Science.gov

Sample records for public water systems

  1. Providing Safe Drinking Water in America: National Public Water Systems Compliance Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Public Water Systems Compliance Report summarizes and evaluates annual reports submitted by primacy agencies regarding compliance at public water systems (PWSs) of all types and sizes in the U.S.

  2. Drought management and its impact on public water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume represents the report on a colloquium sponsored by the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board, 5 September 1985. It includes five background papers on drought, drought management, risks for public systems, and legal and institutional aspects, plus appendices on conservation and rationing plans for Los Angeles and Salt Lake County. The conclusions of the volume include: (1) there is substantial need for continued research on drought and its impact on the management of public water systems; (2) sizing of the physical facilities of a system should not be based solely on full-service requirements during the drought of record, nor should such facilities be sized by the arbitrary specification of hydrologic risk; and (3) the key to adequate drought management of public water systems lies in predrought preparation.

  3. Public Water-Supply Systems and Associated Water Use in Tennessee, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webbers, Ank

    2003-01-01

    Public water-supply systems in Tennessee provide water to meet customer needs for domestic, industrial, and commercial users and municipal services. In 2000, more than 500 public water-supply systems distributed about 890 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of surface water and ground water to a population of about 5 million in Tennessee. Surface-water sources provided 64 percent (about 569 Mgal/d) of the State?s water supplies, primarily in Middle and East Tennessee. Ground water produced from wells and springs in Middle and East Tennessee and from wells in West Tennessee provided 36 percent (about 321 Mgal/d) of the public water supplies. Springs in Middle and East Tennessee provided about 14 percent (about 42 Mgal/d) of ground-water supplies used in the State. Per capita water use for Tennessee in 2000 was about 136 gallons per day. An additional 146 public water-supply systems provided approximately 84 Mgal/d of water supplies that were purchased from other water systems. Water withdrawals by public water-supply systems in Tennessee have increased by over 250 percent; from 250 Mgal/d in 1955 to 890 Mgal/d in 2000. Although Tennessee public water-supply systems withdraw less ground water than surface water, ground-water withdrawal rates reported by these systems continue to increase. In addition, the number of public water-supply systems reporting ground-water withdrawals of 1 Mgal/d or more in West Tennessee is increasing.

  4. Public Water-Supply Systems and Associated Water Use in Tennessee, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.

    1999-01-01

    An inventory of public water-supply systems in Tennessee in 1995 indicated that 530 public water-supply systems supplied water to 4.42 million people, or 84 percent of Tennessee's population. Public-supply water withdrawals totaled 779 million gallons per day, 64 percent (500 million gallons per day) of which was from surface-water sources. All of the surface-water withdrawals for public-water supply took place within the Tennessee (279 million gallons per day) and the Ohio (221 million gallons per day) hydrologic regions. Ground-water withdrawals statewide accounted for 36 percent (279 million gallons per day) of the total public-supply water withdrawal. Ground water is the sole source of public-supply water in the Lower Mississippi hydrologic region of western Tennessee. Public water-supply systems in western Tennessee withdrew 216 million gallons per day, or 77 percent, of the 279 million gallons per day of ground water withdrawn for public supply statewide.

  5. Public water-supply systems and associated water use in Tennessee, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, John A.; Brooks, Jaala M.

    2010-01-01

    Public water-supply systems in Tennessee provide water to for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses, and municipal services. In 2005, more than 569 public water-supply systems distributed about 920 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of non-purchased surface water and groundwater to a population of nearly 6 million in Tennessee. Surface-water sources provided 64 percent (about 591 Mgal/d) of the State's water supplies. Groundwater produced from wells and springs in Middle and East Tennessee and from wells in West Tennessee provided 36 percent (about 329 Mgal/d) of the public water supplies. Gross per capita water use for Tennessee in 2005 was about 171 gallons per day. Water withdrawals by public water-supply systems in Tennessee have increased from 250 Mgal/d in 1955 to 920 Mgal/d in 2005. Tennessee public water-supply systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. However, 34 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2000–2005, and 15 of these 34 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. The county with the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (130 Mgal/d) was Davidson County. Each of Tennessee's 95 counties was served by at least one public water-supply system in 2005. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (about 167 Mgal/d) by a single public water-supply system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served 654,267 people in Shelby County in 2005.

  6. EPA Releases New Website Enabling the Public to Track Compliance Status of Public Water Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON, D.C. - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) dashboard, a user-friendly website that presents data about violations and the compliance status of public water systems. The dashboard con

  7. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the “Water Security initiative (WSi).” The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities will have their own, custom CWSs by the end of 2012. A workshop amongst the pilot cities was conducted in May 2012 to discuss lessons learned from the design, implementation, operation, maintenance, and evaluation of each city’s PHS component. Methods When evaluating potential surveillance tools to integrate into a drinking water contamination warning system, it is important to consider design decisions, dual use applications/considerations, and the unique capabilities of each tool. The pilot cities integrated unique surveillance tools, which included a combination of automated event detection tools and communication and coordination procedures into their respective PHS components. The five pilots performed a thorough, technical evaluation of each component of their CWS, including PHS. Results Four key lessons learned were identified from implementation of the PHS component in the five pilot cities. First, improved communication and coordination between public health and water utilities was emphasized as an essential goal even if it were not feasible to implement automated surveillance systems. The WSi pilot project has helped to strengthen this communication pathway through the process of collaborating to develop the component, and through the need to investigate PHS alerts. Second, the approximate location of specific cases associated with PHS alerts was found to be an essential feature that

  8. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.29 Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. When a public water system supplies water to... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water...

  9. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water...

  10. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water...

  11. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water...

  12. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water...

  13. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water...

  14. 77 FR 35676 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...: Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Water Supply Division, Public Drinking Water Section (MC-155... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United States... that the State of Texas is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Texas...

  15. 77 FR 13125 - Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System... CFR part 142, that the Commonwealth of Virginia is revising its approved Public Water System... protection by reducing potential cancer and reproductive and developmental health risks from...

  16. Public water-supply systems and water use in Tennessee, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Morris, A. Jannine

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Division of Water Supply in 1988. Data gathered during an inventory by the TDEC were collated to determine water use, supply sources, population served, and design and storage capacities of the systems. The inventory was limited to systems that were active on June 30, 1988. Results of a survey of the systems conducted by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment during 1988 were a primary source of data for this report. Data from computer and manual files maintained by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment and the U.S. Geological Survey also were used. The Division of Water Supply, TDEC, surveyed 541 public water-supply systems. These systems served 81 percent of the population of the State, or 3.95 million people. The gross per capita use statewide for public-supplied water was 179 gallons per day. Total water withdrawals for public supply increased about 39 percent from 510 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1980, to 708 Mgalld in 1988. During the same period, the population increased about 7 percent. Surface-water withdrawals accounted for 63 percent (446 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn in the State. All of these withdrawals occurred in the Tennessee (56 percent or 249 Mgal/d) and the Ohio (44 percent or 197 Mgalld) hydrologic regions. Ground water supplied 262 Mgal/d or 37 percent of the total water withdrawn by public-supply systems statewide. Of that amount, 79 percent, or 208 Mgalld, was used in western Tennessee.

  17. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... that the State of Texas is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Texas has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United...

  18. 77 FR 36274 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the following rules: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY:...

  19. 67 FR 64639 - Announcement of a Public Stakeholder Meeting on Drinking Water Distribution System Impacts on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-10-21

    ... AGENCY Announcement of a Public Stakeholder Meeting on Drinking Water Distribution System Impacts on... finished water quality in distribution systems. The purpose of this meeting is to provide information to... public health impacts of drinking water distribution systems. Those registered by November 8 will receive...

  20. Ground-water use by public-supply systems in Tennessee in 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water use by public water-supply systems during 1990 was inventoried in Tennessee. Ground- water withdrawals were estimated to average 269 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), or 38 percent of the total public-supply water use. This volume represents an increase of 34 percent in the use of ground water for public supply since 1980 when public-supply withdrawals were 200 Mgal/d. About 212 Mgal/d (79 percent) were withdrawn from the Tertiary sand and Cretaceous sand aquifers in western Tennessee. The largest ground-water with- drawals for public-supply occurred in Shelby County (154 Mgal/d or 57 percent of the total withdrawals for public supply). Thirty-four of the 267 principal public water-supply systems withdrew 1 Mgal/d or more and accounted for 83 percent of ground water withdrawn for public supply.

  1. Report: EPA Is Taking Steps to Improve State Drinking Water Program Reviews and Public Water Systems Compliance Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #17-P-0326, July 18, 2017. The EPA is taking action to improve oversight tools used to determine whether public water systems are monitoring and reporting drinking water quality in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act.

  2. 78 FR 57378 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance... Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Annual Public Water System... available to the public, and submit to the Administrator of EPA, an annual report of violations of...

  3. 78 FR 15973 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System... Water System. As part of that process, Reclamation will host five public scoping meetings to provide... issues to be addressed in the environmental impact statement. DATES: Public scoping meetings will be...

  4. 78 FR 14791 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Indiana AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved three revisions to the State of Indiana's public water system supervision... comply with the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, including the Interim Enhanced Surface...

  5. 77 FR 23246 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Lead and Copper Rule Short-Term Revisions, Stage 1... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky AGENCY... that the Commonwealth of Kentucky is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  6. 78 FR 67361 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Surface Water Treatment. The EPA has determined that Kentucky's rules are no less stringent than the... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky AGENCY: U.S... that the Commonwealth of Kentucky is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  7. 78 FR 47697 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana AGENCY: United States... that the State of Louisiana is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Louisiana has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: 1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface...

  8. 78 FR 18336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Lead and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions, and... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved five revisions to the State of Michigan's public water system...

  9. 78 FR 73858 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... that the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Oklahoma has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface...

  10. 75 FR 9895 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division, 707 N. Robinson, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73101-1677; and the EPA... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program adopting...

  11. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  12. FINANCING ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE FOR SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many small and very small drinking water systems require repair and upgrading if they are to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and its amendments. Often, dispersed population makes infracstructure expensive on a per-capita basis. Funding shortages at the federal, ...

  13. FINANCING ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE FOR SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many small and very small drinking water systems require repair and upgrading if they are to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and its amendments. Often, dispersed population makes infracstructure expensive on a per-capita basis. Funding shortages at the federal, ...

  14. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... systems in Indian country, as defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151. Please see SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION, Item B... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  15. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... federal regulations for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Stage 2 Disinfectants and... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given...

  16. 75 FR 69436 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...) Primacy Program by adopting federal regulations for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota AGENCY... 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice...

  17. 75 FR 69435 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Water Treatment Rule and Stage 2 Disinfection By-Product Rule which correspond to the National Primary... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota AGENCY... 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice...

  18. 76 FR 1431 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Mexico has adopted the Ground Water Rule (GWR), the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... the Ground Water Rule (GWR), the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), and the... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico AGENCY: United...

  19. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    PubMed

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP.

  20. 76 FR 7845 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Utah has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by adopting Federal... with the SDWA and proposes to approve Utah's primacy revisions for the above stated Rules....

  1. 75 FR 69662 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Doc No: 2010-28497] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9225-3] Public Water System Supervision... Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program by adopting Federal regulations for the Lead and... accordance with SDWA, and proposes to approve Colorado's primacy revisions for the above stated Rules....

  2. 77 FR 44238 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... request that the Region approve revisions to the State's Safe Drinking Water Act Public Water System... the application using the Federal statutory provisions (Section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act...: Robert Burns, EPA Region 4, Safe Drinking Water Branch, at the address given above, by telephone at......

  3. 77 FR 58132 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection... revision for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY:...

  4. 77 FR 58132 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... and Copper Short Term Revisions, Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule that... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah AGENCY:...

  5. 40 CFR 142.34 - Entry and inspection of public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entry and inspection of public water systems. 142.34 Section 142.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Federal Enforcement § 142...

  6. 40 CFR 142.34 - Entry and inspection of public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry and inspection of public water systems. 142.34 Section 142.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Federal Enforcement § 142...

  7. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical...

  8. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical...

  9. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.29 Monitoring of...

  10. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements...

  11. 77 FR 64336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... of Florida is revising its Public Water System Supervision Program by adopting the Lead and Copper... and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions. EPA reviewed the application using the federal statutory...

  12. 78 FR 38714 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Rule, the Arsenic Rule and the ] new Public Water System Definition. EPA has determined that these... Rule became effective on July 27, 2007 and the revised Arsenic Rule was adopted on February 21,...

  13. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meets the source water quality requirements for installing the small system variance technology...: (i) The quality of the source water for the public water system; and (ii) Removal efficiencies and expected useful life of the small system variance technology. ...

  14. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meets the source water quality requirements for installing the small system variance technology...: (i) The quality of the source water for the public water system; and (ii) Removal efficiencies and expected useful life of the small system variance technology. ...

  15. 77 FR 39182 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages 26072... table entitled ``EXHIBIT 1--APPLICABILITY OF UCMR 3 TO WATER UTILITIES BY SYSTEM TYPE AND SIZE'' should...

  16. 77 FR 43523 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages 26072... table entitled ``EXHIBIT 1--APPLICABILITY OF UCMR 3 TO WATER UTILITIES BY SYSTEM TYPE AND SIZE'' should...

  17. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  18. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  19. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  20. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  1. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  2. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  3. 78 FR 2993 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio Correction In notice document 2012-30953, appearing on pages 76034-76035 in the issue of Wednesday, December 26, 2012, make...

  4. Occurrence of PCBs in raw and finished drinking water at seven public water systems along the Hudson River.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Patrick M; Wilson, Lloyd R; Casey, Ann C; Wagner, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in raw and finished drinking water at seven Public Water Systems (PWSs) along the Hudson River as part of a baseline monitoring program prior to the extensive sediment dredging of the Upper Hudson River. Water samples were either analyzed using an Aroclor method (based on USEPA Method 508) or a congener method (Modified Green Bay Mass Balance Method). Using the congener-based method, raw water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 164.3 ng/L and finished water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 186.6 ng/L. Using the Aroclor method, finished water concentrations ranged from <5.0 to 200.9 ng/L. Most finished water samples above 73.0 ng/L were from a PWS with wells drilled near the river. Excluding the well data, total PCB concentrations in raw water at systems in the Upper River were similar to concentrations at systems in the Lower River, though the congener patterns differed. Paired comparison of total PCB concentrations using the two analytical methods showed good agreement, although raw water showed a different relationship than finished water.

  5. Report: EPA’s and Louisiana’s Efforts to Assess and Restore Public Drinking Water Systems after Hurricane Katrina

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-P-00014, March 7, 2006. The Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals and drinking water systems operators provided the public with timely and accurate information about the safety and proper treatment of drinking water.

  6. Occurrence and potential significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) detected in New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Cooper, Keith R; Boros-Russo, Betty Jane; Lippincott, R Lee

    2009-06-15

    After detection of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in two New Jersey (NJ) public water systems (PWS) at concentrations up to 0.19 microg/L, a study of PFOA in 23 other NJ PWS was conducted in 2006. PFOA was detected in 15 (65%) of the systems at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.039 microg/L. To assess the significance of these data, the contribution of drinking water to human exposure to PFOA was evaluated, and a health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure of 0.04 microg/L was developed through a risk assessment approach. Both the exposure assessment and the health-based drinking water concentrations are based on the previously reported 100:1 ratio between the concentration of PFOA in serum and drinking water in a community with highly contaminated drinking water. The applicability of this ratio to lower drinking water concentrations was confirmed using data on serum levels and water concentrations from other communities. The health-based concentration is based on toxicological end points identified by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in its 2005 draft risk assessment Recent information on PFOA's toxicity not considered in the USEPA risk assessment urther supports the health-based concentration of 0.04 microg/L. In additional sampling of 18 PWS in 2007-2008, PFOA in most systems was below the health-based concentration. However, PFOA was detected above the health-based concentration in five systems, including one not previously sampled.

  7. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    PubMed

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  8. 77 FR 12580 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Drive South, Denver, CO. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Clement, Drinking Water Unit (8P-W-DW... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given that... federal regulations for the Ground Water Rule that correspond to the National Primary Drinking Water...

  9. Total coliform and E. coli in public water systems using undisinfected ground water in the United States.

    PubMed

    Messner, Michael J; Berger, Philip; Javier, Julie

    2017-03-14

    Public water systems (PWSs) in the United States generate total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) monitoring data, as required by the Total Coliform Rule (TCR). We analyzed data generated in 2011 by approximately 38,000 small (serving fewer than 4101 individuals) undisinfected public water systems (PWSs). We used statistical modeling to characterize a distribution of TC detection probabilities for each of nine groupings of PWSs based on system type (community, non-transient non-community, and transient non-community) and population served (less than 101, 101-1000 and 1001-4100 people). We found that among PWS types sampled in 2011, on average, undisinfected transient PWSs test positive for TC 4.3% of the time as compared with 3% for undisinfected non-transient PWSs and 2.5% for undisinfected community PWSs. Within each type of PWS, the smaller systems have higher median TC detection than the larger systems. All TC-positive samples were assayed for EC. Among TC-positive samples from small undisinfected PWSs, EC is detected in about 5% of samples, regardless of PWS type or size. We evaluated the upper tail of the TC detection probability distributions and found that significant percentages of some system types have high TC detection probabilities. For example, assuming the systems providing data are nationally-representative, then 5.0% of the ∼50,000 small undisinfected transient PWSs in the U.S. have TC detection probabilities of 20% or more. Communities with such high TC detection probabilities may have elevated risk of acute gastrointestinal (AGI) illness - perhaps as great or greater than the attributable risk to drinking water (6-22%) calculated for 14 Wisconsin community PWSs with much lower TC detection probabilities (about 2.3%, Borchardt et al., 2012).

  10. 77 FR 12582 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is....C. 1151. Please see SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION, Item B. DATES: Any member of the public is invited to submit written comments and/or request a public hearing on this determination by April 2, 2012....

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUPS ISOLATED FROM WATER SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Yeong; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Yon-Koung; Park, Sun-Hee; Sung, Gyung-Hye; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15). L. pneumophila sg 1 was predominated among isolates from fountains (75%), hotels (60%), buildings (44%), hospitals (38%), and public baths (37%), whereas sg 3 and sg 7 was the most prevalent from ships (46%) and factories (40%), respectively. The predominated serogroup of L. pneumophila isolates from hot and cooling tower water was sg 1 (35% and 46%, respectively), while from cold water was sg 3 (29%). These results should be useful for epidemiological surveys to identify sources of outbreaks of legionellosis in Busan, South Korea.

  12. 76 FR 45794 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Surface Water Treatment Rule, Radionuclides Rule, and the Revised Drinking Water Standard for Arsenic Rule... the Public Notification Rule, Filter Backwash Recycling Rule, Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water... offices: DHH-OPH-CEHS Engineering Services, 628 N. Fourth Street, P.O. Box 4489, Baton Rouge, LA 70821...

  13. Identification of potential public water-supply areas of the Cape Cod aquifer, Massachusetts, using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, S.L.; Steeves, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Potential public water-supply areas of the Cape Cod aquifer, Massachusetts, were identified using a geographic information system (GIS) to aid regional and local ground-water resource management efforts. Criteria were selected to identify potential areas on the basis of data restrictions in addition to State requirements for siting new public water- supply wells, Federal or local restrictions on land use, and general hydrogeologic or water-quality concerns. Data layers were created for each criterion and overliad to eliminate areas from consideration as potential public water supplies. Remaining areas, those not included within the applied criteria, are the primary areas to consider for potential public water supplies. The areas identified in this analysis as potential public water supplies range from 0.5 to 7.9 percent of the individual flow cells, or 5.6 percent of the total flow cell area. The criteria were ranked so that criteria more limiting to potential public water supplies were given a higher rank than other criteria. The ranking scheme allows for the inclusion of areas with lower ranked criteria as potential public water supplies. Results can be viewed on a plat in this report, or accessed using the map-based, menu-driven GIS application, which provides interactive display and query of investigation results.

  14. A hierarchical modeling approach for estimating national distributions of chemicals in public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Qian, Song S; Schulman, Andrew; Koplos, Jonathan; Kotros, Alison; Kellar, Penny

    2004-02-15

    Water quality studies often include the analytical challenge of incorporating censored data and quantifying error of estimation. Many analytical methods exist for estimating distribution parameters when censored data are present. This paper presents a Bayesian-based hierarchical model for estimating the national distribution of the mean concentrations of chemicals occurring in U.S. public drinking water systems using fluoride and thallium as examples. The data used are Safe Drinking Water Act compliance monitoring data (with a significant proportion of left-censored data). The model, which assumes log-normality, was evaluated using simulated data sets generated from a series of Weibull distributions to illustrate the robustness of the model. The hierarchical model is easily implemented using the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation method. In addition, the Bayesian method is able to quantify the uncertainty in the estimated cumulative density function. The estimated fluoride and thallium national distributions are presented. Results from this study can be used to develop prior distributions for future U.S. drinking water regulatory studies of contaminant occurrence.

  15. Why do wellhead protection. Issues and answers in protecting public drinking water supply systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, K.

    1995-05-01

    Protection of public water supply wells through wellhead protection (WHP) activities is also considered an important component of a Comprehensive State Ground-Water Protection Program (CSGWPP). EPA has established a set of ground-water protection principles which recognizes that the primary role of ground-water protection should be vested with the states. EPA is providing funds to states to undertake necessary WHP activites and programs as a critical component of a CSGWPP.

  16. Temporal variations of fluoride concentration in Isparta public water system and health impact assessment (SW-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davraz, Aysen; Sener, Erhan; Sener, Sehnaz

    2008-11-01

    Water-rock interaction is one of the prime factors affecting the fluoride contents of surface and groundwater. If fluoride concentration of drinking water has been neglected, excess fluoride can cause serious dental and medical problems on human health, which is well known at Golcuk-Isparta region. In the research area, Egirdir lake, Golcuk lake and surrounding springs have been utilized as drinking water sources. Golcuk lake water and surrounding groundwaters have high fluoride content (1.4-4.6 mg/l), which is above the WHO standards. Fluoride is predominantly supplied by dissolution of fluoride within the fluormicas of volcanics during the circulation of water. Fluoride concentrations of waters have shown variations for dry and rainy seasons depending on the degree of interaction between groundwater and volcanic rocks. It tends to decrease in rainy seasons and increase in dry seasons for all years. In this study, temporal variations and spatial distribution of fluoride concentration in public water system of Isparta were investigated to get benefit using GIS techniques from1990 to 2003 years. Extremely fluoride concentrations were measured in the public water system in 1990 at almost every district of the city. In 2003, fluoride content of the public water system decreased in some district of city due to drinking water has started obtaining from Egirdir lake in 1995. The fluoride contents of Isparta drinking water ought to be modified with suitable mixture of lake waters and groundwater point of view to health impact.

  17. Water law - Public Trust Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, E.S.

    1984-07-01

    In a case involving California's Mono Lake, the State Supreme Court held that infringement of the values protected by the Public Trust Doctrine is a separate ground for challenging water appropriations, and that the continuing nature of the state's duty as trustee prevents the acquisition of a vested right to appropriations that injure navigation, commerce, and fisheries. The author summarizes the history and the competing claims of the Doctrine and the California Appropriative Water Rights System. The National Audubon suit now makes it possible for any member of the public to challenge any surface water diversion as injurious to the public trust, but it also offers the California courts an opportunity to redirect the state's water policies. 130 references.

  18. U.S. EPA Orders Kern County Public Water System to Reduce Arsenic in Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In October 2008, EPA issued an order requiring the system to meet the arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 parts per billion (ppb) no later than December 2010, and was granted an extension to December 31, 2014. However, data from arsenic monitorin

  19. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and... ensuring that sufficient information is available and for evaluation of a small system variance application... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this...

  20. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and... ensuring that sufficient information is available and for evaluation of a small system variance application... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this...

  1. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and... ensuring that sufficient information is available and for evaluation of a small system variance application... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this...

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

  3. Artificial intelligence in public health prevention of legionelosis in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-08-21

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives.

  4. Utah water use data: Public water supplies, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, David; Schwarting, Richard

    1981-01-01

    This report presents data for public water suppliers in Utah during 1979. A public water supply system supplies water for human consumption and other domestic uses. It can be publicly or privately owned and includes systems supplying water to cities, subdivisions, federal installations, summer homes, and camping areas. The data were collected through questionnaires mailed to the various public water suppliers in the state. The public suppliers and their data listed in this report are not complete but will be expanded as more water utility personnel respond to the questionnaire. Through telephone and personal visits, attempts were made to verify those data which seemed inconsistent with water data collected in other areas of the state. While the degree of confidence in the accuracy of the data is believed to be good, some caution should be exercised in its interpretation. In most cases, the information submitted is only as good as the water measuring devices or personal estimations of the public water supply personnel.

  5. 76 FR 57740 - Program Requirement Revisions Related to the Public Water System Supervision Programs for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... drinking water regulations for the Arsenic Rule (66 FR 6976) promulgated on January 22, 2001, and the... documentation, EPA has determined that the State of Rhode Island's Arsenic Rule and Public Notice Rule are no..., 2002, the Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (66 FR 31085) promulgated on June 8, 2001, the Arsenic Rule...

  6. Development of a Web-based tool to collect and display water system customer service areas for public health action.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle; Wolff, Craig; Collins, Natalie; Guo, Liang; Meltzer, Dan; English, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Significant illness is associated with biological contaminants in drinking water, but little is known about health effects from low levels of chemical contamination in drinking water. To examine these effects in epidemiological studies, the sources of drinking water of study populations need to be known. The California Environmental Health Tracking Program developed an online application that would collect data on the geographic location of public water system (PWS) customer service areas in California, which then could be linked to demographic and drinking water quality data. We deployed the Water Boundary Tool (WBT), a Web-based geospatial crowdsourcing application that can manage customer service boundary data for each PWS in California and can track changes over time. We also conducted a needs assessment for expansion to other states. The WBT was designed for water system operators, local and state regulatory agencies, and government entities. Since its public launch in 2012, the WBT has collected service area boundaries for about 2300 individual PWS, serving more than 90% of the California population. Results of the needs assessment suggest interest and utility for deploying such a tool among states lacking statewide PWS service area boundary data. Although the WBT data set is incomplete, it has already been used for a variety of applications, including fulfilling legislatively mandated reporting requirements and linking customer service areas to drinking water quality data to better understand local water quality issues. Development of this tool holds promise to assist with outbreak investigations and prevention, environmental health monitoring, and emergency preparedness and response.

  7. A Revised Total Coliform Rule Guide for Small Public Water Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document aims to assist small water systems serving 1,000 persons with fewer in complying with the requirements of the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR). It is divided into four parts, Parts A, B, C and D.

  8. Clostridium difficile contamination of public tap water distribution system during a waterborne outbreak in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kotila, Saara M; Pitkänen, Tarja; Brazier, Jon; Eerola, Erkki; Jalava, Jari; Kuusi, Markku; Könönen, Eija; Laine, Janne; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vuento, Risto; Virolainen, Anni

    2013-07-01

    In November through December 2007, the drinking water distribution system in the town of Nokia, Finland, was contaminated with treated sewage effluent that resulted in a large gastroenteritis outbreak in the community. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the contaminated water in this outbreak was also a potential source of Clostridium difficile infections. Samples from the contaminated tap water and treated sewage effluent were collected. Stool samples from a portion of patients that fell ill during the outbreak were examined for C. difficile. PCR ribotyping was performed on toxin positive C. difficile isolates and the genetic profiles of the water and patient isolates were compared. Twelve toxin-positive C. difficile isolates were found in water samples: five from contaminated tap water and seven from treated sewage effluent. Among these, four and five distinct PCR ribotype profiles were identified, respectively. Four PCR ribotype profiles were found among nine human faecal C. difficile isolates. Two isolates, one from tap water and one from a patient, had an indistinguishable PCR ribotype profile. Our findings demonstrate for the first time C. difficile contamination of a tap water distribution system and waterborne transmission of toxigenic C. difficile seems possible.

  9. Water systems, sanitation, and public health risks in remote communities: Inuit resident perspectives from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2015-06-01

    Safe drinking water and wastewater sanitation are universally recognized as critical components of public health. It is well documented that a lack of access to these basic services results in millions of preventable deaths each year among vulnerable populations. Water and wastewater technologies and management practices are frequently tailored to local environmental conditions. Also important, but often overlooked in water management planning, are the social, cultural and economic contexts in which services are provided. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and understand residents' perceptions of the functionality of current water and wastewater sanitation systems in one vulnerable context, that of a remote Arctic Aboriginal community (Coral Harbour, Nunavut), and to identify potential future water related health risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 Inuit residents and 9 key informants in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate that the population's rapid transition from a semi-nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to permanent settlements with municipally provided utilities is influencing present-day water usage patterns, public health perceptions, and the level of priority decision-makers place on water and wastewater management issues. Simultaneously environmental, social and cultural conditions conducive to increased human exposure to waterborne health risks were also found to exist and may be increasing in the settlements. While water and wastewater system design decisions are often based on best practices proven suitable in similar environmental conditions, this study reinforces the argument for inclusion of social, cultural, and economic variables in such decisions, particularly in remote and economically challenged contexts in Canada or elsewhere around the world. The results also indicate that the addition of qualitative data about water and wastewater systems users' behaviours to technical knowledge of systems and

  10. 78 FR 4144 - Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Supervision Program to adopt EPA's National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for one major rule and one... 12237. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--Region 2, 24th Floor Drinking Water Ground Water Protection..., Drinking Water Ground Water Protection Section, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--Region 2, (212) 637...

  11. Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure via Public Drinking Water Pipes Using Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies. We used GIS to determine the geographic extent of contamination by perfluorooctanoic acid, C8 (PFOA) that was released into the environment from the DuPont Washington Works Facility located in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Methods Paper maps of pipe distribution networks were provided by six local public water districts participating in the community cross-sectional survey, the C8 Health Project. Residential histories were also collected in the survey and geocoded. We integrated the pipe networks and geocoded addresses to determine which addresses were serviced by one of the participating water districts. The GIS-based water district assignment was then compared to the participants' self-reported source of public drinking water. Results There were a total of 151,871 addresses provided by the 48,800 participants of the C8 Health Project that consented to geocoding. We were able to successfully geocode 139,067 (91.6%) addresses, and of these, 118,209 (85.0%) self-reported water sources were confirmed using the GIS-based method of water district assignment. Furthermore, the GIS-based method corrected 20,858 (15.0%) self-reported public drinking water sources. Over half (54%) the participants in the lowest GIS-based exposure group self-reported being in a higher exposed water district. Conclusions Not only were we able to correct erroneous self-reported water sources, we were also able to assign water districts to participants with unknown sources. Without the GIS-based method, the reliance on only self-reported data would have resulted in exposure misclassification. PMID:24010064

  12. Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure via Public Drinking Water Pipes Using Geographic Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Verónica; Hoffman, Kate; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies. We used GIS to determine the geographic extent of contamination by perfluorooctanoic acid, C8 (PFOA) that was released into the environment from the DuPont Washington Works Facility located in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Paper maps of pipe distribution networks were provided by six local public water districts participating in the community cross-sectional survey, the C8 Health Project. Residential histories were also collected in the survey and geocoded. We integrated the pipe networks and geocoded addresses to determine which addresses were serviced by one of the participating water districts. The GIS-based water district assignment was then compared to the participants' self-reported source of public drinking water. There were a total of 151,871 addresses provided by the 48,800 participants of the C8 Health Project that consented to geocoding. We were able to successfully geocode 139,067 (91.6%) addresses, and of these, 118,209 (85.0%) self-reported water sources were confirmed using the GIS-based method of water district assignment. Furthermore, the GIS-based method corrected 20,858 (15.0%) self-reported public drinking water sources. Over half (54%) the participants in the lowest GIS-based exposure group self-reported being in a higher exposed water district. Not only were we able to correct erroneous self-reported water sources, we were also able to assign water districts to participants with unknown sources. Without the GIS-based method, the reliance on only self-reported data would have resulted in exposure misclassification.

  13. The first association of a primary amebic meningoencephalitis death with culturable Naegleria fowleri in tap water from a US treated public drinking water system.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Ratard, Raoult C; Hill, Vincent R; Sokol, Theresa; Causey, Jonathan Jake; Yoder, Jonathan S; Mirani, Gayatri; Mull, Bonnie; Mukerjee, Kimberly A; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Doucet, Meggie; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Poole, Charla N; Akingbola, Olugbenga A; Ritter, Jana M; Xiong, Zhenggang; da Silva, Alexandre J; Roellig, Dawn; Van Dyke, Russell B; Stern, Harlan; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael J

    2015-04-15

    Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive, thermophilic ameba found in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is almost universally fatal, occurs when N. fowleri-containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In August 2013, a 4-year-old boy died of meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology in a Louisiana hospital. Clinical and environmental testing and a case investigation were initiated to determine the cause of death and to identify potential exposures. Based on testing of cerebrospinal fluid and brain specimens, the child was diagnosed with PAM. His only reported water exposure was tap water; in particular, tap water that was used to supply water to a lawn water slide on which the child had played extensively prior to becoming ill. Water samples were collected from both the home and the water distribution system that supplied the home and tested; N. fowleri was identified in water samples from both the home and the water distribution system. This case is the first reported PAM death associated with culturable N. fowleri in tap water from a US treated drinking water system. This case occurred in the context of an expanding geographic range for PAM beyond southern states, with recent case reports from Minnesota, Kansas, and Indiana. This case also highlights the role of adequate disinfection throughout drinking water distribution systems and the importance of maintaining vigilance when operating drinking water systems using source waters with elevated temperatures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. 76 FR 2374 - Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Supervision Program to adopt EPA's National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for four major rules and six..., New Jersey 08625-0426; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--Region 2, 24th Floor Drinking Water... CONTACT: Michael J. Lowy, Drinking Water Ground Water Protection Section, U.S. Environmental Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 142.310 - How can a person served by the public water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small system variance? 142.310 Section 142.310....310 How can a person served by the public water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small... object to the granting of a small system variance within 30 days after a State proposes to grant a small...

  16. [Implementation of the new drinking water regulation section sign 18: monitoring of drinking water systems in houses--water for public use].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, W; Voigt, K; Heudorf, U

    2006-08-01

    The monitoring of drinking water based on the drinking water regulation is one of the central tasks of public health authorities in Germany. With the coming into force of the new drinking water regulation in the year 2003 also water supply plants "from which water is made available for the public, in particular in schools, kindergartens, hospitals, restaurants and other communal facilities" must be supervised for the first time (TrinkwV section sign 18). Thus, for Frankfurt/Main the number of the facilities/objects which are to be supervised rose from approx. 300 to approx. 4,700. Since appropriate expansion of personnel was not possible, innovative solutions were in demand for implementation of these tasks. These are introduced here.

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jonatas Campos; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Ferreira Neto, José Maurício; Santos, Maíra Moreira Dos; Garcia, João Luis; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Kuroda, Emília Kiyomi; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR) and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  18. 77 FR 15367 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ..., EPA Region 5, Ground Water and Drinking Water Branch, at the address given above, by telephone, at (312) 886-0123, or at kuefler.janet@epa.gov . Authority: (Section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act... Water and Drinking Water Branch (WG-15J), 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, ] Illinois 60604,...

  19. CUAHSI-HIS: an Internet based system to facilitate public discovery, access, and exploration of different water science data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.

    2011-12-01

    "Water is everywhere." This sentiment underscores the importance of instilling hydrologic and earth science literacy in educators, students, and the general public, but also presents challenges for water scientists and educators. Scientific data about water is collected and distributed by several different sources, from federal agencies to scientific investigators to citizen scientists. As competition for limited water resources increase, increasing access to and understanding of the wealth of information about the nation's and the world's water will be critical. The CUAHSI-HIS system is a web based system for sharing hydrologic data that can help address this need. HydroDesktop is a free, open source application for finding, getting, analyzing and using hydrologic data from the CUAHSI-HIS system. It works with HydroCatalog which indexes the data to find out what data exists and where it is, and then it retrieves the data from HydroServers where it is stored communicating using WaterOneFlow web services. Currently, there are over 65 services registered in HydroCatalog providing central discovery of water data from several federal and state agencies, university projects, and other sources. HydroDesktop provides a simplified GIS that allows users to incorporate spatial data, and simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization. HydroDesktop is designed to be useful for a number of different groups of users with a wide variety of needs and skill levels including university faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, K-12 students, engineering and scientific consultants, and others. This presentation will highlight some of the features of HydroDesktop and the CUAHSI-HIS system that make it particularly appropriate for use in educational and public outreach settings, and will present examples of educational use. The incorporation of "real data," localization to an area of interest, and problem-based learning are all recognized as effective strategies for

  20. 75 FR 80493 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    .... Wisconsin is applying its Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Regulations to all Wisconsin water... satisfying the requirements of the Long-Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. EPA has determined that... Long-Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule implementation. This approval action does not...

  1. 76 FR 11713 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... rule. SUMMARY: The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require that the United States... parties with scientifically valid data on the occurrence of these contaminants in drinking water... Center, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office...

  2. Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

    2013-01-01

    A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk.

  3. 77 FR 8865 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Program. Illinois is applying its Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Regulations to all Illinois..., thereby satisfying the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Illinois is.... Therefore, EPA intends to award primacy to Illinois for Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment...

  4. 75 FR 23264 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (1996), and 40 CFR part 142. Dated: April 20, 2010. J.... Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, Safe Drinking Water Branch, 61 Forsyth Street, SW., Atlanta, Georgia 30303. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Plouff, P.E., EPA Region 4, Safe Drinking Water Branch,...

  5. Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Castellani Pastoris, M; Lo Monaco, R; Goldoni, P; Mentore, B; Balestra, G; Ciceroni, L; Visca, P

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.

  6. 40 CFR 141.853 - General monitoring requirements for all public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coliforms are detected) if the sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of gas production using an analytical method where gas formation is examined (e.g., the Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique), produces... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total...

  7. 40 CFR 141.853 - General monitoring requirements for all public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coliforms are detected) if the sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of gas production using an analytical method where gas formation is examined (e.g., the Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique), produces... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total...

  8. 76 FR 69734 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... adopted the Lead and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions. The purpose of this rule is to improve control and reduce the risk of lead and copper in drinking water. EPA has determined that this rule...

  9. Why do wellhead protection. Issues and answers in protecting public drinking water supply systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, K.

    1991-09-01

    The booklet briefly treats these topics: wellhead protection, trends in EPA action policy, public health protection, the cost of prevention versus the cost of remediation, the benefits of targeting resources in wellhead protection, pollution prevention, industrial development, and avoiding the cost of regulation.

  10. 77 FR 26071 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the agency) establish criteria for a program to monitor unregulated contaminants and publish a list of up to 30 contaminants to be monitored every five years. This final rule meets the SDWA requirement by publishing the third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring......

  11. Public health and pipe breaks in water distribution systems: analysis with internet search volume as a proxy.

    PubMed

    Shortridge, Julie E; Guikema, Seth D

    2014-04-15

    Drinking water distribution infrastructure has been identified as a factor in waterborne disease outbreaks and improved understanding of the public health risks associated with distribution system failures has been identified as a priority area for research. Pipe breaks may pose a risk, as their occurrence and repair can result in low or negative pressure, potentially allowing contamination of drinking water from adjacent soils. However, measuring this phenomenon is challenging because the most likely health impact is mild gastrointestinal (GI) illness, which is unlikely to result in a doctor or hospital visit. Here we present a novel method that uses data mining techniques and internet search volume to assess the relationship between pipe breaks and symptoms of GI illness in two U.S. cities. Weekly search volume for the terms diarrhea and vomiting was used as the response variable with the number of pipe breaks in each city as a covariate as well as additional covariates to control for seasonal patterns, search volume persistence, and other sources of GI illness. The fit and predictive accuracy of multiple regression and data mining techniques were compared, with the best performance obtained using random forest and bagged regression tree models. Pipe breaks were found to be an important and positively correlated predictor of internet search volume in multiple models in both cities, supporting previous investigations that indicated an increased risk of GI illness from distribution system disturbances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulating water-quality trends in public-supply wells in transient flow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J. Jeffrey; Green, Christopher T.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Stolp, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Models need not be complex to be useful. An existing groundwater-flow model of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was adapted for use with convolution-based advective particle tracking to explain broad spatial trends in dissolved solids. This model supports the hypothesis that water produced from wells is increasingly younger with higher proportions of surface sources as pumping changes in the basin over time. At individual wells, however, predicting specific water-quality changes remains challenging. The influence of pumping-induced transient groundwater flow on changes in mean age and source areas is significant. Mean age and source areas were mapped across the model domain to extend the results from observation wells to the entire aquifer to see where changes in concentrations of dissolved solids are expected to occur. The timing of these changes depends on accurate estimates of groundwater velocity. Calibration to tritium concentrations was used to estimate effective porosity and improve correlation between source area changes, age changes, and measured dissolved solids trends. Uncertainty in the model is due in part to spatial and temporal variations in tracer inputs, estimated tracer transport parameters, and in pumping stresses at sampling points. For tracers such as tritium, the presence of two-limbed input curves can be problematic because a single concentration can be associated with multiple disparate travel times. These shortcomings can be ameliorated by adding hydrologic and geologic detail to the model and by adding additional calibration data. However, the Salt Lake Valley model is useful even without such small-scale detail.

  13. Simulating Water-Quality Trends in Public-Supply Wells in Transient Flow Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey Starn, J; Green, Christopher T; Hinkle, Stephen R; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Stolp, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Models need not be complex to be useful. An existing groundwater-flow model of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was adapted for use with convolution-based advective particle tracking to explain broad spatial trends in dissolved solids. This model supports the hypothesis that water produced from wells is increasingly younger with higher proportions of surface sources as pumping changes in the basin over time. At individual wells, however, predicting specific water-quality changes remains challenging. The influence of pumping-induced transient groundwater flow on changes in mean age and source areas is significant. Mean age and source areas were mapped across the model domain to extend the results from observation wells to the entire aquifer to see where changes in concentrations of dissolved solids are expected to occur. The timing of these changes depends on accurate estimates of groundwater velocity. Calibration to tritium concentrations was used to estimate effective porosity and improve correlation between source area changes, age changes, and measured dissolved solids trends. Uncertainty in the model is due in part to spatial and temporal variations in tracer inputs, estimated tracer transport parameters, and in pumping stresses at sampling points. For tracers such as tritium, the presence of two-limbed input curves can be problematic because a single concentration can be associated with multiple disparate travel times. These shortcomings can be ameliorated by adding hydrologic and geologic detail to the model and by adding additional calibration data. However, the Salt Lake Valley model is useful even without such small-scale detail. PMID:25039912

  14. Simulating water-quality trends in public-supply wells in transient flow systems.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Starn, J; Green, Christopher T; Hinkle, Stephen R; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Stolp, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    Models need not be complex to be useful. An existing groundwater-flow model of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was adapted for use with convolution-based advective particle tracking to explain broad spatial trends in dissolved solids. This model supports the hypothesis that water produced from wells is increasingly younger with higher proportions of surface sources as pumping changes in the basin over time. At individual wells, however, predicting specific water-quality changes remains challenging. The influence of pumping-induced transient groundwater flow on changes in mean age and source areas is significant. Mean age and source areas were mapped across the model domain to extend the results from observation wells to the entire aquifer to see where changes in concentrations of dissolved solids are expected to occur. The timing of these changes depends on accurate estimates of groundwater velocity. Calibration to tritium concentrations was used to estimate effective porosity and improve correlation between source area changes, age changes, and measured dissolved solids trends. Uncertainty in the model is due in part to spatial and temporal variations in tracer inputs, estimated tracer transport parameters, and in pumping stresses at sampling points. For tracers such as tritium, the presence of two-limbed input curves can be problematic because a single concentration can be associated with multiple disparate travel times. These shortcomings can be ameliorated by adding hydrologic and geologic detail to the model and by adding additional calibration data. However, the Salt Lake Valley model is useful even without such small-scale detail.

  15. 40 CFR 141.856 - Routine monitoring requirements for subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements in § 141.858. (3) Once all monitoring required by.... A subpart H system of this part that does not practice filtration in compliance with subparts H, P... subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people. 141.856 Section 141.856 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 141.856 - Routine monitoring requirements for subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements in § 141.858. (3) Once all monitoring required by.... A subpart H system of this part that does not practice filtration in compliance with subparts H, P... subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people. 141.856 Section 141.856 Protection...

  17. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  18. Delineation of water sources for public-supply wells in three fractured-bedrock aquifer systems in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.; Carlson, Carl S.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2003-01-01

    Fractured-bedrock aquifer systems in West Newbury, Maynard, and Paxton, Massachusetts, were studied to advance methods of data collection and analysis for delineating contributing areas to public-supply wells completed in fractured rock and for determining the effects of pumping on streams and wetlands. Contributing areas, as defined for this study, include all areas through which ground water flows from recharge areas to wells. In West Newbury, exploratory public-supply wells at two locations were completed in phyllite of the Eliot Formation. Aquifer testing indicated that subhorizontal and steeply dipping fractures that parallel two sets of foliation form elongated transmissive zones in the bedrock aquifer near the two well locations and also form a vertical hydraulic connection to surficial materials consisting of till at one location and marine clay at the other location. Recharge to bedrock is largely through a thin veneer of till over bedrock, but leakage through thick drumlin tills also recharges bedrock. Simulated contributing areas for the three supply wells pumped at a combined rate of 251 gallons per minute encompass about 1.3 square miles and extend to ground-water divides within most of a subbasin of the Artichoke River. Pumping likely would reduce streamflow in the Artichoke River subbasin by approximately the pumping rate. Pumping is likely to affect wetland areas underlain by till near the wells because of the vertical hydraulic connection to surficial materials. In Maynard, three exploratory public-supply wells were completed in coarse-grained schist of the Nashoba Formation. Aquifer testing indicated that a dense network of fractures in bedrock forms a laterally extensive transmissive zone in bedrock that is well connected vertically to surficial materials consisting of sandy till, lacustrine silts, sand and gravel, and wetland deposits. The simulated contributing area for the three supply wells pumped at a combined rate of 780 gallons per minute

  19. Hydrochemical system analysis of public supply well fields, to reveal water-quality patterns and define groundwater bodies: The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendizabal, Igor; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.; Wiersma, Ane P.

    2011-02-01

    Hydrochemical system analysis (HCSA) is used to better understand the individual state of and spatial patterns in groundwater quality, by addressing the spatial distribution of groundwater bodies with specific origins (hydrosomes) and characteristic hydrochemical zones within each hydrosome (facies). The origin is determined by environmental tracers or geomorphological and potentiometric maps, the facies by combining age, redox and alkalinity indices. The HCSA method is applied to all 206 active public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands, resulting in the distinction of nine hydrosomes and eleven facies parameters—age (young, intermediate, old), redox ((sub)oxic, anoxic, deep anoxic, mixed) and alkalinity (very low, low, intermediate and high). The resulting classification of PSWFs provides a means to (1) predict their vulnerability; (2) optimize groundwater-quality monitoring programs; and (3) better delineate groundwater bodies, by considering groundwater origin and flow. The HCSA translates complex hydrochemical patterns into easily interpretable maps by showing PSWFs, groundwater bodies and hydrochemical facies. Such maps facilitate communication between researchers, water resources managers and policy makers and can help to solve complex groundwater resources management problems at different scales, ranging from a single well(field) or region to the national or European scale.

  20. The First Association of a Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Death with Culturable Naegleria fowleri in Tap Water from a U.S. Treated Public Drinking Water System

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Jennifer R.; Ratard, Raoult C.; Hill, Vincent R.; Sokol, Theresa; Causey, Jonathan Jake; Yoder, Jonathan S.; Mirani, Gayatri; Mull, Bonnie; Mukerjee, Kimberly A.; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Doucet, Meggie; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Poole, Charla N.; Akingbola, Olugbenga A.; Ritter, Jana; Xiong, Zhenggang; da Silva, Alexandre; Roellig, Dawn; Van Dyke, Russell; Stern, Harlan; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive, thermophilic ameba found in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is almost universally fatal, occurs when N. fowleri–containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and N. fowleri migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In August 2013, a 4-year-old child died of meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology in a Louisiana hospital. Methods Clinical and environmental testing and a case investigation were initiated to determine the cause of death and to identify potential exposures. Results Based on testing of CSF and brain specimens, the child was diagnosed with PAM. His only reported water exposure was tap water; in particular, tap water that was used to supply water to a lawn water slide on which the child had played extensively prior to becoming ill. Water samples were collected from both the home and the water distribution system that supplied the home and tested; N. fowleri were identified in water samples from both the home and the water distribution system. Conclusions This case is the first reported PAM death associated with culturable N. fowleri in tap water from a U.S. treated drinking water system. This case occurred in the context of an expanding geographic range for PAM beyond southern tier states with recent case reports from Minnesota, Kansas, and Indiana. This case also highlights the role of adequate disinfection throughout drinking water distribution systems and the importance of maintaining vigilance when operating drinking water systems using source waters with elevated temperatures. PMID:25595746

  1. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  2. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  3. Pesticides and their metabolites in three small public water-supply reservoir systems, western New York, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Rosenmann, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Twenty five pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in samples collected from May, 1998 through January, 1999 in three small public- supply reservoirs in western New York.Samples were collected at tributaries and reservoir outlets for comparison with samples from the water-supply intakes. No samples from public-water-supply intakes exceeded any Federal or State water-quality standards, although some samples from tributaries did exceed a few standards. The maximum concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides in water-supply intake samples were between 10 and 50 percent of the lowest applicable water quality standard. Pesticides that exceeded water-quality standards at the tributary sites were the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine, and the insecticide p,p?-DDE. Land use in the watersheds that surround these reservoirs is largely agricultural; thus, the results do not necessarily represent conditions in other water-supply reservoirs in New York State. The most frequently detected pesticides or pesticide metabolites were the corn herbicides atrazine and metolachlor, and two metabolites of metolachlor -metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)and metolachlor oxanilic acid (OA). More than half of the samples from the three water-supply intake sites contained at least one of these compounds at concentrations greater than 0.2 ?g/L (micrograms per liter); the concentrations ranged from 0.01 to nearly 10 ?g/L. Many samples contained metabolites of other commonly used herbicides at concentrations greater than those of their parent compounds. Only two insecticides or insecticide metabolites were detected (carbofuran and p,p?-DDE and concentrations of these compounds were less than 0.1 ?g/L. The total concentration of pesticides and metabolites at the three water-supply intake sites are correlated with land use. The highest concentrations were in the watershed with the greatest percentage of row-crop land use,and the lowest concentrations were in

  4. Pesticides and their metabolites in three small public water-supply reservoir systems, western New York, 1998–99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Rosenmann, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Twenty five pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in samples collected from May, 1998 through January, 1999 in three small public-supply reservoirs in western New York. Samples were collected at tributaries and reservoir outlets for comparison with samples from the water-supply intakes. No samples from public-water-supply intakes exceeded any Federal or State water-quality standards, although some samples from tributaries did exceed a few standards. The maximum concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides in water-supply intake samples were between 10 and 50 percent of the lowest applicable water quality standard. Pesticides that exceeded water-quality standards at the tributary sites were the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine, and the insecticide p,p’-DDE. Land use in the watersheds that surround these reservoirs is largely agricultural; thus, the results do not necessarily represent conditions in other water-supply reservoirs in New York State.The most frequently detected pesticides or pesticide metabolites were the corn herbicides atrazine and metolachlor, and two metabolites of metolachlor - metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (OA). More than half of the samples from the three water-supply intake sites contained at least one of these compounds at concentrations greater than 0.2 µg/L (micrograms per liter); the concentrations ranged from 0.01 to nearly 10 µg/L. Many samples contained metabolites of other commonly used herbicides at concentrations greater than those of their parent compounds. Only two insecticides or insecticide metabolites were detected (carbofuran and p,p’-DDE and concentrations of these compounds were less than 0.1 µg/L.The total concentration of pesticides and metabolites at the three water-supply intake sites are correlated with land use. The highest concentrations were in the watershed with the greatest percentage of row-crop land use,and the lowest concentrations

  5. Public drinking water contamination and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bove, F J; Fulcomer, M C; Klotz, J B; Esmart, J; Dufficy, E M; Savrin, J E

    1995-05-01

    The effects of public drinking water contamination on birth outcomes were evaluated in an area of northern New Jersey. After excluding plural births and chromosomal defects, 80,938 live births and 594 fetal deaths that occurred during the period 1985-1988 were studied. Information on birth outcome status and maternal risk factors was obtained from vital records and the New Jersey Birth Defects Registry. Monthly exposures during pregnancy were estimated for all births using tap water sample data. Odds ratios of > or = 1.50 were found for the following: total trihalomethanes with small for gestational age, central nervous system defects, oral cleft defects, and major cardiac defects; carbon tetrachloride with term low birth weight, small for gestational age, very low birth weight, total surveillance birth defects, central nervous system defects, neural tube defects, and oral cleft defects; trichloroethylene with central nervous system defects, neural tube defects, and oral cleft defects; tetrachloroethylene with oral cleft defects; total dichloroethylenes with central nervous system defects and oral cleft defects; benzene with neural tube defects and major cardiac defects; and 1,2-dichloroethane with major cardiac defects. Total trihalomethane levels > 100 ppb reduced birth weight among term births by 70.4 g. By itself, this study cannot resolve whether the drinking water contaminants caused the adverse birth outcomes; therefore, these findings should be followed up utilizing available drinking water contamination databases.

  6. A case report of false negative Legionella test results in a chlorinated public hot water distribution system due to the lack of sodium thiosulfate in sampling bottles.

    PubMed

    Wiedenmann, A; Langhammer, W; Botzenhart, K

    2001-12-01

    We examined samples from the showers and the central water distribution system of a public building with an indoor swimming pool. The pool was used for school and recreational activities and as a sports therapy facility for patients with coronary heart disease. The building's hot water system was contaminated with Legionella pneumophila. Due to the building's intricate piping system, several attempts to completely eliminate legionellae by thermal and chemical disinfection had failed, so an external sanitation company was charged with the installation of a continuous chlorination device in order to keep Legionella concentrations low. The laboratory which was contracted by the sanitation company to monitor bacteria levels after installation of the chlorination device used sampling bottles without sodium thiosulfate and repeatedly reported an absence of Legionella. However, up to 69,000 colony forming particles (CFP) of Legionella pneumophila (Lp) per litre and up to 171 CFP/ml of heterotrophic bacteria could be detected when parallel samples were collected in bottles containing sodium thiosulfate at standard concentrations. Laboratories, epidemiologists, public health officials and technical staff who may be in charge of delivering, preparing or using sterile sampling devices for the collection of environmental samples to be tested for legionellae should be aware that cultures can return false negative results if the sampling containers used to collect chlorinated drinking water or chlorinated pool water samples do not contain a neutralizing agent to instantly inactivate residual halogen biocides. False negative results may lead to a false sense of security regarding the safety of water systems or the success of disinfection measures, and may thus endanger public health or even hinder the epidemiological clarification of outbreaks.

  7. 'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities': a challenge to public health ethics.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Graeme; Nagy, Thomas; Santa Barbara, Joanna; Raichle, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    A formerly classified US document, 'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities,' provides evidence that ill health was knowingly induced in the population of Iraq through the ruination of that country's water purification system. We believe that the uncovering of this document should stimulate the public health community to clarify principles of public health ethics and to formulate statements giving voice to these principles. We propose here two statements, one dealing with the broad issue of public health ethics and international relations, and one dealing specifically with public health ethics and water purification.

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  10. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  11. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  12. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

  13. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

  14. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  15. Utah water use data: Public water supplies, 1960-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, David; Jibson, Ronald; Riley, James; Hooper, David; Schwarting, Richard

    1980-01-01

    This report was prepared as a part of the Statewide cooperative water-resources investigation program administered jointly by the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and the United States Geological Survey.  The program is conducted to meet the water administration and water-resources data needs of the State, as well as the water information needs of many units of government and the general public.

  16. Utah water use data: Public water supplies, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, David; Schwarting, Richard

    1982-01-01

    This publication is the fourth in a series of continuing reports presenting water use data for Utah. The data are collected by the State of Utah, Division of Water Rights, for the National Water Use Information Program. This is a cooperative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey.  Most states contribute information in some form to the program.

  17. Utah water use data: Public water supplies, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, David; Schwarting, Richard

    1982-01-01

    This publication is the third in a series of continuing reports presenting water use data for Utah. The data are collected by the State of Utah, Division of Water Rights, for the National Water Use Information Program. This is a cooperative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey.  Most states contribute information in some form to the program.

  18. ``Water Drops'' Essays Available for Public Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Peter E.

    2007-11-01

    ``Water Drops'' are 90-second essays on water science, hydrology, culture, history, organizations, law, and policy that have aired weekly on radio station WRVO-FM in Oswego, N.Y., since January 2006. Created for the lay public with a basic understanding of Earth science, the 133 essays now are available on Public Radio Exchange (http://www.prx.org) for free use by public radio stations, according to terms set forth at the Exchange Web site that include citing appropriate credits. If aired weekly, there are enough essays for 2.5 years of radio programming.

  19. Public water supplies in western Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Sundstrom, R.W.; Weaver, D.E.

    1951-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in a region comprising 81 counties of western Texas and lying generally west of the hundredth meridian. It is the fourth and last of this series of reports concerning the public water supplies of the State. It gives the available data for each of 142 communities, as follows: The population of the community; the name of the official from whom the information was obtained; the ownership of the waterworks, whether private or municipal; the source of supply, whether ground water or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment of the water, if any; and the chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used the following also are given. Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; and yield of the wells and water-level records where they are available. Of the 142 public supplies, 133 are obtained from ground water, 5 from surface water, and 4 from a combination of both. The total amount of water . used for public supply in the region averages about 78,000,000 gallons a day. Of this about 61,000,000 gallons a day is ground water and about 17,000,000 gallons a day is surface water. The ground-water resources of the region from which public water supplies are drawn are in rocks that range in age from Permian to Quaternary. The Ogallala formation of Tertiary age (Pliocene), which covers about 35,000 square miles of the High Plains in Texas, is the most important ground-water reservoir in the region. The formation furnishes water for 78 public supplies and for irrigating about 1,000,000 acres of land. The amount of water used for irrigating amounted to about 1,000,000 acre-feet in 1948. The Trinity and Fredericksburg groups of Lower Cretaceous age supply ground water in the western part of the Edwards Plateau, which constitutes an area of more than 22

  20. TNC Water System Basics Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    presentation provides an overview of what's required by transient non-community (TNC) public water systems in Wyoming and on EPA R8 Tribal Lands (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) to remain in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act.

  1. A comparison of wellhead protection area delineation methods for public drinking water systems in Whatcom county, Washington.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chris; Chudek, Paul; Babcock, Scott

    2003-09-01

    Groundwater protection is a critical issue on a global scale. A relatively recent strategy for reducing the potential for contamination has been to establish wellhead protection areas on the land surface above aquifers. One method of delineating groundwater flow around public supply wells is the calculated-fixed-radius (CFR) method. The purpose of this study was, with a geographic information system (GIS), to create spatial-data overlays based on CFRs and to compare the areas captured with the results of more complex methods (i.e., analytical methods, hydrogeologic mapping, and numerical flow/transport models). The overlays showed that as distance from the well decreased, the areas captured by the CFRs became more similar to those captured by the noncircular (more complex) methods. In the one-year overlay, only 20 percent of the noncircular areas were not captured by the CFR method, while 42 percent were not captured in the 10-year overlay. The one-year CFR had a 57 percent overcapture area outside the noncircular area, while the 10-year over-captured was very high, at 75 percent. Study results indicate that local health departments can successfully incorporate both existing formal wellhead protection areas and CFRs into various land use permitting processes, with emphasis placed on six-month and one-year time-of-travel areas. Where time, money, and personnel are limited, the CFR method is an effective starting point for improved protection of groundwater quality.

  2. Water fluoridation as a public health measure.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Pretty, Iain A

    2010-12-01

    Water fluoridation schemes have been used as dental public health measures for over 50 years. This second paper in a series of three aims to provide a background to the history of water fluoridation schemes and the evidence base that led to their implementation. The article will also discuss the processes and chemicals involved in fluoridation during water treatment. This article aims to provide a summary for general practitioners of the history and evidence base for water fluoridation, to enable them to understand the role of water fluoridation in caries prevention and to be able to answer non-clinical questions raised by patients.

  3. [Amendments to the Drinking Water Ordinance: Legionellae in Hot Water Systems - Data from the Public Health Authority Frankfurt am Main, Germany].

    PubMed

    Westphal, T; Voigt, K; Heudorf, U

    2015-07-01

    The first and second amendment to the Drinking Water Ordinance came in to force in the years 2011 and 2012 causing additional tasks and responsibilities for operators of commercial large-scale systems, usually hot water systems in large residential buildings, and for the local health authorities. This article describes the experiences of the health authority in Frankfurt/Main with these new regulations. Some of the revisions in the first amendment of the ordinance (TrinkwV 2001 (2011)) were omitted in the second revision (TrinkwV 2001 (2012)) such as the obligation to notify for large-scale systems. Furthermore, the intervals between the obligatory inspections were extended from 1 to 3 years and merely exceedances of the legal limits were to be notified in contrast to the previous obligation to notify all values. On the basis of the TrinkwV 2001 (2011) a large additional staff requirement had been estimated (13/21 positions). After the TrinkwV 2001 (2012) the tasks can be accomplished by less than 2 employees. While the notification obligation was still in force, the health authority received 4,461 notifications of large-scale systems, since then a further 477 have been notified. Of a total of 1,335 initial analyses, 794 (60%) exceeded the technical action value and in 113 properties with values exceeding 10,000/100 ml a usage restriction was necessary. Due to the suspension of the notification obligation to report any result of the analyses performed the assessment of the reports on large-scale systems has become difficult. An appropriate assessment of the implementation of the regulation is not possible, since the total number of large-scale systems is not known and a failure to report may result from a measured value below the technical action value as well as from a not inspected system. The large number of usage restrictions is an indication for the necessity to inspect and if required to treat and restore the system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  4. Public water supplies in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Sundstrom, R.W.; Rowley, J.H.

    1950-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 42 counties of southern Texas, extending from the Rio Grande northward to the northern boundaries of Kinney, Uvalde, Bandera, Kendall, and Hays Counties and eastward to the eastern boundaries of Caldwell, Gonzales, DeWitt, Victoria, and Calhoun Counties. It gives the available data as follows for each of the 114 communities: Population of the community; name of the official from whom the information was obtained; ownership of water works, whether private or municipal; source of supply, whether ground or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment, if any; and chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used, the following information also is given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yield of the wells and records of water levels, where they are available.

  5. Public water supplies in eastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Hastings, W.W.; Broadhurst, W.L.

    1948-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 77 counties of eastern Texas, extending from the Louisiana boundary to a northsouth line approximately along the ninety-seventh meridian. It gives the available data as follows for each of 323 communities: The population of the community; the name of the official from whom the information was obtained; the ownership of the waterworks, whether private or municipal; the source of supply, whether ground or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment of the water, if any; and the chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used the following is also given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yield of the wells and water level records where they are available.

  6. Public eye security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviv, David G.

    1999-01-01

    The recently patented system is a software engine that is connected to a television camera that is used for security applications. It will detect in near real time any physical criminal acts occurring within the field of view of the camera. It then instantaneously transmits an alarm to law enforcement and turns on a VCR and other crime deterrent systems, without human involvement.

  7. Effect of bromide in a surface water intake on the formation of brominated trihalomethanes at a public water system treatment plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a collaborative drinking water research study. EPA is evaluating water samples collected by PWS operators in order to investigate relationships between bromide in source water and the formation of brominated DBPs in finished drinking water. This study will includ...

  8. Effect of bromide in a surface water intake on the formation of brominated trihalomethanes at a public water system treatment plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a collaborative drinking water research study. EPA is evaluating water samples collected by PWS operators in order to investigate relationships between bromide in source water and the formation of brominated DBPs in finished drinking water. This study will includ...

  9. Water reclamation, reuse and public health.

    PubMed

    Rose, J B

    2007-01-01

    The number of people who have limited access to high-quality water has increased, and while this is a growing global crisis, water issues, problems and solutions are often seen as localised. Water reuse and reclamation will play a significant role in achieving sustainability and public health protection in the future. The wastewater and reuse community should be responsible for monitoring sewage impacts and improvements as demonstrated through pathogen reduction with appropriate treatment. Viruses, Cryptosporidium and Giardia can all be reduced during treatment anywhere from 99% to 99.9999%, achieving drinking water quality, if so desired. Recommendations to achieve better access to scientific information for decision making include: 1) developing a global data base for biological contaminant loading from wastewater and 2) defining the public health protection via reuse and reclamation.

  10. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead in it. For homes served by public water systems, data on lead in tap water may be available ... Many public water authorities have websites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to ...

  11. Systemic Intervention for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Midgley, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Many calls have been made for a systems approach to public health. My response is to offer a methodology for systemic intervention that (1) emphasizes the need to explore stakeholder values and boundaries for analysis, (2) challenges marginalization, and (3) draws upon a wide range of methods (from the systems literature and beyond) to create a flexible and responsive systems practice. I present and discuss several well-tested methods with a view to identifying their potential for supporting systemic intervention for public health. PMID:16449577

  12. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  13. Optimization Program for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Area-Wide Optimization Program (AWOP) provides tools and approaches for drinking water systems to meet water quality optimization goals and provide an increased – and sustainable – level of public health protection to their consumers.

  14. Geothermal hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    Dittell, E.W.

    1983-05-10

    Geothermal hot water system including a hot water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the hot water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the hot tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal hot water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the hot tank as well as the warm tank.

  15. 40 CFR 141.857 - Routine monitoring requirements for public water systems serving more than 1,000 people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of this section, systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli... 3,960,000 450 3,960,001 or more 480 (c) Unfiltered subpart H systems. A subpart H system of this part that does not practice filtration in compliance with subparts H, P, T, and W must collect at...

  16. 40 CFR 141.857 - Routine monitoring requirements for public water systems serving more than 1,000 people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of this section, systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli... 3,960,000 450 3,960,001 or more 480 (c) Unfiltered subpart H systems. A subpart H system of this part that does not practice filtration in compliance with subparts H, P, T, and W must collect at...

  17. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  18. Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  20. Public water supply and distribution at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, C.

    1997-10-01

    On February 17th, 1996, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a former Department of Energy uranium processing facility near the rural town of Fernald, Ohio, became a ``user`` instead of a ``producer``, of potable water by tying into the Cincinnati Water Works new Public Water Supply System. This satisfied the future site needs of potable water and nullified the need to follow the sampling requirements set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Safe Drinking Water Act for potable water producers. This transformation into a customer also reduced the long water transmission time from the Cincinnati Water Works station to the small community that would have occurred without a large user such as the FEMP being on line.

  1. Public water supplies in Gloucester County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardt, William F.

    1963-01-01

    Gloucester County is in the southwestern part of New Jersey, below Camden, and is a part of the Lower Delaware River Valley. This area is attracting new industry and has shown a population increase of about 47 percent from 1950 to 1960, mostly urban. With the economic growth of the county, the availability and quality of water become increasingly important. The county is in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. It is underlain by unconsolidated sands and clays of Quaternary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous age. The Raritan and Magothy Formations constitute the most important aquifers and yield more than 95 percent of the water pumped by the public water systems in the county. These formations are capable of yielding 1,400 gpm (gallons per minute) or more to large diameter wells. High yielding wells generally can be drilled anywhere in the county, although the formations are deeper toward the Atlantic Ocean. The Cohansey Sand, second most important aquifer, yields up to 800 gpm or more from large diameter wells. This aquifer is present only in the sparsely populated southeastern half of the county. The Wenonah Formation and Mount Laurel Sand are capable of yielding 100 to 200 gpm in certain areas. The overall chemical quality of the naturally occurring ground water is good. The water generally meets the U.S. Public Health Service's (1962) suggested limit for dissolved solids; however, in some areas, the water carries objectionable amounts of iron and nitrate in solution and has a low pH. Contamination of ground water by salt-water encroachment or by pollution from industrial activity or organic waste in densely populated areas should be prevented. The quality rather than the quantity of water may be the important factor in future ground-water developments. The 21 public water systems in Gloucester County pumped about 1.3 billion gallons of water during 1948 and some 2.7 billion gallons during 1959. This is slightly more than a hundred percent increase in pumpage in 12 year s

  2. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Eslick, Patrick J.

    2015-10-27

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2013. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are also shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented.

  3. Publication search and retrieval system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winget, Elizabeth A.

    1981-01-01

    The publication search and retrieval system of the Branch of Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Geology, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Mass., is a procedure for listing and describing branch-sponsored publications. It is designed for maintenance and retrieval by those having limited knowledge of computer languages and programs. Because this branch currently utilizes the Hewlett-Packard HP-1000 computer with RTE-IVB operating system, database entry and maintenance is performed in accordance with the TE-IVB Terminal User’s Reference Manual (Hewlett-Packard Company, 1980) and within the constraints of GRASP (Bowen and Botbol, 1975) and WOLF (Evenden, 1978).

  4. Rate of decline in serum PFOA concentrations after granular activated carbon filtration at two public water systems in Ohio and West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Bartell, Scott M; Calafat, Antonia M; Lyu, Christopher; Kato, Kayoko; Ryan, P Barry; Steenland, Kyle

    2010-02-01

    Drinking water in multiple water districts in the Mid-Ohio Valley has been contaminated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which was released by a nearby DuPont chemical plant. Two highly contaminated water districts began granular activated carbon filtration in 2007. To determine the rate of decline in serum PFOA, and its corresponding half-life, during the first year after filtration. Up to six blood samples were collected from each of 200 participants from May 2007 until August 2008. The primary source of drinking water varied over time for some participants; our analyses were grouped according to water source at baseline in May-June 2007. For Lubeck Public Service District customers, the average decrease in serum PFOA concentrations between May-June 2007 and May-August 2008 was 32 ng/mL (26%) for those primarily consuming public water at home (n = 130), and 16 ng/mL (28%) for those primarily consuming bottled water at home (n = 17). For Little Hocking Water Association customers, the average decrease in serum PFOA concentrations between November-December 2007 and May-June 2008 was 39 ng/mL (11%) for consumers of public water (n = 39) and 28 ng/mL (20%) for consumers of bottled water (n = 11). The covariate-adjusted average rate of decrease in serum PFOA concentration after water filtration was 26% per year (95% confidence interval, 2528% per year). The observed data are consistent with first-order elimination and a median serum PFOA half-life of 2.3 years. Ongoing follow-up will lead to improved half-life estimation.

  5. Rate of Decline in Serum PFOA Concentrations after Granular Activated Carbon Filtration at Two Public Water Systems in Ohio and West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Bartell, Scott M.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Lyu, Christopher; Kato, Kayoko; Ryan, P. Barry; Steenland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Background Drinking water in multiple water districts in the Mid-Ohio Valley has been contaminated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which was released by a nearby DuPont chemical plant. Two highly contaminated water districts began granular activated carbon filtration in 2007. Objectives To determine the rate of decline in serum PFOA, and its corresponding half-life, during the first year after filtration. Methods Up to six blood samples were collected from each of 200 participants from May 2007 until August 2008. The primary source of drinking water varied over time for some participants; our analyses were grouped according to water source at baseline in May–June 2007. Results For Lubeck Public Service District customers, the average decrease in serum PFOA concentrations between May–June 2007 and May–August 2008 was 32 ng/mL (26%) for those primarily consuming public water at home (n = 130), and 16 ng/mL (28%) for those primarily consuming bottled water at home (n = 17). For Little Hocking Water Association customers, the average decrease in serum PFOA concentrations between November–December 2007 and May–June 2008 was 39 ng/mL (11%) for consumers of public water (n = 39) and 28 ng/mL (20%) for consumers of bottled water (n = 11). The covariate-adjusted average rate of decrease in serum PFOA concentration after water filtration was 26% per year (95% confidence interval, 25–28% per year). Conclusions The observed data are consistent with first-order elimination and a median serum PFOA half-life of 2.3 years. Ongoing follow-up will lead to improved half-life estimation. PMID:20123620

  6. Public water supplies of selected municipalities in Florida, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    Water use by 169 municipalities and 5 county water systems in Florida as of December 1975 is summarized. Included in the listing, by city or system, are water use data, sewage data, and chemical analyses of raw and treated water. In addition, miscellaneous public supply data for three small communities and municipalities (population generally less than 5,000) and historical public supply pumpage for selected municipalities for 1945, 1947, 1956, 1965 and 1970-74 are tabulated. Also included is a list of reports published in 1970-75 relating to hydrology, geology, and water resources of the areas where the cities are located. The demand for freshwater for municipal use in Florida increased sharply during 1970-75. Statewide ground-water use for municipal supply increased from 759 mgd in 1970 to 976 mgd in 1975 and surface-water use has increased from 125 mgd in 1970 to 166 mgd in 1975. The 28 percent increase in ground-water use and the 33 percent increase in surface-water use reflects the continuing rapid population growth and the accompanying expanding economic activity in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  8. ROMANSE Public Transport Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Steven

    ROMANSE is multi-million pound pilot project based in Southampton. It aims to use Advanced Transport Telematics (ATT) to develop the city as a model for transport management systems across Europe. ROMANSE achieves this by providing realtime traffic and travel information to influence travel behaviour, increase the use of public transport, maximize the efficiency of the transport system and provide high-quality information for use in strategic policy decisions.

  9. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

  10. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  11. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer; Restrepo-Osorio, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2015. Gallons per capita per day is calculated using self-reported information in the “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” and “Part C: Population, Service Connections, and Water Rates” sections of the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources' (DWR) annual municipal water use report (see appendixes at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds964 for an example of a municipal water use report form.) Percent unaccounted for water is calculated using self-reported information in “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” of the DWR’s municipal water-use report. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2011–2014) are also shown with the 2015 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. Derivative statistics of 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 5-year averages for gallons per capita per day (gpcd) are also provided by the Kansas Water Authority's 14 regional planning areas, and the DWR regions used for analysis of per capita water use in Kansas. An overall Kansas average (yearly and 5-year average) is also calculated. Kansas state average per capita municipal water use in 2015 was 105 gpcd.

  12. Continuous Water Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    i AEDC-TR-90-33 C o n t i n u o u s Water M o n i t o r i n g Sys tem by Seksan Dheandhanoo, EXTREL Corporation 240 Alpha Drive Pittsburgh......AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT(Max,mum 200 words ) This report

  13. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  14. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  15. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  16. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  17. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  18. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  19. Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andria Q; Dewey, Catherine E; Doré, Kathryn; Majowicz, Shannon E; McEwen, Scott A; David, Waltner-Toews; Eric, Mathews; Carr, Deborah J; Henson, Spencer J

    2006-04-11

    In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, including private wells and cisterns, rests with their owners. However, there are reports that Canadians test these water supplies intermittently and that treatment of such water is uncommon. An estimated 45% of all waterborne outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems. An understanding of the perceptions and needs of Canadians served by private water supplies is essential, as it would enable public health professionals to better target public education and drinking water policy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water supplies in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada), with the intent of informing public education and outreach strategies within the population. A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information. Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two media reported most likely to be used. Although

  20. PREVENTING CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY WELLS USING COMPUTERIZED MODELING AND MAPPING TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Research and Development and the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water have collaborated since 1998 on the development of a public domain ground-water flow modeling system designed to facilitate capture zone delineation and protection area mapping for public...

  1. PREVENTING CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY WELLS USING COMPUTERIZED MODELING AND MAPPING TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Research and Development and the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water have collaborated since 1998 on the development of a public domain ground-water flow modeling system designed to facilitate capture zone delineation and protection area mapping for public...

  2. Public opinions on community water fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Quiñonez, Carlos R; Locker, David

    2009-01-01

    Community water fluoridation (CWF) is currently experiencing social resistance in Canada. Petitions have been publicly registered, municipal plebiscites have occurred, and media attention is growing. There is now concern among policy leaders whether the practice is acceptable to Canadians. As a result, this study asks: What are public opinions on CWF? Data were collected in April 2008 from 1,005 Canadian adults by means of a national telephone interview survey using random digit dialling and computer-assisted telephone interview technology. Descriptive and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken. Approximately 1 in 2 Canadian adults surveyed knew about CWF. Of these, 80% understood its intended use, approximately 60% believed that it was both safe and effective, and 62% supported the idea of having fluoride added to their local drinking water. Those with greater incomes [OR=1.4; p<0.001] and education [OR=1.6; p<0.001] were more likely to know about CWF. Those with greater incomes [OR=1.3; p<0.03] and those who visited the dentist more frequently [OR=1.8; p<0.002] were more likely to support CWF, and those with children [OR=0.5; p<0.02], those who accessed dental care using public insurance [OR=0.2; p<0.03], and those who avoided fluoride [OR=0.04; p<0.001] were less likely to support CWF. It appears that Canadians still support CWF. In moving forward, policy leaders will need to attend to two distinct challenges: the influence of anti-fluoride sentiment, and the potential risks created by avoiding fluoride.

  3. Las Vegas Paiute Tribe Snow Mountain Reservation Public Water Supply Improvement Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public notice that EPA, Region 9, is considering providing grant funding to the Las Vegas Paiute Tribe in Clark County, Nevada for the Snow Mountain Water System Project, a water infrastructure improvement project.

  4. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  5. Assessing the susceptibility to contamination of two aquifer systems used for public water supply in the Modesto and Fresno metropolitan areas, California, 2001 and 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 90 active public supply wells in the Fresno and Modesto metropolitan areas as part of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) program. The CAS program was formed to examine the susceptibility to contamination of aquifers that are tapped by public supply wells to serve the citizens of California. The objectives of the program are twofold: (1) to evaluate the quality of ground water used for public supply using volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground-water samples and (2) to determine if the occurrence and distribution of low level VOCs in ground water and characteristics, such as land use, can be used to predict aquifer susceptibility to contamination from anthropogenic activities occurring at, or near, land surface. An evaluation was made of the relation between VOC occurrence and the explanatory variables: depth to the top of the uppermost well perforation, land use, relative ground-water age, high nitrate concentrations, density of leaking underground fuel tanks (LUFT), and source of recharge water. VOCs were detected in 92 percent of the wells sampled in Modesto and in 72 percent of the wells sampled in Fresno. Trihalomethanes (THM) and solvents were frequently detected in both study areas. Conversely, the gasoline components?benzene, toluene ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)?were rarely, if at all, detected, even though LUFTs were scattered throughout both study areas. The rare occurrence of BTEX compounds may be the result of their low solubility and labile nature in the subsurface environment. Samples were analyzed for 85 VOCs; 25 were detected in at least one sample. The concentrations of nearly all VOCs detected were at least an order of magnitude below action levels set by drinking water standards. Concentrations of four VOCs exceeded federal and state maximum contaminant levels (MCL): the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) and the fumigant 1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in Fresno, and the

  6. Safe drinking water: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Wigle, D T

    1998-01-01

    Disinfection of drinking water through processes including filtration and chlorination was one of the major achievements of public health, beginning in the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Chloroform and other chlorination disinfection by-products (CBPs) in drinking water were first reported in 1974. Chloroform and several other CBPs are known to cause cancer in experimental animals, and there is growing epidemiologic evidence of a causal role for CBPs in human cancer, particularly for bladder cancer. It has been estimated that 14 16% of bladder cancers in Ontario may be attributable to drinking water containing relatively high levels of CBPs; the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the attributable risk to be 2 17%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the associations observed between bladder cancer and CBP exposure reflect a cause-effect relation. An expert working group (see Workshop Report in this issue) concluded that it was possible (60% of the group) to probable (40% of the group) that CBPs pose a significant cancer risk, particularly of bladder cancer. The group concluded that the risk of bladder and possibly other types of cancer is a moderately important public health problem. There is an urgent need to resolve this and to consider actions based on the body of evidence which, at a minimum, suggests that lowering of CBP levels would prevent a significant fraction of bladder cancers. In fact, given the widespread and prolonged exposure to CBPs and the epidemiologic evidence of associations with several cancer sites, future research may establish CBPs as the most important environmental carcinogens in terms of the number of attributable cancers per year.

  7. Report: EPA’s and Mississippi’s Efforts to Assess and Restore Public Drinking Water Supplies after Hurricane Katrina

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-P-00011, February 14, 2006. The Mississippi Department of Health and drinking water system operators provided the public with timely and accurate information about the safety and proper treatment of public drinking water supplies.

  8. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  9. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  10. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  11. Water System Partnerships Meeting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Flyer, agenda and background document for January 31, 2017 meeting focused on incentives and drivers to support water system partnership development, funding and finance options for partnerships, and outreach and education.

  12. Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andria Q; Dewey, Catherine E; Doré, Kathryn; Majowicz, Shannon E; McEwen, Scott A; Waltner-Toews, David; Henson, Spencer J; Mathews, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private systems will enable public health professionals to better target education and outreach activities, and to address the needs and concerns of residents in their jurisdictions. The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking water perceptions and self-described behaviours and needs of participants served by private water systems in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Methods In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age. Results Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed. Conclusion While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by

  13. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): a database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the PSDB and explain the methods used to populate and update the data from the SDWIS, State datasets, and map and geospatial imagery. This report describes 3 data tables and 11 domain tables, including field contents, data sources, and relations between tables. Although the PSDB database is not available to the general public, this information should be useful for others who are developing other database systems to store and analyze public-supply system and facility data.

  14. 33 CFR 149.675 - What are the requirements for the public address system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Equipment Public Address System § 149.675 What are the requirements for the public address system? (a) For a manned deepwater port, each pumping platform complex must have a public address system... public address system? 149.675 Section 149.675 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 33 CFR 149.675 - What are the requirements for the public address system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Equipment Public Address System § 149.675 What are the requirements for the public address system? (a) For a manned deepwater port, each pumping platform complex must have a public address system... public address system? 149.675 Section 149.675 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 33 CFR 149.675 - What are the requirements for the public address system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Equipment Public Address System § 149.675 What are the requirements for the public address system? (a) For a manned deepwater port, each pumping platform complex must have a public address system... public address system? 149.675 Section 149.675 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. Public Health Systems: A Social Networks Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wholey, Douglas R; Gregg, Walter; Moscovice, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between public health system network density and organizational centrality in public health systems and public health governance, community size, and health status in three public health domains. Data Sources/Study Setting During the fall and the winter of 2007–2008, primary data were collected on the organization and composition of eight rural public health systems. Study Design Multivariate analysis and network graphical tools are used in a case comparative design to examine public health system network density and organizational centrality in the domains of adolescent health, senior health, and preparedness. Differences associated with public health governance (centralized, decentralized), urbanization (micropolitan, noncore), health status, public health domain, and collaboration area are described. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Site visit interviews with key informants from local organizations and a web-based survey administered to local stakeholders. Principal Findings Governance, urbanization, public health domain, and health status are associated with public health system network structures. The centrality of local health departments (LHDs) varies across public health domains and urbanization. Collaboration is greater in assessment, assurance, and advocacy than in seeking funding. Conclusions If public health system organization is causally related to improved health status, studying individual system components such as LHDs will prove insufficient for studying the impact of public health systems. PMID:19686252

  18. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  19. 78 FR 58500 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications Proposed Rule; Public Meeting and Public Webinars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications Proposed Rule; Public Meeting... meeting and two public webinars to be held for the proposed rule ``Water Quality Standards Regulatory... the federal water quality standards (WQS) regulation at 40 CFR Part 131 which helps implement...

  20. Water privatization and public health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mulreany, John P; Calikoglu, Sule; Ruiz, Sonia; Sapsin, Jason W

    2006-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to determine what the public health and development literature has found regarding the public health outcomes of water privatization in Latin America and (2) to evaluate whether the benefits of water privatization, if any, outweigh the equity and justice concerns that privatization raises. Using a standard set of terms to search several databases, the authors identified and reviewed articles and other materials from public health and development sources that were published between 1995 and 2005 and that evaluated the public health effects of water privatizations in Latin America from 1989 to 2000, based on (1) access to water by the poor and/or (2) improvements in public health. Next, the authors examined the experiences of three cities in Bolivia (Cochabamba, El Alto, and La Paz) in order to illuminate further the challenges of water privatization. Finally, the authors considered the equity and justice issues raised by the privatization of water. The literature review raised persistent concerns regarding access to water by the poor under privatization. The review also suggested that the public sector could deliver public health outcomes comparable to those of the private sector, as measured by access rates and decreasing child mortality rates. In terms of social equity and justice, privatization marked a troubling shift away from the conception of water as a "social good" and toward the conception of water--and water management services--as commodities. Our results indicated there is no compelling case for privatizing existing public water utilities based on public health grounds. From the perspective of equity and justice, water privatization may encourage a minimalist conception of social responsibility for public health that may hinder the development of public health capacities in the long run.

  1. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  2. [The public health as social economic system].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the public health as a social system because its main elements are human beings and their relationships. The conceptual foundations of characteristics of medical services are discussed as kinds of public benefits and nonmaterial values.

  3. Water Powered Bioassay System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    capillary micropump 27 Figure 30: Slow dripping/separation of a droplet from a capillary 4.1.5 Micro Osmotic Pumping Nano Droplet...stored and delivered fluidic pressure and, with a combination of pumps and valves, formed the basic micro fluidic processing unit. The addition of...System, Microvalve, Micro -Accumulator, Micro Dialysis Needle, Bioassay System, Water Activated, Micro Osmotic Pump 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  4. Private well water in Colorado: collaboration, data use, and public health outreach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric M; Van Dyke, Mike; Kuhn, Stephanie; Mitchell, Jane; Dalton, Hope

    2015-01-01

    As a result of participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Private Well Initiative and Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking), the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment was able to inventory private well water quality data, prioritize potential health concerns associated with drinking water from these wells, and create a Web portal for sharing public health information regarding private well water. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment collaborated with a local health department to pilot the project prior to a public implementation. Approximately 18 data sets were identified and inventoried. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment also participated in development and pilot testing of best practices for display of well water quality data with other Tracking states. Available data sets were compiled and summarized, and the data made available on the Colorado Tracking portal using geographic information system technology to support public health outreach regarding private wells.

  5. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 1990-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, Joan F.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes water-use data collection and quantities of surface water and groundwater diverted for public supply in Kansas for the years 1990 through 2012. Data used in this fact sheet are from the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources and the Kansas Water Office. Water used for public supply represents about 10 percent of all reported water withdrawals in Kansas. Between 1990 and 2012, annual withdrawals for public supply ranged from a low of 121 billion gallons in 1993 to a high of 159 billion gallons in 2012. Differences in annual withdrawals were associated primarily with climatic fluctuations. Six suppliers distributed about one-half of the total water withdrawn for public supply, and nearly three-quarters of the surface water. Surface water represented between 52 and 61 percent of total annual withdrawals for public supply. The proportion of surface water obtained through contracts from Federal reservoirs increased from less than 5 percent in the 1990s to 8 percent in 2011 and 2012. More than 99 percent of the reported water withdrawn for public supply in Kansas in 2012 was metered, which was an increase from 92 percent in 1990. State population increased steadily from 2.5 million people in 1990 to 2.9 million in 2012. Recent estimates indicate that about 95 percent of the total population was served by public water supply; the remainder obtained water from other sources such as private wells. Average per capita water use as calculated for State conservation planning purposes varied by region of the State. The smallest regional average water use for the years 1990–2012 was 98 gallons per person per day in easternmost Kansas, and the largest regional average water use was 274 gallons per person per day in westernmost Kansas.

  6. Chemical quality of public water supplies of the United States and Puerto Rico, 1962

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durfor, Charles N.; Becker, Edith

    1964-01-01

    Municipal water systems in the United States and Puerto Rico supply water for many commercial and industrial uses as well as for domestic wells. It is generally known that our water resources are unequally distributed throughout the country, but it is not quite so well understood that the quality of our water resources is also variable. This hydrologic investigations atlas shows, State by State, some of the chemical quality aspects of our public water supplies. This information can be used to evaluate the suitability of the public supplies for many uses – among them, manufacturing processes, food processing, cooling water, and domestic use.

  7. Systems Science Methods in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885

  8. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  9. Bridging Water Issue Knowledge Gaps between the General Public and Opinion Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Carter, Hannah S.

    2015-01-01

    Global conflicts have rapidly made water the most contentious issue in the world today. Considering water drives health, industry, recreation, and the agricultural food system it is no surprise that it has become such a hot topic. As a result, the general public has an increased interest in water-focused policy; policy that can have a large impact…

  10. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  11. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  12. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  13. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  14. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  15. The fluoridation status of U.S. public water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Löe, H

    1986-01-01

    It has been 40 years since the first community in the United States added a regulated amount of fluoride to its public water supply to prevent tooth decay. Despite the proven benefits of fluoride, today only 61 percent of the U.S. population on public water supplies receives fluoridated water. Progress in fluoridating water is impeded by antifluoridation campaigns and a change in the way Federal funds are allocated for State and local fluoridation programs. Despite profluoridation efforts by the Public Health Service, American Dental Association, and other organizations, the well-publicized claims of fluoride hazards by opponents have prevented many communities from initiating water fluoridation and have caused other communities to discontinue their programs. The law and half a century of research are on the side of fluoridation, as are new scientific findings indicating that optimal amounts of fluoride may reduce the incidence or severity of osteoporosis. PMID:3083470

  16. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  17. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  18. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  19. Opportunities for public water utilities in the market of energy from water.

    PubMed

    Mol, S S M; Kornman, J M; Kerpershoek, A J; van der Helm, A W C

    2011-01-01

    An inventory is made of the possibilities to recover sustainable energy from the water cycle by identifying different water flows in a municipal environment as a sustainable energy source. It is discussed what role public water utilities should play in the market of energy from water. This is done for Waternet, the public water utility of Amsterdam, by describing experiences on two practical applications for aquifer thermal energy storage and energy recovery from drinking water. The main conclusion is that public water utilities can substantially contribute to the production of sustainable energy, especially by making use of heat and cold from the water cycle. Public water utilities have the opportunity to both regulate and enter the market for energy from water.

  20. Safe Drinking Water Information System Federal Version (SDWIS/FED)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SDWIS/FED is EPA’s national database that manages and collects public water system information from states, including reports of drinking water standard violations, reporting and monitoring violations, and other basic information.

  1. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water?

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that are associated with higher levels of public acceptance for recycled and desalinated water. For the first time, a wide range of hypothesized factors, both of socio-demographic and psychographic nature, are included simultaneously. The key results, based on a survey study of about 3000 respondents are that: (1) drivers of the stated likelihood of using desalinated water differ somewhat from drivers of the stated likelihood of using recycled water; (2) positive perceptions of, and knowledge about, the respective water source are key drivers for the stated likelihood of usage; and (3) awareness of water scarcity, as well as prior experience with using water from alternative sources, increases the stated likelihood of use. Practical recommendations for public policy makers, such as key messages to be communicated to the public, are derived. PMID:20950834

  2. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water?

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that are associated with higher levels of public acceptance for recycled and desalinated water. For the first time, a wide range of hypothesized factors, both of socio-demographic and psychographic nature, are included simultaneously. The key results, based on a survey study of about 3000 respondents are that: (1) drivers of the stated likelihood of using desalinated water differ somewhat from drivers of the stated likelihood of using recycled water; (2) positive perceptions of, and knowledge about, the respective water source are key drivers for the stated likelihood of usage; and (3) awareness of water scarcity, as well as prior experience with using water from alternative sources, increases the stated likelihood of use. Practical recommendations for public policy makers, such as key messages to be communicated to the public, are derived. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Waters Edge Land Company, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Waters Edge Land Company, LLC, a business located at 10800 Farley St. Overland Park, KS, for alleged violations located

  4. EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program: Water Systems Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water systems challenged by limited resources, aging infrastructure, shifting demographics, climate change, and extreme weather events need transformative approaches to meet public health and environmental goals, while optimizing water treatment and maximizing resource recovery a...

  5. EPA's Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program: Water Systems Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water systems challenged by limited resources, aging infrastructure, shifting demographics, climate change, and extreme weather events need transformative approaches to meet public health and environmental goals, while optimizing water treatment and maximizing resource recovery a...

  6. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  7. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public..., concerning information that may inform the regulatory review of the uncovered finished water reservoir...

  8. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  9. [Public awareness assessment of water reuse in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Ling; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Reusing reclaimed municipal wastewater to mitigate urban water shortage is gaining widespread attentions. Beijing has led the nation in implementation and close to 60% of the treated municipal wastewater effluent is being reused. We evaluated the public's awareness of water reuse practices throughout the city. Based on questionnaire and the SPSS software, we analyzed the people's knowledge on water, wastewater and reclaimed issues and willingness to use reclaimed water along with their socio-economical background. While the public was keenly aware of the severe water shortage and the need to treat wastewater, they did not have clear ideas on sources of water supply, the biggest users of water, and the largest contributor of municipal wastewater. Results show that the majority of the Beijing residents we surveyed were not cognizant of water reuses taken places throughout the city. Greater than 80% of the residents would accept reclaimed wastewater for reuses even for domestic usages as long as not related to drinking and food preparation. However, 63% of them would reject reusing it to supplement the public water supply. In general, subjects at a higher education level, with higher personal income, and between ages of 35 to 55 tended to be more supportive of the water reuses. The gender did not significantly affect the outcome of the survey. To enhance the awareness of the city residents, it suggests forwarding the propaganda and management, strengthening the policy-oriented and facility support from the public, community and government.

  10. Publication Index and Retrieval System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    identified in natural waters are reviewed phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen among selected chem, briefly, they include fulvic acids (and their parent ...examined included Experiment Station, Environmental Effects Laboratory. Octo- sea ox-eye (Borrichia frufescens), Lyngby’s sedge ( Carer ber 197

  11. Aircraft Drinking Water Rule Public Meetings and Summaries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In developing the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule, EPA used a collaborative process to obtain a broad range of views including the airlines, flight attendants, passengers, pilots, airports, laboratories, public health officials and environmental organizations

  12. Unregulated drinking water initiative for environmental surveillance and public health.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Tosta, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The critical public health need to assess and protect the drinking water used by 37 million Americans requires attention and resources. NCEH, in partnership with states, has begun the process to identify information available on unregulated drinking water sources to improve the availability of data to support decisive public health actions and resource allocation. Far more attention and resources are needed to complete this process.

  13. [The protection of drinking water in a public health department].

    PubMed

    Monari, R; Petrolo, A; Mascelli, M; Vannucchi, G

    2008-01-01

    The protection of drinking water is a key issue in a Public Health Department's activity. A substantial amount of planning and monitoring work is involved in the development and implementation of a water safety plan, aimed not only at the enforcement of public health regulations, but also at the improvement of the quality water. We provide an overview of the quality monitoring program of the municipality of Prato, a highly populated and industrialized area, where ground water is contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and nitrate. We show how, in spite of the intrinsically poor quality of the basic water resource, the careful application of an appropriate prevention plan, with the cooperation of the local water authority, allows the delivery of drinking water of increasing safety and quality.

  14. EPA Office of Water (OW): SDWIS - HUC12 Densities for Public Surface Water and Groundwater Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public Water System location points, based on information from the Safe Drinking Water Act Information System (SDWIS/Federal) for a 2010 third quarter (SDWIS_2010Q3) baseline period, were applied to relate system latitude and longitude coordinates (LatLongs) to Watershed Boundary Dataset subwatershed polygons (HUC12s). This HUC12 table can be mapped through setting up appropriate table relationships on the attribute HUC_12 with the HUC12 GIS layer that is part of EPA's Reach Address Database (RAD) Version 3. At the present time, the RAD Version 3 contains HUC12 polygons for the conterminous United States (CONUS), Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (materials for Alaska or for other territories and dependencies are not available as of February, 2010). The records in this table are based on a special QUERY created by the EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) from the primary SDWIS/FED information to provide a robust point representation for a PWS system. PWS points are selected based on the following prioritization: 1. If the system has a treatment plant with LatLongs and MAD codes; 2. If the system has a treatment plant with LatLongs but without MAD codes; 3. If the system has a well with LatLongs and MAD codes; 4. If the system has a well with LatLongs but without MAD codes; 5. If the system has an intake with LatLongs and MAD codes; 6. If the system has an intake with LatLongs but without MAD codes; 7. If the system has any source

  15. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  16. Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities of the United States, 1962

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durfor, Charles N.; Becker, Edith

    1964-01-01

    The report is divided into two sections. The first describes the uses of water in large cities, the raw-water supplies available for public supplies, tl-<; major and minor constituents and the properties of water, the methods of analyses, the treatment of water, the effects of chemical treatment on constituents and properties of water, and the costs of water treatment. The second is a city-by-city inventory that gives (a) the population of the city, (b) the adjacent communities supplied by the city water system, (c) the total population served, (d) the sources of water supply (including auxiliary and emergency supplies), (e) the average amount of water used daily, (f) the lowest 30-day mean discharge of streams used for public supply during recent years, (g) the treatment of water, (h) the rated capacity of each water-treatment plant, and (i) the storage capacity for raw and finished water. For 58 of the cities, the sources of water, the location of water-treatment plants, and the areas served by the city system are shown on maps. Chemical, spectrographic, and radiochemical analyses of treated water and chemical and spectrographic analyses for many of the raw-water supplies are presented in tabular form.

  17. A Public Education Program in Water Resources Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, John R.; Armold, Anita A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve public awareness/understanding of major factors in managing water resources. Use is made of an interactive computer simulator to place lay people and teachers in decision-making situations involving real variables and alternatives and to project for them the probable consequences of their water management…

  18. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  19. Public exposure to radon in drinking water in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Natasa; Nikolov, Jovana; Forkapic, Sofija; Bikit, Istvan; Mrdja, Dusan; Krmar, Miodrag; Veskovic, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Radon is the main source of natural radiation that is received by population. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain, from bottled drinking water and from tap water in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The corrected value of radon concentration in one sample exceeded the European Commission recommendation reference level for radon in drinking water of 100 Bql(-1). In order to make the correlation between radon and radium concentrations in the tap water and in the water from public drinking fountain, the gamma-spectrometric measurements were performed. The results of (222)Rn activity concentration measurements from soil in the city of Novi Sad using RAD 7 detector are presented.

  20. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  1. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  2. Fluoride concentration in public water supply: 72 months of analysis.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Nemre Adas

    2012-01-01

    Known as one of the ten most important advances on Public Health in the 20th century, fluoridation of public water supply is a measure of wide population coverage, which is effective on caries control. The city of Araçatuba, in the Northwest region of the São Paulo state, Brazil, started public water supply fluoridation in 1972 and, based on the average annual highest temperature, has kept the fluoride concentration between 0.6 to 0.8 mgF/L. The purpose of this study was to analyze monthly the fluoride concentration in public water supply in the city of Araçatuba during 72 months. Water samples were collected monthly on weekdays, directly from the water distribution network, on pre-established locations and analyzed in duplicate between November 2004 and October 2010 at the Research Laboratory of the Nucleus for Public Health (NEPESCO) of the Public Health Graduate Program from Araçatuba Dental School/UNESP, Brazil, using an fluoride-specific electrode connected to an ion analyzer. From the total of samples (n=591), 67.2% (n=397) presented fluoride concentration between 0.6 and 0.8 mgF/L; 20.6% (n=122) below 0.6 mgF/L; 11.5% (n=68) between 0.8 and 1.2 mgF/L and 0.7% (n=4) above 1.2 mgF/L. Most samples showed fluoride levels within the recommended parameters. Minimal variation was observed among the analyzed collection locations, showing that the city has been able to control the fluoride levels in the public water supply and reinforcing the importance of surveillance and constant monitoring to assure the quality of the water delivered to the population.

  3. Small Drinking Water System Variances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small system variances allow a small system to install and maintain technology that can remove a contaminant to the maximum extent that is affordable and protective of public health in lieu of technology that can achieve compliance with the regulation.

  4. Tying California's Water System Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M. S.; Singh, K.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents updates to a relatively integrated hydro-economic model of California's water supply system (CALVIN), showing how future sustainable groundwater management and climate change are likely to affect the operation of California's statewide water supply system, and particularly the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. California's water system connects most parts of the state, so that water policy changes in one part of the state can affect water management and deliveries in distant parts of California. This provides a high level of robustness in this system, and geographically disperses the impacts of local actions.

  5. Public water supplies in central and north-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Broadhurst, W.L.; Dwyer, B.C.

    1949-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 35 counties of central and north-central Texas, extending from the southern boundaries of Travis, Blanco, Gillespie, and Kerr Counties northward to the TexasOklahoma State line. It gives the available data as follows for each of the 145 communities: Population of the community; name of the official from whom the information was obtained; ownership of water works, whether private or municipal source of supply, whether ground water or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment, if any; and chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used, the following is also given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yields of the wells, and records of water levels, if available.

  6. Automated Water-Purification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  7. Automated Water-Purification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  8. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Murray, Regan; Walker, La Tonya Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  9. Public perceptions regarding water quality and attitudes toward water conservation in the Lower Fraser Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniels, Timothy L.; Axelrod, Lawrence J.; Cavanagh, Nigel

    1998-05-01

    This paper concerns public judgments regarding water quality, public attitudes about water conservation, and related issues in the Lower Fraser Basin of southwest British Columbia, Canada. A written survey was administered to 183 lay subjects in four communities within the Lower Fraser Basin. The results show that subjects generally perceive water quality in specific water bodies as worse than indicated in technical studies of those water bodies. Respondents also indicated a high willingness to engage in water conservation activities. Discussion and conclusions complete the paper.

  10. 64 FR 63334 - Proposed Construction of Frannie Water Distribution System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-11-19

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Proposed Construction of Frannie Water Distribution... application for grant funding; public comment period on request to fund the Frannie Water Distribution System... Reclamation fund to pay approximately 44 percent of the cost of building the Frannie Water Distribution System...

  11. 64 FR 63336 - Proposed Construction of Etna Water Distribution System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-11-19

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Proposed Construction of Etna Water Distribution... application for grant funding, public comment period on request to fund the Etna Water Distribution System... Reclamation Fund to pay approximately 8 percent of the cost of building the Etna Water Distribution System...

  12. Water and bioterrorism: preparing for the potential threat to U.S. water supplies and public health.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Patricia L

    2005-01-01

    Water supplies and water distribution systems represent potential targets for terrorist activity in the United States because of the critical need for water in every sector of our industrialized society. Even short-term disruption of water service can significantly impact a community, and intentional contamination of a municipal water system as part of a terrorist attack could lead to serious medical, public health, and economic consequences. Most practicing physicians and public health professionals in the United States have received limited training in the recognition and evaluation of waterborne disease from either natural or intentional contamination of water. Therefore, they are poorly prepared to detect water-related disease resulting from intentional contamination and may not be adequately trained to respond appropriately to a terrorist assault on water. The purpose of this review is to address this critical information gap and present relevant epidemiologic and clinical information for public health and medical practitioners who may be faced with addressing the recognition, management, and prevention of water terrorism in their communities.

  13. Public health systems under attack in Canada: Evidence on public health system performance challenges arbitrary reform.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe; Perreault, Robert

    2016-10-20

    Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features. Furthermore, increased financial resources and increased staffing per capita are significantly associated with improved population health outcomes. We contend that any effort at optimization of public health systems should at least be guided by these four evidence-informed factors. Canada already has existing capacity in carrying out public health systems and services research. Further advancement of our academic and professional expertise on public health systems will allow Canadian public health jurisdictions to be inspired by the best public health models and become stronger advocates for public health's resources, interventions and outcomes when they need to be celebrated or defended.

  14. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30%, and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we assumed the water withdrawals per user to remain constant in time, so that the future withdrawals reflected the projected population and tourism trends. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The Total Absolute Error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. Our results show that although there are large variations from region to region, in general public water withdrawals will increase significantly over the period 2006 to 2030. The European average increase is 16%, with a maximal increase of 53% in Ireland.

  15. Estimated water use in Ohio, 1990 - Public supply data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veley, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Our Nation's social and economic development has depended on and will continue to depend on the availability of usable water. In 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began publishing water-use data on a national level every 5 years to assist in the wise management of our Nation's water resources. The USGS currently collects water-use data for the following categories: public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, thermoelectric power, mining, livestock, animal specialties, irrigation, hydroelectric power, sewage treatment, and reservoir evaporation.In 1977, Congress authorized the National Water-Use Information Program. The program encourages the USGS and a State-level agency in each of the 50 States to cooperate in the collection and dissemination of water-use data. In Ohio, the USGS and the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water (ODNR-DW), are cooperators in this effort. In 1990, ODNR-DW implemented the Water Withdrawal Facility Registration Program for Ohio, which requires those water consumers who have the capacity to withdraw 100,000 gallons of water daily to register with the ODNR-DW. Consumers whose daily capacity is less than 100,000 gallons are not required to register. The information collected from the registrants is maintained in computerized data bases at the ODNR-DW and the Ohio District Office of the USGS. This Fact Sheet, which summarizes Ohio's 1990 public-supply water-use data, is one of a series that supplements, by category, the national USGS publication on water use in 1990.

  16. Comments on Whiley Legionella Risk Management and Control in Potable Water Systems: Argument for the Abolishment of Routine Testing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 12

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Samuel; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    In their recent article, Whiley makes an interesting case for the abolishment of routine testing in Legionella risk management and control plans. Here, we present our views regarding this suggestion, drawing upon our own experiences in the UK. We urge caution against the removal of routine monitoring from guidelines due to the impending public health risks that would result. PMID:28117715

  17. Comments on Whiley Legionella Risk Management and Control in Potable Water Systems: Argument for the Abolishment of Routine Testing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 12.

    PubMed

    Collins, Samuel; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-01-21

    In their recent article, Whiley makes an interesting case for the abolishment of routine testing in Legionella risk management and control plans. Here, we present our views regarding this suggestion, drawing upon our own experiences in the UK. We urge caution against the removal of routine monitoring from guidelines due to the impending public health risks that would result.

  18. Decision Support Systems and Public Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Owen P., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines an approach for developing and applying computerized decision support systems to the formulation and evaluation of public policy. To meet the challenge of financial resource limitations, new management systems must be developed to improve both governmental efficiency and decision-making effectiveness. (Author/BS)

  19. Systemic Action and Learning in Public Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…

  20. Systemic Action and Learning in Public Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…

  1. Quantum walk public-key cryptographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachou, C.; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public-key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that the protocol is secure and analyze the complexity of public key generation and encryption/decryption procedures.

  2. Mapping current and future European public water withdrawals and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, I.; Bianchi, A.; Silva, F. Batista e.; Lavalle, C.; Batelaan, O.

    2014-02-01

    In Europe, public water withdrawals make up on average 30% and in some cases up to 60% of total water withdrawals. These withdrawals are becoming increasingly important with growing population density; hence there is a need to understand the spatial and temporal trends involved. Pan-European public/municipal water withdrawals and consumption were mapped for 2006 and forecasted for 2030. Population and tourism density were assumed to be the main driving factors for withdrawals. Country-level statistics on public water withdrawals were disaggregated to a combined population and tourism density map (the "user" density map) computed for 2006. The methodology was validated using actual regional withdrawal statistics from France for 2006. The total absolute error (TAE) calculated was proven to be reduced by taking into account the tourism density in addition to the population density. In order to forecast the map to 2030 we considered a reference scenario where per capita withdrawals were kept constant in time. Although there are large variations from region to region, this resulted in a European average increase of water withdrawals of 16%. If we extrapolate the average reduction in per capita withdrawals seen between 2000 and 2008, we forecast a reduction in average total water withdrawals of 4%. Considering a scenario where all countries converge to an optimal water use efficiency, we see an average decrease of 28%.

  3. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  4. Public response to the discovery of water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.C.

    1985-10-01

    The study examines data from public-opinion surveys regarding water supply pollution and protection issues. The surveys were conducted in several New England communities with ongoing or potential water-quality problems. Results show that people generally place a high priority on water protection, even in communities where no recent crisis has raised public awareness. Where no crisis has occurred, more educated and environmentally active citizens are the group with the deepest concern. The pattern of change in the demographic predictors of concern about water quality suggests that there is a shift in the way this issue is perceived. Conflicts may arise when authorities responding to the crisis misunderstand the sources and intensity of such related concern.

  5. Water use data for public water suppliers and self supplied industry in Utah: 1984, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Brent; Jackson, Steven

    1988-01-01

    This publication is the sixth in a continuing series of reports presenting water use data for Utah. The data are collected by the State of Utah, Division of Water Rights, for the National Water Use Information Program. This is a cooperative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey.  Most states contribute information in some form to the program.

  6. Water use data for public water suppliers and self supplied industry in Utah: 1982, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Brent

    1985-01-01

    This publication is the fifth in a continuing series of reports presenting water use data for Utah. The data are collected by the State of Utah, Division of Water Rights, for the National Water Use Information Program. This is a cooperative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey.  Most states contribute information in some form to the program.

  7. 75 FR 19416 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Assessment System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Public Housing Assessment System--Management... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Assessment System--Management Operations Certification AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for...

  8. Hot water supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, M.; Saito, T.

    1984-05-22

    A novel pulse combustion water heater is compact in size and less noisy than previous models. The pulse combustor, suction muffler, blower, and exhaust muffler are all located at the lower portion of the storage tank, making it compact and easy to soundproof. The exhaust pipe extends to the top of the tank to heat the water, then descends back into the soundproofed base to discharge the condensed flue gases.

  9. Satellite Power System (SPS) public outreach experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneal, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    An outreach experiment was conducted to improve the results of the satellite power system (SPS) concept development and evaluation program. The objectives of the outreach were to: (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. The response to the outreach effort was positive, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS project division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The responses were analyzed and from them some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented.

  10. Solar hot-water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design data brochure describes domestic solar water system that uses direct-feed system designed to produce 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day to meet needs of single family dwelling. Brochure also reviews annual movements of sun relative to earth and explains geographic considerations in collector orientation and sizing.

  11. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  12. Assessing Global Water System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braimoh, Ademola K.; Craswell, Eric T.

    2006-04-01

    Rapid growth of global change science has led to improved knowledge about interdependencies in the global water cycle and recognition that the global water system consists of physical, human, and biogeochemical components [Vörösmarty et al., 2004]. Traditionally, water research is spread over a number of scientific disciplines. However, for water science to effectively inform policy for sustainable water management, research about the dynamics of water in the context of global change needs to be holistic, must integrate the existing knowledge base, and should synthesize knowledge about how the interactions between nature and society at various scales are affecting the global water system. This article assesses the level of interdisciplinarity in water science programs by comparing the activities of international waterrelated projects with the Global Water System Project (GWSP) activity profile (http://www.gwsp.org). The GWSP is a project of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) comprising the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (http:// www.igbp.kva.se/cgi-bin/php/frameset.php), the International Human Dimension Programme on Global Environmental Change (www.ihdp.org), the World Climate Research Programme (http://www.wmo.ch/web/wcrp/wcrp-home.html), and the DIVERSITAS international program on biodiversity science (http://www.diversitasinternational.org/). GWSP's attributes include its scientific and policy-informing orientation, global perspective, integrative and interdisciplinary approach, and multitemporal investigation of human impacts on water resources.

  13. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  14. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low· and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. Recent media reports of high levels of sewage contamination have caused wide-ranging concerns about the safety of sailing, rowing, and other open water events at the upcoming Olympics. This commentary discusses the global public health problem of exposures to untreated sewage and describes the need for context specific solutions to monitoring and communication and risk assessment.

  15. Connecticut Public Higher Education: 2008 System Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the public higher education system trends in Connecticut for 2008. This report contains the following sections: (1) FY 2007-2009 Operating Budget Summary; (2) Higher Education in a Statewide Context; (3) General Fund and Operating Budget Expenditure Trends; (4) Comparative Funding Indicators; (5) Enrollment Trends; (6) Degrees…

  16. Desirable Characteristics of a Scientific Publication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkade, Robert G.

    The six characteristics of an Experimental Publication System (EPS) evaluated are: (1) prompt dissemination, (2) focused distribution, (3) diversity of content, (4) catalog of abstracts, (5) articles printed separately and (6) low acceptance criteria. Approximately 20% of the psychologists who might be interested in the subject matter are covered…

  17. Automated Circulation Systems in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, George A.

    Data analysis of a questionnaire completed by 38 public libraries in the United States and Canada who possess "turnkey" automated circulation systems is presented. Results show that libraries are enthusiastic about benefits to staff and patrons. For libraries with increasing circulation, the computer allows more time to handle additional work load…

  18. Connecticut Public Higher Education: 2007 System Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the public higher education system trends in Connecticut for 2007. This report contains the following sections: (1) FY 2007-2009 Operating Budget Summary; (2) Higher Education in a Statewide Context; (3) General Fund and Operating Budget Expenditure Trends; (4) Comparative Funding Indicators; (5) Enrollment Trends; (6) Degrees…

  19. Wake County Public School System Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC.

    The Wake County Public School System has published its guidelines for planning and design of functional, cost effective, and durable educational facilities that are attractive and enhance the students' educational experience. The guidelines present basic planning requirement and design criteria for the entire construction process, including: codes…

  20. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  1. 36 CFR 1192.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.87 Public information system. (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public information system... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.87 Public information system. (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public information system... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.87 Public information system. (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded...

  4. 36 CFR 1192.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.87 Public information system. (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public information system... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.87 Public information system. (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded...

  6. Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2006-06-01

    The supply of clean drinking water is a major, and relatively recent, public health milestone. Control of microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems, often achieved through the addition of disinfectants, is essential to limiting waterborne illness, particularly in immunocompromised subpopulations. Recent inquiries into the microbial ecology of distribution systems have found that pathogen resistance to chlorination is affected by microbial community diversity and interspecies relationships. Research indicates that multispecies biofilms are generally more resistant to disinfection than single-species biofilms. Other recent findings are the increased survival of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila when present inside its protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and the depletion of chloramine disinfectant residuals by nitrifying bacteria, leading to increased overall microbial growth. Interactions such as these are unaccounted for in current disinfection models. An understanding of the microbial ecology of distribution systems is necessary to design innovative and effective control strategies that will ensure safe and high-quality drinking water.

  7. Geographic information system applications to public warning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a geographic information system (GIS), the Integrated Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS), for planning a siren-based public warning system. The Outdoor Sound Propagation Model (OSPM) in IEMIS models warning sirens in a given area and reports the results graphically as sound pressure level contours. As implemented in IEMIS, OSPM includes graphic functions for the preparation and display of input data, display of the model's results, and management of data files. These graphic functions enable public safety personnel to plan more effectively for warning of the public.

  8. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  9. Photoelectrochemical water-splitting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.A.; Kocha, S.S.

    1995-10-01

    Photochemical water-splitting is the process where an illuminated semiconductor is used to decompose water into its components, hydrogen and oxygen. Light, incident on a semiconductor electrode, splits water directly. A one-step monolithic system such as this eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyser. Combining the electrolyser with the PV system eliminates one of the high cost components of a PV-electrolysis hydrogen generation system. Since external wiring is not used, only the piping necessary for the transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline is required. This paper will discuss the current technical status of direct conversion photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting systems.

  10. Public views on drinking water standards as risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2008-12-01

    Government agencies often compare contaminant levels to standards and other regulatory benchmarks to convey relative risk to public audiences, as well as for enforcement. Yet we know little of how citizens interpret these risk indicators or factors influencing interpretations. Owners of private residential wells in New Jersey were surveyed by mail. A majority appreciated this comparison, trusted the standard, and could effectively compare the contaminant level to the standard. Most people who recalled that their own well water quality was unsatisfactory simply installed treatment systems. However, there was also a surprising amount of inability to tell whether pollution levels were better or worse than the standard, perhaps exacerbated by confusing institutional language to summarize the comparison (e.g., pollution "exceeds" or is "less than" the standard) and innumeracy. There was also substantial skepticism about the degree to which pollution levels below, or (to a lesser extent) above, the standard are harmless or harmful, respectively. Skepticism was variously due to distrust of standards, disbelief in thresholds for health effects, inability to accurately compare standards and contaminant levels, information processing, and demographics. Discontinuity in reactions below versus above the standard did not exist in the aggregate, and rarely among individuals, contrary to some previous findings. At identical standards and contaminant levels, familiar toxins (mercury, arsenic, lead) elicited higher risk ratings than less familiar ones. Given the wide institutional use of this risk indicator, further research on how to improve the design and use of this indicator, and consideration of alternatives, is warranted.

  11. Peak oil, food systems, and public health.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.

  12. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  13. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  14. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  15. Evaluation of neighborhood treatment systems for potable water supply.

    PubMed

    Corella-Barud, Veronica; Mena, Kristina D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Gurian, Patrick L; Barud, Alberto

    2009-02-01

    Piped water is available in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, but residual disinfectant is not reliably found in the public drinking water supply. Lack of confidence in the public supply leads many residents to rely on bottled water. To provide consistent disinfection, two health clinics were equipped with ultraviolet disinfection systems, and neighboring households were encouraged to obtain their drinking water from the treatment systems. Use of the treated water declined from 62% of self-selected study participants at the time of the first visit to 40% at the second visit. During the first visit, diarrhea prevalence was similar among households using treated water and other water sources yet diarrhea prevalence was higher among households using the treated water during the second visit. Microbiological quality of the treated water in the homes was not demonstrably superior to that of other sources.

  16. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 36 CFR 1192.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public information system... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.35 Public information system. (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address system...

  18. 36 CFR 1192.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.35 Public information system. (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address system...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.35 Public information system. (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address system...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public information system... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.35 Public information system. (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address system...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public information system... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.35 Public information system. (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address system...

  2. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  3. Association between perceptions of public drinking water quality and actual drinking water quality: A community-based exploratory study in Newfoundland (Canada).

    PubMed

    Ochoo, Benjamin; Valcour, James; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-11-01

    Studying public perception on drinking water quality is crucial for managing of water resources, generation of water quality standards, and surveillance of the drinking-water quality. However, in policy discourse, the reliability of public perception concerning drinking water quality and associated health risks is questionable. Does the public perception of water quality equate with the actual water quality? We investigated public perceptions of water quality and the perceived health risks and associated with the actual quality of public water supplies in the same communities. The study was conducted in 45 communities of Newfoundland (Canada) in 2012. First, a telephone survey of 100 households was conducted to examine public perceptions of drinking water quality of their respective public sources. Then we extracted public water quality reports of the same communities (1988-2011) from the provincial government's water resources portal. These reports contained the analysis of 2091 water samples, including levels of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), nutrients, metals, ions and physical parameters. The reports showed that colour, manganese, total dissolved solids, iron, turbidity, and DBPs were the major detected parameters in the public water. However, the majority of the respondents (>56%) were either completely satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of drinking water. Older, higher educated and high-income group respondents were more satisfied with water quality than the younger, less educated and low-income group respondents. The study showed that there was no association with public satisfaction level and actual water quality of the respective communities. Even, in the communities, supplied by the same water system, the respondents had differences in opinion. Despite the effort by the provincial government to make the water-test results available on its website for years, the study showed existing disconnectedness between public perception of drinking water

  4. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attainment or maintenance of water... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and... allow for the attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water...

  5. Arsenic concentration variability, health risk assessment, and source identification using multivariate analysis in selected villages of public water system, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Jawairia; Farooqi, Abida; Ali, Usman

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports high levels and variability in arsenic (As) levels at locations identified as one of the highest As-contaminated locations in Pakistan. Groundwater pollution related to arsenic has been reported since many years in the areas lying in outskirts of District Lahore, Pakistan. A comparative study is done to determine temporal variations of As from three villages, i.e., Kalalanwala (KLW), Manga Mandi (MM), and Shamki Bhattian (SKB). Seventy-three percent of the 30 investigated samples ranging in depth from 20 to 200 m, show an increasing trend in variations of As concentration over a time span of 4 years and 87% of samples exceeded the WHO standard of 10 μg/L for As while 77% of samples have As concentration >50 μg/L (national standard). Further results indicate that high levels of As is accompanied with increase pH (r = 0.8) favoring desorption of As from minerals at higher pH under oxidizing conditions. For health risk assessment of arsenic, the average daily dose, hazard quotient (HQ), and cancer risk were calculated. The residents of the studied areas had toxic risk index in the order of SKB>KLW>MM, with 87% of samples exceeding the typical toxic risk index 1.00 (ranging from 2.3-48.6) which was 83% (ranging from 0.3-41) 4 years before. The results of the present study therefore indicate that arsenic concentrations are increasing in the area, which needs an immediate attention to provide alternate sources of water to save people at risk.

  6. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  7. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Small Drinking Water System Initiative | Drinking Water in New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-07-06

    Reliable, safe, high quality drinking water is essential to sustaining our communities. Approximately 90% of New England's drinking water systems - about 10,000 systems - are small and most use ground water sources.

  9. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  10. Hydrogeologic characteristics of four public drinking-water supply springs in northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2004-01-01

    In October 2000, a study was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Health to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics, including the extent of the recharge areas, for Hughes Spring, Stark Spring, Evening Shade Spring, and Roaring Spring, which are used for public-water supply in northern Arkansas. Information pertaining to each spring can be used to enable development of effective management plans to protect these water resources and public health. An integrated approach to determine the ground-water characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of the four springs incorporated tools and methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, geophysics, and geochemistry. Analyses of discharge, temperature, and water quality were completed to describe ground-water flow characteristics, source-water characteristics, and connectivity of the ground-water system with surface runoff. Water-level contour maps were constructed to determine ground-water flow directions and ground-water tracer tests were conducted to determine the extent of the recharge areas and ground-water flow velocities. Hughes Spring supplies water for the city of Marshall, Arkansas, and the surrounding area. The mean annual discharge for Hughes Spring was 2.9 and 5.2 cubic feet per second for water years 2001 and 2002, respectively. Recharge to the spring occurs mainly from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). Ground-water tracer tests indicate the recharge area for Hughes Spring generally coincides with the surface drainage area (15.8 square miles) and that Hughes Spring is connected directly to the surface flow in Brush Creek. The geochemistry of Hughes Spring demonstrated variations with flow conditions and the influence of surface-runoff in the recharge area. Calcite saturation indices, total dissolved solids concentrations, and hardness demonstrate noticeable differences with flow conditions reflecting the

  11. Stab water supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Hammett, D.S.

    1983-02-08

    Apparatus and method for fire suppression on offshore oil platforms including a stab receptacle on an outer surface of a platform connected to a fluid distribution system within the platform for distributing fire suppressing fluid to selected locations, a stab carrying a fluid conduit from a self-propelled service vessel, with the stab being in turn supported on a boom extending from the service vessel, a pumping system on the service vessel for supplying fire suppressing fluid through the conduit to the stab and thereby to the preselected locations. The service vessel is preferably a semi-submersible and includes a system for dynamic positioning of the vessel such as side thrusters in addition to a main propulsion unit.

  12. [Investigation of the cleanness of drinking water in public facilities].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ikeda, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    The drinking facilities in some public spaces (such as parks, public baths, etc.) in Japan which many unspecified people often use are useful for taking moisture easily and rapidly. Sometimes it might be also accepted that it is good for the prevention of diseases and for the health. The cleaning of these facilities is sure to be done in regular. However, they have misgivings about dirt in more short time by using of many people. It would be necessary for the public health to research the safety of them. In the present study, the pollution of inorganic components, inorganic anions, general bacteria and total coliforms in the initial getting water to stay near by the faucets, on the knobs and the intakes were examined.

  13. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  14. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  15. [Proposed scoring system for biomedical scientific publications].

    PubMed

    Figueredo, E

    2007-02-01

    There are no bibliometric formulas currently available to measure the intrinsic quality of scientific publications. Nonetheless, publication assessment is an inescapable feature of academic and professional evaluation although it is not always done fairly. This paper proposes a scoring system that combines several of the variables most often used for evaluation: article length, inclusion in biomedical databases, impact factor of the journals publishing the articles, and number of citations received during the 2 years following publication. Articles can be classified in 20 categories and assigned scores depending on how the factors are combined. The scoring system's advantage is that it limits excessive weight given to extreme impact factors and corrects differences due to varying citing behaviors in different Science Citation Index categories. Finally, scores are classified by type of article, number of co-authors, and arthorship order. When applying this system, it would be sufficient to evaluate candidates' 5 best articles in order to establish quantitative differences between them, reducing administrative costs and the workloads of assessment committees.

  16. Public health and regulatory considerations of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    PubMed

    Raucher, R S

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the public health and economic issues associated with drinking water quality regulations in the United States. A historic perspective is provided by the use of filtration and chlorine disinfection, and of public health laws from the early 20th century up to passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), in 1974. The contaminants regulated under the Act, and the 1986 Amendments to the SDWA, are evaluated according to health endpoint, related issues in risk assessment, and the cost of complying with associated regulations. Risk-cost and benefit-cost analyses are offered for carcinogens, systemics, and pathogens. The paper describes the evolution of public health issues from the initial focus on waterborne infectious diseases to concerns over chemical contaminants, and the recent reemergence of microbials as the high-priority public health concern.

  17. Populations receiving optimally fluoridated public drinking water--United States, 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    2008-07-11

    Water fluoridation has been identified by CDC as one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century. The decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (tooth decay) in the United States during the past 60 years has been attributed largely to the increased use of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is an equitable and cost-effective method for delivering fluoride to the community. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to increase to 75% the proportion of the U.S. population served by community water systems who receive optimally fluoridated water. To update and revise previous reports on fluoridation in the United States and describe progress toward the Healthy People 2010 objective, CDC analyzed fluoridation data for the period 1992-2006 from the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC). The results indicated that the percentage of the U.S. population served by community water systems who received optimally fluoridated water increased from 62.1% in 1992, to 65.0% in 2000, and 69.2% in 2006, and those percentages varied substantially by state. Public health officials and policymakers in states with lower percentages of residents receiving optimal water fluoridation should consider increasing their efforts to promote fluoridation of community water systems to prevent dental caries.

  18. Kentucky Public Water-Supply Withdrawals During 1995, 2000, and 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downs, Aimee C.; Caldwell, William E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Division of Water, has compiled the reported permitted public water-supply-withdrawal data for Kentucky for 2005. Water-withdrawal data for 1995 and 2000 were previously published in Solley and others (1998) and Hutson and others (2004), respectively. This report is a graphical representation of permitted withdrawals for 1995, 2000, and 2005. Public suppliers that are regulated through the Kentucky Division of Water, Water-Withdrawal Permitting Program, withdrew a total of 496, 525, and 558 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1995, 2000, and 2005, respectively. In 2005, 489 Mgal/d (88 percent) came from surface-water sources, and 69 Mgal/d (12 percent) came from ground-water sources. Small increases and decreases in permitted public water-supply withdrawals can be attributed to population changes. Large increases and decreases can be attributed to merging of supply systems, change(s) in source, or purchases from other counties.

  19. Spectral analysis of water samples using modulated resonance features for monitoring of public water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Yapijakis, C.; Aiken, D.; Shabaev, A.; Ramsey, S.; Peak, J.

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources in the New York City metro area has demonstrated the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. Hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations requires tracking statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. To achieve this, it is necessary to establish correlation between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Correlation between absorption spectra and changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of modulated resonance features with respect to characteristics of water contaminants for hyperspectral analysis of water samples.

  20. Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellen J; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2005-06-01

    Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing, stressed or poorly maintained distribution systems can cause the quality of piped drinking water to deteriorate below acceptable levels and pose serious health risks. This review will outline distribution system deficiencies in developing countries caused by: the failure to disinfect water or maintain a proper disinfection residual; low pipeline water pressure; intermittent service; excessive network leakages; corrosion of parts; inadequate sewage disposal; and inequitable pricing and usage of water. Through improved research, monitoring and surveillance, increased understanding of distribution system deficiencies may focus limited resources on key areas in an effort to improve public health and decrease global disease burden.

  1. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  2. The global water systems project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, H.; Jaeger, C.; Leveque, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Lins, H.; Meybeck, M.; Niasse, M.; Vorosmarty, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Water System (GWS) plays a central and integrative role in the dynamics of the Earth system. It is a regulator of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, and it is also is essential for sustenance of human societies. The GWS is increasingly modified by humans and through climate effects (facets of it have moved well outside the range of natural variability), without adequate understanding of how the system works. For understanding the changes, feedbacks and potentially critical thresholds within the Earth system, and eventually for better managing the GWS, new synthetic knowledge is required. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) is a new activity being undertaken jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International Geophshere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Program (IHP), and Diversitas. It will address the GWS in a comprehensive fashion at the global scale, building upon the emerging new consolidated Earth systems data sets, global monitoring tools, and predictive and coupled modeling capabilities. The central scientific question that motivates the GWSP is: "How are humans changing the global water cycle, the associated biogeochemical cycles, and the biological components of the GWS, and what are the social feedbacks arising from these changes?" GWSP will be structured around three "framing questions": a) What are the relative magnitudes of global-scale changes in the global water system that are attributable to changing human activities, and to environmental factors such as climate variability and change?; b) What are the main mechanisms by which human activities are affecting the global water system; and c) To what extent is the global water system resilient to global change? Examples of issues that might be addressed under each of these questions are provided.

  3. Satellite power system (SPS) public outreach experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, S.R.

    1980-12-01

    To improve the results of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program, an outreach experiment was conducted. Three public interest groups participated: the L-5 Society (L-5), Citizen's Energy Project (CEP), and the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST). Each group disseminated summary information about SPS to approximately 3000 constituents with a request for feedback on the SPS concept. The objectives of the outreach were to (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept, and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. Due to the combined efforts of all three groups, 9200 individuals/organizations received information about the SPS concept. Over 1500 receipients of this information provided feedback. The response to the outreach effort was positive for all three groups, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS Project Division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The general response to the SPS differed with each group. The L-5 position is very much in favor of SPS; CEP is very much opposed and FASST is relatively neutral. The responses are analyzed, and from the responses some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented in the appendix. (WHK)

  4. Ultrapure Water System for Hemodialysis Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-21

    The Change of Biomarkers CRP, CBC With the Use of Ultra Pure Water System for; Hemodialysis.; The Rate of Adverse Events Such as Hypotension During Hemodialysis Therapy With Ultra Pure Water; System as Compared to Conventional Water System.

  5. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel,...

  6. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel,...

  7. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel,...

  8. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel,...

  9. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel,...

  10. Trihalomethanes in public water supplies and risk of stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Linda; King, Will; Allen, Alexander C; Armson, B Anthony; Fell, Deshayne B; Nimrod, Carl

    2004-03-01

    The chlorine used to disinfect public drinking water supplies reacts with naturally occurring organic matter to form a number of chemical byproducts. Recent studies have implicated exposure to chlorination byproducts in drinking water, trihalomethanes (THMs), in particular, with intrauterine death. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Nova Scotia and Eastern Ontario, Canada, to examine the effect of exposure to THMs on stillbirth risk. Cases were women who had a stillborn infant, and controls were a random sample of women with live births. Subjects were interviewed, and women with a public water source provided a residential water sample. Risks were examined according to residential THM level in tap water and to a total exposure metric incorporating tap water ingestion, showering, and bathing. We enrolled 112 stillbirth cases and 398 live birth controls. Women with a residential total THM level of 80 or more microg/L had twice the risk of a stillbirth compared with women with no exposure to THMs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-4.4). The highest quintile of total THM exposure using the total exposure metric was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.4 (95% CI = 1.2-4.6) compared with women not exposed to THMs. Similar results were seen for specific THM compounds. A monotonic dose-response relationship was not seen. Our results provide evidence for an increased risk of stillbirth associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts through ingestion and showering and bathing, although there was not a clear dose-response relationship.

  11. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America?

  12. Transboundary water resources and public health in the U.S.-Mexico border region

    SciTech Connect

    Varady, R.G.; Mack, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Ambos Nogales Water Project`` represents an interdisciplinary study of water management policy in a community straddling the US-Mexico border. The project was a joint effort undertaken from 1989 through 1993 by the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy at the University of Arizona and El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF) in Nogales, Sonor. Funding was provided by the Ford Foundation. Three key water management issues were the research focus: quantity (water supply), sewerage (water and waste removal), and quality. All three have inseparable linkages with public health. Regarding quantity, the study revealed that entire neighborhoods, especially in Nogales, Sonora, are unsupplied or undersupplied with running water, suggesting negative implications for the health of residents on both sides of the border. Sewerage systems do not reach many neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Even sewered areas are problematic due to breaks in poorly maintained systems, resulting in leaks to the aquifer and threats to groundwater quality. A pilot, water sample survey to assess water quality of area wells revealed significant bacteriologic contamination due to wastewater, elevated nitrate levels, and detectable concentrations of volatile organic compounds, all of which have potentially deleterious health effects. The project database offers an opportunity to analyze environment-related health problems in Ambos Nogales.

  13. Epidemic giardiasis caused by a contaminated public water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, G P; Greenspan, J R; Herndon, J L; Mofenson, L M; Harris, J A; Eng, T R; Waskin, H A

    1988-01-01

    In the period November 1, 1985 to January 31, 1986, 703 cases of giardiasis were reported in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (population 50,265). The community obtained its water from two main reservoirs (A and B) and an auxiliary reservoir (C). Potable water was chlorinated but not filtered. The incidence of illness peaked approximately two weeks after the city began obtaining a major portion of its water from reservoir C, which had not been used for three years. The attack rate of giardiasis for residents of areas supplied by reservoir C was 14.3/1000, compared with 7.0/1000 in areas that received no water from reservoir C. A case-control study showed that persons with giardiasis were more likely to be older and to have drunk more municipal water than household controls. A community telephone survey indicated that over 3,800 people could have had diarrhea that might have been caused by Giardia, and 95 per cent of households were either using alternate sources of drinking water or boiling municipal water. Environmental studies identified Giardia cysts in the water of reservoir C. Cysts were also detected in the two other reservoirs supplying the city, but at lower concentrations. This investigation highlights the risk of giardiasis associated with unfiltered surface water systems. PMID:3276234

  14. Public policy for the use of reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruvold, William H.; Olson, Betty H.; Rigby, Martin

    1981-03-01

    This article documents the general need to reuse water reclaimed from sewage effluents for beneficial purposes and then considers in detail which specific uses will be most beneficial. The analysis begins by describing five levels of wastewater treatment: primary, secondary, tertiary, advanced, and advanced plus complete treatment. Next, five major uses for reclaimed water are identified: groundwater recharge, industrial use, irrigation, recreational lakes, and direct municipal reuse. Subcategories of reuse falling under each of the five major reuse categories are also identified and discussed. The analysis then proceeds to review significant literature available on health and environmental effects, treatment and distribution costs, and public opinion concerns in relation to each of the five major uses and their related subcategories. The paper concludes with a cumulative numerical analysis of the disbenefits associated with each specific type of reuse summed over the health effects, environmental effects, treatment costs, distribution costs, and public opinion concerns. Uses of reclaimed water for industrial purposes and for irrigation of fodder and fiber crops are found to be most beneficial by the analysis here employed, and use for aquifer recharge and direct municipal reuse are found to be least beneficial.

  15. Biosecurity through Public Health System Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Beyeler, Walter E.; Finley, Patrick D.; Arndt, William; Walser, Alex Christian; Mitchell, Michael David

    2016-11-01

    We applied modeling and simulation to examine the real-world tradeoffs between developingcountry public-health improvement and the need to improve the identification, tracking, and security of agents with bio-weapons potential. Traditionally, the international community has applied facility-focused strategies for improving biosecurity and biosafety. This work examines how system-level assessments and improvements can foster biosecurity and biosafety. We modeled medical laboratory resources and capabilities to identify scenarios where biosurveillance goals are transparently aligned with public health needs, and resource are distributed in a way that maximizes their ability to serve patients while minimizing security a nd safety risks. Our modeling platform simulates key processes involved in healthcare system operation, such as sample collection, transport, and analysis at medical laboratories. The research reported here extends the prior art by provided two key compone nts for comparative performance assessment: a model of patient interaction dynamics, and the capability to perform uncertainty quantification. In addition, we have outlined a process for incorporating quantitative biosecurity and biosafety risk measures. Two test problems were used to exercise these research products examine (a) Systemic effects of technological innovation and (b) Right -sizing of laboratory networks.

  16. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  17. Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside Beach: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.

  18. 36 CFR 1192.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.61 Public information system. (a)(1) Requirements. Each vehicle... line identification information. (2) Exception. Where station announcement systems provide...

  19. 49 CFR 38.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public information system. 38.35 Section 38.35... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.35 Public information system. (a... a public address system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech messages,...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a... messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an... speech messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a... messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a... messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or...

  4. 36 CFR 1192.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public information system... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.61 Public information system. (a)(1) Requirements. Each vehicle... line identification information. (2) Exception. Where station announcement systems provide...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an... speech messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a... messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public information system... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.61 Public information system. (a)(1) Requirements. Each vehicle... line identification information. (2) Exception. Where station announcement systems provide...

  8. 49 CFR 38.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.35 Section 38.35... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.35 Public information system. (a... a public address system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech messages,...

  9. 49 CFR 38.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.35 Section 38.35... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.35 Public information system. (a... a public address system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech messages,...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an... speech messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems...

  11. 49 CFR 38.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public information system. 38.35 Section 38.35... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.35 Public information system. (a... a public address system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech messages,...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a... messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.61 Public information system. (a)(1) Requirements. Each vehicle... line identification information. (2) Exception. Where station announcement systems provide...

  14. 49 CFR 38.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public information system. 38.35 Section 38.35... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.35 Public information system. (a... a public address system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech messages,...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public information system... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.61 Public information system. (a)(1) Requirements. Each vehicle... line identification information. (2) Exception. Where station announcement systems provide...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an... speech messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an... speech messages, to announce stations and provide other passenger information. Alternative systems...

  18. Fluoride exposure in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

    PubMed

    Archer, Natalie P; Napier, Thomas S; Villanacci, John F

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas; to date, studies examining this relationship have been equivocal. Using areas with high and low naturally occurring fluoride, as well as areas with optimal fluoridation, we examined a wide range of fluoride levels in public drinking water. This was a population-based case-control study, with both cases and controls obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Eligible cases were Texas children and adolescents <20 years old diagnosed with osteosarcoma between 1996 and 2006. Controls were sampled from children and adolescents diagnosed with either central nervous system (CNS) tumors or leukemia during the same time frame. Using geocoded patient addresses at the time of diagnosis, we estimated patients' drinking water fluoride exposure levels based on the fluoride levels of their residence's public water system (PWS). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association between osteosarcoma and public drinking water fluoride level, adjusting for several demographic risk factors. Three hundred and eight osteosarcoma cases, 598 leukemia controls, and 604 CNS tumor controls met selection criteria and were assigned a corresponding PWS fluoride level. PWS fluoride level was not associated with osteosarcoma, either in a univariable analysis or after adjusting for age, sex, race, and poverty index. Stratified analyses by sex were conducted; no association between PWS fluoride level and osteosarcoma was observed among either males or females. No relationship was found between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood/adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

  19. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more...

  20. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more...

  1. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more...

  2. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more...

  3. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more...

  4. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-03-20

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems.

  5. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must include...

  6. Sustainable public health systems for rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Ferrelli, Rita Maria; Gentile, Amalia Egle; De Santis, Marta; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (RD-ACTION), a specific task was defined to identify mechanisms influencing sustainability, equity and resilience of health systems for rare diseases (RDs). Literature narrative review on health systems sustainability and resilience for RDs. Years: 2000-2015. Databases: PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOHost, EMBAL, PASCAL, EMBASE, STN International and GoogleScholar. interpretive synthesis concept and thematic analysis (Dixon-Wood, et al.). 97 papers and 4 grey literature publications were identified. Two main topics stand out: economic evaluation and networks. The first topic did not identify widely accepted criterion to assign more weight to individuals with greater health needs. Healthcare network are identified as increasingly important for sustainability and resilience, in all of their aspects: professional "expertise", "experience" networks of users and carers; policy, learning, and interest networks. Possible mechanisms for ensuring sustainability can be identified in networking, patients' empowerment and reorienting healthcare towards integrated community and home care.

  7. Quality of Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007Overview of Major Findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings and Implications About 105 million people in the United States-more than one-third of the Nation's population-receive their drinking water from about 140,000 public water systems that use groundwater as their source. Although the quality of finished drinking water (after treatment and before distribution) from these public water systems is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), long-term protection and management of groundwater, a vital source of drinking water, requires an understanding of the occurrence of contaminants in untreated source water. Sources of drinking water are potentially vulnerable to a wide range of man-made and naturally occurring contaminants, including many that are not regulated in drinking water under the SDWA. In this study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), chemical water-quality conditions were assessed in source (untreated) groundwater from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, and in source and finished water from a subset of 94 wells. The public wells are located in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive water-supply aquifers, which constitute about one-half of the principal aquifers in the United States. Although the wells sampled in this study represent less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States, they are widely distributed nationally and were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. All source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations. As a result, the sampled groundwater represents the quality of the source water and not necessarily the quality of finished water ingested by the people served by these public wells. A greater number

  8. A discussion about public health, lead and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water supplies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Michael B; Pokhrel, Lok R; Weir, Mark H

    2017-07-15

    Lead (Pb) in public drinking water supplies has garnered much attention since the outset of the Flint water crisis. Pb is a known hazard in multiple environmental matrices, exposure from which results in long-term deleterious health effects in humans. This discussion paper aims to provide a succinct account of environmental Pb exposures with a focus on water Pb levels (WLLs) in the United States. It is understood that there is a strong correlation between WLLs and blood Pb levels (BLLs), and the associated health effects. However, within the Flint water crisis, more than water chemistry and Pb exposure occurred. A cascade of regulatory and bureaucratic failures culminated in the Flint water crisis. This paper will discuss pertinent regulations and responses including their limitations after an overview of the public health effects from Pb exposure as well as discussion on our limitations on monitoring and mitigating Pb in tap water. As the Flint water crisis also included increased Legionnares' disease, caused by Legionella pneumophila, this paper will discuss factors influencing L. pneumophila growth. This will highlight the systemic nature of changes to water chemistry and public health impacts. As we critically analyze these important aspects of water research, we offer discussions to stimulate future water quality research from a new and systemic perspective to inform and guide public health decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. VIRAL PATHOGENS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-eight public ground-water-supply wells serving less than 3,300 people were sampled from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan to determine (1) occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators, (2) whether indicators are adequate predictors of the...

  10. VIRAL PATHOGENS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-eight public ground-water-supply wells serving less than 3,300 people were sampled from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan to determine (1) occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators, (2) whether indicators are adequate predictors of the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1423 - Public address system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Safety Equipment § 25.1423 Public address system. A public address system required by this chapter must— (a) Be powerable when the aircraft is in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public address system. 25.1423 Section...

  12. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  13. Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Arisona, Stefan Müller; Erath, Alexander; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

  14. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy...

  15. 75 FR 54872 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY... Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking Water...

  16. Benefits of Water Safety Plans: microbiology, compliance, and public health.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Elliott, Mark; Sigmundsdottir, Gudrun; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-07-17

    The Water Safety Plan (WSP) methodology, which aims to enhance safety of drinking water supplies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004. WSPs are now used worldwide and are legally required in several countries. However, there is limited systematic evidence available demonstrating the effectiveness of WSPs on water quality and health. Iceland was one of the first countries to legislate the use of WSPs, enabling the analysis of more than a decade of data on impact of WSP. The objective was to determine the impact of WSP implementation on regulatory compliance, microbiological water quality, and incidence of clinical cases of diarrhea. Surveillance data on water quality and diarrhea were collected and analyzed. The results show that HPC (heterotrophic plate counts), representing microbiological growth in the water supply system, decreased statistically significant with fewer incidents of HPC exceeding 10 cfu per mL in samples following WSP implementation and noncompliance was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001 in both cases). A significant decrease in incidence of diarrhea was detected where a WSP was implemented, and, furthermore, the results indicate that population where WSP has been implemented is 14% less likely to develop clinical cases of diarrhea.

  17. Modelling population growth on public water and sanitation facilities using GIS and statistics: a case study of Aboabo, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Quaye-Ballard, Jonathan Arthur; An, Ru

    2010-10-01

    Effect of population increase on public water and sanitation facilities in densely populated area, Aboabo, Kumasi, Ghana. Town sheet maps, layout and population census data of Aboabo. GPS for observing spatial locations existing water and sanitation facilities and field verification exercise in the study. GIS for building geodatabase, digitization and Cartographic Visualization. Questionnaires were used to collect non-spatial information on the sanitation facilities and all public facilities. GIS and a Statistical Approach have been respectively used to develop cartographic and mathematical models to analyse, predict and visualize the effect of population increase on public water and sewage facilities in densely populated area. The developed mathematical models correlates with the population at each instance to the required number of water accessible points or standing pipes as well as the number of required public toilet (sewage) facilities. The cartographic and mathematical models provides an efficient and effective means of mitigating diseases associated with water and sanitation; and informs planners and assembly members of the effects of increasing population on public facilities for proper future planning and geospatial decision making; and to ensure proper infrastructural management at the community levels. Effective decision support systems for analysing, predicting and visualizing public water and sewage facilities in densely populated area. Draws the awareness of the government, concerned groups and non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) to the extreme detrimental effect that the increase in population has, especially on public water and sewage facilities and how it can be managed at the community level.

  18. Strengthening the performance and effectiveness of the public health system.

    PubMed

    2008-11-01

    Health funders at the national, state, and local levels have made substantial commitments to improve the functionality of the public health system. Using a variety of approaches, they have sought to develop the capabilities, services, and competencies that enhance public health practice. These efforts include developing the operational capacity of public health agencies and raising performance expectations for governmental public health organizations.

  19. Issues concerning spectral analysis of water samples for monitoring and treatment of public water resources.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Lambrakos, S G; Yapijakis, C; Huang, L; Ramsey, S; Shabaev, A; Massa, L; Peak, J

    2014-01-01

    Experimental measurements conducted in the laboratory, involving hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources, have motivated a re-evaluation of issues concerning the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. One issue concerns hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations. This implies a need to better understand the statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. This issue also implies the need to establish correlations between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Another issue concerns the use of absorption spectra to determine changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants after application of water treatments, in order to determine levels of toxicity with respect to the environment. This paper presents a prototype spectral analysis showing various aspects relevant to water monitoring and discusses the use of basic theory for the interpretation of spectral features associated with water contaminants, as well as discussing inverse analysis of hyperspectral measurements.

  20. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  1. Water monitor system: Phase 1 test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic water monitor system was tested with the objectives of assuring high-quality effluent standards and accelerating the practice of reclamation and reuse of water. The NASA water monitor system is described. Various components of the system, including the necessary sensors, the sample collection system, and the data acquisition and display system, are discussed. The test facility and the analysis methods are described. Test results are reviewed, and recommendations for water monitor system design improvement are presented.

  2. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  3. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  4. Variation of 222Rn in public drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Drane, W K; York, E L; Hightower, J H; Watson, J E

    1997-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed regulating 222Rn in public drinking water. When implemented, the regulation will require periodic sampling to demonstrate compliance. The work reported in this paper was conducted to evaluate how reliably grab samples can be used to characterize the average 222Rn concentration in a groundwater source. Periodic samples were collected from 14 wells over sampling periods ranging from 2 to 26 mo. Samples were collected using a "slow-flow" collection method, and samples were analyzed using liquid scintillation techniques. The results reveal variation in 222Rn concentration over the study period; however, for the 1,468 samples collected from the 14 wells, approximately 97% of the measurement results were within 30% of the mean value for the well.

  5. Energy and Environmental Systems Division's publications publications 1968-1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Books, journal articles, conference papers, and technical reports produced by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne National Laboratory are listed in this bibliography. Subjects covered are energy resources (recovery and use); energy-efficient technology; electric utilities, and environments. (MCW)

  6. Atrazine exposure in public drinking water and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, Jessica L; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Golla, Vijay; Browning, Steve; Bush, Heather M

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 13% of all births occur prior to 37 weeks gestation in the U.S. Some established risk factors exist for preterm birth, but the etiology remains largely unknown. Recent studies have suggested an association with environmental exposures. We examined the relationship between preterm birth and exposure to a commonly used herbicide, atrazine, in drinking water. We reviewed Kentucky birth certificate data for 2004-2006 to collect duration of pregnancy and other individual-level covariates. We assessed existing data sources for atrazine levels in public drinking water for the years 2000-2008, classifying maternal county of residence into three atrazine exposure groups. We used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between atrazine exposure and preterm birth, controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, and prenatal care. An increase in the odds of preterm birth was found for women residing in the counties included in the highest atrazine exposure group compared with women residing in counties in the lowest exposure group, while controlling for covariates. Analyses using the three exposure assessment approaches produced odds ratios ranging from 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14, 1.27) to 1.26 (95% CI 1.19, 1.32), for the highest compared with the lowest exposure group. Suboptimal characterization of environmental exposure and variables of interest limited the analytical options of this study. Still, our findings suggest a positive association between atrazine and preterm birth, and illustrate the need for an improved assessment of environmental exposures to accurately address this important public health issue.

  7. 64 FR 18634 - Proposed Ridgewater Water Distribution System Project in Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-04-15

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Proposed Ridgewater Water Distribution System... Improvement District water distribution system in Converse County, Wyoming. In its application, the State... distribution system in Converse County, Wyoming. This water distribution system is a public facility in a...

  8. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the

  9. Moving from intersection to integration: public health law research and public health systems and services research.

    PubMed

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-06-01

    For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Expert commentary. This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health ("infrastructure"); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws ("implementation"); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health ("innovation"). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the usefulness of research in supporting practice and the

  10. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999–2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas SourceWater Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  11. 33 CFR 149.675 - What are the requirements for the public address system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for the public address system? 149.675 Section 149.675 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... Medical Treatment Rooms...

  12. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  13. Lead Concentration Levels In Public Water Sources in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A.; Edel, M.; Tril, E.; Crockett, R.; Moreno, K.; Telles, C.; Rodriguez, F.; Folgar, E.; Ramirez-Tril, J.; Torres, J.; Navarro, J.; Nguyen, R.; Moqadam, S.

    2010-12-01

    To assess the possible risk of lead contamination in drinking water in the Fruitvale neighborhood in Oakland, California we collected samples from different fresh water sources and used an EPA approved method to analyze these samples for lead using a spectrophotometer. Our sample locations included drinking fountains at a school, library and train station, as well as an ornamental fountain in a plaza area. Our preliminary results revealed that 8 out of 11, or about 73% of water samples collected contained lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action level of 15μg/l. Given these preliminary results, there is an urgent need for us to continue further testing to confirm these concentrations, so that we can quickly notify the public and city officials of the risks associated with these drinking water sources within this community. Future sampling will follow a more rigorous collection strategy, which will help determine whether or not initial high lead values detected result from waters having had long residence times in local plumbing systems. If this is in fact the case, we intend to produce information that instructs the public on procedures that can be used to reduce the risk of lead exposure, such as only using water after it has been issuing from sources for specified amounts of time, or using filtration devices.

  14. Water system modeling for dispatcher training simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopal, S.; Sigari, P.G. ); Allen, J.E.; Assadian, M. )

    1993-08-01

    This paper addresses the existing need for training dispatchers in the operation of power systems where it involves managing large water systems. The problem formulation and implementation of water system modeling for the Dispatcher Training Simulators (DTS) are presented in this paper. The method systematically builds the water network descriptions. The model periodically calculates the water system flows, storage values, and currently available hydro generation capacities. The model is controllable by the instructor and provides the simulated telemetry of water system data to the control center functions in the DTS. The water system modeling enhances the power system modeling subsystem of the DTS. The method is validated on a large water system and power system data. The results and the benefits of water system modeling are discussed.

  15. Transformative Approaches and Technologies for Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will advance the transformation of water systems towards a more sustainable future. It will provide EPA with a sustainability assessment framework integrating drinking water, wastewater, and water reuse/resource recovery components, advances in real-time monitoring, ...

  16. Transformative Approaches and Technologies for Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will advance the transformation of water systems towards a more sustainable future. It will provide EPA with a sustainability assessment framework integrating drinking water, wastewater, and water reuse/resource recovery components, advances in real-time monitoring, ...

  17. 49 CFR 38.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public information system. 38.103 Section 38.103... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.103 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  18. 49 CFR 38.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public information system. 38.87 Section 38.87... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.87 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  19. 49 CFR 38.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.103 Section 38.103... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.103 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  20. 49 CFR 38.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public information system. 38.103 Section 38.103... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.103 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  1. 49 CFR 38.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.103 Section 38.103... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.103 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  2. 49 CFR 38.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public information system. 38.103 Section 38.103... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.103 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  3. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.61 Section 38.61... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.61 Public information system. (a... other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are...

  4. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public information system. 38.61 Section 38.61... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.61 Public information system. (a... other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are...

  5. 49 CFR 38.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.87 Section 38.87... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.87 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  6. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.61 Section 38.61... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.61 Public information system. (a... other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are...

  7. 49 CFR 38.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.87 Section 38.87... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.87 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  8. 49 CFR 38.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public information system. 38.87 Section 38.87... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.87 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  9. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public information system. 38.61 Section 38.61... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.61 Public information system. (a... other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are...

  10. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public information system. 38.61 Section 38.61... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.61 Public information system. (a... other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are...

  11. 49 CFR 38.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public information system. 38.87 Section 38.87... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.87 Public information system. (a... information. Alternative systems or devices which provide equivalent access are also permitted. (b)...

  12. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  13. Water Security and Farming Systems: Implications for Advisory Practice and Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Ruth; Paine, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Water issues are a feature of public debate in Australia. The increasing privatisation of water and changes to water allocation systems are resulting in change, often referred to as water "wars" (de Villiers, 1999). The Australian dairy industry uses 25% of the surface irrigation water in Australia. How does a rural industry like…

  14. Water Security and Farming Systems: Implications for Advisory Practice and Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Ruth; Paine, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Water issues are a feature of public debate in Australia. The increasing privatisation of water and changes to water allocation systems are resulting in change, often referred to as water "wars" (de Villiers, 1999). The Australian dairy industry uses 25% of the surface irrigation water in Australia. How does a rural industry like…

  15. Reestablishing Public Health and Land Use Planning to Protect Public Water Supplies

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael; Mayer, Henry; Miller, K. Tyler; Hordon, Robert; Knee, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study measured the extent to which land use, design, and engineering practices could reduce contamination of major public water supplies. Methods. Key parcels of land were identified in New Jersey, and the potential uncontrolled loading of contaminants was estimated with the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment model for a variety of land use, design, and engineering scenarios. Results. High-density per-acre development and engineering controls, along with housing and light commercial activity near main railroads, would substantially reduce runoff. Conclusions. In New Jersey, government and purveyor action is being taken as a result of, and in support of, these findings. PMID:12948974

  16. Technical, Managerial and Financial (TMF) Capacity Resources for Small Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are available to help public water systems build the technical, managerial and financial (TMF) capacity. TMF capacity is necessary to achieve and maintain long-term sustainability and compliance with national safe drinking water regulations.

  17. Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

  18. Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

  19. EPA Team Helps Water Systems Comply with New Bacteria Monitoring Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An EPA team issued nearly 200 Administrative Orders in support of Pennsylvania and Virginia to ensure that small public water systems followed new requirements for more frequent bacteria monitoring of their water supplies.

  20. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  1. Public Health Information Systems: Priorities and Practices for Successful Deployments.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A fast paced workshop designed for senior public health decision makers and clinical leaders implementing information systems to support delivery of public health programs. The tutorial will introduce public health information systems and provide best practices for implementing solutions related to immunization, communicable disease case management and outbreak management. Using a combination of formats, the tutorial will: • Highlight key functionality of public health information systems. • Review global crises currently exposing gaps and deficiencies in public health information. • Examine governance, planning, and implementation priorities. • Highlight considerations supporting implementations nationally and in special populations. • Provide real, actionable lessons learned to take away and apply in the real world.

  2. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy...

  3. A geographic data model for representing ground water systems.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, Gil; Maidment, David R; Jones, Norm L

    2007-01-01

    The Arc Hydro ground water data model is a geographic data model for representing spatial and temporal ground water information within a geographic information system (GIS). The data model is a standardized representation of ground water systems within a spatial database that provides a public domain template for GIS users to store, document, and analyze commonly used spatial and temporal ground water data sets. This paper describes the data model framework, a simplified version of the complete ground water data model that includes two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) object classes for representing aquifers, wells, and borehole data, and the 3D geospatial context in which these data exist. The framework data model also includes tabular objects for representing temporal information such as water levels and water quality samples that are related with spatial features.

  4. Factors that affect public-supply water use in Florida, with a section on projected water use to the year 2020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Public-supply water use in Florida increased 242 percent between 1960 and 1987 from 530 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) to 1,811 Mgal/d. This change is primarily a result of increases in population and tourism since 1960. Public-supply utilities provide water to a variety of users. In 1985, 71 percent of the water used for public supply was delivered for residential uses, 15 percent for commercial uses, 9 percent for industrial uses, and the remaining 5 percent for public use or other uses. Residential use of public-supply water in Florida has increased nearly 280 Mgal/d, but has decreased in the proportion of total deliveries from 80 to 71 percent between 1975 and 1985. This trend resulted from increased tourism and related commercial services associated with population and visitors. One of several factors that influences public-supply water use in Florida is the increase in resident population, which increased from 4.95 million in 1960 to more than 12.0 million in 1987. Additionally, Florida's nonresident population increased from 18.8 million visitors in 1977, to 34.1 million visitors in 1987, and the part of Florida?s population that relies on public-supply water increased from 68 percent in 1960, to 86 percent in 1987. The public supply per capita use was multiplied by the projected populations for each county for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 to forecast public-supply water use. Using medium projections, Florida?s population is expected to increase to nearly 16 million in the year 2000, to 18 million in the year 2010, and to almost 20 million in the year 2020, of which an estimated 13.5 million people will be supplied water from public-supply water systems in the year 2000, 15 million in 2010, and nearly 17 million by the year 2020. Public-supply water use is expected to increase to a projected (medium) 2,310 Mgal/d in the year 2000, 2,610 Mgal/d in the year 2010, and 2,890 Mgal/d in the year 2020. If the population exceeds the medium projections for the

  5. USAF Mobility Program Water Treatment System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    also be necessary. Water treatment systems are presented which can be developed to yield potable water from these sources. The proposed systems can be designed to meet the requirements of the Bare Base Mobility Program. (Author)

  6. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  7. 46 CFR 121.610 - Public address systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.610 Public address systems. (a...

  8. Successful water reuse in open recirculating cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaska, M.; Lee, B.

    1994-12-31

    Water reuse in open recirculating cooling water systems is becoming increasingly prevalent in industry. Reuse can incorporate a number of varied approaches with the primary goal being water conservation. Market forces driving this trend include scarcity of fresh water makeup sources and higher costs associated with pretreatment of natural waters. Utilization of reuse water for cooling tower makeup has especially detrimental effects on corrosion and deposit rates. Additionally, once the reuse water is cycled and treated with inhibitors, dispersants and microbiocides, acceptability for discharge to a public waterway can be a concern. The task for water treatment suppliers is to guide industry in the feasibility and procedures for successfully achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup and explores techniques which have been found especially effective. Case histories are described where these concepts have been successfully applied in practice.

  9. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  10. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  11. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  12. Aquatic vegetation and water pollution control: public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, R

    1978-01-01

    Results obtained from pilot studies and the operation of a plant scale treatment facility located at the Williamson Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant at Austin, Texas, demonstrate that culture of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in shallow earthen basins is effective in the removal of algae, fecal coliform bacteria dn deleterious impurities from wastewater stabilization pond effluent. Stabilization ponds followed by hyacinth culture constitute an economical, low energy treatment system which reduces significantly those potential health hazards associated with wastewaters. Harvested hyacinths represent a useful product which could be converted into compost, or used directly as a soil amendment. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:736183

  13. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  14. A Trend of Systems Development Technologies toward Smart Public Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hirasawa, Shigeki

    Driven by increasing urbanization and serious economic and environmental challenges, what is called smart grid and smart cities, the transformation to smart public infrastructure system will require technological progress. This paper presents an emerging trend of the systems development and a framework of systems technologies to achieve the smart public infrastructure of the future.

  15. A silver ion water sterilization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Small amounts of silver are incorporated in mixture of ion exchange resins, and water passing through this mixture is thus exposed to silver ion concentration. System is useful in self-contained water systems except city water systems where residual chlorine level is stipulated.

  16. Monitoring systems for community water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  17. Physico-Chemical and Bacterial Evaluation of Public and Packaged Drinking Water in Vikarabad, Telangana, India - Potential Public Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Rao, Koppula Yadav; Anjum, Mohammad Shakeel; Reddy, Peddireddy Parthasarathi; Monica, Mocherla; Hameed, Irram Abbass; Sagar, Goje Vidya

    2016-05-01

    Humanity highly depends on water and its proper utilization and management. Water has various uses and its use as thirst quenching fluid is the most significant one. To assess physical, chemical, trace metal and bacterial parameters of various public and packaged drinking water samples collected from villages of Vikarabad mandal. Public and packaged drinking water samples collected were analysed for various parameters using American Public Health Association (APHA 18(th) edition 1992) guidelines and the results obtained were compared with bureau of Indian standards for drinking water. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlations were done. Among bottled water samples, magnesium in 1 sample was >30mg/litre, nickel in 2 samples was >0.02mg/litre. Among sachet water samples, copper in 1 sample was >0.05mg/litre, nickel in 2 samples was >0.02mg/litre. Among canned water samples, total hardness in 1 sample was >200mg/litre, magnesium in 3 samples was >30mg/litre. In tap water sample, calcium was >75mg/litre, magnesium was >30mg/litre, nickel was >0.02mg/litre. Among public bore well water samples, pH in 1 sample was >8.5, total dissolved solids in 17 samples was >500mg/litre, total alkalinity in 9 samples was >200mg/litre, total hardness in 20 samples was >200mg/litre, calcium in 14 samples was >75mg/litre, fluoride in 1 sample was >1mg/litre, magnesium in 14 samples was >30mg/litre. Total coliform was absent in bottled water, sachet water, canned water, tap water samples. Total Coliform was present but E. coli was absent in 4 public bore well water samples. The MPN per 100 ml in those 4 samples of public bore well water was 50. Physical, chemical, trace metal and bacterial parameters tested in present study showed values greater than acceptable limit for some samples, which can pose serious threat to consumers of that region.

  18. Physico-Chemical and Bacterial Evaluation of Public and Packaged Drinking Water in Vikarabad, Telangana, India - Potential Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Koppula Yadav; Anjum, Mohammad Shakeel; Reddy, Peddireddy Parthasarathi; Monica, Mocherla; Hameed, Irram Abbass

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Humanity highly depends on water and its proper utilization and management. Water has various uses and its use as thirst quenching fluid is the most significant one. Aim To assess physical, chemical, trace metal and bacterial parameters of various public and packaged drinking water samples collected from villages of Vikarabad mandal. Materials and Methods Public and packaged drinking water samples collected were analysed for various parameters using American Public Health Association (APHA 18th edition 1992) guidelines and the results obtained were compared with bureau of Indian standards for drinking water. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlations were done. Results Among bottled water samples, magnesium in 1 sample was >30mg/litre, nickel in 2 samples was >0.02mg/litre. Among sachet water samples, copper in 1 sample was >0.05mg/litre, nickel in 2 samples was >0.02mg/litre. Among canned water samples, total hardness in 1 sample was >200mg/litre, magnesium in 3 samples was >30mg/litre. In tap water sample, calcium was >75mg/litre, magnesium was >30mg/litre, nickel was >0.02mg/litre. Among public bore well water samples, pH in 1 sample was >8.5, total dissolved solids in 17 samples was >500mg/litre, total alkalinity in 9 samples was >200mg/litre, total hardness in 20 samples was >200mg/litre, calcium in 14 samples was >75mg/litre, fluoride in 1 sample was >1mg/litre, magnesium in 14 samples was >30mg/litre. Total coliform was absent in bottled water, sachet water, canned water, tap water samples. Total Coliform was present but E. coli was absent in 4 public bore well water samples. The MPN per 100 ml in those 4 samples of public bore well water was 50. Conclusion Physical, chemical, trace metal and bacterial parameters tested in present study showed values greater than acceptable limit for some samples, which can pose serious threat to consumers of that region. PMID:27437248

  19. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Floridan Aquifer System Near Tampa, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Temple Terrace, Florida, northeast of Tampa. The well selected for study typically produces water at the rate of 700 gallons per minute from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the supply well. Samples of untreated water from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents nitrate, arsenic, uranium, radon-222, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although all were detected at concentrations less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Temple Terrace: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) short-circuiting of contaminated water through sinkholes; (3) natural geochemical processes within the aquifer; and (4) pumping stress. Although the public-supply well is completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer, it produces water with concentrations of nitrate, VOCs, and the natural contaminant radon that are intermediate between the typical composition of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and that of the overlying surficial aquifer system. Mixing calculations show that the water produced by the public-supply well could consist of upwards of 50 percent water from the surficial aquifer system mixed with water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Anthropogenically affected water from the surficial aquifer system travels rapidly to depth through sinkholes that must be directly connected to the cavernous zone intersected by the public-supply well (and several other production wells in the region). Such solution features serve as fast pathways to the well and circumvent the natural attenuation of nitrate and

  20. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  1. Assuring a strong foundation for our nation's public health systems.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Zahner, Susan J; Kulbok, Pamela; Merrill, Jacqueline; Kub, Joan

    A strong public health infrastructure is necessary to assure that every community is capable of carrying out core public health functions (assessment of population health, assurance of accessible and equitable health resources, and development of policies to address population health) to create healthy conditions. Yet, due to budget cuts and inconsistent approaches to base funding, communities are losing critical prevention and health promotion services and staff that deliver them. This article describes key components of and current threats to our public health infrastructure and suggests actions necessary to strengthen public health systems and improve population health. National nursing and public health organizations have a duty to advocate for policies supporting strong prevention systems, which are crucial for well-functioning health care systems and are fundamental goals of the nursing profession. We propose strengthening alliances between nursing organizations and public health systems to assure that promises of a reformed health system are achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Community drinking water quality monitoring data: utility for public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Graber, Judith M; Anderson, Robert; Rockne, Karl; Turyk, Mary; Stayner, Leslie T

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) tracks the occurrence and magnitude of environmental hazards and associated adverse health effects over time. The EPHT program has formally expanded its scope to include finished drinking water quality. Our objective was to describe the features, strengths, and limitations of using finished drinking water quality data from community water systems (CWSs) for EPHT applications, focusing on atrazine and nitrogen compounds in 8 Midwestern states. Water quality data were acquired after meeting with state partners and reviewed and merged for analysis. Data and the coding of variables, particularly with respect to censored results (nondetects), were not standardized between states. Monitoring frequency varied between CWSs and between atrazine and nitrates, but this was in line with regulatory requirements. Cumulative distributions of all contaminants were not the same in all states (Peto-Prentice test P < .001). Atrazine results were highly censored in all states (76.0%-99.3%); higher concentrations were associated with increased measurement frequency and surface water as the CWS source water type. Nitrate results showed substantial state-to-state variability in censoring (20.5%-100%) and in associations between concentrations and the CWS source water type. Statistical analyses of these data are challenging due to high rates of censoring and uncertainty about the appropriateness of parametric assumptions for time-series data. Although monitoring frequency was consistent with regulations, the magnitude of time gaps coupled with uncertainty about CWS service areas may limit linkage with health outcome data.

  3. Methods of rating unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics of public water supplies in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, Jo Leslie; Weaver, J.C.; Terziotti, Silvia; Midgette, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Overlay and index methods were derived for rating the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes. The rating of the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics represents a practical and effective means of assessing part of the inherent vulnerability of water supplies to potential contamination. Factors that influence the inherent vulnerability of the drinking water supply to potential contamination were selected and assigned ratings (on a scale of 1 to 10) to cover the possible range of values in North Carolina. These factors were assigned weights of 1, 2, or 3 to reflect their relative influence on the inherent vulnerability of the drinking water supply. The factor values were obtained from Geographic Information System data layers, and were transformed into grids having 60-meter by 60-meter cells, with each cell being assigned a value. Identification of factors, the development of ratings for each, and assignment of weights were based on (1) a literature search, which included examination of potential factors and their effects on the drinking water; and (2) consultation with experts in the science and engineering of hydrology, geology, forestry, agriculture, and water management. Factors selected for rating the inherent vulnerability of the unsaturated zone are vertical hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, land cover, and land use. Vertical hydraulic conductance is a measure of the capacity of unsaturated material to transmit water. Land-surface slope influences whether precipitation runs off land surfaces or infiltrates into the subsurface. Land cover, the physical overlay of the land surface, influences the amount of precipitation that becomes overland flow or infiltrates into the subsurface. Land use describes activities that occur on the land surface and influence the potential generation of nonpoint

  4. 43 CFR 4120.3-9 - Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... grazing on public lands. Any right that the United States acquires to use water on public land for the purpose of livestock watering on public land will be acquired, perfected, maintained, and administered...

  5. 43 CFR 4120.3-9 - Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... grazing on public lands. Any right that the United States acquires to use water on public land for the purpose of livestock watering on public land will be acquired, perfected, maintained, and administered...

  6. 43 CFR 4120.3-9 - Water rights for the purpose of livestock grazing on public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... grazing on public lands. Any right that the United States acquires to use water on public land for the purpose of livestock watering on public land will be acquired, perfected, maintained, and administered...

  7. Muddy perceptions/dirty water: messages for clearing the visions of the public and the powerful.

    PubMed

    Ross, Steven S

    2002-01-01

    Globalism does not usually work when it comes to spreading the word about water! There is no one formula for explaining water issues to the public or to public officials. Sometimes you should go to reporters. Sometimes you should focus on educating editors. Sometimes you concentrate on educating teachers, sometimes the business community, bureaucrats or elected officials. Sometimes your message concentrates on fisheries, sometimes health, sometimes tourism. Often, you will want to emphasize something else--even sales of genetic material that might be dependent on biodiversity. In short, your message must be adapted to the local circumstance. Your methodology will depend on whether you must stimulate immediate action, or whether you have the luxury of pushing a longer-term message. The Web opens many new possibilities. Cost of Web distribution is low. The Web offers a combination of many effective storytelling tools such as audio, video, and animation. Multi-lingual materials are easier to prepare than for film. But at this stage of Web development it may be more efficient to provide material to existing publications' Web sites and to NGOs and official sites, than to establish special stand-alone Web sites. I propose a "resource" Web site for those who have responsibility for water projects. The site would contain articles and explanatory material provided by media organizations, attracted by a modest contest-and-prize system.

  8. OVERVIEW OF WATER MICROBIOLOGY AS IT RELATES TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most important aspects of water microbiology is that we acquire numerous diseases from microorganisms found in water. Some of these diseases represent intoxications. One category of intoxication comes from drinking water which contains toxins produced by cyanobacteria ...

  9. OVERVIEW OF WATER MICROBIOLOGY AS IT RELATES TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most important aspects of water microbiology is that we acquire numerous diseases from microorganisms found in water. Some of these diseases represent intoxications. One category of intoxication comes from drinking water which contains toxins produced by cyanobacteria ...

  10. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  11. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  12. A national research agenda for public health services and systems.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    The field of public health services and systems research (PHSSR) has emerged over the past decade to produce the evidence needed to address critical uncertainties about how best to organize, finance, and deliver effective public health strategies to all Americans. To advance these efforts, a national PHSSR research agenda-setting process was used to identify a broad inventory of information needs and uncertainties that public health stakeholders face in the domains of public health workforce, public health system structure and performance, public health financing, and public health information and technology. This paper presents the results of an expert review process used to transform the identified information needs into a concise set of research questions that can be pursued through new scientific inquiry in PHSSR. Established research frameworks were used to specify the contexts, mechanisms of action, and outcomes within the public health system that require further study. A total of 72 research questions were developed from the 113 original items in the PHSSR inventory of information needs. The questions include both persistent problems and newly emerging needs in public health practice and policy. The resulting research agenda provides a starting point for mobilizing the public health scientific enterprise around contemporary, high-priority uncertainties identified by broad cross sections of public health stakeholders. Regular updates to this agenda will be required to achieve continuous improvements in both the science and practice of public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. A Community Publication and Dissemination System for Hydrology Education Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hosted by CUAHSI and the Science Education Resource Center (SERC), federated by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL), and allied with the Water Data Center (WDC), Hydrologic Information System (HIS), and HydroShare projects, a simple cyberinfrastructure has been launched for the publication and dissemination of data and model driven university hydrology education materials. This lightweight system's metadata describes learning content as a data-driven module with defined data inputs and outputs. This structure allows a user to mix and match modules to create sequences of content that teach both hydrology and computer learning outcomes. Importantly, this modular infrastructure allows an instructor to substitute a module based on updated computer methods for one based on outdated computer methods, hopefully solving the problem of rapid obsolescence that has hampered previous community efforts. The prototype system is now available from CUAHSI and SERC, with some example content. The system is designed to catalog, link to, make visible, and make accessible the existing and future contributions of the community; this system does not create content. Submissions from hydrology educators are eagerly solicited, especially for existing content.

  14. Methods of Conserving Heating Energy Utilized in Thirty-One Public School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathy Eggers

    The Memphis City School System was notified by Memphis Light, Gas, and Water that it was necessary to reduce its consumption of natural gas during the winter of 1975-76. A survey was developed and sent to 44 large public school systems to determine which methods of heating energy conservation were used most frequently and which methods were most…

  15. Methods of Conserving Heating Energy Utilized in Thirty-One Public School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathy Eggers

    The Memphis City School System was notified by Memphis Light, Gas, and Water that it was necessary to reduce its consumption of natural gas during the winter of 1975-76. A survey was developed and sent to 44 large public school systems to determine which methods of heating energy conservation were used most frequently and which methods were most…

  16. Energy optimization of water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Energy costs associated with pumping treated water into the distribution system and boosting water pressures where necessary is one of the largest expenditures in the operating budget of a municipality. Due to the size and complexity of Detroit`s water transmission system, an energy optimization project has been developed to better manage the flow of water in the distribution system in an attempt to reduce these costs.

  17. Monitoring Design for Source Identification in Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of sensor networks for the purpose of monitoring for contaminants in water distribution systems is currently an active area of research. Much of the effort has been directed at the contamination detection problem and the expression of public health protection objective...

  18. URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

  19. URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

  20. Monitoring Design for Source Identification in Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of sensor networks for the purpose of monitoring for contaminants in water distribution systems is currently an active area of research. Much of the effort has been directed at the contamination detection problem and the expression of public health protection objective...

  1. Development of integrated water information system as a support tool in water management in slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Globevnik, L.; Brilly, M.

    2003-04-01

    The integral digital information on the waters of Slovenia is developed. This is a system of aggregated, verified and logically integrated information on the state of waters in Slovenia, the pressures on the water environments and its protection. Data sources are national information evidence and monitoring systems managed by public service organisations and other expert institutions. The information system is a source for planning in water management, environmental state reporting, and performance indicators evaluation. It is based on country based catchment register. The system incorporates 31 information thematic layers that are organised in the DPSIR (driving forces, pressure, state, impact, and response) system. Data for the information themes are organised with the AutoCad MAP 4.5 GIS tool and prepared for browsing with Internet.

  2. Practical Challenges of Systems Thinking and Modeling in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Trochim, William M.; Cabrera, Derek A.; Milstein, Bobby; Gallagher, Richard S.; Leischow, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Awareness of and support for systems thinking and modeling in the public health field are growing, yet there are many practical challenges to implementation. We sought to identify and describe these challenges from the perspectives of practicing public health professionals. Methods. A systems-based methodology, concept mapping, was used in a study of 133 participants from 2 systems-based public health initiatives (the Initiative for the Study and Implementation of Systems and the Syndemics Prevention Network). This method identified 100 key challenges to implementation of systems thinking and modeling in public health work. Results. The project resulted in a map identifying 8 categories of challenges and the dynamic interactions among them. Conclusions. Implementation by public health professionals of the 8 simple rules we derived from the clusters in the map identified here will help to address challenges and improve the organization of systems that protect the public’s health. PMID:16449581

  3. BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

  4. BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

  5. 76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection and...

  6. Publications and the peer review system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The peer review process as it relates to scientific publications in entomological journals is facing a number of serious issues that must be addressed. Among those issues are the increasing submissions from international authors writing in English as a second or third language, manuscripts lacking s...

  7. Total trihalomethanes in public drinking water supply and birth outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjaya; Forand, Steve; Babcock, Gwen; Richter, Wayne; Hart, Thomas; Hwang, Syni-An

    2014-05-01

    Reproductive effects of long-term, low-dose exposure to disinfectant by-products have not been consistently documented in large populations despite the known toxicity of high exposures and the wide-spread occurrence of low concentrations in public drinking water. We investigated the effect of low-dose exposure to total trihalomethanes (TTHM) on birth weight and gestational term in New York State. All singleton live births from 1998 through 2003 in 62 counties in New York State were linked with public water supply (PWS) system boundaries based on mother's residential address on birth certificate. Using the data from public water supply system, TTHM measurements were assigned geographically and temporally to each birth record linked with PWS boundary. Individual level maternal information including mother's race, ethnicity, education, employment status, smoking, age, along with adequacy of prenatal care utilization and infant's gender was used in a logistic model to adjust for potential confounding. A small non-linear association was detected between TTHM exposure and low birth weight (<2,500 g) births (OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.21), preterm births (OR 1.14; 95 % CI 1.08-1.20) and for small for gestational age births (OR 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04-1.16) suggesting a small increase in risk for these birth outcomes with chronic low maternal exposure to drinking water containing trihalomethanes. Maternal exposure to TTHMs during pregnancy may be associated with low birth weight, preterm births and small for gestational age births.

  8. Public outcomes: Building a 21st century national innovation system that serves the public

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.; Carayannis, E.

    1997-09-01

    Federal R and D must be principally focused on solving public problems that the marketplace is failing to address. With few exceptions programs must be supported by roadmaps that show how the R and D is linked to public outcomes. Federal R and D and those who perform it must be judged in terms of the public outcomes. The overarching issues of federal R and D policy, what it should address, how to manage it, who should perform it, how to perform it, what works best, etc. are highly complex and lack a strong theoretical foundation. (In fact, the linear, assembly-line model used by policymakers is wrong.) It is time that policymakers recognize and acknowledge the uncertainty of their work and conduct a wide array of policy experiments (the authors consider SEMATECH such an experiment) that are supported by public outcome metrics. In addition to making federal R and D better address public needs, such an approach to policy making could raise the public`s interest in T and S policy. Of course, as in any experiment the results may be measured and if failures aren`t observed, it is likely that policies lack vision and imagination. It is time to abandon the budget driven federal R and D system where performers of federal R and D are treated as constituents, and replace it with a public problem--public outcome driven system where public problems are prioritized and the budget is distributed to agencies according to these priorities.

  9. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies.

    PubMed

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L; Boone, J Scott; Furlong, Edward T; Glassmeyer, Susan T; Kolpin, Dana W; Mash, Heath E; Schenck, Kathleen M; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2017-02-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  11. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  12. Silver disinfection in water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestry Rodriguez, Nadia

    Silver was evaluated as disinfectant to maintain water quality in water distribution system. It was used to inhibit growth of two opportunistic bacteria in planktonik form and in biofilm formation in Robbins devices with stainless steel and PVC surfaces. The results of this work show that silver is a potential secondary disinfectant to be used in water distribution systems.

  13. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    PubMed

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  14. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  15. Radioactivity in Oklahoma's public water supplies, 1977-80

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, R.L.; Bateman, M.; Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    The average concentrations of radioactivity found in drinking water samples collected in Oklahoma between 1977 and 1980 are tabulated by county. Only those water supplies for which at least three samples were analyzed are listed. Water supplies with radioactivity that exceeded the standards are that supplied by the town of Afton in Ottawa County and that supplied by Deek Creek Water Corporation in Oklahoma. Work has begun on locating new sources of water with acceptable levels of radioactivity. (JGB)

  16. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  17. Re-vitalizing public health care systems: a proposal for public competition in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Saltman, R B; von Otter, C

    1987-02-01

    This article examines the health policy opportunities presented by building market-style incentives into the structure of a national public health system. The goal is to develop a service delivery model which can achieve simultaneously high levels of patient service, economic efficiency and social responsibility. The article develops its "public competition" approach implicitly, through a detailed case study of the Swedish health care system. The broad theory appears to hold promise for a variety of existing and emerging national public health systems in Europe.

  18. Power System Operations With Water Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, F.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The interdependency between water and energy, although known for many decades, has not received enough attention until recent events under extreme weather conditions (especially droughts). On one hand, water and several types of energy supplies have become increasingly scarce; the demand on water and energy continues to grow. On the other hand, the climate change has become more and more disruptive (i.e., intensity and frequency of extreme events), causing severe challenges to both systems simultaneously. Water and energy systems have become deeply coupled and challenges from extreme weather events must be addressed in a coordinated way across the two systems.In this work, we will build quantitative models to capture the interactions between water and energy systems. We will incorporate water constraints in power system operations and study the impact of water scarcity on power system resilience.

  19. Implementing slab solar water heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveendran, S. K.; Shen, C. Q.

    2015-08-01

    Water heating contributes a significant part of energy consumption in typical household. One of the most employed technologies today that helps in reducing the energy consumption of water heating would be conventional solar water heating system. However, this system is expensive and less affordable by most family. The main objective of this project is to design and implement an alternative type of solar water heating system that utilize only passive solar energy which is known as slab solar water heating system. Slab solar water heating system is a system that heat up cold water using the solar radiance from the sun. The unique part of this system is that it does not require any form of electricity in order to operate. Solar radiance is converted into heat energy through convection method and cold water will be heated up by using conduction method [1]. The design of this system is governed by the criteria of low implementation cost and energy saving. Selection of material in the construction of a slab solar water heating system is important as it will directly affect the efficiency and performance of the system. A prototype has been built to realize the idea and it had been proven that this system was able to provide sufficient hot water supply for typical household usage at any given time.

  20. Participatory environmental governance in China: public hearings on urban water tariff setting.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li-Jin; Mol, Arthur P J

    2008-09-01

    In the late 1990s China started to expand its market economic reform to the public sector, such as water services. This reform led to major changes in urban water management, including water tariff management. The reforms in water tariff management relate not only to tariffs, but also to the decision-making on tariffs. Water tariff decision-making seems to move away from China's conventional mode of highly centralized and bureaucratic policy- and decision-making. The legalization, institutionalization and performance of public hearings in water tariff management forms a crucial innovation in this respect. This article analyzes the emergence, development and current functioning of public hearings in water tariff setting, and assesses to what extent public hearings are part of a turning point in China's tradition of centralized bureaucratic decision-making, towards more transparent, decentralized and participative governance.

  1. Public health delivery systems: evidence, uncertainty, and emerging research needs.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Smith, Sharla A; Ingram, Richard C; Racster, Laura J; Lamberth, Cynthia D; Lovely, Emma S

    2009-03-01

    The authors review empirical studies published between 1990 and 2007 on the topics of public health organization, financing, staffing, and service delivery. A summary is provided of what is currently known about the attributes of public health delivery systems that influence their performance and outcomes. This review also identifies unanswered questions, highlighting areas where new research is needed. Existing studies suggest that economies of scale and scope exist in the delivery of public health services, and that key organizational and governance characteristics of public health agencies may explain differences in service delivery across communities. Financial resources and staffing characteristics vary widely across public health systems and have expected associations with service delivery and outcomes. Numerous gaps and uncertainties are identified regarding the mechanisms through which organizational, financial, and workforce characteristics influence the effectiveness and efficiency of public health service delivery. This review suggests that new research is needed to evaluate the effects of ongoing changes in delivery system structure, financing, and staffing.

  2. 78 FR 52561 - Public Land Order No. 7820; Partial Modification, Public Water Reserve No. 107; Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... lands withdrawn from settlement, sale, location, or entry under the public land laws, including location... for a land exchange in accordance with Public Law 111-53 (123 Stat. 1982) and Section 206 of the... exchange pursuant to Public Law 111-53 (123 Stat. 1982) and Section 206 of the Federal Land Policy...

  3. Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

    2009-07-01

    According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

  4. Characterization of E. coli and total coliform organisms isolated from Wisconsin Waters and Reassessment of their public health significance

    SciTech Connect

    Standridge, J.; Barman, M.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    In 1989 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated Revised National Primary Drinking Water Regulations pursuant to the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. For Wisconsin, the law drastically increased the number of water systems required to test for microbiological contaminants. The law also introduced the requirement that laboratories not only look for the {open_quotes}total coliform{close_quotes} group of bacteria, but also the subgroup of fecal coliforms or E. coli are found and thus dictates public notification or {open_quotes}boil water orders.{close_quotes} The number of microbiological contamination events detected and the frequency of {open_quotes}boil{close_quotes} orders has increased drastically because of the Act. Concurrent with this increased visibility of microbiological contamination events has come a growing suspicion that we, as public health officials, may be unnecessarily alarming the public when, in fact, there is no real public health threat. This suspicion if fueled by recent reports documenting a number of situations in wells and distribution systems where coliform organisms were growing and multiplying in biofilms yielding positive tests, but where no fecal contamination had actually occurred. The fact that the profile of coliform species found in drinking water is very different from the coliform profile of feces, also leads one to question the significance of total coliform presence in potable water.

  5. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  6. HAWQS (Hydrologic and Water Quality System)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A water quantity and quality modeling system to evaluate the impacts of management alternatives, pollution control scenarios, and climate change scenarios on the quantity and quality of water at a national scale.

  7. Microbial water quality communication: public and practitioner insights from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dunn, G; Henrich, N; Holmes, B; Harris, L; Prystajecky, N

    2014-09-01

    This work examines the communication interactions of water suppliers and health authorities with the general public regarding microbial source water quality for recreational and drinking water. We compare current approaches to risk communication observable in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with best practices derived from the communications literature, finding significant gaps between theory and practice. By considering public views and government practices together, we identify key disconnects, leading to the conclusion that at present, neither the public's needs nor public health officials' goals are being met. We find: (1) there is a general lack of awareness and poor understanding by the public of microbial threats to water and the associated health implications; (2) the public often does not know where to find water quality information; (3) public information needs are not identified or met; (4) information sharing by authorities is predominantly one-way and reactive (crisis-oriented); and (5) the effectiveness of communications is not evaluated. There is a need for both improved public understanding of water quality-related risks, and new approaches to ensure information related to water quality reaches audiences. Overall, greater attention should be given to planning and goal setting related to microbial water risk communication.

  8. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced life support subsystems for long range planning in support of earth orbital programs. Cost analysis are presented for five leading water reclamation systems; (1) RITE waste management-water system;(2) reverse osmosis system;(3) multifiltration system;(4) vapor compression system; and(5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  9. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  10. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  11. Mapping of volatile organic chemicals in New Jersey water systems.

    PubMed

    Cohn, P; Savrin, J; Fagliano, J

    1999-01-01

    To characterize volatile organic chemical (VOC) contamination in public water in New Jersey from 1978 through 1990, detailed GIS maps were developed, along with descriptive text and an associated contaminant database, broken into half-year periods. All water providers that served more than 500 service connections were mapped. Contamination status for nine VOCs, including total trihalomethanes (THMs), was estimated for about 90% of the state's population. Many water systems were partitioned into smaller subsystems in order to map service areas that were more homogeneous with regard to water quality in order to minimize exposure misclassification. Data used for this work included test results taken by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection or the water utilities (raw, plant, and distribution system samples), an analysis of probable water use and water flow (based on pumpage, population, system architecture, and advice from the water systems), and information on service area extensions during the period. Using GIS applications, these maps and databases were used to estimate the size of the population exposed to contaminants over time, demonstrating a dramatic decrease in exposed population after the New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act was signed in 1984.

  12. Public Transport Information System for Visually Impaired and Blind People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, Michał; Skomorowski, Marek

    This paper presents an assistive system for the visually impaired and blind people which helps them using public transport means. The proposed system uses mobile phones as a medium for passenger information system and GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and Bluetooth technologies for location and communication purposes. In the proposed system sound messages are given to the blind people via mobile phones which have dedicated software installed. This system has been implemented and tested in public transport in two pilot cities.

  13. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  14. Providing information promotes greater public support for potable recycled water.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Kelly S; Roiko, Anne H

    2014-09-15

    In spite of the clear need to address water security through sourcing new and alternative water supplies, there has been marked resistance from some communities to the introduction of recycled water for potable use. The present studies tested the effectiveness of providing relatively brief information about the recycled water process and the safety of recycled water on cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses. Three information conditions (basic information or basic information plus information about pollutants in the water, or information that puts the risk of chemicals in the water in perspective) were compared to a no information control condition. Across three experiments there was general support for the hypothesis that providing information would result in more positive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses to recycled water. Information increased comfort with potable recycled water and, in general, participants in the information conditions expressed more positive emotions (Experiment 1 & 3), less negative emotions (Experiment 3), more support (Experiment 1 & 3), and lower risk perceptions (Experiment 1 & 3) than those in the no information control condition. Participants who received information also drank more recycled water than control participants (Experiment 1 & 2, although the differences between conditions was not statistically significant) and were significantly more likely to vote in favor of the introduction of a recycled water scheme (Experiment 3). There was evidence, however, that providing information about the level of pollutants in recycled water may lead to ambivalent responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public health in England in 2016-the health of the public and the public health system: a review.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the current state of the health of the public in England and the state of the public health professional service and systems. Data sources are wide ranging including the Global Burden of Disease, the Commonwealth Fund and Public Health England reports. There is a high burden of preventable disease and unacceptable inequalities in England. There is considerable expectation that there are gains to be made in preventing ill health and disability and so relieving demand on healthcare. Despite agreement on the need for prevention, the Government has cut public health budgets by a cumulative 10% to 2020. Public health professionals broadly supportive of remaining in the EU face an uphill battle to retain health, workplace and environmental protections following the 'Leave' vote. There is revitalized interest in air pollution. Extreme weather events are testing response and organizational skills of public health professionals and indicating the need for greater advocacy around climate change, biodiversity and protection of ecological systems. Planetary health and ecological public health are ideas whose time has certainly come.

  16. The Political System. SSEC Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, David

    The systems analysis of political life might be used as a basis for teaching about the political process in all grades, including elementary school. A political system is part of an intra-societal environment including ecological, biological, personality, economic, cultural, and other systems, all operating in society and bound by an…

  17. Measuring the Value of Public Health Systems: The Disconnect Between Health Economists and Public Health Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Peter D.; Palmer, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ways of defining and measuring the value of services provided by governmental public health systems. Our data sources included literature syntheses and qualitative interviews of public health professionals. Our examination of the health economic literature revealed growing attempts to measure value of public health services explicitly, but few studies have addressed systems or infrastructure. Interview responses demonstrated no consensus on metrics and no connection to the academic literature. Key challenges for practitioners include developing rigorous, data-driven methods and skilled staff; being politically willing to base allocation decisions on economic evaluation; and developing metrics to capture “intangibles” (e.g., social justice and reassurance value). Academic researchers evaluating the economics of public health investments should increase focus on the working needs of public health professionals. PMID:18923123

  18. Effects of Forest and Grassland Management On Drinking Water Quality for Public Water Supplies:A Review And Synthesis of the Scientific Literature - Review Draft

    Treesearch

    George E. Dissmeyer

    1999-01-01

    The Importance of Safe Public Drinking Water The United States Congress justified passing the Safe Drinking Water Amendments (SDWA) of 1996 (P. L. 104-182) by stating "safe drinking water is essential to the protection of public health".For 50 years the basic axiom for public health protection has been safe drinking water...

  19. [Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems].

    PubMed

    Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements.

  20. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition.