close to the shore. Escherichia coli accounted for 34.5% of fecal coliforms, and Enterococcus faecalis accounted for 32% of enterococci. Most isolates (27% of E. coli and 22% of enterococci) were recovered from the sediments that had the highest organic content. Multidrug-resistant E. coli (31%) and enterococci (22%) were found at nearly all sites, whereas 34.5% of E. coli and 28% of enterococci harboring multiple virulence factors were recovered from just two sites. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing showed wide genetic diversity among isolates. Human epidemic clones ( E. coli ST131 and Enterococcus faecium ST17) were identified for the first time by multilocus sequence typing in an area where bathing had not been prohibited. These clones were from sites far removed from riverine inputs, suggesting a wide diffusion of pathogenic FIB in the coastal environment and a high public health risk.

  10. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia... Concerts Entertainment, Inc. will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA. In... mariners and the public transiting the Atlantic Ocean immediately below the air show from...

  11. Pilot- and bench-scale testing of faecal indicator bacteria survival in marine beach sand near point sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mika, K.B.; Imamura, G.; Chang, C.; Conway, V.; Fernandez, G.; Griffith, J.F.; Kampalath, R.A.; Lee, C.M.; Lin, C.-C.; Moreno, R.; Thompson, S.; Whitman, R.L.; Jay, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Factors affecting faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogen survival/persistence in sand remain largely unstudied. This work elucidates how biological and physical factors affect die-off in beach sand following sewage spills. Methods and Results: Solar disinfection with mechanical mixing was pilot-tested as a disinfection procedure after a large sewage spill in Los Angeles. Effects of solar exposure, mechanical mixing, predation and/or competition, season, and moisture were tested at bench scale. First-order decay constants for Escherichia coli ranged between -0??23 and -1??02 per day, and for enterococci between -0??5 and -1??0 per day. Desiccation was a dominant factor for E. coli but not enterococci inactivation. Effects of season were investigated through a comparison of experimental results from winter, spring, and fall. Conclusions: Moisture was the dominant factor controlling E. coli inactivation kinetics. Initial microbial community and sand temperature were also important factors. Mechanical mixing, common in beach grooming, did not consistently reduce bacterial levels. Significance and Impact of the Study: Inactivation rates are mainly dependent on moisture and high sand temperature. Chlorination was an effective disinfection treatment in sand microcosms inoculated with raw influent. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Predicting water quality at Santa Monica Beach: evaluation of five different models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2014-12-15

    Bathing beaches are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to protect swimmers from unsafe conditions. However, FIB assays take ∼24 h and water quality conditions can change dramatically in that time, so unsafe conditions cannot presently be identified in a timely manner. Statistical, data-driven predictive models use information on environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, turbidity) to provide nowcasts of FIB concentrations. Their ability to predict real time FIB concentrations can make them more accurate at identifying unsafe conditions than the current method of using day or older FIB measurements. Predictive models are used in the Great Lakes, Hong Kong, and Scotland for beach management, but they are presently not used in California - the location of some of the world's most popular beaches. California beaches are unique as point source pollution has generally been mitigated, the summer bathing season receives little to no rainfall, and in situ measurements of turbidity and salinity are not readily available. These characteristics may make modeling FIB difficult, as many current FIB models rely heavily on rainfall or salinity. The current study investigates the potential for FIB models to predict water quality at a quintessential California Beach: Santa Monica Beach. This study compares the performance of five predictive models, multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least square regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, to predict concentrations of summertime fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations. Past measurements of bacterial concentration, storm drain condition, and tide level are found to be critical factors in the predictive models. The models perform better than the current beach management method. The classification tree models perform the best; for example they correctly predict 42% of beach postings due to fecal coliform exceedances during model validation, as compared

  13. Predicting water quality at Santa Monica Beach: evaluation of five different models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2014-12-15

    Bathing beaches are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to protect swimmers from unsafe conditions. However, FIB assays take ∼24 h and water quality conditions can change dramatically in that time, so unsafe conditions cannot presently be identified in a timely manner. Statistical, data-driven predictive models use information on environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, turbidity) to provide nowcasts of FIB concentrations. Their ability to predict real time FIB concentrations can make them more accurate at identifying unsafe conditions than the current method of using day or older FIB measurements. Predictive models are used in the Great Lakes, Hong Kong, and Scotland for beach management, but they are presently not used in California - the location of some of the world's most popular beaches. California beaches are unique as point source pollution has generally been mitigated, the summer bathing season receives little to no rainfall, and in situ measurements of turbidity and salinity are not readily available. These characteristics may make modeling FIB difficult, as many current FIB models rely heavily on rainfall or salinity. The current study investigates the potential for FIB models to predict water quality at a quintessential California Beach: Santa Monica Beach. This study compares the performance of five predictive models, multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least square regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, to predict concentrations of summertime fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations. Past measurements of bacterial concentration, storm drain condition, and tide level are found to be critical factors in the predictive models. The models perform better than the current beach management method. The classification tree models perform the best; for example they correctly predict 42% of beach postings due to fecal coliform exceedances during model validation, as compared

  14. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  15. Trends in chronic marine oil pollution in Danish waters assessed using 22 years of beached bird surveys.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørn Lennart; Durinck, Jan; Skov, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Beached bird surveys provide an important tool for monitoring the level of oil pollution at sea, which is the most significant observable cause of death for a large number of waterbird species and pose a serious threat to wintering seabird populations. Linear regression analyses of oil rates from the Danish 22 year dataset show a decline in the oil pollution level in offshore areas of the eastern North Sea and Skagerrak and in near-shore parts of the Kattegat; but a worsening in the offshore areas of the Kattegat. These results raise concern for species such as common scoter, velvet scoter, eider and razorbill, for which the Kattegat serves as a globally important wintering area. It is recommended that surveillance for oil spills is intensified in inner Danish waters, and that action is taken to make responses towards offenders faster, and penalties for oil seepage higher.

  16. Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Button, D.K.; Robertson, B.R.; McIntosh, D. ); Juettner, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from added ({sup 14}C)toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 {mu}g/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. A large population of carbon- and energy-starved, induced hydrocarbon oxidizers with metabolism limited by the physical and molecular recalcitrance of the heavier components is suggested. The effects of a surfactant that was widely applied were unremarkable on a test beach after 1.5 months. Unresolved components appearing in chromatograms from the remaining mixture were characteristic of partial oxidation products. Such compounds, known to accumulate when concentrations of smaller aqueous-phase hydrocarbons exceed the K{sub m}, may form in sediments as well.

  17. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  18. 78 FR 67338 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National... meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a meeting via web conference call of the Marine...

  19. Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with non-point source of fecal contamination

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Fleisher, Jay M.; Wang, John D.; Elmir, Samir M.; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C.; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C.; Fleming, Lora E.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g. chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (< 2 to 3,320 CFU/100mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r=0.58, p<0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r≤0.36, p<0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to for environmental parameters to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF). PMID:20925349

  20. Evaluation of conventional and alternative monitoring methods for a recreational marine beach with nonpoint source of fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Gidley, Maribeth L; Plano, Lisa R W; Fleisher, Jay M; Wang, John D; Elmir, Samir M; He, Guoqing; Wright, Mary E; Abdelzaher, Amir M; Ortega, Cristina; Wanless, David; Garza, Anna C; Kish, Jonathan; Scott, Troy; Hollenbeck, Julie; Backer, Lorraine C; Fleming, Lora E

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare enterococci (ENT) measurements based on the membrane filter, ENT(MF) with alternatives that can provide faster results including alternative enterococci methods (e.g., chromogenic substrate (CS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), and results from regression models based upon environmental parameters that can be measured in real-time. ENT(MF) were also compared to source tracking markers (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroidales human and dog markers, and Catellicoccus gull marker) in an effort to interpret the variability of the signal. Results showed that concentrations of enterococci based upon MF (<2 to 3320 CFU/100 mL) were significantly different from the CS and qPCR methods (p < 0.01). The correlations between MF and CS (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) were stronger than between MF and qPCR (r ≤ 0.36, p < 0.01). Enterococci levels by MF, CS, and qPCR methods were positively correlated with turbidity and tidal height. Enterococci by MF and CS were also inversely correlated with solar radiation but enterococci by qPCR was not. The regression model based on environmental variables provided fair qualitative predictions of enterococci by MF in real-time, for daily geometric mean levels, but not for individual samples. Overall, ENT(MF) was not significantly correlated with source tracking markers with the exception of samples collected during one storm event. The inability of the regression model to predict ENT(MF) levels for individual samples is likely due to the different sources of ENT impacting the beach at any given time, making it particularly difficult to to predict short-term variability of ENT(MF) for environmental parameters.

  1. Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed Central

    Button, D K; Robertson, B R; McIntosh, D; Jüttner, F

    1992-01-01

    Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14CO2 from added [14C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Specific affinities of the water column bacteria for toluene were computed with the help of biomass data, as measured by high-resolution flow cytometry. They were a very low 0.3 to 3 liters/g of cells.h-1, indicating limited capacity to utilize this hydrocarbon. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. This biomass was computed from that of the organisms and associated naphthalene oxidation activity washed from the gravel compared with the original suspension. These sediment organisms were very small at approximately 0.06 microns 3 in volume, low in DNA at approximately 5.5 g per cell, and unlike the aquatic bacteria obtained by enrichment culture but quite similar to the oligobacteria in the water column.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1539978

  2. Interactions between marine bacteria and dissolved-phase and beached hydrocarbons after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Button, D K; Robertson, B R; McIntosh, D; Jüttner, F

    1992-01-01

    Turnover times for toluene in Resurrection Bay after the Exxon Valdez grounding were determined to be decades, longer than expected considering that dissolved hydrocarbons were anticipated to drift with the current and stimulate development of additional hydrocarbon-utilizing capacity among the microflora in that downcurrent location. These turnover times were based on the recovery of 14CO2 from added [14C]toluene that was oxidized. The concentrations of toluene there, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/liter, were similar to prespill values. Oxidation rates appeared to be enhanced upstream near islands in the wake of the wind-blown slick, and even more within the slick itself. Specific affinities of the water column bacteria for toluene were computed with the help of biomass data, as measured by high-resolution flow cytometry. They were a very low 0.3 to 3 liters/g of cells.h-1, indicating limited capacity to utilize this hydrocarbon. Since current-driven mixing rates exceeded those of oxidation, dissolved spill components such as toluene should enter the world-ocean pool of hydrocarbons rather than biooxidize in place. Some of the floating oil slick washed ashore and permeated a coarse gravel beach. A bacterial biomass of 2 to 14 mg/kg appeared in apparent response to the new carbon and energy source. This biomass was computed from that of the organisms and associated naphthalene oxidation activity washed from the gravel compared with the original suspension. These sediment organisms were very small at approximately 0.06 microns 3 in volume, low in DNA at approximately 5.5 g per cell, and unlike the aquatic bacteria obtained by enrichment culture but quite similar to the oligobacteria in the water column.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  4. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  5. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  6. Assessment of hydrocarbons concentration in marine fauna due to Tasman Spirit oil spill along the Clifton beach at Karachi coast.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Hina A; Ansari, Fayyaz A; Munshi, Alia B

    2009-01-01

    On 27 July 2003, Tasman Spirit spilled 31,000 tonnes of crude oil into the sea at the Karachi coast. This disaster badly affected the marine life (Flora and Fauna.) Present research has been proposed to ascertain the level of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in different fisheries including Fishes, Crustaceans; Crabs and Shrimps, Mollusks and Echinoderms along with passing time. Heavier components of crude oil such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to cause most damages as these are relatively unreactive and persist in water. High concentrations of toxic PAHs were observed in all the fisheries and shellfishes caught form oil-impacted area. In this study fishes were found most contaminated than shellfishes i.e. summation operator 16 PAH = 1821.24 microg/g and summation operator 1164.34 microg/g, respectively. Naphthalene was found in the range of 0.042-602.23 microg/g. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene were detected in the range 0.008-80.03 microg/g, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene 0.0008-221.32 microg/g, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a) pyrene 0.0005-7.71 microg/g, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.02-503.7 microg/g. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracenre was not detected in any specie. PMID:18302003

  7. Assessment of hydrocarbons concentration in marine fauna due to Tasman Spirit oil spill along the Clifton beach at Karachi coast.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Hina A; Ansari, Fayyaz A; Munshi, Alia B

    2009-01-01

    On 27 July 2003, Tasman Spirit spilled 31,000 tonnes of crude oil into the sea at the Karachi coast. This disaster badly affected the marine life (Flora and Fauna.) Present research has been proposed to ascertain the level of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in different fisheries including Fishes, Crustaceans; Crabs and Shrimps, Mollusks and Echinoderms along with passing time. Heavier components of crude oil such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to cause most damages as these are relatively unreactive and persist in water. High concentrations of toxic PAHs were observed in all the fisheries and shellfishes caught form oil-impacted area. In this study fishes were found most contaminated than shellfishes i.e. summation operator 16 PAH = 1821.24 microg/g and summation operator 1164.34 microg/g, respectively. Naphthalene was found in the range of 0.042-602.23 microg/g. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene were detected in the range 0.008-80.03 microg/g, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene 0.0008-221.32 microg/g, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a) pyrene 0.0005-7.71 microg/g, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.02-503.7 microg/g. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracenre was not detected in any specie.

  8. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  9. 75 FR 60732 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...; marine habitat assessments, including the new Habitat Assessment and Improvement Plan, essential fish... Damage Assessment activities related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, NOAA budgets, catch share...

  10. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-10-21

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public's informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand. PMID:25288740

  11. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-10-21

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public's informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand.

  12. Perceptions of the Maltese Public towards Local Marine Protected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Mark; Verret, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment represents a central component of Malta's local environment, and its ecosystem services play a vital role in supporting the economy as well as human well-being. Plans have been made to protect the unique ecology found within Maltese waters through the institution of five marine protected areas (MPAs). This quantitative study…

  13. Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Buckley, Paul; Pinnegar, John K.; Chilvers, Jason; Lorenzoni, Irene; Terry, Geraldine; Guerrero, Matias; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Valdebenito, Abel; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous international bodies have advocated the development of strategies to achieve the sustainability of marine environments. Typically, such strategies are based on information from expert groups about causes of degradation and policy options to address them, but these strategies rarely take into account assessed information about public awareness, concerns, and priorities. Here we report the results of a pan-European survey of public perceptions about marine environmental impacts as a way to inform the formation of science and policy priorities. On the basis of 10,106 responses to an online survey from people in 10 European nations, spanning a diversity of socioeconomic and geographical areas, we examine the public’s informedness and concern regarding marine impacts, trust in different information sources, and priorities for policy and funding. Results show that the level of concern regarding marine impacts is closely associated with the level of informedness and that pollution and overfishing are two areas prioritized by the public for policy development. The level of trust varies greatly among different information sources and is highest for academics and scholarly publications but lower for government or industry scientists. Results suggest that the public perceives the immediacy of marine anthropogenic impacts and is highly concerned about ocean pollution, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Eliciting public awareness, concerns, and priorities can enable scientists and funders to understand how the public relates to marine environments, frame impacts, and align managerial and policy priorities with public demand. PMID:25288740

  14. Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Process Parameters on Pathogen Transport and Fate in a Recreational Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Fu, X.

    2010-12-01

    The US has very long shorelines (95,471 miles) contributing remarkable yearly revenue to the country by providing numerous recreational beaches. The beaches of both inland lakes and marine regions must be closed when the level of waterborne pathogens indicated by fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform (TC), fecal coli form (FC, or Escherichia coli, E. coli) and Enterococcus exceed microbial water quality standards. Beach closures are of mounting concern to beach managers and the public due to the increasing risk to human health from waterborne pathogens. Monitoring FIB with laboratory analysis usually takes at least 18 hours during which beach goers may have been unintentionally exposed to the contaminated water. Therefore a water quality model to quickly and precisely forecast FIB has been a very effective tool for beach management to help beach managers in making decisions if beaches are safe enough to open to the public. The fate and transport of pathogens in the surf-zone of a beach area is a complex process involving various factors of hydrodynamics, hydrology, chemistry, microbiology. These factors including dispersion coefficient, wind velocity, particle settling velocity, fraction of bacteria attached, solar insolation, discharges to the beach, geometry of the beach, etc, are the essential components for a mechanistic model to describe the inactivation of FIB. To better understand the importance of these factors and their roles in impacting inactivation, transport and removal of FIB is extremely important to enhance the effectiveness and preciseness of a predictive model. The aim of this paper is to report the sensitivity analysis results of these factors in the surf zone of a creational beach using a verified water quality model system. The relative importance of these parameters is being ranked. For instance, the current sensitivity analysis shows that sunlight insolation has greater impact on pathogen inactivation than water temperature

  15. Audiovisual Aids and Publications Available from the VIMS/Sea Grant Marine Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue, Comp.

    This catalog contains an inventory of 16mm films, filmstrips, film loops, slide programs, records, and publications about the marine sciences and sea life that are available from VIMS/Sea Grant Marine Education Center; information on the borrowing of the AV materials is included, as well as prices for books and leaflets. The entries are listed…

  16. 76 FR 43658 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meetings AGENCY: Department of Commerce, National Ocean Service, (NOAA). ACTION: Notice of open... Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  17. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  18. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  19. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  20. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region.

  1. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  2. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  3. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  4. 75 FR 33244 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE..., 2010, from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Prospector Hotel, 375... Department of Commerce. This committee advises and reviews the adequacy of living marine resource...

  5. 78 FR 23574 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... natural gas as a marine fuel provided valuable insight for the development of CG-521 Policy Letter No. 01... Natural Gas Fuel Systems,'' is available for viewing at http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg521/docs/CG-521... Applications Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)/Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Technology ASME Codes/Standards...

  6. 75 FR 8099 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... marine technologies to promote green ships, such as safe and economical use of hydrogen (H 2 ) fuel cells..., including: Green Ship Technology Hydrogen Fuel Cell Propulsion Standards for H 2 Storage and Delivery..., and government regulations. A related workshop was held in Arlington, VA, on June 3-4, 2008 (73...

  7. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  8. Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Joseph T.

    2013-10-01

    Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.

  9. Regional Similarities and Consistent Patterns of Local Variation in Beach Sand Bacterial Communities throughout the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent characterization of the bacterial community structure in beach sands has revealed patterns of biogeography similar to those observed in aquatic environments. Studies to date, however, have mainly focused on subtidal sediments from marine beaches. Here, we investigate the bacterial diversity, using Illumina-based sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, at 11 beaches representing those next to the Great Lakes, Florida, and the Pacific Ocean. The alpha diversity differed significantly among regions (P < 0.0001), while the within-region diversity was more similar. The beta diversity also differed by region (P < 0.001), where freshwater sands had significantly higher abundances of taxa within the Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia than marine environments. In contrast, marine sands harbored greater abundances of Gammaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes, and those from Florida had more Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Marine beaches had significantly different phylogenetic community structures (P ≤ 0.018), but freshwater and Florida beaches showed fewer within-region phylogenetic differences. Furthermore, regionally distinct patterns in taxonomic variation were observed in backshore sands, which had communities distinct from those in nearshore sands (P < 0.001). Sample depth minimally influenced the community composition. The results of this study reveal distinct bacterial community structures in sand on a broad geographic scale but moderate regional similarity and suggest that local variation is primarily related to the distance from the shoreline. This study offers a novel comparison of the bacterial communities in freshwater and marine beach sands and provides an important basis for future comparisons and analyses to elucidate factors affecting microbial ecology in this underexplored environment. IMPORTANCE This study presents a large-scale geographic characterization of the bacterial communities present in beach

  10. Beach sands

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbridge, R.W.; Lowrie, A.

    1988-01-01

    Beach sands are the residual of climatic and sea level processes interacting in an oscillating geologic continuum. The location of a shoreface is the result of tectonic, sedimentary, oceanographic, and climatic processes, all interweaving to create a single location. The combining processes include passive continental margin subsidence, lithospheric flexuring and epirogenic uplift, depositional processes, fluvial transportation traits, sediment compaction and lithostatic pressure, global wind and ocean currents, global average temperature, and insolation rate. These mechanisms are either synergistic or algebraically additive, positive or negative, and act with periodicities ranging from 10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 0/ years. Sea level oscillations have maximal impact, with climate-weather characteristics and associated oscillation ranges occurring at different periods: plate margin rifted-basin tectonics at 10/sup 8/ years, characterized by periods of major glacial activity lasting 10/sup 7/ years and sea level oscillation ranges of up to 0.5 km; regional basin evolution at 10/sup 7/ years and oscillation ranges of several hundreds of meters; local basin tectonics and sedimentation patterns and long-term sets of climate and sea level oscillation patterns at 10/sup 6/ years, with oscillation ranges of up to 125 m and averaging 50 m; individual glacial and sea level cycles (controlled by planetary orbital motions and insolation) at 10/sup 5/ and 10/sup 4/ years, and oscillation ranges of up to 125 m and averaging 50 m; medium-term climate cycles at 10/sup 3/ years, characterized by peaks of storminess and oscillation ranges of meters to decameters; short-term climate-weather cycles at 10/sup 2/, 10/sup 1/, and 10/sup 0/ years, and oscillation ranges of meters to centimeters. All of these processes impact on sea level oscillations, thus, on the shoreface, leaving a residuum of beach sands.

  11. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2011-12-15

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards. PMID:22059560

  12. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  13. Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively. Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria. To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 307, 309, 310, 313. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are four activity units: (1) Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Quantitatively; (2) Collecting and Cultivating Marine Bacteria; (3) To Recognize, Record, and Analyze Characteristics of a Sandy Beach Environment; and (4) Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phosphate in Water. All the activities are designed to be used by secondary school…

  14. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  15. Exposure Patterns and Health Effects Associated with Swimming and Surfing in Polluted Marine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. B.

    2007-05-01

    Marine bathing beaches are closed to the public whenever water quality fails to meet State and Federal standards. In this talk I will explore the science (and lack thereof!) behind these beach closures, including the health effects data upon which standards are based, shortcomings of the current approach used for testing and notification, and the high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity associated with human exposure to pollutants in these systems. The talk will focus on examples from Huntington Beach, where the speaker has conducted research over the past several years.

  16. Florida red tide and human health: a pilot beach conditions reporting system to minimize human exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-08-25

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While many of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida's west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting pathway for

  17. Florida red tide and human health: a pilot beach conditions reporting system to minimize human exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-08-25

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While many of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida's west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting pathway for

  18. Florida Red Tide and Human Health: A Pilot Beach Conditions Reporting System to Minimize Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-01-01

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While may of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida’s west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway lower symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting

  19. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  20. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  1. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  2. Regime Shift in Sandy Beach Microbial Communities following Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Remediation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A.

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  3. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  4. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  5. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  6. 77 FR 5793 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act; Availability of BEACH Act Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... potential risks associated with water contact activities in the coastal recreation waters that do not meet... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act..., and local governments to support microbiological monitoring and public notification of the...

  7. [The man and the sea: marine phytoplancton and public health].

    PubMed

    Mira Gutiérrez, José

    2005-01-01

    The progressive, world-wide emergence of the natural phenomenon "red tide" normally ignored because of the exceptionality or exotic nature of its sanitary and medical formation, is a risk already present in Spain and Europe, with a certain repetition and under some of the ethiological and clinical forms which were previously unknown to us. Today under the conventional denomination of "Harmful Algae Blooms" (HABs) they have given rise to an extensive investigation, to much bibliography and an almost universal sanitary legislation, as well as a preventive preoccupation of the some states which have become aware that this is a potential and practically unavoidable risk. In this work the basic facts of HABs, their eco-epidemiology and the knowledge of toxic syndroms produced by the marine phytoplancton, represented by some Dinoflagellates and Diatomeas, and Cyanobacteria, are reviewed. PMID:16776321

  8. 77 FR 55482 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... most recent workshop was held in Washington, DC, on July 29-30, 2010 (75 FR 8099, February 23, 2010... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information on... variety of topics. Proposed topics include: Emerging Technologies Selective Catalytic Reduction...

  9. Nest temperatures in a loggerhead nesting beach in Turkey is more determined by sea surface than air temperature.

    PubMed

    Girondot, Marc; Kaska, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    While climate change is now fully recognised as a reality, its impact on biodiversity is still not completely understood. To predict its impact, proxies coherent with the studied ecosystem or species are thus required. Marine turtles are threatened worldwide (though some populations are recovering) as they are particularly sensitive to temperature throughout their entire life cycle. This is especially true at the embryo stage when temperature affects both growth rates and sex determination. Nest temperature is thus of prime importance to understand the persistence of populations in the context of climate change. We analysed the nest temperature of 21 loggerheads (Caretta caretta) originating from Dalyan Beach in Turkey using day-lagged generalised mixed models with autocorrelation. Surprisingly, the selected model for nest temperature includes an effect for sea surface temperature 4-times higher than for air temperature. We also detected a very significant effect of metabolic heating during development compatible with what is already known about marine turtle nests. Our new methodology allows the prediction of marine turtle nest temperatures with good precision based on a combination of air temperature measured at beach level and sea surface temperature in front of the beach. These data are available in public databases for most of the beaches worldwide.

  10. Nest temperatures in a loggerhead nesting beach in Turkey is more determined by sea surface than air temperature.

    PubMed

    Girondot, Marc; Kaska, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    While climate change is now fully recognised as a reality, its impact on biodiversity is still not completely understood. To predict its impact, proxies coherent with the studied ecosystem or species are thus required. Marine turtles are threatened worldwide (though some populations are recovering) as they are particularly sensitive to temperature throughout their entire life cycle. This is especially true at the embryo stage when temperature affects both growth rates and sex determination. Nest temperature is thus of prime importance to understand the persistence of populations in the context of climate change. We analysed the nest temperature of 21 loggerheads (Caretta caretta) originating from Dalyan Beach in Turkey using day-lagged generalised mixed models with autocorrelation. Surprisingly, the selected model for nest temperature includes an effect for sea surface temperature 4-times higher than for air temperature. We also detected a very significant effect of metabolic heating during development compatible with what is already known about marine turtle nests. Our new methodology allows the prediction of marine turtle nest temperatures with good precision based on a combination of air temperature measured at beach level and sea surface temperature in front of the beach. These data are available in public databases for most of the beaches worldwide. PMID:25526649

  11. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open...-3110); e-mail: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site at...

  12. Association of nuisance filamentous algae Cladophora spp. with E. coli and Salmonella in public beach waters: impacts of UV protection on bacterial survival.

    PubMed

    Beckinghausen, Aubrey; Martinez, Alexia; Blersch, David; Haznedaroglu, Berat Z

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated whether filamentous algal species commonly found in nearshore public beach water systems provide protection from natural UV to bacteria present in the same environmental settings. To test this hypothesis, Cladophora spp., a filamentous nuisance algae group causing undesired water quality in the Great Lakes region was selected and its interactions with a non-pathogenic indicator organism Escherichia coli and a pathogenic strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were tested. In laboratory microcosms where the lake environment and natural sunlight conditions were simulated, a 7-log removal of E. coli was observed in only six hours of exposure to UV with an initial seed concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1). With the presence of algae, the same log removal was achieved in 16 hours. At higher seed concentrations of 10(5) CFU mL(-1), E. coli survived for two days with an extended survival up to 11 days in the presence of Cladophora spp. S. typhimurium has shown more resilient survival profiles, with the same log removals achieved in 14 and 20 days for low and high seed concentrations respectively, in the absence of algae. Cladophora spp. caused extended protection for S. typhimurium with much less log reductions reported. Algae-mediated protection from UV irradiation was attributed to certain organic carbon exuded from Cladophora spp. In addition, confocal microscopy images confirmed close interaction between bacteria and algae, more prominent with thin filamentous Cladophora spp.

  13. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  14. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective.

  15. Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1993-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1992. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

  16. Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report [extract] contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1990. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

  17. Publications of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology for Calendar Year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1994-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report [extract] contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology and published in calendar year 1993. The Branch conducts a broad geologic and geophysical research and mapping program, primarily along the U.S. Atlantic Margin, in the Great Lakes, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and polar regions. A long range objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the geology of the continental margin and a predictive capability to guide and assess the consequences of its use. Headquarters of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology are located in Woods Hole, MA., and personnel are located in Woods Hole, MA., St Petersburg, FL., Reston, VA., Denver, CO., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A brochure describing the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology may be obtained by writing to Chief, Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA 02543. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.

  18. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF ENTEROCOCCI FROM MARINE AND FRESH WATER BEACHES BY A 30,000 MOLECULAR WEIGHT CUTOFF HOLLOW FIBER ULTRAFILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrafiltration systems have been used to concentrate pathogens from various types of fresh water samples. However, less work has been done with marine waters for the concentration of pathogens or indicator bacteria. An ultrafiltration approach to concentrate indicator bacteria...

  19. Low altitude remote-sensing method to monitor marine and beach litter of various colors using a balloon equipped with a digital camera.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to establish a low-altitude remote sensing system for surveying litter on a beach or the ocean using a remote-controlled digital camera suspended from a balloon filled with helium gas. The resultant images are processed to identify the litter using projective transformation method and color difference in the CIELUV color space. Low-altitude remote sensing experimental observations were conducted on two locations in Japan. Although the sizes of the litter and the areas covered are distorted in the original photographs taken at various angles and heights, the proposed image process system is capable of identifying object positions with a high degree of accuracy (1-3 m). Furthermore, the color difference approach in the CIELUV color space used in this study is well capable of extracting pixels of litter objects of various colors allowing us to estimate the number of objects from the photographs.

  20. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality.

  1. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  2. Mapping marine debris across coastal communities in Belize: developing a baseline for understanding the distribution of litter on beaches using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Martin, Paulita; Visaggi, Christy C; Hawthorne, Timothy L

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts. Four diverse communities were targeted ranging from larger more populated towns, to smaller villages across central and southern Belize: San Pedro, Caye Caulker, Punta Gorda, and Monkey River. Fieldwork was conducted over 1 month, during which data points were collected in 50-m surveys followed by debris cleanup and removal. Features in our database included material, quantity, item, brand, and condition. Over 6000 pieces of debris were recorded in GIS for further analysis, and 299 gal of debris were removed from the shores of Belize. The most abundant form of debris observed was plastic (commonly bottles) across all locations; plastic comprised 77.6 % of all debris items observed. Through GIS, a detailed snapshot understanding of debris patterns across multiple settings in Belize was documented. Ongoing collaborations with local organizations in Belize have demonstrated significant interest and utility for such GIS approaches in analyzing and managing marine debris. The data, methodology, visual representations, and online mapping platform resulting from this research are a first step in directly supporting local Belizean community advocacy and policy, while contributing to larger institutional strategies for addressing marine debris issues in the Caribbean. PMID:27614957

  3. Mapping marine debris across coastal communities in Belize: developing a baseline for understanding the distribution of litter on beaches using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Martin, Paulita; Visaggi, Christy C; Hawthorne, Timothy L

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts. Four diverse communities were targeted ranging from larger more populated towns, to smaller villages across central and southern Belize: San Pedro, Caye Caulker, Punta Gorda, and Monkey River. Fieldwork was conducted over 1 month, during which data points were collected in 50-m surveys followed by debris cleanup and removal. Features in our database included material, quantity, item, brand, and condition. Over 6000 pieces of debris were recorded in GIS for further analysis, and 299 gal of debris were removed from the shores of Belize. The most abundant form of debris observed was plastic (commonly bottles) across all locations; plastic comprised 77.6 % of all debris items observed. Through GIS, a detailed snapshot understanding of debris patterns across multiple settings in Belize was documented. Ongoing collaborations with local organizations in Belize have demonstrated significant interest and utility for such GIS approaches in analyzing and managing marine debris. The data, methodology, visual representations, and online mapping platform resulting from this research are a first step in directly supporting local Belizean community advocacy and policy, while contributing to larger institutional strategies for addressing marine debris issues in the Caribbean.

  4. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  5. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. MaNIDA: Integration of marine expedition information, data and publications: Data Portal of German Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near

  8. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Virginia... restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the hazards associated...

  9. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bienfang, P. K.; DeFelice, S. V.; Laws, E. A.; Brand, L. E.; Bidigare, R. R.; Christensen, S.; Trapido-Rosenthal, H.; Hemscheidt, T. K.; McGillicuddy, D. J.; Anderson, D. M.; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Boehm, A. B.; Backer, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense), BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have plagued coastal populations over time. Research interest on the potential for marine cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds and subsequent implication as the putative cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex among the Chamorro people of Guam. Recent UPLC/MS analyses indicate that recent reports that BMAA is prolifically distributed among marine cyanobacteria at high concentrations may be due to analyte misidentification in the analytical protocols being applied for BMAA. Common infectious microbes (including enterovirus, norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia) cause gastrointestinal and skin-related illness. These microbes can be introduced from external human and animal sources, or they can be indigenous to the marine environment. PMID:20976073

  10. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  11. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  12. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    ) important assemblages were set at 50%, following other studies. 6) Finally, a target for an outstanding feature (the Alexandria dunefield) was set at 80% because of its national, international and ecological importance. The greatest shortfall in the current target-setting process is in the lack of empirical models describing the key beach processes, from which robust ecological thresholds can be derived. As for many other studies, our results illustrate that the conservation target of 10% for coastal and marine systems proposed by the Convention on Biological Diversity is too low to conserve sandy beaches and their biota.

  13. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Mohd-Lokman

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  14. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  15. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes -- continuing research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Beach Health Initiative is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The USGS, in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach-health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the initiative's mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for each of these elements is described in this fact sheet.

  16. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... of the potential risks associated with water contact activities in the coastal recreation waters that... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act..., and local governments to support microbiological monitoring and public notification of the...

  17. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  18. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  19. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  20. Assessing sandy beach macrofaunal patterns along large-scale environmental gradients: A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzeda, Fabio; Zangrilli, Maria Paola; Defeo, Omar

    2016-06-01

    A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes (FNB) classifier was developed to assess large-scale variations in abundance, species richness and diversity of the macrofauna inhabiting fifteen Uruguayan sandy beaches affected by the effects of beach morphodynamics and the estuarine gradient generated by Rio de la Plata. Information from six beaches was used to estimate FNB parameters, while abiotic data of the remaining nine beaches were used to forecast abundance, species richness and diversity. FNB simulations reproduced the general increasing trend of target variables from inner estuarine reflective beaches to marine dissipative ones. The FNB model also identified a threshold value of salinity range beyond which diversity markedly increased towards marine beaches. Salinity range is suggested as an ecological master factor governing distributional patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. However, the model: 1) underestimated abundance and species richness at the innermost estuarine beach, with the lowest salinity, and 2) overestimated species richness in marine beaches with a reflective morphodynamic state, which is strongly linked to low abundance, species richness and diversity. Therefore, future modeling efforts should be refined by giving a dissimilar weigh to the gradients defined by estuarine (estuarine beaches) and morphodynamic (marine beaches) variables, which could improve predictions of target variables. Our modeling approach could be applied to a wide spectrum of issues, ranging from basic ecology to social-ecological systems. This approach seems relevant, given the current challenge to develop predictive methodologies to assess the simultaneous and nonlinear effects of anthropogenic and natural impacts in coastal ecosystems.

  1. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  2. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  3. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  4. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  5. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches...

  6. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  7. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Hardy, F. Joan

    2015-01-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  8. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-09

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  9. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  10. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus.

  11. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus. PMID:27321884

  12. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge on bacterial indicators and swimmer health at Avalon Beach, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Yau, Vincent M; Schiff, Kenneth C; Arnold, Benjamin F; Griffith, John F; Gruber, Joshua S; Wright, Catherine C; Wade, Timothy J; Burns, Susan; Hayes, Jacqueline M; McGee, Charles; Gold, Mark; Cao, Yiping; Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2014-08-01

    Use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for monitoring beach water quality is based on their co-occurrence with human pathogens, a relationship that can be dramatically altered by fate and transport processes after leaving the human intestine. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Avalon Beach, California (USA), where the indicator relationship is potentially affected by the discharge of sewage-contaminated groundwater and by solar radiation levels at this shallow, relatively quiescent beach. The goals of this study were to determine: 1) if swimmers exposed to marine water were at higher risk of illness than non-swimmers; 2) if FIB measured in marine water were associated with swimmer illness, and; 3) if the associations between FIB and swimmer health were modified by either submarine groundwater discharge or solar radiation levels. There were 7317 individuals recruited during the summers of 2007-08, 6165 (84%) of whom completed follow-up within two weeks of the beach visit. A total of 703 water quality samples were collected across multiple sites and time periods during recruitment days and analyzed for FIB using both culture-based and molecular methods. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated that swimmers who swallowed water were more likely to experience Gastrointestinal Illness (GI Illness) within three days of their beach visit than non-swimmers, and that this risk was significantly elevated when either submarine groundwater discharge was high (AOR [95% CI]:2.18 [1.22-3.89]) or solar radiation was low (2.45 [1.25-4.79]). The risk of GI Illness was not significantly elevated for swimmers who swallowed water when groundwater discharge was low or solar radiation was high. Associations between GI Illness incidence and FIB levels (Enterococcus EPA Method 1600) among swimmers who swallowed water were not significant when we did not account for groundwater discharge, but were strongly associated when groundwater discharge was high (1.85 [1.06, 3.23]) compared to

  13. Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Somerville, S E; Miller, K L; Mair, J M

    2003-09-01

    The aesthetic quality of fourteen beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland was surveyed between May and July 2002 using a protocol designed by the UK's National Aquatic Litter Group (NALG). Local authority beach cleaning regimes influence the amount of litter found on beaches. Frequent and thorough beach cleaning is necessary to maintain high aesthetic standards. Bathing and amenity beaches achieved higher aesthetic quality than non-bathing and non-amenity beaches. The aesthetic quality of rural and urban beaches was very similar. The NALG protocol appears more complicated to use than other beach litter surveys. However, the classification system generates results that are easily interpreted by the general public. Furthermore, the NALG protocol could be combined with coastal zone management plans as a useful environmental performance indicator. PMID:12932501

  14. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... over the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the need to protect mariners and...

  15. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beach-goers

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...

  16. Marine Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard L.

    The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

  17. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species.

  18. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species. PMID:22827248

  19. Delineation of tidal scour through marine geophysical techniques at Sloop Channel and Goose Creek bridges, Jones Beach State Park, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Reynolds, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Inspection of the Goose Creek Bridge in southeastern Nassau County in April 1998 by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) indicated a separation of bridge piers from the road bed as a result of pier instability due to apparent seabed scouring by tidal currents. This prompted a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey with the NYSDOT to delineate the extent of tidal scour at this bridge and at the Sloop Channel Bridge, about 0.5 mile to the south, through several marine- geophysical techniques. These techniques included use of a narrow-beam, 200-kilohertz, research-grade fathometer, a global positioning system accurate to within 3 feet, a 3.5 to 7-kilohertz seismic-reflection profiler, and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The ADCP was used only at the Sloop Channel Bridge; the other techniques were used at both bridges. Results indicate extensive tidal scour at both bridges. The fathometer data indicate two major scour holes nearly parallel to the Sloop Channel Bridge -- one along the east side, and one along the west side (bridge is oriented north-south). The scour-hole depths are as much as 47 feet below sea level and average more than 40 feet below sea level; these scour holes also appear to have begun to connect beneath the bridge. The deepest scour is at the north end of the bridge beneath the westernmost piers. The east-west symmetry of scour at Sloop Channel Bridge suggests that flood and ebb tides produce extensive scour. The thickness of sediment that has settled within scour holes could not be interpreted from fathometer data alone because fathometer frequencies cannot penetrate beneath the sea-floor surface. The lower frequencies used in seismic-reflection profiling can penetrate the sea floor and underlying sediments, and indicate the amount of infilling of scour holes, the extent of riprap under the bridge, and the assemblages of clay, sand, and silt beneath the sea floor. The seismic- reflection surveys detected 2

  20. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  1. A Comprehensive Study on Coastline Process and Sedimentary Dynamics, Sardinera Beach, Mona Island, P.R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Delga, A. M.; Ramirez, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sardinera beach in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. Beach rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera Beach have increased considerably during the last decade. A new management plan is being developed for Mona Island and the Department of Natural Resources (DNRA) of Puerto Rico wants to better understand the beach sand dynamics on this and other Mona Island beaches. This research includes field and laboratory work that characterize coastal sedimentary processes and helps to better understand the shoreline changes as well as seasonal variations in sand movement and composition. This work also establish the logistics and methodology basis for further studies that will expand to other Mona Island beaches. Benchmarks, GPS coordinates, and landmarks were used to establish ten permanent beach profiles along Sardinera Beach. Beach profiles were (and will be) measured monthly. Sardinera Beach sands are composed mostly of carbonate (CaCO3) components, products of the combination of biological, chemical and diagenetic processes, high grade of micritization, and of lithic limestone fragments. Sand composition differences between Sardinera Beach, the Mona Shelf and adjacent beach, reef crest and reef lagoon systems suggest Sardinera sands are not replenished by the modern marine components produced in these environments. The input of "fresh bioclasts" in this beach seems to be limited by natural (beach rock) and mane made (dock) barriers along the shore and by alteration in the current patterns produced by the man made aperture of the reef. Sardinera's micritized and recrystalized sand deposits seem to have been re-transported between the reefal lagoon and the beach. Sand volume analysis indicates a total sand loss of 1,322 m3 between the months of September to April

  2. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  3. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  4. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  5. Persistent organic pollutants monitoring in marine coastal environment using beached plastic resin pellets and effective risk communication via International Pellet Watch (IPW) as a tool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, B. G. M.; Takada, H.; Hosoda, J.

    2014-12-01

    International Pellet Watch (IPW) is an ongoing global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using preproduction plastic resin pellets. These pellets are easily collected and transported allowing the general public worldwide to get involved. Thus, risk communication toward the pellet collectors is a significant part of IPW to ensure continuous effort and interest. The pellet samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Additional pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes were also analyzed for some samples. Analytical results showed distinct patterns with high concentrations (< 200ng/g-pellet) of PCBs in urban and industrialized areas mainly in the United States, Japan, and some European countries. These countries are prone to legacy pollution where PCBs were used extensively before the ban in the late 1980's. Pesticide DDTs instead were found to be higher in developing countries such as Brazil and Vietnam (> 500ng/g-pellet). These countries may still be using DDTs as a vector control mostly to combat malaria. High concentrations of DDTs were also found in Greece, China and Australia (> 100ng/g-pellet) suggesting the possibility of illegal usage as pesticide or anti fouling paint. HCHs concentrations were mostly low due to its low retention in the environment. However, high HCHs concentrations were mostly found in the southern hemisphere. Very high concentration of PAHs in pellet samples can be utilized for early identification of recent oil pollution. High PAHs concentration in Tauranga, New Zealand was found to be caused by local oil spill. Hopanes in pellets can be used for source identification of oil pollution. Global mapping and comparison among IPW data can be used to provide better explanations to IPW volunteers by sorting concentrations into pollution categories. Communication reports are tailor written

  6. Terrestrial-based lidar beach topography of Fire Island, New York, June 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, Owen T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Lee, Kathryn G.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-02-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) in Florida and the USGS Lower Mississippi-Gulf Water Science Center (LMG WSC) in Montgomery, Alabama, collaborated to gather alongshore terrestrial-based lidar beach elevation data at Fire Island, New York. This high-resolution elevation dataset was collected on June 11, 2014, to characterize beach topography and document ongoing beach evolution and recovery, and is part of the ongoing beach monitoring within the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. This USGS data series includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM).

  7. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  8. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  9. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  10. Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  11. Quantitative analysis of small-plastic debris on beaches in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    McDermid, Karla J; McMullen, Tracy L

    2004-04-01

    Small-plastic beach debris from nine coastal locations throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago was analyzed. At each beach, replicate 20 l samples of sediment were collected, sieved for debris between 1 and 15 mm in size, sorted by type, counted and weighed. Small-plastic debris occurred on all of the beaches, but the greatest quantity was found at three of the most remote beaches on Midway Atoll and Moloka'i. Of the debris analyzed, 72% by weight was plastic. A total of 19100 pieces of plastic were collected from the nine beaches, 11% of which was pre-production plastic pellets. This study documents for the first time the presence of small-plastic debris on Hawaiian beaches and corroborates estimates of the abundance of plastics in the marine environment in the North Pacific. PMID:15041436

  12. [Fungi at the beach].

    PubMed

    Szepetiuk, G; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2010-01-01

    Fungi responsible for dermatomycoses survive in a resting phase inside diverse parts of the environment. Sand in the wet, partly wet and dry portions of the beaches frequently contains dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds. These microorganisms possibly infect skin and nails during summertime.

  13. 75 FR 81637 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of the St. Andrew Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... (63 FR 70053). The endangered St. Andrew beach mouse is now found in two populations: East Crooked... recovery plan available for public comment from April 22, 2009 through June 22, 2009 (74 FR 18403). We... feral cats and hogs in beach mouse habitat. 4. In areas with known populations of beach mice...

  14. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2011-07-01

    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  15. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  16. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  17. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-28

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  18. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  19. 76 FR 8663 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), at Wrightsville Beach, NC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Waterway (AIWW), at Wrightsville Beach, NC; Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear River, at Wilmington, NC... (NCDOT) bridges: The S.R. 74 Bridge, across the AIWW, mile 283.1 at Wrightsville Beach, NC; the Cape...

  20. Enriching public descriptions of marine phages using the Genomic Standards Consortium MIGS standard

    PubMed Central

    Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    In any sequencing project, the possible depth of comparative analysis is determined largely by the amount and quality of the accompanying contextual data. The structure, content, and storage of this contextual data should be standardized to ensure consistent coverage of all sequenced entities and facilitate comparisons. The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) has developed the “Minimum Information about Genome/Metagenome Sequences (MIGS/MIMS)” checklist for the description of genomes and here we annotate all 30 publicly available marine bacteriophage sequences to the MIGS standard. These annotations build on existing International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) records, and confirm, as expected that current submissions lack most MIGS fields. MIGS fields were manually curated from the literature and placed in XML format as specified by the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML). These “machine-readable” reports were then analyzed to highlight patterns describing this collection of genomes. Completed reports are provided in GCDML. This work represents one step towards the annotation of our complete collection of genome sequences and shows the utility of capturing richer metadata along with raw sequences. PMID:21677864

  1. Enriching public descriptions of marine phages using the Genomic Standards Consortium MIGS standard.

    PubMed

    Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-04-29

    In any sequencing project, the possible depth of comparative analysis is determined largely by the amount and quality of the accompanying contextual data. The structure, content, and storage of this contextual data should be standardized to ensure consistent coverage of all sequenced entities and facilitate comparisons. The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) has developed the "Minimum Information about Genome/Metagenome Sequences (MIGS/MIMS)" checklist for the description of genomes and here we annotate all 30 publicly available marine bacteriophage sequences to the MIGS standard. These annotations build on existing International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) records, and confirm, as expected that current submissions lack most MIGS fields. MIGS fields were manually curated from the literature and placed in XML format as specified by the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML). These "machine-readable" reports were then analyzed to highlight patterns describing this collection of genomes. Completed reports are provided in GCDML. This work represents one step towards the annotation of our complete collection of genome sequences and shows the utility of capturing richer metadata along with raw sequences.

  2. Comparison of Enterococcus species diversity in marine water and wastewater using Enterolert and EPA Method 1600.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Griffith, John F; McGee, Charles D; Weisberg, Stephen B; Hagedorn, Charles

    2013-01-01

    EPA Method 1600 and Enterolert are used interchangeably to measure Enterococcus for fecal contamination of public beaches, but the methods occasionally produce different results. Here we assess whether these differences are attributable to the selectivity for certain species within the Enterococcus group. Both methods were used to obtain 1279 isolates from 17 environmental samples, including influent and effluent of four wastewater treatment plants, ambient marine water from seven different beaches, and freshwater urban runoff from two stream systems. The isolates were identified to species level. Detection of non-Enterococcus species was slightly higher using Enterolert (8.4%) than for EPA Method 1600 (5.1%). E. faecalis and E. faecium, commonly associated with human fecal waste, were predominant in wastewater; however, Enterolert had greater selectivity for E. faecalis, which was also shown using a laboratory-created sample. The same species selectivity was not observed for most beach water and urban runoff samples. These samples had relatively higher proportions of plant associated species, E. casseliflavus (18.5%) and E. mundtii (5.7%), compared to wastewater, suggesting environmental inputs to beaches and runoff. The potential for species selectivity among water testing methods should be considered when assessing the sanitary quality of beaches so that public health warnings are based on indicators representative of fecal sources.

  3. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-05-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  4. Bacteriological Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Beach Water Quality in Malaysia: Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  5. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  6. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai.

  7. Plastic litter accumulation on high-water strandline of urban beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. The inadequate recycling and poor management of waste in developing countries has resulted in considerable quantities of plastic contaminating beaches. Though India has long coastline of 5,420 km along the mainland with 43 % of sandy beaches, data on litter accumulation, particularly the plastics, which are one of the most common and persistent pollutants in marine environment, are scanty. The abundance and distribution of plastic litter was quantitatively assessed in four sandy beaches in Mumbai, India, bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. Triplicates of 2 × 2 m (4 m(2)) quadrats were sampled in each beach with a total of 72 quadrats. Overall, average abundance of 11.6 items m(-2) (0.25-282.5 items m(-2)) and 3.24 g m(-2) (0.27-15.53 g m(-2)) plastic litter was recorded in Mumbai beaches. Plastic litter accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. Significantly higher plastic litter accumulation was recorded in Juhu beach. Furthermore, the highest abundance by weight was recorded in November and May numerically. More than 80 % of plastic particles were within the size range of 5-100 mm both by number and weight. Moreover, coloured plastics were predominant with 67 % by number of items and 51 % by weight. Probably, the intense use of beaches for recreation, tourism, and religious activities has increased the potential for plastic contamination in urban beaches in Mumbai. PMID:23430068

  8. Nematode community structure and diversity pattern in sandy beaches of Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Er; Mu, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhinan; Yang, Shichao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and structure of free-living marine nematode communities at three sandy beaches representing typical intertidal environments of a temperate zone in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Average nematode abundance ranged from 1006 to 2170 ind. 10 cm-2, and a total of 34 nematode genera were recorded, of which only 8 were common in all the studied beaches. Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were the lowest at the second beach where nematode abundance was the highest. The highest species diversity index coincided with the lowest nematode abundance at Shilaoren beach. Sediment median grain size, sorting coefficient, and chlorophyll-a content were essential for differentiation in nematode abundance and species diversity, whereas taxonomic diversity of nematode was homogeneous across the three beaches. In 0-20 cm sediment profile, nematode abundance declined abruptly with depth, whereas nematode diversity changed gently with obvious difference in 16-20 cm layer. Sediment granulometry and chlorophyll- a content were the two foremost factors which influenced the vertical distribution pattern of nematode generic diversity. Non-selective deposit feeders constituted the most dominant trophic group, followed by epistratum feeders. Bathylaimus (family: Tripyloididae) dominated at the second and Yangkou beach, while Theristus (family: Xyalidae) prevailed at Shilaoren beach. Omnivores and predators became important at Shilaoren beach because of the high proportion of Enoplolaimus. Even though, nematode community of the studied beaches did not differ significantly from each other.

  9. 77 FR 31493 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events and Safety Zones; Billy Bowlegs Pirate Festival...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Annual Marine Events and Safety Zones; Billy Bowlegs Pirate Festival; Santa Rosa Sound; Ft. Walton Beach... Santa Rosa Sound, Ft. Walton Beach, FL on June 1 and June 2, 2012. This action is necessary to...

  10. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  11. Spatial and temporal variation in enterococcal abundance and its relationship to the microbial community in Hawaii beach sand and water.

    PubMed

    Cui, Henglin; Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn; Yan, Tao

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have reported high levels of fecal indicator enterococci in marine beach sand. This study aimed to determine the spatial and temporal variation of enterococcal abundance and to evaluate its relationships with microbial community parameters in Hawaii beach sand and water. Sampling at 23 beaches on the Island of Oahu detected higher levels of enterococci in beach foreshore sand than in beach water on a mass unit basis. Subsequent 8-week consecutive samplings at two selected beaches (Waialae and Kualoa) consistently detected significantly higher levels of enterococci in backshore sand than in foreshore/nearshore sand and beach water. Comparison between the abundance of enterococci and the microbial communities showed that enterococci correlated significantly with total Vibrio in all beach zones but less significantly with total bacterial density and Escherichia coli. Samples from the different zones of Waialae beach were sequenced by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to determine the microbial community structure and diversity. The backshore sand had a significantly more diverse community and contained different major bacterial populations than the other beach zones, which corresponded to the spatial distribution pattern of enterococcal abundance. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence support the possibility of enterococci as autochthonous members of the microbial community in Hawaii beach sand. PMID:23563940

  12. Sunny with a chance of gastroenteritis: predicting swimmer risk at California beaches.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2015-01-01

    Traditional beach management that uses concentrations of cultivatable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) may lead to delayed notification of unsafe swimming conditions. Predictive, nowcast models of beach water quality may help reduce beach management errors and enhance protection of public health. This study compares performances of five different types of statistical, data-driven predictive models: multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least-squares regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, in predicting advisories due to FIB contamination at 25 beaches along the California coastline. Classification tree and the binary logistic regression model with threshold tuning are consistently the best performing model types for California beaches. Beaches with good performing models usually have a rainfall/flow related dominating factor affecting beach water quality, while beaches having a deteriorating water quality trend or low FIB exceedance rates are less likely to have a good performing model. This study identifies circumstances when predictive models are the most effective, and suggests that using predictive models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions may improve public health protection at California beaches relative to current practices.

  13. Artificial neural networks for modeling time series of beach litter in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Matthies, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In European marine waters, existing monitoring programs of beach litter need to be improved concerning litter items used as indicators of pollution levels, efficiency, and effectiveness. In order to ease and focus future monitoring of beach litter on few important litter items, feed-forward neural networks consisting of three layers were developed to relate single litter items to general categories of marine litter. The neural networks developed were applied to seven beaches in the southern North Sea and modeled time series of five general categories of marine litter, such as litter from fishing, shipping, and tourism. Results of regression analyses show that general categories were predicted significantly moderately to well. Measured and modeled data were in the same order of magnitude, and minima and maxima overlapped well. Neural networks were found to be eligible tools to deliver reliable predictions of marine litter with low computational effort and little input of information. PMID:24836642

  14. 76 FR 66912 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee..., National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. BILLING CODE P ... MPA FAC. The Committee will receive an update on the Administration's National Ocean Policy...

  15. 75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ..., protection, and restoration of unique biotic assemblages, protected species, critical habitat, and important... at its July 20, 2010 meeting. The FGDC invites all stakeholders in coastal and marine ecology...

  16. 75 FR 63443 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Subcommittees (Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning and Communities and Land/Sea Interactions) and the Cultural Heritage Workgroup for deliberation and action by the full MPA FAC. The Committee will hear from an...

  17. The Source Book of Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beakley, John C.; And Others

    Included is a teachers resource collection of 42 marine science activities for high school students. Both the biological and the physical factors of the marine environment are investigated, including the study of tides, local currents, microscope measuring, beaches, turbidity, sea water solids, pH, and salinity, marine bacteriology, microbiology,…

  18. Quantitative analysis of plastic debris on recreational beaches in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2013-12-15

    Plastic litter was quantified on four sandy beaches in Mumbai. The mean abundance of 7.49 g and 68.83 items per square metre was recorded. The abundance of plastics significantly varied among the beaches showing an increasing trend in the southern part. The abundance of plastics by weight in Dadar was significantly higher than that in Aksa. The size fractionation of plastics proved that small particles (1-20 mm) are predominant with 41.85% microplastics (1-5 mm) which emphasizes the high risk to marine organisms due to possible ingestion. The highest quantity of microplastics was seen in Juhu beach (55.33%) followed by Versova, Aksa and Dadar. The major contributing factors for the abundance are beach usage for different activities such as recreational, religious and fishing which suggest that the land-based sources provide major inputs to plastic pollution in these beaches.

  19. A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India).

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the impact of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on the coastal ecosystem of Goa. The factors responsible for degrading the marine ecosystem of the Goan coastline are analyzed. Uncontrolled activities were found to degrade the marine and coastal biodiversity, in turn polluting all beaches. This had a direct impact on the Goan economy through a decline in tourism. The government must adopt the necessary control measures to restore Goan beaches and the surrounding coastal areas.

  20. A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India).

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the impact of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on the coastal ecosystem of Goa. The factors responsible for degrading the marine ecosystem of the Goan coastline are analyzed. Uncontrolled activities were found to degrade the marine and coastal biodiversity, in turn polluting all beaches. This had a direct impact on the Goan economy through a decline in tourism. The government must adopt the necessary control measures to restore Goan beaches and the surrounding coastal areas. PMID:26323861

  1. Pollution of recreational beaches of Vlora Bay (Albania) assessed by microbiological tests.

    PubMed

    Bofe, Klodjana; Hysko, Margarita; Agolli, Besim

    2015-01-01

    A total of 5 sampling points along Vlora Bay beaches (Radhimë, Plazhi i Ri, Akademia e Marinës, Plazhi i Vjetër, Kabinat, Nartë) were selected and monitored during the period of January 2014 to August 2014. Seawater samples were evaluated for faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). Akademia e Marinës beach had the highest incidence of faecal indicators (FC and FS), 100% of samples respectively, followed by Plazhi i Ri (27.3% and 45.5%), mainly during summer. Whereas, Plazhi i Vjetër, Kabinat, Radhima and Narta beaches were in compliance with the Guidelines. High concentration of faecal indicators, at some of these beaches, especially during summer, emphasizes the necessity of periodical monitoring of these areas in order to prevent a health risk for bathers. PMID:26601323

  2. Pollution of recreational beaches of Vlora Bay (Albania) assessed by microbiological tests.

    PubMed

    Bofe, Klodjana; Hysko, Margarita; Agolli, Besim

    2015-01-01

    A total of 5 sampling points along Vlora Bay beaches (Radhimë, Plazhi i Ri, Akademia e Marinës, Plazhi i Vjetër, Kabinat, Nartë) were selected and monitored during the period of January 2014 to August 2014. Seawater samples were evaluated for faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). Akademia e Marinës beach had the highest incidence of faecal indicators (FC and FS), 100% of samples respectively, followed by Plazhi i Ri (27.3% and 45.5%), mainly during summer. Whereas, Plazhi i Vjetër, Kabinat, Radhima and Narta beaches were in compliance with the Guidelines. High concentration of faecal indicators, at some of these beaches, especially during summer, emphasizes the necessity of periodical monitoring of these areas in order to prevent a health risk for bathers.

  3. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  4. Research on pathogens at Great Lakes beaches: sampling, influential factors, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the USGS Beach Health Initiative Mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for the pathogens and source tracking topic is described in this fact sheet.

  5. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  6. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  7. THE U.S. EPA'S VISION FOR A BEACH FORECASTING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to water quality that exceeds standard limits occur frequently in the United States. These beach closures deprive the public of opportunities for recreational activities and can have a significant impact on local economics. Because of the large number of mari...

  8. 77 FR 25652 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), at Wrightsville Beach, NC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... Waterway (AIWW), at Wrightsville Beach, NC; Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear River, at Wilmington, NC...) bridges: The S.R. 74 Bridge, across the AIWW, mile 283.1 at Wrightsville Beach, NC; the Cape Fear...

  9. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms (HABs), microbial and chemical contamination of marine waters and seafood, and marine models and natural products from the seas. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. PMID:16996542

  10. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Haack, Sheridan K; Johnson, Heather E; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA+femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci 'excellent' recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  12. Overview of Pacific Island carbonate beach systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach systems in Pacific Islands are Holocene deposits of reef-dervied and terrigenous sediment. Thus, geologic setting is important in determining the success at which beach systems are established. Generally, older islands exhibit better beach system development. Although modern beach systems are composed of Holocene sediment, development of suitable accommodation space requires more geologic time.

  13. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #36: PUBLICATION OF WORKSHOP REPORT ON CORAL BLEACHING AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have launched a joint initiative to mitigate the impacts of coral bleaching through the design of marine protected areas (MPAs). EPA's Global Change Research Program is contributing to this effort through the work of ...

  14. 77 FR 68105 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of....yeager@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site at http://www.mpa.gov )....

  15. 78 FR 19460 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (Commerce). ACTION: Notice...-7265, Fax: 301-713-3110); email: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site...

  16. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  17. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  18. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  19. Detection and risk assessment of diarrheagenic E. coli in recreational beaches of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vanessa F V; Rivera, Irma N G; Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-08-15

    Marine beaches are important recreational and economic resources in Brazil, but the beaches' water quality is negatively impacted by the discharge of domestic sewage effluent. The occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichiacoli among the E. coli isolated from three Brazilian marine beaches was investigated. Multiplex and single step PCR were used to screen 99 E. coli isolates for ten target toxin genes. Six toxin genes, stx1, eae, estp, esth, astA, and bfpA, were identified in 1% to 35% of the isolates. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of human exposure to diarrheagenic E. coli during marine recreation was carried out. The results indicated that the diarrheagenic E. coli risk is well below the U.S. EPA's recommended daily recreational risk benchmark. However, the overall recreational health risk due to all pathogens in the water could be much higher and exceeded the U.S. EPA's benchmark.

  20. Detection and risk assessment of diarrheagenic E. coli in recreational beaches of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vanessa F V; Rivera, Irma N G; Lim, Keah-Ying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-08-15

    Marine beaches are important recreational and economic resources in Brazil, but the beaches' water quality is negatively impacted by the discharge of domestic sewage effluent. The occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichiacoli among the E. coli isolated from three Brazilian marine beaches was investigated. Multiplex and single step PCR were used to screen 99 E. coli isolates for ten target toxin genes. Six toxin genes, stx1, eae, estp, esth, astA, and bfpA, were identified in 1% to 35% of the isolates. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of human exposure to diarrheagenic E. coli during marine recreation was carried out. The results indicated that the diarrheagenic E. coli risk is well below the U.S. EPA's recommended daily recreational risk benchmark. However, the overall recreational health risk due to all pathogens in the water could be much higher and exceeded the U.S. EPA's benchmark. PMID:27301685

  1. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: 1993. [Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (43rd, Clearwater Beach, Florida, September 12-15, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    The annual conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (NPPEC) is held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. This publication contains 26 conference papers: "Rural America and the Information Revolution: An Exploration of Possibilities and Potentialities" (David…

  2. Origin of marine debris is related to disposable packs of ultra-processed food.

    PubMed

    Andrades, Ryan; Martins, Agnaldo S; Fardim, Lorena M; Ferreira, Juliana S; Santos, Robson G

    2016-08-15

    Marine debris is currently distributed worldwide, and the discard and contamination pose hazards to human and wildlife health. One of the gaps in debris science is tracking the source of debris to better evaluate and avoid the pathway of debris from the source to marine environment. For this, we evaluated three beaches of different urbanization levels and environmental influences; a low urbanized beach, a highly urbanized beach and a non-urbanized estuary-associated beach, in order to determine the sources and original use of debris. Plastic was the major material found on beaches, and the urbanized beach recorded the highest debris densities. Marine debris was primarily from land-based sources, and the debris recorded in all beaches was mainly assigned as food-related items. Our results highlight the major presence of disposable and short-lived products comprising the majority of debris that enters the ocean and draw attention to the unsustainable lifestyle of current society. PMID:27315750

  3. Vulnerability of Selected Beaches to Petroleum Contamination, Placentia Bay, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, M.; Catto, N.

    2009-04-01

    Placentia Bay currently hosts the highest volume of ship traffic in along the Atlantic Canadian coastline, and is additionally exposed to accidental and deliberate discharges of petroleum products by Trans-Atlantic ship traffic. Placentia Bay has been identified as the region in Canada that is most likely to suffer a petroleum contamination event within the next 10 years. The morphological, sedimentological, energy regime, and marine debris characteristics of 4 beaches at the head of Placentia Bay were investigated in detail. Differing morphological, sedimentological and energy regime conditions alter the sensitivity of each system to oil spill contamination. Differences in the type and amount of marine debris between each system alter the potential risk of exposure to oil spill contamination. Based on differences in sensitivity and exposure, a vulnerability assessment was created for each system. This system was applied to additional beaches and rocky coastlines to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight the actual vulnerability of each study beach relative to the spectrum of beaches actually present throughout eastern Newfoundland. Typical of the majority of beaches throughout Placentia Bay, the 4 study beaches are characterized by gravel dominated, reflective, moderate to high energy systems. Observations of sediment re-working and accretionary features along the beaches of Arnold's Cove and Come by Chance indicate that self-cleaning would not be an effective agent of oil removal in the case of a spill. The absence of sediment re-working and protected nature of Goose Cove beach suggest that oil would persist in this environment for an extended period of time. Evidence of high wave energies at Hollett's Cove indicates that this beach would self-clean effectively. Differing types and quantities of marine debris indicate that each beach, with the exception of Goose Cove, would likely be exposed to oil originating from a Placentia Bay spill. The

  4. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  5. International Integration of California State University, Long Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Maurice

    The Center for International Education was designed to stimulate, plan, organize, develop, and administer a series of programs and services to deepen the international dimensions of the instructional, research, and public service functions of the California State University at Long Beach. It works with varied university constituencies, the…

  6. Empirical Modeling of Microbial Indicators at a South Carolina Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concerns about water quality at beaches have prompted the development of multiple linear regression and other models that can be used to "nowcast" levels of bacterial indicators. Hydrometeorological and biogeochemical data from summer, 2009 were used to develop empirical m...

  7. 77 FR 29251 - Safety Zone; Carnival Fireworks Display, Nantasket Beach, Hull, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... Youth Football is sponsoring a Carnival fireworks display on the waters off of Nantasket Beach in...

  8. Golden opportunities: A horizon scan to expand sandy beach ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Weston, Michael A.; Schoeman, David S.; Olds, Andrew D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-05-01

    Robust ecological paradigms and theories should, ideally, hold across several ecosystems. Yet, limited testing of generalities has occurred in some habitats despite these habitats offering unique features to make them good model systems for experiments. We contend this is the case for the ocean-exposed sandy beaches. Beaches have several distinctive traits, including extreme malleability of habitats, strong environmental control of biota, intense cross-boundary exchanges, and food webs highly reliant on imported subsidies. Here we sketch broad topical themes and theoretical concepts of general ecology that are particularly well-suited for ecological studies on sandy shores. These span a broad range: the historical legacies and species traits that determine community assemblages; food-web architectures; novel ecosystems; landscape and spatial ecology and animal movements; invasive species dynamics; ecology of disturbances; ecological thresholds and ecosystem resilience; and habitat restoration and recovery. Collectively, these concepts have the potential to shape the outlook for beach ecology and they should also encourage marine ecologists to embrace, via cross-disciplinary ecological research, exposed sandy beach systems that link the oceans with the land.

  9. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  10. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  11. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... requested from Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources...: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division. Mail: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle... within 60 days. Dated: November 16, 2010. David Cottingham, Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea...

  12. Education and Public Outreach at a Graduate College of Marine Science: A case study from the University of South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, P. G.; Greely, T. M.; Betzer, P. R.

    2003-12-01

    The College of Marine Science (CMS) at the University of South Florida, along with the marine science research complex that continues to grow in its vicinity, represents one of the largest marine research facilities in the Southeast. In addition to CMS, part of a state university, and it's associated Center for Ocean Technology, three federal agencies, two state agencies, a private college, and two private companies are concentrated around Tampa Bay. CMS is a member of several large organizations (JOI, CORE) and many researchers in this community are heavily involved in major national research initiatives (ODP, IODP, OOI, SEACOOS). CMS has a graduate degree program, but it also has a extensive foundation of education and public outreach (EPO) infrastructure, which includes educators, administrators, and researchers and serves an audience from K to gray. The strength of EPO at CMS has brought national recognition to the university and generated \\$1 million in endowments. Two new awards from NSF's Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) Program and the GK12 Program have enabled CMS to maximize the synergy from individual EPO efforts. The existence of this solid EPO base has become an asset to the research community as it seeks to fulfill new funding agency requirements for education components in research proposals. Ongoing projects, experienced personnel, and a network of teachers and schools provide multiple outlets for infusing the education system with the latest results produced by researchers, whether funding derives from individual awards or by collaboration of multiple PIs on a large initiative. The lessons learned from building the EPO network at CMS will be discussed, as well as how this type of model is poised to meet the growing role of research institutions in education.

  13. Enhancing public awareness and promoting co-responsibility for marine litter in Europe: The challenge of MARLISCO.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Joana M; Vlachogianni, Thomais; Pahl, Sabine; Thompson, Richard C; Kopke, Kathrin; Doyle, Thomas K; Hartley, Bonny L; Maes, Thomas; Orthodoxou, Demetra L; Loizidou, Xenia I; Alampei, Iro

    2016-01-30

    Marine litter is a pervasive and complex societal problem but has no simple solution. Inadequate practices at all levels of production-use-disposal contribute to accumulation of waste on land and at sea. Enhanced societal awareness but also co-responsibility across different sectors and improved interactions between stakeholders are necessary. MARLISCO was a European initiative, which developed and implemented activities across 15 countries. It worked towards raising societal awareness and engagement on marine litter, through a combination of approaches: public exhibitions in over 80 locations; a video competition involving 2100 students; and a legacy of educational and decision-supporting tools. 12 national participatory events designed to facilitate dialogue on solutions brought together 1500 stakeholders and revealed support for cross-cutting, preventive measures. Evaluation during implementation shows that these activities are effective in improving individuals' perceptions about the problem but also commitment in being part of the solution. This paper summarises MARLISCO's approach and highlights a selection of outcomes. PMID:26874746

  14. [Temporal spatial distribution of benthic meiofauna in four beaches of the northern Havana shore].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Helder Alfonso; López Cánovas, Cecilia

    2006-09-01

    The temporal-spatial distribution of benthic meiofauna was evaluated in four beaches at the north coast of Havana, Cuba, from March 2003 to February 2004. We studied two urban beaches (Santa Fe and La Concha) and two tourist beaches (Mar Azul and Canasi). Monthly meiofauna samplings were taken by scuba-diving using with a syringe (inner diameter 2.5 cm), and physico-chemical parameters (grain size, interstitial salinity and water column salinity were recorded with standard equipment). Statistical analysis (MDS and ANOSIM) were performed. Depth and biotope kind were the same in the four beaches. Highest densities were obtained in Santa Fe (7,133.48 ind/10 cm2) while the lowest mean densities were found in Canasí (892.12 ind/10 cm2). We recorded 13 taxa; the dominant organisms in Santa Fe and Mar Azul were free-living marine nematodes. Copepods were the dominant organisms in La Concha and Canasí.

  15. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  16. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  17. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August 24-25... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will...

  18. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... Beach for New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq....

  19. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  20. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  1. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  2. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  3. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  4. Effects of the nuisance algae, Cladophora, on Escherichia coli at recreational beaches in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Englebert, Erik T; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

    2008-10-01

    Recreational beaches constitute a large part of the 12 billion dollar per year tourism industry in Wisconsin. Beach closures due to microbial contamination are costly in terms of lost tourism revenue and adverse publicity for an area. Escherichia coli (E. coli), is used as an indicator of microbial contamination, as high concentrations of this organism should indicate a recent fecal contamination event that may contain other, more pathogenic, bacteria. An additional problem at many beaches in the state is the nuisance algae, Cladophora. It has been hypothesized that mats of Cladophora may harbor high concentrations of E. coli. Three beaches in Door County, WI were selected for study, based on tourist activity and amounts of algae present. Concentrations of E. coli were higher within Cladophora mats than in surrounding water. Beaches displayed an E. coli concentration gradient in water extending away from the Cladophora mats, although this was not statistically significant. Likewise, the amount of Cladophora observed on a beach did not correlate with E. coli concentrations found in routine beach monitoring samples. More work is needed to determine the impact of mats of Cladophora on beach water quality, as well as likely sources of E. coli found within the mats.

  5. Beach debris in the Azores (NE Atlantic): Faial Island as a first case study.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Catharina; Ventura, Maria A; Martins, Ana; Cunha, Regina T

    2015-12-30

    Marine debris is widely recognised as a global environmental problem. This study assesses density, type, and temporal trends of marine debris in two sandy beaches of Faial Island (Azores, NE-Atlantic). During seven months (six days per month) the beaches were surveyed by performing 10 random transects at each site. Recorded items within the range 2-30 cm were organised into seven categories. Densities of total debris varied from 0 to 1.940 items m(-2), with plastics dominating both areas. Both beaches, presented the highest debris abundance in February, most probably related to prevailing winds and swell. Location and/or time of year also seemed to influence the type of debris present. These findings provide new insights into debris accumulation rates in the Azores, where no previous studies were made. It also confirms the global trend of increased plastics accumulation on shorelines, highlighting the need for further research in remote islands. PMID:26515994

  6. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... Licensee and Owner from ``FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC.''...

  7. Comparing Data Input Requirements of Statistical vs. Process-based Watershed Models Applied for Prediction of Fecal Indicator and Pathogen Levels in Recreational Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, M.; Cyterski, M.; Whelan, G.; Zepp, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Same day prediction of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations and bather protection from the risk of exposure to pathogens are two important goals of implementing a modeling program at recreational beaches. Sampling efforts for modelling applications can be expensive and time consuming and can lead to the collection of large data sets that go unused. In this study, we assessed the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of model prediction of FIB concentrations (culturable and qPCR) using environmental data collected onsite vs. publicly available data (such as EnDDaT) with the goal of offering states and beach managers a cost efficient alternative for model development. Multilinear regression (MLR) models were developed to predict the concentration of enterococci in fresh and marine beaches using model input data from on-site monitoring equipment as well as publicly available, near-site data. False negative and false positive predictions of each model were calculated via a threshold analysis. Comparison of model performance at a Great Lake beach revealed that adding on-site data inputs yielded about a 38% higher adjusted R-square (indicating a better fit to the data) and better predictive performance compared to using only publicly available data inputs. Although the models using both datasets were 14% better at predicting regulatory exceedances, the model using only publicly available data was slightly better at predicting non-exceedances. We also compared MLR model input data requirements with the input data requirements needed to develop watershed process models. In a simulation where six different manure-based contaminant sources were evaluated to determine the health risk impacts to a receptor location downstream from the sources of contamination, the watershed model predicted the distributions of three waterborne pathogens (Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, and E. coli 0157) based on rainfall impacting the watershed. Although this type of analysis identifies

  8. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  9. 77 FR 13102 - Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the St. Lucie South Beach and Dune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... ending 5 p.m. July 18, 2011. A public comment meeting was held June 29, 2011 at the St. Lucie County.... Lucie West Library J Building, 500 NW. California Blvd., Port St. Lucie, 34986, 5. USACE Palm Beach... St. Lucie South Beach and Dune Restoration Project located in St. Lucie County, Florida AGENCY:...

  10. Proceedings of the 2010 CIAE Pre-Conference (59th, Clearwater Beach, Florida, October 24-26, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for International Adult Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 International Pre-Conference of the Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE), American Association for Adult & Continuing (AAACE), was successfully conducted from October 24-26, at the Hilton Clearwater Beach Resort, Clearwater Beach, Florida. This publication includes the papers presented during the conference. These are: (1)…

  11. Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current ...

  12. Beach Fun. Exploring the Delaware Seashore. A Story and Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Mary V.

    Activities and a narrative which focus on Delaware's seashore are contained in this book for elementary school age students. A graphically illustrated story is related and activities are interspersed throughout the narrative account. Several marine organisms are identified and beach phenomena are highlighted in the story. Student exercises…

  13. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  14. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  15. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  16. Temporal and spatial variation in bird and human use of beaches in southern California.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Rodriguez, Donald A; Chapman, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Southern California's beaches can support a remarkable diversity of birds along the Pacific Flyway. We asked whether seasonal, annual, and spatial factors affect bird richness and abundance on public beaches. To do so, we conducted three years of monthly bird surveys on 12 sandy beaches in Ventura California. Across all surveys, we counted 22 shorebird species, 8 gull species, 24 other water bird species, and 24 landbird species. Sanderling, western gull, Heerman's gull, willet, marbled godwit, and whimbrel were the most abundant members of the bird community. Beach wrack was uncommon, particularly where beaches were groomed, and did not have a large effect on bird abundance, though it was positively associated with overall bird richness. Beaches near estuaries tended to be wide, and such beaches had a higher richness and abundance of birds. Beaches with shallow slopes tended to have more gulls and shorebirds. People and (illegal) unleashed dogs were common, particularly at beaches fronted by houses. The abundance and richness of shorebirds and the richness of other waterbirds was lower where human activity was high. Bird richness and abundance was strongly affected by season, with the highest density of birds being seen during the fall shorebird migration. Gull abundance peaked earlier (August-September) than shorebird abundance (October through December). A brief pulse of shorebirds also occurred in May due to spring migration. Comparing these data with surveys in the 1990's found no evidence for a decline in shorebirds over time, though black-bellied plover appear to still be recovering from the strong 1997-1998 ENSO. Opportunities to conserve birds on these beaches are limited, but could include enforcing leash laws and setting up human exclosures near estuary mouths.

  17. Multi-year persistence of beach habitat degradation from nourishment using coarse shelly sediments.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Charles H; Bishop, Melanie J; D'Anna, Linda M; Johnson, Galen A

    2014-07-15

    Beach nourishment is increasingly used to protect public beach amenity and coastal property from erosion and storm damage. Where beach nourishment uses fill sediments that differ in sedimentology from native beach sands, press disturbances to sandy beach invertebrates and their ecosystem services can occur. How long impacts persist is, however, unclear because monitoring after nourishment typically only extends for several months. Here, monitoring was extended for 3-4 years following each of two spatially separated, replicate nourishment projects using unnaturally coarse sediments. Following both fill events, the contribution to beach sediments of gravel-sized particles and shell fragments was enhanced, and although diminishing through time, remained elevated as compared to control sites at the end of 3-4 years of monitoring, including in the low intertidal and swash zones, where benthic macroinvertebrates concentrate. Consequently, two infaunal invertebrates, haustoriid amphipods and Donax spp., exhibited suppressed densities over the entire post-nourishment period of 3-4 years. Emerita talpoida, by contrast, exhibited lower densities on nourished than control beaches only in the early summer of the first and second years and polychaetes exhibited little response to nourishment. The overall impact to invertebrates of nourishment was matched by multi-year reductions in abundances of their predators. Ghost crab abundances were suppressed on nourished beaches with impacts disappearing only by the fourth summer. Counts of foraging shorebirds were depressed for 4 years after the first project and 2 years after the second project. Our results challenge the view that beach nourishment is environmentally benign by demonstrating that application of unnaturally coarse and shelly sediments can serve as a press disturbance to degrade the beach habitat and its trophic services to shorebirds for 2-4 years. Recognizing that recovery following nourishment can be slow, studies

  18. Multi-year persistence of beach habitat degradation from nourishment using coarse shelly sediments.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Charles H; Bishop, Melanie J; D'Anna, Linda M; Johnson, Galen A

    2014-07-15

    Beach nourishment is increasingly used to protect public beach amenity and coastal property from erosion and storm damage. Where beach nourishment uses fill sediments that differ in sedimentology from native beach sands, press disturbances to sandy beach invertebrates and their ecosystem services can occur. How long impacts persist is, however, unclear because monitoring after nourishment typically only extends for several months. Here, monitoring was extended for 3-4 years following each of two spatially separated, replicate nourishment projects using unnaturally coarse sediments. Following both fill events, the contribution to beach sediments of gravel-sized particles and shell fragments was enhanced, and although diminishing through time, remained elevated as compared to control sites at the end of 3-4 years of monitoring, including in the low intertidal and swash zones, where benthic macroinvertebrates concentrate. Consequently, two infaunal invertebrates, haustoriid amphipods and Donax spp., exhibited suppressed densities over the entire post-nourishment period of 3-4 years. Emerita talpoida, by contrast, exhibited lower densities on nourished than control beaches only in the early summer of the first and second years and polychaetes exhibited little response to nourishment. The overall impact to invertebrates of nourishment was matched by multi-year reductions in abundances of their predators. Ghost crab abundances were suppressed on nourished beaches with impacts disappearing only by the fourth summer. Counts of foraging shorebirds were depressed for 4 years after the first project and 2 years after the second project. Our results challenge the view that beach nourishment is environmentally benign by demonstrating that application of unnaturally coarse and shelly sediments can serve as a press disturbance to degrade the beach habitat and its trophic services to shorebirds for 2-4 years. Recognizing that recovery following nourishment can be slow, studies

  19. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  20. Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

  1. Marine Conservation: Effective Communication is Critical to Engaging the Public and Decision Makers in Sustaining our Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are most comfortable talking to other scientists. But if we hope our science will be used to drive good policy decisions at the state or federal level, we have to be willing to leave the comfortable cloisters of science and venture out into a world where people speak different languages and have different perspectives. Early in my career, I had the good fortune to be involved in two research programs that were focused on basic science, but also proved to be relevant to management and policy. The first project involved modeling the bioenergetics of growth in salmonid fishes. The second modeled the population dynamics of a threatened marine species, loggerhead sea turtle. Somewhat to my surprise, both papers led to major policy changes and the models were actively employed by managers within a year of two of publication. The question for me then became whether this could be done deliberately. Since then I have had the opportunity to communicate with a wide variety of people from congressmen, to school children, to the public, and among professionals across disciplinary boundaries. Communication skills are critical for scientists to become influential in the policy arena. We have to listen to all people involved in the policymaking process AND we have to be able to communicate effectively with them. This requires a deep understanding of the science and a willingness to work hard on communicating the science clearly, concisely, and compellingly. Scientists can work to develop their own skills, but professional training helps. This can come via shortcourses, mentorships, or full university courses. At Duke Marine Lab, we initiated graduate course in Professional Writing that focuses upon writing for different audiences, including commercial fishermen, retirees, teenagers, scientists in different fields, politicians, and managers. This course has been widely endorsed by our graduates as one of the most important courses they attended; interviews and job offers

  2. 76 FR 55561 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Coast Guard District, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC in the Federal Register (76 FR 44877... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District, Wrightsville...

  3. Seasonal Variation of Surface Sediments in the Gochang Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol Ip

    2014-05-01

    dominated by medium sand, while the lower tidal flat was dominated by find sand. Such a feature is attributed to wave-dominated sedimentation in the winter. The dominant finer-grain size of the summer rather than that of the winter is interpreted that tidal energy played an important role in the tidal flat sedimentation during the summer. Sedimentary environments of the Myeongsasipri Beach are suggestive of a seasonal change from wave-dominated conditions in the winter to tide-dominated conditions in the summer as a result of seasonal variations of the intensity of onshore-directed winds and waves. Keywords: seasonal variation, surface sediment, macro-tide, beach, Gochang Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Korea Institute of Marine Science and Technology Promotion (KIMST) through the project grant of Tracking and Prediction on Impacts of Ancient Extreme Climatic Events in the West and South Coastal Zone of Korea.

  4. Aerosolized Red Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Asthma: Continued health effects after 1 hour beach exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Bean, Judy A; Nierenberg, Kate; Backer, Lorraine C; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Wanner, Adam; Abraham, William M; Zhou, Yue; Hollenbeck, Julie; Baden, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce potent neurotoxins in marine aerosols. Recent studies have demonstrated acute changes in both symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatics after only 1 hour of beach exposure to these aerosols. This study investigated if there were latent and/or sustained effects in asthmatics in the days following the initial beach exposure during periods with and without an active Florida red tide.Symptom data and spirometry data were collected before and after 1 hour of beach exposure. Subjects kept daily symptom diaries and measured their peak flow each morning for 5 days following beach exposure. During non-exposure periods, there were no significant changes in symptoms or pulmonary function either acutely or over 5 days of follow-up. After the beach exposure during an active Florida red tide, subjects had elevated mean symptoms which did not return to the pre-exposure baseline for at least 4 days. The peak flow measurements decreased after the initial beach exposure, decreased further within 24 hours, and continued to be suppressed even after 5 days. Asthmatics may continue to have increased symptoms and delayed respiratory function suppression for several days after 1 hour of exposure to the Florida red tide toxin aerosols.

  5. Factors Influencing the Spatial Variation of Microplastics on High-Tidal Coastal Beaches in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sung; Chae, Doo-Hyeon; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Choi, SooBong; Woo, Seung-Bum

    2015-10-01

    The presence and distribution characteristics of microplastics become a big issue due to the adverse effects on marine organisms caused by not only microplastics but any incorporated and/or adsorbed pollutants. Distribution of microplastics (50- to 5000-μm size) was determined for three sandy beaches on an isolated island in a high-tidal costal region to elucidate spatial distributions in relation to beach locations. The abundances of microplastics (n = 21) measured were 56-285,673 (46,334 ± 71,291) particles/m(2) corresponding to the highest level globally. Out of observed polymer types, expanded polystyrene was overwhelmingly dominant. Although lying toward the estuary of the largest river in the country, the north-side beach contained a 100-fold lower abundance than two south-side beaches that faced southerly wind and currents that were prevalent throughout the study season. In addition, distinct differences between the beaches on either side were also present in terms of size distribution and spatial homogeneity of microplastics on the same beach. Winds and currents are therefore considered to be the driving forces in the distribution of microplastics.

  6. Transport of enterococci and F+ coliphage through the saturated zone of the beach aquifer.

    PubMed

    de Sieyes, Nicholas R; Russell, Todd L; Brown, Kendra I; Mohanty, Sanjay K; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-02-01

    Coastal groundwater has been implicated as a source of microbial pollution to recreational beaches. However, there is little work investigating the transport of fecal microbes through beach aquifers where waters of variable salinity are present. In this study, the potential for fecal indicator organisms enterococci (ENT) and F+ coliphage to be transported through marine beach aquifers was investigated. Native sediment and groundwaters were collected from the fresh and saline sections of the subterranean estuary at three beaches along the California coast where coastal communities utilize septic systems for wastewater treatment. Groundwaters were seeded with sewage and removal of F+ coliphage and ENT by the sediments during saturated flow was tested in laboratory column experiments. Removal varied significantly between beach and organism. F+ coliphage was removed to a greater extent than ENT, and removal was greater in saline sediments and groundwater than fresh. At one of the three beaches, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the attenuation of F+ coliphage and ENT down gradient of a septic leach field. ENT were detected up to 24 m from the leach field. The column study and field observations together suggest ENT can be mobile within native aquifer sediments and groundwater under certain conditions. PMID:26837827

  7. Aerosolized Red Tide Toxins (Brevetoxins) and Asthma: Continued health effects after 1 hour beach exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Bean, Judy A; Nierenberg, Kate; Backer, Lorraine C; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Reich, Andrew; Naar, Jerome; Wanner, Adam; Abraham, William M; Zhou, Yue; Hollenbeck, Julie; Baden, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce potent neurotoxins in marine aerosols. Recent studies have demonstrated acute changes in both symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatics after only 1 hour of beach exposure to these aerosols. This study investigated if there were latent and/or sustained effects in asthmatics in the days following the initial beach exposure during periods with and without an active Florida red tide.Symptom data and spirometry data were collected before and after 1 hour of beach exposure. Subjects kept daily symptom diaries and measured their peak flow each morning for 5 days following beach exposure. During non-exposure periods, there were no significant changes in symptoms or pulmonary function either acutely or over 5 days of follow-up. After the beach exposure during an active Florida red tide, subjects had elevated mean symptoms which did not return to the pre-exposure baseline for at least 4 days. The peak flow measurements decreased after the initial beach exposure, decreased further within 24 hours, and continued to be suppressed even after 5 days. Asthmatics may continue to have increased symptoms and delayed respiratory function suppression for several days after 1 hour of exposure to the Florida red tide toxin aerosols. PMID:21499552

  8. Microplastic resin pellets on an urban tropical beach in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Coley, Isabel; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Microplastics are a problem in oceans worldwide. The current situation in Latin America is not well known. This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of microplastics on an urban Caribbean beach in Cartagena, Colombia. Pellet samples were collected from a tourist beach over a 5-month period covering both dry and rainy seasons. Pellets were classified by color and their surface analyzed by stereomicroscopy, and some were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The most abundant pellets were white, presenting virgin surfaces, with few signs of oxidation. This is congruent with a short residence time in the marine environment and primary sources possibly located nearby. The frequency of white pellets did not change with sampling period. Surface features identified in the pellets included cracks, material loss, erosion, adhesion, granulation, color change, and glazed surfaces. Reticulated granular pellets exhibited the greatest degradation, easily generating submicroplastics. Sample composition was mostly polyethylene, followed by polypropylene. This pollution problem must be addressed by responsible authorities to avoid pellet deposition in oceans and on beaches around the world.

  9. Bacteria in beach sands: an emerging challenge in protecting coastal water quality and bather health

    PubMed Central

    Gast, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    To protect bather health at recreational beaches, fecal indicator bacterial standards are used to monitor water quality, and waters exceeding the standards are subsequently closed to bathers. However beachgoers are also in contact with beach sands, the sanitary quality of which is not included within beach monitoring programs. In fact, sands and sediments provide habitat where fecal bacterial populations may persist, and in some cases grow, in the coastal zone. Specific pathogens are less well studied in beach sands and sediments, but there is a body of evidence that they too may persist in these environments. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the abundance and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in beach sands of diverse climatological regions, and at beaches subjected to varied levels of anthropogenic impact. In all regions fecal indicator bacteria are nearly ubiquitous in beach sands, and similar relationships emerge between fecal indicator abundance in dry sand, submerged sands, and water. Taken together, these studies contextualize a potential public health issue and identify research questions that must be addressed in order to support future policy decisions. PMID:21162561

  10. Tools for beach health data management, data processing, and predictive model implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet describes utilities created for management of recreational waters to provide efficient data management, data aggregation, and predictive modeling as well as a prototype geographic information system (GIS)-based tool for data visualization and summary. All of these utilities were developed to assist beach managers in making decisions to protect public health. The Environmental Data Discovery and Transformation (EnDDaT) Web service identifies, compiles, and sorts environmental data from a variety of sources that help to define climatic, hydrologic, and hydrodynamic characteristics including multiple data sources within the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Great Lakes Beach Health Database (GLBH-DB) and Web application was designed to provide a flexible input, export, and storage platform for beach water quality and sanitary survey monitoring data to compliment beach monitoring programs within the Great Lakes. A real-time predictive modeling strategy was implemented by combining the capabilities of EnDDaT and the GLBH-DB for timely, automated prediction of beach water quality. The GIS-based tool was developed to map beaches based on their physical and biological characteristics, which was shared with multiple partners to provide concepts and information for future Web-accessible beach data outlets.

  11. Quantities, composition, and sources of beach debris in Korea from the results of nationwide monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Kang, Daeseok; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Ko, Sun-Hwa

    2014-07-15

    This study assessed the levels of marine debris pollution and identified its main sources in Korea. The surveys were bimonthly conducted by NGO leaders and volunteers on 20 beaches from March 2008 to November 2009. The quantities of marine debris were estimated at 480.9 (±267.7) count⋅100 m(-1) for number, 86.5 (±78.6) kg⋅100 m(-1) for weight, and 0.48 (±0.38) m(3)⋅100 m(-1) for volume. The level of marine debris pollution on the Korean beaches was comparable to that in the coastal areas of the North Atlantic ocean and South Africa. Plastics and styrofoam occupied the majority of debris composition in terms of number (66.7%) and volume (62.3%). The main sources of debris were fishing activities including commercial fisheries and marine aquaculture (51.3%). Especially styrofoam buoy from aquaculture was the biggest contributor to marine debris pollution on these beaches. PMID:24930739

  12. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  13. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site.

  14. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site. PMID:26188988

  15. The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; McCrary, Michael D.; Pierson, Mark O.

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the influence of marine macrophyte wrack subsidies on community structure, relationships between community attributes, including species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna and abundance of shorebirds, and a variety of factors, including the standing crop of wrack and beach morphodynamics, were examined on 15 exposed sandy beaches on the southern California coast. The beaches sampled were primarily modally intermediate morphodynamic types, and three were groomed regularly. Species richness, abundance, and biomass of the macrofauna were high compared to values reported for similar beach types in other regions and were not predicted by morphodynamics or other physical factors. Overall species richness and abundance, and the species richness, abundance, and biomass of wrack-associated fauna and selected taxa were significantly correlated with the standing crop of macrophyte wrack. Wrack-associated macrofauna, such as amphipods, isopods, and insects, made up an average of >37% of the species on ungroomed beaches and comprised 25% or more of the total abundance on half of those beaches. The abundance of two shorebird species, plovers that forage using visual cues, was positively correlated with the standing crop of wrack and with the abundance of wrack-associated invertebrates. Significant differences in community structure, including depressed species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna, especially for wrack-associated taxa, were associated with beach grooming and provided strong evidence for the bottom-up effects of wrack subsidies. Grooming also reduced the prey available to vertebrate predators, such as shorebirds. Substantial ecological effects of the large-scale disturbance and removal of organic material, food resources, and habitat are associated with beach grooming. These results suggest that macrophyte wrack subsidies strongly influence macrofaunal community structure, higher trophic levels, and ecological processes on

  16. Modeling system for predicting enterococci levels at Holly Beach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A; Walker, Nan D

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new modeling system for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels in coastal recreation waters at any time during the day. The modeling system consists of (1) an artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting the enterococci level at sunrise time, (2) a clear-sky solar radiation and turbidity correction to the ANN model, (3) remote sensing algorithms for turbidity, and (4) nowcasting/forecasting data. The first three components are also unique features of the new modeling system. While the component (1) is useful to beach monitoring programs requiring enterococci levels in early morning, the component (2) in combination with the component (1) makes it possible to predict the bacterial level in beach waters at any time during the day if the data from the components (3) and (4) are available. Therefore, predictions from the component (2) are of primary interest to beachgoers. The modeling system was developed using three years of swimming season data and validated using additional four years of independent data. Testing results showed that (1) the sunrise-time model correctly reproduced 82.63% of the advisories issued in seven years with a false positive rate of 2.65% and a false negative rate of 14.72%, and (2) the new modeling system was capable of predicting the temporal variability in enterococci levels in beach waters, ranging from hourly changes to daily cycles. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the new modeling system in predicting enterococci levels in coastal beach waters. Applications of the modeling system will improve the management of recreational beaches and protection of public health.

  17. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft, unconsolidated sediment interspersed with isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Offshore of Refugio Beach map area are directly related to its Quaternary geologic history, geomorphology, and active sedimentary processes. These potential habitats, which lie primarily within the Shelf (continental shelf) but also partly within the Flank (basin flank or continental slope) megahabitats, primarily are composed of soft sediment interrupted by a few carbonate mounds. This homogeneous seafloor of sediment and low-relief bedrock provides promising habitat for groundfish, crabs, shrimp, and other marine benthic organisms.

  18. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  19. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  20. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida... approximately 20 aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach,...

  1. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  2. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Statistical analyses of the results of 25 years of beach litter surveys on the south-eastern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Clemens, Thomas; Förster, Harald; Harder, Thorsten; Fleet, David; Gaus, Silvia; Grave, Christel; Flegel, Imme; Schrey, Eckart; Hartwig, Eike

    2015-08-01

    In the North Sea, the amount of litter present in the marine environment represents a severe environmental problem. In order to assess the magnitude of the problem and measure changes in abundance, the results of two beach litter monitoring programmes were compared and analysed for long-term trends applying multivariate techniques. Total beach litter pollution was persistently high. Spatial differences in litter abundance made it difficult to identify long-term trends: Partly more than 8000 litter items year(-1) were recorded on a 100 m long survey site on the island of Scharhörn, while the survey site on the beach on the island of Amrum revealed abundances lower by two orders of magnitude. Beach litter was dominated by plastic with mean proportions of 52%-91% of total beach litter. Non-parametric time series analyses detected many significant trends, which, however, did not show any systematic spatial patterns. Cluster analyses partly led to groupings of beaches according to their expositions to sources of litter, wind and currents. Surveys in short intervals of one to two weeks were found to give higher annual sums of beach litter than the quarterly surveys of the OSPAR method. Surveys at regular intervals of four weeks to five months would make monitoring results more reliable.

  2. Statistical analyses of the results of 25 years of beach litter surveys on the south-eastern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Clemens, Thomas; Förster, Harald; Harder, Thorsten; Fleet, David; Gaus, Silvia; Grave, Christel; Flegel, Imme; Schrey, Eckart; Hartwig, Eike

    2015-08-01

    In the North Sea, the amount of litter present in the marine environment represents a severe environmental problem. In order to assess the magnitude of the problem and measure changes in abundance, the results of two beach litter monitoring programmes were compared and analysed for long-term trends applying multivariate techniques. Total beach litter pollution was persistently high. Spatial differences in litter abundance made it difficult to identify long-term trends: Partly more than 8000 litter items year(-1) were recorded on a 100 m long survey site on the island of Scharhörn, while the survey site on the beach on the island of Amrum revealed abundances lower by two orders of magnitude. Beach litter was dominated by plastic with mean proportions of 52%-91% of total beach litter. Non-parametric time series analyses detected many significant trends, which, however, did not show any systematic spatial patterns. Cluster analyses partly led to groupings of beaches according to their expositions to sources of litter, wind and currents. Surveys in short intervals of one to two weeks were found to give higher annual sums of beach litter than the quarterly surveys of the OSPAR method. Surveys at regular intervals of four weeks to five months would make monitoring results more reliable. PMID:26026589

  3. Ground-based lidar beach topography of Fire Island, New York, April 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, Owen T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Spore, Nicholas J.; Brodie, Katherine L.; McNinch, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in Florida and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, collaborated to gather alongshore ground-based lidar beach elevation data at Fire Island, New York. This high-resolution elevation dataset was collected on April 10, 2013, to characterize beach topography following substantial erosion that occurred during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and multiple, strong winter storms. The ongoing beach monitoring is part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. This USGS data series includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM).

  4. To swim or not to swim? A disagreement between microbial indicators on beach water quality assessment in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pui Kwan; Yuen, Ka Lai; Li, Ping Fai; Lau, Wai Hing; Chiu, Chung Man; Yuen, Suet Wai; Baker, David M

    2015-12-15

    The USEPA and the WHO now advocate the use of enterococci as indicators for marine water quality. This study investigated the outcomes for Hong Kong beach water quality assessment by comparing enterococcus measures with data from the HKEPD's monitoring programme. Six beaches were tested once every 2-3 months from November 2013 to June 2014 in order to identify the most contaminated sites, followed by intensive water sampling in sites found to have the highest enterococci densities (Clear Water Bay Second and Golden) every five to six days for six sampling events over a 30-day period in 2014. The geometric means of enterococci were found to be 124 and 41 cfu/100 mL at Clear Water Bay Second and Golden respectively, indicating that there may be higher risks of illness associated with swimming at both beaches than previously known. Moreover, beach sediments contained higher concentrations of enterococci than water, and warrant further study. PMID:26608502

  5. 78 FR 2650 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public...; Wrightsville Beach, NC'' (77 FR 41911, docket number USCG-2012-0368). C. Basis and Purpose North...

  6. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach...

  7. 77 FR 30445 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public...; Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  9. 77 FR 35898 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] 4. Public Meeting... Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...

  10. 78 FR 23519 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Beach, NC'' (78 FR 22195, Docket No. USCG-2012-1082). We received no adverse comments on that...

  11. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  12. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  13. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  14. Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Juying; Wang, Jing; Ma, Deyi

    2015-10-15

    Microplastics provide a mechanism for the long-range transport of hydrophobic chemical contaminants to remote coastal and marine locations. In this study, plastic resin pellets were collected from Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach in China. The collected pellets were analyzed for PAHs, PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, chlordane, heptachlor, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin. The total concentration of PCBs ranged from 34.7-213.7 ng g(-1) and from 21.5-323.2 ng g(-1) in plastic resin pellets for Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach respectively. The highest concentrations of PCBs were observed for congeners 44, 110, 138, 155 and 200. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 136.3-1586.9 ng g(-1) and from 397.6-2384.2 ng g(-1) in the plastic pellets, whereas DDTs concentration ranged from 1.2-101.5 ng g(-1) and from 1.5-127.0 ng g(-1) for the two beaches. The elevated concentrations of pollutants appear to be related to extensive industrial development, agricultural activity and the use of coal in the area.

  15. The Influence of Ephemeral Beaches on Alongshore Variability of Hard-rock Cliff Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann Jones, E. C.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Varley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The role of abrasion of rock cliffs is typically considered in the long-term presence of a beach. During monthly monitoring of hard rock cliff erosion along the North Yorkshire coast, UK, we have observed a number of small ephemeral beaches of highly variable duration and extent. The erosive significance of the temporary presence of sediment at the cliffs is unknown and we set out to examine whether observed alongshore variability in erosion can be linked to the presence of ephemeral beaches. We explore the temporal and spatial variability in sediment deposition and transport along a low-sediment rock coast foreshore, the controlling marine conditions and the effects on cliff erosion. We focus on a 500 m wide embayment set into 70 m high hard rock cliffs consisting of horizontally bedded Jurassic mudstone, shale, siltstone and sandstone. The bay has a wide, shallow gradient foreshore up to 300 m wide with highly variable topography. With the exception of an ephemeral beach (of widths up to approximately 150 m alongshore and 10 m cross-shore) the rock foreshore is typically sand-free, with failed material from the cliffs quickly removed from the cliff toe by the sea leaving only boulders. The high tidal range (6 m) and storm wave environment of the North Sea result in variable marine conditions at the site. We use magnetic sand tracers and a grid of foreshore and cliff face magnets to examine the sand transport across the foreshore and to identify the vertical extent of cliff face impacted by sand. We monitor the driving marine conditions on the foreshore using a network of current meters and wave pressure sensors. Erosion of the cliff face across the whole bay is monitored at high-resolution using terrestrial laser scanning to examine the spatial distribution of abrasion and the influence of the ephemeral beach.

  16. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  17. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  18. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  19. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  20. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Claessens, Michiel; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-08-15

    A comprehensive assessment of marine litter in three environmental compartments of Belgian coastal waters was performed. Abundance, weight and composition of marine debris, including microplastics, was assessed by performing beach, sea surface and seafloor monitoring campaigns during two consecutive years. Plastic items were the dominant type of macrodebris recorded: over 95% of debris present in the three sampled marine compartments were plastic. In general, concentrations of macrodebris were quite high. Especially the number of beached debris reached very high levels: on average 6429±6767 items per 100 m were recorded. Microplastic concentrations were determined to assess overall abundance in the different marine compartments of the Belgian Continental Shelf. In terms of weight, macrodebris still dominates the pollution of beaches, but in the water column and in the seafloor microplastics appear to be of higher importance: here, microplastic weight is approximately 100 times and 400 times higher, respectively, than macrodebris weight.

  1. COMPARISON OF ENTEROCCOCUS DENSITIES DETERMINED BY CULTURE AND QPCR ANALYSES IN WATER SAMPLES FROM TWO RECREATION BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have demonstrated that cell densities of the bacterial genus Enterococcus in water samples are directly correlated with gastroenteritis illness rates in swimmers at both marine and fresh water beaches....

  2. 77 FR 30448 - Safety Zone; A Salute to Our Heroes Fireworks, Hamlin Beach State Park, Hamlin, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    .... This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of water off Hamlin Beach State Park..., call or email LT Christopher Mercurio, Chief of Waterway Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716-843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing...

  3. 77 FR 39422 - Safety Zone; A Salute to our Heroes Fireworks, Hamlin Beach State Park, Hamlin, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of water off Hamlin Beach State Park during the A Salute to our... Christopher Mercurio, Chief of Waterway Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716- 843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing or submitting material...

  4. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marirosa; Hunter, Shayla; Cyterski, Mike; Peed, Lindsay A; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Prieto, Lourdes; Shanks, Orin C

    2014-11-01

    type. The marker for general Bacteroidales was most abundant at SD locations and exhibited a high correlation with both culturable and other molecular markers. Combining molecular information with predictive modeling allowed us to identify both alongshore movement of currents and SD outflow as significant influences on the concentration of molecular and culturable indicators in the bathing zone. Data also suggests that combining methodologies is a useful and cost effective approach to help understand transport dynamics of fecal contamination and identify potential sources of contamination at marine beaches.

  5. Subsurface Intertidal Microbes: A Cryptic Source Of Organic Carbon For Beach Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Giver, Lorraine J.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Some freshwater, marine or hotspring beaches have no visible source of primary production, yet beneath the surface is an interstitial photosynthetic microbial community. To assess the significance of this source of organic carbon, we measured in situ carbon fixation rates in an intertidal marine beach through a diurnal cycle. Gross fixation for a transect (99 x 1 m) perpendicular to the shore was approx. 4041 mg C fixed/ day, or approx. 41 mg C fixed/ sq m day. In contrast, an adjacent well-established cyanobacterial (Lyngbya) mat was approx. 12 x as productive (approx. 490 mg C fixed/sq m day). Thus, subsurface sand mats may be an overlooked, yet important, endogenous source of organic carbon for intertidal ecosystems, as well as a sink in the global carbon cycle.

  6. A Beach in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an integrated science activity in which students learn about the principles of superposition, biostratigraphy, and correlation and study the single-celled microorganism foraminifera to learn about marine biology. (YDS)

  7. 75 FR 29521 - Notice of Public Meetings of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Basing the U.S. Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... of the DEIS are available for public review at the following libraries in North Carolina: Havelock-Craven County Public Library, 301 Cunningham Boulevard, Havelock; Bogue Banks Public Library, 320 Salter Path Rd., Suite W Pine Knoll Shores; Carteret County Public Library, 1702 Live Oak Street, Suite...

  8. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  9. Up from the beach: medical waste disposal rules!

    PubMed

    Francisco, C J

    1989-07-01

    The recent incidents of floating debris, garbage, wood, and medical waste on our nation's beaches have focused public attention on waste management problems. The handling and disposal of solid waste remains a major unresolved national dilemma. Increased use of disposables by all consumers, including the medical profession, and the increasing costs of solid waste disposal options have aggravated the solid waste situation. Medical waste found on beaches in the summer of 1988 could have been generated by a number of sources, including illegal dumping; sewer overflow; storm water runoff; illegal drug users; and inadequate handling of solid waste at landfills and coastal transfer facilities, which receive waste from doctors' offices, laboratories, and even legitimate home users of syringes. As officials from New Jersey have determined, the beach garbage is no mystery. It's coming from you and me. In response to the perceived medical waste disposal problem, various state and federal agencies have adopted rules to regulate and control the disposal of medical waste. This article outlines the more significant rules that apply to medical waste. PMID:2756492

  10. Association of fecal indicator bacteria with human viruses and microbial source tracking markers at coastal beaches impacted by nonpoint source pollution.

    PubMed

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-09-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided.

  11. Escherichia coli at Ohio Bathing Beaches--Distribution, Sources, Wastewater Indicators, and Predictive Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Gifford, Amie M.; Darner, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of studies during the recreational seasons of 2000 and 2001 strengthen the science that supports monitoring of our Nation?s beaches. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ancillary water-quality and environmental data were collected or compiled to determine their relation to E. coli concentrations. Data were collected at three Lake Erie urban beaches (Edgewater, Villa Angela, and Huntington), two Lake Erie beaches in a less populated area (Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor), and one inland-lake beach (Mosquito Lake). The distribution of E. coli in water and sediments within the bathing area, outside the bathing area, and near the swash zone was investigated at the three Lake Erie urban beaches and at Mosquito Lake. (The swash zone is the zone that is alternately covered and exposed by waves.) Lake-bottom sediments from outside the bathing area were not significant deposition areas for E. coli. In contrast, interstitial water and subsurface sediments from near the swash zone were enriched with E. coli. For example, E. coli concentrations were as high as 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in some interstitial waters. Although there are no standards for E. coli in swash-zone materials, the high concentrations found at some locations warrant concern for public health. Studies were done at Mosquito Lake to identify sources of fecal contamination to the lake and bathing beach. Escherichia coli concentrations decreased with distance from a suspected source of fecal contamination that is north of the beach but increased at the bathing beach. This evidence indicated that elevated E. coli concentrations at the bathing beach are of local origin rather than from transport of bacteria from sites to the north. Samples collected from the three Lake Erie urban beaches and Mosquito Lake were analyzed to determine whether wastewater indicators could be used as surrogates for E. coli at bathing beaches

  12. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore

  13. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Offshore experiments on styrene spillage in marine waters for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, Mélanie; Péron, Olivier; Höfer, Thomas; Morrissette, Mike; Le Floch, Stéphane

    2012-07-01

    Within the context of risk evaluation of chemical spillages into the marine environment, this paper reports on an offshore experiment to study the behaviour of styrene spilled into sea under natural conditions and discusses theoretical approaches. Floating structures were used to enclose the spillage and the gaseous cloud formation, and dissolution processes were in situ monitored. The identification of spill risks for man and marine environment through GESAMP's hazard profile is described for styrene: Styrene is rated as a chemical with a significant health hazard that will float but also evaporate. However, monitoring of the water column in the experiments showed that the concentration of styrene in water during the first hour represents 50% of the product spilled. For the potentially exposed public, the GESAMP hazard rating recommends the closure of beaches and evacuation. The risk assessment developed from experimental data confirms this safety advice. PMID:22607845

  15. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit #45455-FP, Monitoring Report February 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dynamic Revetment (gravel beach) was installed in November, 2011 on the shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) to mitigate erosion that threatened HMSC critical infrastructure. Shoreline topographic and biological monitoring was init...

  16. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit #45455-FP, Monitoring Report February, 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dynamic Revetment (gravel beach) was installed in November, 2011 on the shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) to mitigate erosion that threatened HMSC critical infrastructure. Shoreline topographic and biological monitoring was init...

  17. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution.

  18. 78 FR 11116 - Safety Zone; Mamaroneck Beach and Yacht Club Fireworks, Mamaroneck Harbor, Long Island Sound, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP Captain of the Port A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mamaroneck Beach and Yacht Club...

  19. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  20. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  1. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  2. Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a variety of publications available from government and nongovernment sources. The government publications are from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and are designed for educators, students, and the public. (Author/SA)

  3. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  4. Coastal loading and transport of Escherichia coli at an embayed beach in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Z.; Nevers, M.B.; Schwab, D.J.; Whitman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    A Chicago beach in southwest Lake Michigan was revisited to determine the influence of nearshore hydrodynamic effects on the variability of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in both knee-deep and offshore waters. Explanatory variables that could be used for identifying potential bacteria loading mechanisms, such as bed shear stress due to a combined wave-current boundary layer and wave runup on the beach surface, were derived from an existing wave and current database. The derived hydrodynamic variables, along with the actual observed E. coli concentrations in the submerged and foreshore sands, were expected to reveal bacteria loading through nearshore sediment resuspension and swash on the beach surface, respectively. Based on the observation that onshore waves tend to result in a more active hydrodynamic system at this embayed beach, multiple linear regression analysis of onshore-wave cases further indicated the significance of sediment resuspension and the interaction of swash with gull-droppings in explaining the variability of E. coli concentration in the knee-deep water. For cases with longshore currents, numerical simulations using the Princeton Ocean Model revealed current circulation patterns inside the embayment, which can effectively entrain bacteria from the swash zone into the central area of the embayed beach water and eventually release them out of the embayment. The embayed circulation patterns are consistent with the statistical results that identified that 1) the submerged sediment was an additional net source of E. coli to the offshore water and 2) variability of E. coli concentration in the knee-deep water contributed adversely to that in the offshore water for longshore-current cases. The embayed beach setting and the statistical and numerical methods used in the present study have wide applicability for analyzing recreational water quality at similar marine and freshwater sites. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth.

  6. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  7. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  8. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  9. Nowcasting Beach Advisories at Ohio Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected during the recreational season of 2007 to test and refine predictive models at three Lake Erie beaches. In addition to E. coli concentrations, field personnel collected or compiled data for environmental and water-quality variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations including turbidity, wave height, water temperature, lake level, rainfall, and antecedent dry days and wet days. At Huntington (Bay Village) and Edgewater (Cleveland) during 2007, the models provided correct responses 82.7 and 82.1 percent of the time; these percentages were greater than percentages obtained using the previous day?s E. coli concentrations (current method). In contrast, at Villa Angela during 2007, the model provided correct responses only 61.3 percent of the days monitored. The data from 2007 were added to existing datasets and the larger datasets were split into two (Huntington) or three (Edgewater) segments by date based on the occurrence of false negatives and positives (named ?season 1, season 2, season 3?). Models were developed for dated segments and for combined datasets. At Huntington, the summed responses for separate best models for seasons 1 and 2 provided a greater percentage of correct responses (85.6 percent) than the one combined best model (83.1 percent). Similar results were found for Edgewater. Water resource managers will determine how to apply these models to the Internet-based ?nowcast? system for issuing water-quality advisories during 2008.

  10. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  11. Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

  12. Getting Ready for School: Palm Beach County's Early Childhood Cluster Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This publication reports findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  13. 77 FR 45488 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... published in 77 FR 35898. We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  14. 77 FR 64904 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) (33 FR 50444). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. A Report on the Virginia Beach Client Satisfaction Plan for Teachers. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Donald W.; Ostrander, Laura R.

    In 1992-93 a client satisfaction plan for teachers was developed and implemented in the Virginia Beach (Virginia) public school system. This report describes the processes of design and implementation as well as preliminary findings from the field test of a survey soliciting parent perceptions of teacher performance. Although students were…

  16. On the Beach at Waikiki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Leighton

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Waikiki Aquarium, one of the oldest aquaria in the United States. After a brief history of the aquarium, some of the outstanding displays are described. In addition, some of the current research projects and discoveries in marine biology at the aquarium are discussed. Finally, the aquarium's educational programs are described. (BB)

  17. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  18. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  19. The influence of fluvial dynamics and North Atlantic swells on the beach habitat of leatherback turtles at Grande Riviere Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Darsan, Junior; Jehu, Adam; Asmath, Hamish; Singh, Asha; Wilson, Matthew

    2016-09-15

    Grande Riviere beach, located on the north coast of Trinidad, West Indies, is internationally recognised as a critical habitat/nesting ground for the endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Episodic extreme flooding of the Grande Riviere River led to the shifting of the river mouth and resulted in backshore beach erosion, with the most recent recorded event occurring in 2012. Following this event, the construction of a sand dam to arrest further erosion which threatened coastal infrastructure, precipitated a host of new problems ranging from beach instability to public health threats. In January 2013, high energy swell waves naturally in-filled the erosion channel, and the beach recovery continued over the successive months, thereby rendering the intervention in the previous year questionable. This paper presents a geomorphological analysis of beach dynamics for Grande Riviere, within the context of this erosion event. Data on beach profiles, sediment and coastal processes were collected using standard geomorphological techniques. Beach topographic analysis and water quality tests on impounded water in the erosion channel were conducted. Results indicate that the event created an erosion channel of 4843.42 m(3) over a contiguous area of 2794.25 m(2). While swell waves were able to naturally infill the channel, they also eroded 17,762 m(3) of sand overall across the beach. Water quality tests revealed that the impounded water was classified as a pollutant, and created challenges for remediation. Hydrologic and coastal geomorphologic interplay is responsible for the existence and sustainability of this coastal system. It is also evident that the beach system is able to recover naturally following extreme events. Our results demonstrate that effective and integrated management of such critical habitats remains dependent upon continuous monitoring data which should be used to inform policy and decision making.

  20. The influence of fluvial dynamics and North Atlantic swells on the beach habitat of leatherback turtles at Grande Riviere Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Darsan, Junior; Jehu, Adam; Asmath, Hamish; Singh, Asha; Wilson, Matthew

    2016-09-15

    Grande Riviere beach, located on the north coast of Trinidad, West Indies, is internationally recognised as a critical habitat/nesting ground for the endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Episodic extreme flooding of the Grande Riviere River led to the shifting of the river mouth and resulted in backshore beach erosion, with the most recent recorded event occurring in 2012. Following this event, the construction of a sand dam to arrest further erosion which threatened coastal infrastructure, precipitated a host of new problems ranging from beach instability to public health threats. In January 2013, high energy swell waves naturally in-filled the erosion channel, and the beach recovery continued over the successive months, thereby rendering the intervention in the previous year questionable. This paper presents a geomorphological analysis of beach dynamics for Grande Riviere, within the context of this erosion event. Data on beach profiles, sediment and coastal processes were collected using standard geomorphological techniques. Beach topographic analysis and water quality tests on impounded water in the erosion channel were conducted. Results indicate that the event created an erosion channel of 4843.42 m(3) over a contiguous area of 2794.25 m(2). While swell waves were able to naturally infill the channel, they also eroded 17,762 m(3) of sand overall across the beach. Water quality tests revealed that the impounded water was classified as a pollutant, and created challenges for remediation. Hydrologic and coastal geomorphologic interplay is responsible for the existence and sustainability of this coastal system. It is also evident that the beach system is able to recover naturally following extreme events. Our results demonstrate that effective and integrated management of such critical habitats remains dependent upon continuous monitoring data which should be used to inform policy and decision making. PMID:27213864

  1. Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

  2. Pathobiology of marine and estuarine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, J.A.; Fournie, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    The book is an up-to-date compendium of scientific findings related to diseases of marine and estuarine organisms. The information was presented at the Gulf Breeze Symposium on Marine and Estuarine Disease Research sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) held in October 1990 on Pensacola Beach, Florida. Authors review the state-of-the-science and recommend research for future studies of the impact of xenobiotics and other anthropogenic stress factors on disease processes in marine and estuarine organisms.

  3. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  4. Plastic in surface waters of the Inside Passage and beaches of the Salish Sea in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Davis, Wallace; Murphy, Anne G

    2015-08-15

    We summarize results of two independent studies on plastic pollution in the marine environment that overlap in time and space. One study evaluated the abundance of anthropogenic debris on 37 sandy beaches bordering the Salish Sea in Washington State while the other characterized plastic debris in surface waters of the Salish Sea and the Inside Passage to Skagway, Alaska. Both studies concluded that foam, primarily expanded polystyrene was the dominant pollutant. Plastic was found in surface waters the full length of the Inside Passage but was concentrated near harbors. At the wrack line, an average square meter of Washington's 1180km of sandy beaches in the Salish Sea had 61 pieces of anthropogenic debris weighing approximately 5g. The total loading for the entire 1m wide band is estimated to be 72,000,000 pieces and 5.8metric tons. Most anthropogenic debris on beaches is generated within the region.

  5. AMS-dated mollusks in beach ridges and berms document Holocene sea-level and coastal changes in northeastern Kuwait Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinink-Smith, Linda M.

    2015-09-01

    In northeastern Kuwait, ancient beach ridges and associated berms are separated from the present shoreline by a 4-6 km-wide sabkha. A diverse mollusk fauna in the beach ridges attests to a former open marine environment. A total of 21 AMS dates were obtained in this study. Thirteen mollusk samples from beach ridges yielded AMS dates ranging from ~ 6990 cal yr BP in the southeast to ~ 3370 cal yr BP in the northwest, suggesting a southeast to northwest age progression during the Holocene transgression. In contrast, four samples from berms throughout the study area yielded AMS dates of 5195-3350 cal yr BP showing no age progression; these berms consist largely of Conomurex persicus gastropods that aggregated by storms during a highstand at ~ 5000-3500 cal yr BP. The berms are presently at ~ + 6 m above sea level, 2-3 m above the beach ridges. Human settlements were common on the ridge crests before and after the highstand. Regression to present-day sea level commenced after the highstand, which is when the sabkha began forming. A landward, marine-built terrace, which yielded AMS dates > 43,500 14C yr BP, probably formed during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e and hence is not genetically related to the beach ridges.

  6. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  7. The effect of fine-scale sampling frequency on estimates of beach litter accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; Lamprecht, Annerie; Swanepoel, Debbie; Moloney, Coleen L

    2014-11-15

    The effect of sampling frequency on estimates of the rate of litter accumulation was determined for two South African sandy beaches. After initial cleaning, all manufactured items >10mm diameter were collected in alternating bouts of daily or weekly cleanups. Daily sampling collected 2.5 (range 2.1-3.4) times more litter items than weekly samples and 1.7 (1.3-2.3) times more litter by mass. Low density items such as foamed polystyrene showed a greater differential (4-5 times more items from daily sampling), presumably due to faster turnover of lightweight litter items. Variation in weekly samples was not consistently less than daily estimates, suggesting that less frequent samples only partly integrate short-term fluctuations in litter dynamics. Researchers using beach accumulation data to infer trends in nearshore marine litter, or to assess the efficacy of litter mitigation measures, need to ensure consistency in sampling frequency. PMID:25239099

  8. Analyze of waves dynamic over an intertidal mudflat of a sandy-gravely estuarine beach - Field survey and preliminary modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morio, Olivier; Sedrati, Mouncef; Goubert, Evelyne

    2014-05-01

    As well as marine submersion or erosive phenomena, clay-silted sediment in-filling on estuarial and bay beaches are a main issue in these human-attractive areas. Coupled sandy/gravely and clay/silty intertidal areas can be observed in these particular coastal areas, depending of rivers characteristic (discharge of particle, water flow), ocean dynamics (wave exposure, current) and sediments sources. All around the world, sandy/gravely beaches are exposed to punctual or continuous input clay sediments. Vilaine estuary, Bay of Arcachon and Bay of Seine in France, Plymouth Bay in UK and also Wadden Sea in Deutschland are few examples of muddy/sandy coupled or mixed system. The beach of Bétahon (Ambon town, Brittany - France) is located on the external Vilaine estuary and is an example of this issue. This meso-macrotidal intermediate (low tide terrace) beach presents heterogeneous sediments. The upper intertidal zone is composed by sand and gravel and characterized by a steep slope. A very gentle slope characterized the lower part of the beach and is constituted by silt and clay. Clay/sand limit is characterized by a decimetric erosion cliff of mudflat along the beach. In order to understand bed variations and sediment transport of this complex heterogeneous beach, a well understanding of wave dynamic across the beach is necessary. This study focus on wave dynamics over the beach, using field observations and MIKE 21 3D wave numerical model. This paper is a preliminary approach of an upcoming global understanding of this estuarial beach behavior. Swell from deep-sea to near-shore area is modeled over a 100 km² area and real wind, deep sea wave characteristic, river water flow and tidal level are defined as open boundary conditions for the regional model. This last one is based on multiple bathymetric surveys over the last 50 years. Local model, triangular mesh gridded to 5 meters, covering Bétahon beach , is based on topographic and photographic survey of the mudflat

  9. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  10. Secondary production of sandy beach macrofauna: An evaluation of predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Cardoso, Ricardo Silva; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Turra, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    During the last three decades, several predictive models have been developed to estimate the somatic production of macroinvertebrates. Although the models have been evaluated for their ability to assess the production of macrobenthos in different marine ecosystems, these approaches have not been applied specifically to sandy beach macrofauna and may not be directly applicable to this transitional environment. Hence, in this study, a broad literature review of sandy beach macrofauna production was conducted and estimates obtained with cohort-based and size-based methods were collected. The performance of nine models in estimating the production of individual populations from the sandy beach environment, evaluated for all taxonomic groups combined and for individual groups separately, was assessed, comparing the production predicted by the models to the estimates obtained from the literature (observed production). Most of the models overestimated population production compared to observed production estimates, whether for all populations combined or more specific taxonomic groups. However, estimates by two models developed by Cusson and Bourget provided best fits to measured production, and thus represent the best alternatives to the cohort-based and size-based methods in this habitat. The consistent performance of one of these Cusson and Bourget models, which was developed for the macrobenthos of sandy substrate habitats (C&BSS), shows that the performance of a model does not depend on whether it was developed for a specific taxonomic group. Moreover, since some widely used models (e.g., the Robertson model) show very different responses when applied to the macrofauna of different marine environments (e.g., sandy beaches and estuaries), prior evaluation of these models is essential.

  11. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  12. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  13. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  14. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  15. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  17. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  19. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development. PMID:27376939

  20. Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in southern Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from southern Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.

  1. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  2. Ground-penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey, April 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Bishop, James M.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-08-04

    Scientists from the United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, and students from the University of Hawaii at Manoa collected sediment cores, sediment surface grab samples, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data from within the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge–Holgate Unit located on the southern end of Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in April 2015 (FAN 2015-611-FA). The study’s objective was to identify washover deposits in the stratigraphic record to aid in understanding barrier island evolution. This report is an archive of GPR and DGPS data collected from Long Beach Island in 2015. Data products, including raw GPR and processed DGPS data, elevation corrected GPR profiles, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  3. Ground-penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey, April 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Bishop, James M.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists from the United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, and students from the University of Hawaii at Manoa collected sediment cores, sediment surface grab samples, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data from within the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge–Holgate Unit located on the southern end of Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in April 2015 (FAN 2015-611-FA). The study’s objective was to identify washover deposits in the stratigraphic record to aid in understanding barrier island evolution. This report is an archive of GPR and DGPS data collected from Long Beach Island in 2015. Data products, including raw GPR and processed DGPS data, elevation corrected GPR profiles, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  4. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants. PMID:25787219

  5. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants.

  6. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markewich, H. W.; Pavich, M. J.; Schultz, A. P.; Mahan, S. A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Predominantly clastic, off-lapping, transgressive, near-shore marine sediment packages that are morphologically expressed as subparallel NE-trending barriers, beach ridges, and associated back-barrier areas, characterize the near-surface stratigraphic section between the Savannah and the Ogeechee Rivers in Effingham County, southeastern Georgia. Each barrier/back-barrier (shoreline) complex is lower than and cut into a higher/older complex. Each barrier or shoreline complex overlies Miocene strata. No direct age data are available for these deposits. Previous researchers have disagreed on their age and provenance. Using luminescence and meteoric beryllium-10 (10Be) inventory analyses, we estimated a minimum age for the largest, westernmost, morphologically identifiable, and topographically-highest, barrier/beach-ridge (the Wicomico shoreline barrier) and constrained the age of a suite of younger barrier/beach-ridges that lie adjacent and seaward of the Wicomico shoreline barrier. At the study site, the near-shore marine/estuarine deposits underlying the Wicomico shoreline barrier are overlain by eolian sand and an intervening zone-of-mixing. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data indicate ages of ≤43 ka for the eolian sand and 116 ka for the zone-of-mixing. Meteoric 10Be and pedostratigraphic data indicate minimum residence times of 33.4 ka for the eolian sand, 80.6 ka for the zone-of-mixing, and 247 ka for the paleosol. The combined OSL and 10Be age data indicate that, at this locality, the barrier/beach ridge has a minimum age of about 360 ka. This age for the Wicomico shoreline-barrier deposit is the first for any Pleistocene near-shore marine/estuarine deposit in southeast Georgia that is conclusively older than 80 ka. The 360-ka minimum age is in agreement with other geochronologic data for near-coastline deposits in Georgia and South Carolina. The geomorphic position of this barrier/beach-ridge is similar to deposits in South Carolina considered to be

  7. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Schultz, A.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Predominantly clastic, off-lapping, transgressive, near-shore marine sediment packages that are morphologically expressed as subparallel NE-trending barriers, beach ridges, and associated back-barrier areas, characterize the near-surface stratigraphic section between the Savannah and the Ogeechee Rivers in Effingham County, southeastern Georgia. Each barrier/back-barrier (shoreline) complex is lower than and cut into a higher/older complex. Each barrier or shoreline complex overlies Miocene strata. No direct age data are available for these deposits. Previous researchers have disagreed on their age and provenance. Using luminescence and meteoric beryllium-10 (10Be) inventory analyses, we estimated a minimum age for the largest, westernmost, morphologically identifiable, and topographically-highest, barrier/beach-ridge (the Wicomico shoreline barrier) and constrained the age of a suite of younger barrier/beach-ridges that lie adjacent and seaward of the Wicomico shoreline barrier. At the study site, the near-shore marine/estuarine deposits underlying the Wicomico shoreline barrier are overlain by eolian sand and an intervening zone-of-mixing. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data indicate ages of ≤43 ka for the eolian sand and 116 ka for the zone-of-mixing. Meteoric 10Be and pedostratigraphic data indicate minimum residence times of 33.4 ka for the eolian sand, 80.6 ka for the zone-of-mixing, and 247 ka for the paleosol. The combined OSL and 10Be age data indicate that, at this locality, the barrier/beach ridge has a minimum age of about 360 ka. This age for the Wicomico shoreline-barrier deposit is the first for any Pleistocene near-shore marine/estuarine deposit in southeast Georgia that is conclusively older than 80 ka. The 360-ka minimum age is in agreement with other geochronologic data for near-coastline deposits in Georgia and South Carolina. The geomorphic position of this barrier/beach-ridge is similar to deposits in South Carolina considered to be

  8. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was

  9. A methodological approach to assess beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. Cases studies from Valdelagrana spit (Spain) and Campomarino beach (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Angela; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Gracia, Javier F.; Anfuso, Giorgio; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    Dunes provide many important services to coastal areas, such as coastal erosion mitigation, coastal flooding protection and biological diversity. Their dynamic equilibrium and geomorphological evolution are the result of the interaction between marine and aeolian processes. Moreover, coastal dunes are characterized by a high ecological value, being a narrow strip between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and are habitats considered of community interest by the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC. In the meantime, the significant increase of human pressure on coastal environments during the last decades has caused a strong alteration and an increase of the fragility and fragmentation of these habitats. This paper presents a methodological approach for the assessment of the beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. The aim is to identify, at the local scale, the degree of susceptibility of coastal stretches in order to evaluate the degree of exposure of human settlements and natural environments located behind the dune system and to support actuations to appropriately improve dune management and conservation. A coastal susceptibility matrix and a corresponding Coastal Susceptibility Index (CSI) are proposed. Following the assumption that a good index should be based on a minimum amount of essential information (Cooper and McLaughlin, 1998), possibly already available or easy to be obtained (Villa and McLeod, 2002), the proposed index consisted into eight variables concerning existing beach and dune conditions, covering geomorphological, physical and anthropogenic aspects. Each variable was inserted into a GIS system and overlapped with the others through a logical overlay operation. The resulting layer was reclassified according to the formula proposed by Rangel and Anfuso (2015) allowing to calculate the CSI, which ranged from 1 (null/very low susceptibility) to 5 (very high susceptibility). In a further step, the predominant processes occurred in the last decades were

  10. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  11. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2016-07-12

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  12. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  13. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  14. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  15. Integrated analysis of beach ridge and lagoon systems as indicator of sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel U.; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Morigi, Caterina; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Pejrup, Morten

    2015-04-01

    Beach ridges and lagoons are common features of the modern coastal landscape in much of Denmark and represent an important part of the Holocene raised marine deposits. We here present our results from investigations into the possibilities of retrieving continuous relative sea-level (RSL) information from these sedimentary archives, as facilitated by the analysis of surface morphology, coring, subsurface imaging, absolute chronology, and modern analogues. The island of Samsø (55˚51'N, 10˚36'E) was chosen as a case study example. While each of the used archives merely covers a part of the mid to late Holocene developments, their joint analysis allows identifying and separating periods of rapid RSL rise, stability and fall over most of the island's marine stage. We present possible correlations of the data from the lagoons with data from a wide beach-ridge system and suggest causal relations of the RSL reconstruction with the spatial arrangements of marine and glacial landforms on Samsø. The integrated use of a geographical perspective combined with geological precision and methodology has proven to be of great value for understanding temporal, spatial, and process relations in the investigated coastal environment. The study stresses the value of analyzing genetically independent though complementary sedimentary archives to retrieve more complete and potentially more robust results. The presented approach may be useful in microtidal, sediment-surplus environments with a transgressive-regressive Holocene RSL history.

  16. Modeling to Predict Escherichia coli at Presque Isle Beach 2, City of Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Lake Erie beaches in Pennsylvania are a valuable recreational resource for Erie County. Concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at monitored beaches in Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pa., occasionally exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters resulting in potentially unsafe swimming conditions and prompting beach managers to post public advisories or to close beaches to recreation. To supplement the current method for assessing recreational water quality (E. coli concentrations from the previous day), a predictive regression model for E. coli concentrations at Presque Isle Beach 2 was developed from data collected during the 2004 and 2005 recreational seasons. Model output included predicted E. coli concentrations and exceedance probabilities--the probability that E. coli concentrations would exceed the standard. For this study, E. coli concentrations and other water-quality and environmental data were collected during the 2006 recreational season at Presque Isle Beach 2. The data from 2006, an independent year, were used to test (validate) the 2004-2005 predictive regression model and compare the model performance to the current method. Using 2006 data, the 2004-2005 model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedances of the standard than the use of E. coli concentrations from the previous day. The differences were not pronounced, however, and more data are needed. For example, the model correctly predicted exceedances of the standard 11 percent of the time (1 out of 9 exceedances that occurred in 2006) whereas using the E. coli concentrations from the previous day did not result in any correctly predicted exceedances. After validation, new models were developed by adding the 2006 data to the 2004-2005 dataset and by analyzing the data in 2- and 3-year combinations. Results showed that excluding the 2004 data (using 2005 and 2006 data only) yielded the best model. Explanatory variables in the

  17. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  18. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  19. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, Walter A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Hein, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic framework of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Cape Ann and Salisbury Beach has been shaped by a complicated history of glaciation, deglaciation, and changes in relative sea level. New geophysical data (swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar and seismic-reflection profiling), sediment samples, and seafloor photography provide insight into the geomorphic and stratigraphic record generated by these processes. High-resolution spatial data and geologic maps in this report support coastal research and efforts to understand the type, distribution, and quality of subtidal marine habitats in the Massachusetts coastal ocean.

  20. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  1. Health risk assessment after decontamination of the beaches polluted by the wrecked ERIKA tanker.

    PubMed

    Dor, Frédéric; Bonnard, Roseline; Gourier-Fréry, Claire; Cicolella, André; Dujardin, Roland; Zmirou, Denis

    2003-12-01

    Following the wreck of the oil tanker ERIKA off the north-west coast of France in December 1999, cleaning up of the beaches involved considerable work, which in any case could not be perfect. This raised the question of the short- and long-term health risks for the future bathers related to the toxicity of the remaining oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This risk assessment study was conducted to help health authorities plan risk management policies and inform the public. Thirty-six beaches were selected, representing a sample of the most frequently encountered topographic and beach usage situations; seven "control" beaches, unspoiled by ERIKA, were also investigated. Samples of water and sand were taken from each site, as well as from the surface of rocks. The 16 PAHs selected by the U.S. EPA were quantified in each environment. Several scenarios of exposure were contemplated: (1) a child between 2 and 4 years accidentally ingesting a small ball of fuel, (2) a child daily exposed throughout his holiday-time stay, (3) an adult (including a pregnant woman) spending his/her holidays on the coast, (4) an adult working on the beach, (5) and an adult practicing water sports. Among the available and significant toxicological values, the most conservative ones were selected for computing risks. The sand and water, after decontamination, were slightly polluted (respectively, 7.8 microg/kg and 23.3 ng/l of total 16 PAHs), with values similar to those found in the control beaches. By contrast, the rocky areas in some places were still highly polluted (up to 23 mg/kg on the surface layer). No lethal risk was found for a young child who had accidentally ingested a small ball of fuel. The life-long excess risks for skin cancer and for all other cancers were about 10-5 in scenarios including contact with the polluted rocks. In all other cases, excess risks were considerably lower. The hazard quotient for teratogenic effects was very small, except in scenarios where

  2. Comparing rapid and culture indicator bacteria methods at inland lake beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Kephart, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), for quantifying indicator bacteria in recreational waters is desirable for public health protection. We report that replacing current Escherichia coli standards with new US Environmental Protection Agency beach action values (BAVs) for enterococci by culture or qPCR may result in more advisories being posted at inland recreational lakes. In this study, concentrations of E. coli and enterococci by culture methods were compared to concentrations of Enterococcus spp. by qPCR at 3 inland lake beaches in Ohio. The E. coli and enterococci culture results were significantly related at all beaches; however, the relations between culture results and Enterococcus spp. qPCR results were not always significant and differed among beaches. All the qPCR results exceeded the new BAV for Enterococcus spp. by qPCR, whereas only 23.7% of culture results for E. coli and 79% of culture results for enterococci exceeded the current standard for E. coli or BAV for enterococci.

  3. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  4. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    stimuli in coastal adaptation initiatives and resulted in the Ocean Beach Master Plan. Investigation into the planning processes involving multiple stakeholder engagement such as San Francisco (SF) Public Utilities Commission, California Coastal Commission, National Park Service, SF Department of Public Works, SF Recreation and Park Department, SF Planning Department, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers can shed light on trade-offs and synergies of different adaptation responses. The role of the coordinator - SF Planning and Urban Research Commission - as a mediator between different stakeholder interests and priorities, a realistic assessment of current hazard management practices specific to local contexts, and the necessity of combining hazard mitigation policies with coastal management and community management are the key findings of this research. They help inform policy formulation and decision-making in climate change adaptation, and provide a valuable case study that can be transferred to other locations.

  5. Occurrence of tar balls on the beaches of Fernando de Noronha Island, South Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Baptista Neto, José Antônio; da Costa Campos, Thomas Ferreira; de Andrade, Carala Danielle Perreira; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora; da Fonseca, Estefan Monteiro; Motoki, Akihisa

    2014-12-01

    This work reports on the widespread occurrence of tar balls on a pebble beach of Sueste Bay on Fernando de Noronha Island, a Brazilian national marine park and a preserve in the South Equatorial Atlantic. Environmental regulations preclude regular visitors to the Sueste Bay beach, and the bay is a pristine area without any possible or potential sources of petroleum in the coastal zone. In this work, these tar balls were observed for the first time as they occurred as envelopes around beach pebbles. They are black in color, very hard, have a shell and coral fragment armor, and range in average size from 2 to 6 cm. The shape of the majority of the tar balls is spherical, but some can also be flattened ellipsoids. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses of the collected samples revealed the characteristics of a strongly weathered material, where only the most persistent compounds were detected: chrysene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,h)antracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  6. Recent deep-seated coastal landsliding at San Onofre State Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR collected during the period 1998-2010 and differential GPS surveys conducted over 2008-2013 show recent reactivation and movement of a large deep-seated coastal landslide at San Onofre State Beach, San Diego County, California. The overall slide complex extends about 700 m alongshore, 150 m inland, and an unknown distance offshore. Differencing digital elevation models and tracking field monuments (benchmarks) provide time series of quantitative topographic landslide changes and new insight in to the slide motion sequences and mechanics. The slide contains several distinct primary and secondary regions moving and deforming at different rates. Primary slide motion includes slow seaward translational motion, rotational slipping, and upward offshore movement. Secondary processes of basal wave erosion and new inland cliffline failures contribute to primary landslide destabilization. The landslide exhibits lithologic and structural controls, is driven by a combination of marine and subaerial processes, influences local beach morphology, and deviates from typical southern California coastal cliff processes which mostly involve shallow landslides and topples. Large-scale, cross-shore slide rotation has recently created new nearshore reefs. Eroded cliff sediments provide a local beach sand source and probably influence local nearshore ecosystems. All known time periods of major historical landslide activity were preceded by elevated seasonal rainfall and analysis suggests elevated rainfall generated primary slide motion as opposed to wave action. As of spring 2013, landslide activity has slowed, but continued positive feedbacks including toe removal by wave activity suggest that future landsliding will probably threaten coastal infrastructure.

  7. Are fecal indicator bacteria appropriate measures of recreational water risks in the tropics: A cohort study of beach goers in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Lamparelli, Claudia Condé; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Verhougstraete, Marc; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Bruni, Antonio de Castro; Wade, Timothy J; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-12-15

    Regulating recreational water exposure to pathogens within the tropics is a major public health and economic concern. Although numerous epidemiological studies estimating the risk to recreational marine water exposure have been conducted since the 1950s, few studies have been done in the tropics. Furthermore, many have suggested that the use of fecal indicator bacteria for monitoring recreational water quality in temperate regions is not appropriate in the tropics. We analyzed a large cohort study of five beaches in Sao Paulo, Brazil, conducted during consecutive weekends in the summer of 1999 that estimated risk to water, sand, and food exposures. Enterococci and Escherichia coli concentrations were measured each day of the study. Elevated risks were estimated for both swimming (OR = 1.36 95% CI: 1.05-1.58) and sand contact (OR = 1.29 95% CI 1.05-1.58). A 1 log increase in enterococci concentration was associated with an 11% increase in risk (OR = 1.11 95% CI: 1.04-1.19). For E. coli a 1-log increase in concentration was associated with 19% increase in risk (OR = 1.19 95% CI: 1.14-1.28). Most countries with beaches in the tropics are lower or middle income countries (LMIC) and rely on tourism as a major source of income. We present data that suggests fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci are an appropriate indicator of risk in tropical urban settings where contamination is coming from predominantly human sources. Additional studies in tropical settings could help inform and refine guidelines for safe use of recreational waters.

  8. Are fecal indicator bacteria appropriate measures of recreational water risks in the tropics: A cohort study of beach goers in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Lamparelli, Claudia Condé; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Verhougstraete, Marc; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Bruni, Antonio de Castro; Wade, Timothy J; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-12-15

    Regulating recreational water exposure to pathogens within the tropics is a major public health and economic concern. Although numerous epidemiological studies estimating the risk to recreational marine water exposure have been conducted since the 1950s, few studies have been done in the tropics. Furthermore, many have suggested that the use of fecal indicator bacteria for monitoring recreational water quality in temperate regions is not appropriate in the tropics. We analyzed a large cohort study of five beaches in Sao Paulo, Brazil, conducted during consecutive weekends in the summer of 1999 that estimated risk to water, sand, and food exposures. Enterococci and Escherichia coli concentrations were measured each day of the study. Elevated risks were estimated for both swimming (OR = 1.36 95% CI: 1.05-1.58) and sand contact (OR = 1.29 95% CI 1.05-1.58). A 1 log increase in enterococci concentration was associated with an 11% increase in risk (OR = 1.11 95% CI: 1.04-1.19). For E. coli a 1-log increase in concentration was associated with 19% increase in risk (OR = 1.19 95% CI: 1.14-1.28). Most countries with beaches in the tropics are lower or middle income countries (LMIC) and rely on tourism as a major source of income. We present data that suggests fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci are an appropriate indicator of risk in tropical urban settings where contamination is coming from predominantly human sources. Additional studies in tropical settings could help inform and refine guidelines for safe use of recreational waters. PMID:26378732

  9. Popular beach disappears underwater in huge coastal landslide - Sleeping Bear Dunes, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Kayen, Robert; Gibbons, Helen; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1998-01-01

    In February 1995, a 1,600-foot stretch of popular beach at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore suddenly slid into the waters of northeastern Lake Michigan. The National Park Service (NPS) immediately requested the assistance of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in evaluating the hazard at the lakeshore. To protect the public, USGS and NPS scientists are conducting studies that will help predict when the landslide-prone area will move again.

  10. Encephalitis associated with cat scratch disease--Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, 1994.

    PubMed

    1994-12-16

    On August 14, 1994, the Broward County Public Health Unit of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services was notified of three children from Pompano Beach who were hospitalized with encephalitis attributed to cat scratch disease (CSD). All three children (aged 5, 6, and 11 years) were previously healthy and had no histories of seizure disorders or diagnoses of CSD. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases.

  11. Marine debris is selected as nesting material by the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) within the Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Verlis, K M; Campbell, M L; Wilson, S P

    2014-10-15

    Many seabirds are impacted by marine debris through its presence in foraging and nesting areas. To determine the extent of this problem, marine debris use in nest material of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, was investigated. Nine cays were examined using beach and nest surveys. On average, four marine debris items were found per nest (n=96) with 58.3% of surveyed nests containing marine debris. The source of marine debris in nests and transects were primarily oceanic. Hard plastic items dominated both nest (56.8%) and surveyed beaches (72.8%), however only two item types were significantly correlated between these surveys. Nest surveys indicated higher levels of black and green items compared to beach transects. This selectivity for colours and items suggest these nests are not good indicators of environmental loads. This is the first study to examine S. leucogaster nests for marine debris in this location.

  12. Marine debris is selected as nesting material by the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) within the Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Verlis, K M; Campbell, M L; Wilson, S P

    2014-10-15

    Many seabirds are impacted by marine debris through its presence in foraging and nesting areas. To determine the extent of this problem, marine debris use in nest material of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, was investigated. Nine cays were examined using beach and nest surveys. On average, four marine debris items were found per nest (n=96) with 58.3% of surveyed nests containing marine debris. The source of marine debris in nests and transects were primarily oceanic. Hard plastic items dominated both nest (56.8%) and surveyed beaches (72.8%), however only two item types were significantly correlated between these surveys. Nest surveys indicated higher levels of black and green items compared to beach transects. This selectivity for colours and items suggest these nests are not good indicators of environmental loads. This is the first study to examine S. leucogaster nests for marine debris in this location. PMID:25131418

  13. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  14. Impact of wave action on the structure of material on the beach in Calypsobyen (Spitsbergen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mędrek, Karolina; Herman, Agnieszka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Rodzik, Jan; Zagórski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    The research was conducted during the XXVI Polar Expedition of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin on Spitsbergen. It involved recording water wave action in the Bellsund Strait, and taking daily photographs of the beach on its shore in Calypsobyen. The base of polar expeditions of UMCS, Calypsobyen, is located on the coast of Calypsostranda, developed by raised marine terraces. Weakly resistant Tertiary sandstones occur in the substrate, covered with glacigenic sediments and marine gravels. No skerries are encountered along this section of the accumulation coast. The shore is dominated by gravel deposits. The bottom slopes gently. The recording of wave action was performed from 8 July to 27 August 2014 by means of a pressure based MIDAS WTR Wave and Tide Recorder set at a depth of 10 m at a distance of about 1 km from the shore. The obtained data provided the basis for the calculation of the significant wave height, and the corresponding mean wave period . These parameters reflect wave energy and wave level, having a considerable impact on the dynamics of coastal processes and the type and grain size of sediments accumulated on the beach. Material consisting of medium gravel and seaweed appeared on the beach at high values of significant wave height and when the corresponding mean wave period showed average values. The contribution of fine, gravel-sandy material grew with an increase in mean period and a decrease in significant wave height. At maximum values of mean period and low values of significant wave height, the beach was dominated by well-sorted fine-grained gravel. The lowest mean periods resulted in the least degree of sorting of the sediment (from very coarse sand to medium gravel). The analysis of data from the wave and tide recorder set and their comparison with photographs of the beach suggest that wave action, and particularly wave energy manifested in significant wave height, has a considerable impact on the type and grain size of material

  15. Sea Turtle Trek, Hammocks Beach State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Samuel S.

    This activity guide, developed to provide hands-on environmental education activities geared to Hammocks Beach State Park in North Carolina, is targeted for grades 6, 7, and 8 and meets the curriculum objectives of the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Three types of activities are…

  16. Sea Turtle Trek. Hammocks Beach State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Samuel S.

    This activity guide, developed to provide hands-on environmental education activities geared to Hammocks Beach State Park in North Carolina, is targeted for grades 6, 7, and 8 and meets curriculum objectives of the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Three types of activities are included:…

  17. Sand Beach Bacteria: Enumeration and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khiyama, H. M.; Makemson, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  18. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  19. Arcobacter in Lake Erie beach waters: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen linked with human-associated fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-08-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P < 0.001). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that most of the identified Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches.

  20. Arcobacter in Lake Erie Beach Waters: an Emerging Gastrointestinal Pathogen Linked with Human-Associated Fecal Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P < 0.001). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that most of the identified Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches. PMID:22660704