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Sample records for publicly funded school-based

  1. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  2. A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M.; Naus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. Methods and Findings All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008–June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1–67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1–89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1–87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a

  3. 45 CFR 2516.600 - How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are funds for school-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2516.600 How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed? (a)...

  4. 45 CFR 2516.600 - How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are funds for school-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2516.600 How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed? (a)...

  5. 45 CFR 2516.600 - How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are funds for school-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2516.600 How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed? (a)...

  6. 45 CFR 2516.600 - How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are funds for school-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2516.600 How are funds for school-based service-learning programs distributed? (a)...

  7. Funding, technical assistance, and other resources for school-based health centers.

    PubMed

    Washington, Deidre M; Brey, Laura C

    2005-12-01

    To facilitate the successful implementation of school-based health centers (SBHCs), funding streams and technical assistance are needed from various resources. The core funding models for service delivery include federal grants, state grants, local funding, community partnerships, foundations, and patient revenue. Technical assistance opportunities are available through professional organizations, SBHC associations, state health departments, and primary care associations at the national and state levels. This article explores the various federal, state, and local funding sources, and the technical assistance resources and opportunities available to SBHCs and their staff.

  8. Toward Teen Health. The Ounce of Prevention Fund School-Based Adolescent Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…

  9. The Alaska Public School Fund: A Permanent Fund for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, E. Dean

    This paper examines the development of Alaska's Public School Fund, its current status, and its potential as a major revenue source for elementary and secondary education. The fund, which was created following the 1915 federal school lands grant to Alaska, is examined for the 1916-58 territorial period, the 1959-78 early statehood period, and the…

  10. Public funding for abortion where broadly legal.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Daniel; Grindlay, Kate; Burns, Bridgit

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to investigate public funding policies for abortion in countries with liberal or liberally interpreted laws (defined as permitting abortion for economic or social reasons or upon request). In May 2011-February 2012 and June 2013-December 2014, we researched online resources and conducted an email-based survey among reproductive health experts to determine countries' public funding policies for abortion. We categorized countries as follows: full funding for abortion (provided for free at government facilities, covered under state-funded health insurance); partial funding (partially covered by the government, covered for certain populations based on income or nonincome criteria, or less expensive in public facilities); funding for exceptional cases (rape/incest/fetal impairment, health/life of the woman or other limited cases) and no public funding. We obtained data for all 80 countries meeting inclusion criteria. Among the world's female population aged 15-49 in countries with liberal/liberally interpreted abortion laws, 46% lived in countries with full funding for abortion (34 countries), 41% lived in countries with partial funding (25 countries), and 13% lived in countries with no funding or funding for exceptional cases only (21 countries). Thirty-one of 40 high-income countries provided full funding for abortion (n=20) or partial funding (n=11); 28 of 40 low- to middle-income countries provided full (n=14) or partial funding for abortion (n=14). Of those countries that did not provide public funding for abortion, most provided full coverage of maternity care. Nearly half of countries with liberal/liberally interpreted abortion laws had public funding for abortion, including most countries that liberalized their abortion law in the past 20 years. Outliers remain, however, including among developed countries where access to abortion may be limited due to affordability. Since cost of services affects access, country policies regarding public

  11. Genomics research: world survey of public funding.

    PubMed

    Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Cook-Deegan, Robert M

    2008-10-10

    Over the past two decades, genomics has evolved as a scientific research discipline. Genomics research was fueled initially by government and nonprofit funding sources, later augmented by private research and development (R&D) funding. Citizens and taxpayers of many countries have funded much of the research, and have expectations about access to the resulting information and knowledge. While access to knowledge gained from all publicly funded research is desired, access is especially important for fields that have broad social impact and stimulate public dialogue. Genomics is one such field, where public concerns are raised for reasons such as health care and insurance implications, as well as personal and ancestral identification. Thus, genomics has grown rapidly as a field, and attracts considerable interest. One way to study the growth of a field of research is to examine its funding. This study focuses on public funding of genomics research, identifying and collecting data from major government and nonprofit organizations around the world, and updating previous estimates of world genomics research funding, including information about geographical origins. We initially identified 89 publicly funded organizations; we requested information about each organization's funding of genomics research. Of these organizations, 48 responded and 34 reported genomics research expenditures (of those that responded but did not supply information, some did not fund such research, others could not quantify it). The figures reported here include all the largest funders and we estimate that we have accounted for most of the genomics research funding from government and nonprofit sources. Aggregate spending on genomics research from 34 funding sources averaged around $2.9 billion in 2003-2006. The United States spent more than any other country on genomics research, corresponding to 35% of the overall worldwide public funding (compared to 49% US share of public health research

  12. Genomics Research: World Survey of Public Funding

    PubMed Central

    Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Cook-Deegan, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, genomics has evolved as a scientific research discipline. Genomics research was fueled initially by government and nonprofit funding sources, later augmented by private research and development (R&D) funding. Citizens and taxpayers of many countries have funded much of the research, and have expectations about access to the resulting information and knowledge. While access to knowledge gained from all publicly funded research is desired, access is especially important for fields that have broad social impact and stimulate public dialogue. Genomics is one such field, where public concerns are raised for reasons such as health care and insurance implications, as well as personal and ancestral identification. Thus, genomics has grown rapidly as a field, and attracts considerable interest. Results One way to study the growth of a field of research is to examine its funding. This study focuses on public funding of genomics research, identifying and collecting data from major government and nonprofit organizations around the world, and updating previous estimates of world genomics research funding, including information about geographical origins. We initially identified 89 publicly funded organizations; we requested information about each organization's funding of genomics research. Of these organizations, 48 responded and 34 reported genomics research expenditures (of those that responded but did not supply information, some did not fund such research, others could not quantify it). The figures reported here include all the largest funders and we estimate that we have accounted for most of the genomics research funding from government and nonprofit sources. Conclusion Aggregate spending on genomics research from 34 funding sources averaged around $2.9 billion in 2003 – 2006. The United States spent more than any other country on genomics research, corresponding to 35% of the overall worldwide public funding (compared to 49% US

  13. Public School Funding in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Enid Beverly

    This brief report describes funding structures for public schools in North Carolina. It is divided into three sections: state, local, and federal. Following are some highlights from the report. Overall, the state provides 70 percent of school funding, with most of the money designated for professional salaries. The state average per pupil…

  14. Examining Equity in Texas Public School Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Wayne; Jones, Timothy B.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the level of equity of the public school funding system in Texas that in September of 2004 was held to be unconstitutional by a state district judge. The study also introduces a mechanism, referred to as the Revenue-to-Population Index or RTP Index, which compares funding equity within the unconstitutional system among 1031…

  15. Public Funds and Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kenneth H.

    Financial and survival problems facing private colleges, unless the state governments make major changes in the way public education is financed, are discussed in this speech. The gap between the cost of attending public and private institutions is growing, at least for families with incomes above the median. Many of the best academic colleges and…

  16. Public Funds and Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kenneth H.

    Financial and survival problems facing private colleges, unless the state governments make major changes in the way public education is financed, are discussed in this speech. The gap between the cost of attending public and private institutions is growing, at least for families with incomes above the median. Many of the best academic colleges and…

  17. Does Public Funding for Higher Education Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2006-01-01

    This study uses panel data to examine the direct link between state funding and graduation rates at four-year public institutions. When other factors are held constant, a $1,000 increase in state appropriations per FTE student at four-year public institutions is associated with about a one percentage point increase in graduation rates. This…

  18. Private Funds for Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael F.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses sources of nontraditional revenue for public school systems: the result of donor activities (the solicitation of goods, services, and money via direct and indirect donations); enterprise activities (the selling or leasing of services or facilities); and shared or cooperative activities (pooling functions with other agencies or…

  19. Should uterus transplants be publicly funded?

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Williams, Nicola Jane

    2016-01-01

    Since 2000, 11 human uterine transplantation procedures (UTx) have been performed across Europe and Asia. Five of these have, to date, resulted in pregnancy and four live births have now been recorded. The most significant obstacles to the availability of UTx are presently scientific and technical, relating to the safety and efficacy of the procedure itself. However, if and when such obstacles are overcome, the most likely barriers to its availability will be social and financial in nature, relating in particular to the ability and willingness of patients, insurers or the state to pay. Thus, publicly funded healthcare systems such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS) will eventually have to decide whether UTx should be funded. With this in mind, we seek to provide an answer to the question of whether there exist any compelling reasons for the state not to fund UTx. The paper proceeds as follows. It assumes, at least for the sake of argument, that UTx will become sufficiently safe and cost-effective to be a candidate for funding and then asks, given that, what objections to funding there might be. Three main arguments are considered and ultimately rejected as providing insufficient reason to withhold funding for UTx. The first two are broad in their scope and offer an opportunity to reflect on wider issues about funding for infertility treatment in general. The third is narrower in scope and could, in certain forms, apply to UTx but not other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). The first argument suggests that UTx should not be publicly funded because doing so would be inconsistent with governments’ obligations to prevent climate change and environmental pollution. The second claims that UTx does not treat a disorder and is not medically necessary. Finally, the third asserts that funding for UTx should be denied because of the availability of alternatives such as adoption and surrogacy. PMID:26670671

  20. Performance-Based Funding in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Charles A.; Marquart, Deanna J.

    This report examines three performance-based funding (PBF) plans: (1) merit pay for teachers and/or administrators; (2) career ladders; and (3) formula-driven incentive payments to schools. The report contends that present-day problems in public schools result largely from the organizational structure of the educational enterprise. Being based on…

  1. School-Based Service Use by Youth with ADHD in Public-Sector Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Lambros, Katina M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates rates and predictors of school-based services (SBSs) for 390 youth meeting criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and served in the San Diego public sectors. Only 60% of youth had received an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis; these youth were younger, male, Caucasian (versus Latino), and…

  2. Funding Students, Not Units: Moving Alabama from a Regressive Public School Funding State to a Progressive Public School Funding State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Two independent studies conducted by Baker, Sciarra, and Farrie (2015) and Augenblick, Palaich and Associates (2015) reveal Alabama's public school funding mechanism to be regressive and inequitable. The recommendation from both of these studies is to develop a funding formula including per pupil-based allocation and supplemental categorical…

  3. Should uterus transplants be publicly funded?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Williams, Nicola Jane

    2016-09-01

    Since 2000, 11 human uterine transplantation procedures (UTx) have been performed across Europe and Asia. Five of these have, to date, resulted in pregnancy and four live births have now been recorded. The most significant obstacles to the availability of UTx are presently scientific and technical, relating to the safety and efficacy of the procedure itself. However, if and when such obstacles are overcome, the most likely barriers to its availability will be social and financial in nature, relating in particular to the ability and willingness of patients, insurers or the state to pay. Thus, publicly funded healthcare systems such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS) will eventually have to decide whether UTx should be funded. With this in mind, we seek to provide an answer to the question of whether there exist any compelling reasons for the state not to fund UTx. The paper proceeds as follows. It assumes, at least for the sake of argument, that UTx will become sufficiently safe and cost-effective to be a candidate for funding and then asks, given that, what objections to funding there might be. Three main arguments are considered and ultimately rejected as providing insufficient reason to withhold funding for UTx. The first two are broad in their scope and offer an opportunity to reflect on wider issues about funding for infertility treatment in general. The third is narrower in scope and could, in certain forms, apply to UTx but not other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). The first argument suggests that UTx should not be publicly funded because doing so would be inconsistent with governments' obligations to prevent climate change and environmental pollution. The second claims that UTx does not treat a disorder and is not medically necessary. Finally, the third asserts that funding for UTx should be denied because of the availability of alternatives such as adoption and surrogacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  4. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  5. State Funding Formulas for Public Four-Year Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Mary P.

    This article reviews the development of state funding formulas or guidelines for public higher education. Originally viewed as a means to distribute public funds in a rational and equitable manner, they now are complicated methodologies. Funding formulas are all-inclusive or itemized; most states use the itemized approach. There are three…

  6. Using Registered Dental Hygienists to Promote a School-Based Approach to Dental Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wellever, Anthony; Kelly, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    We examine a strategy for improving oral health in the United States by focusing on low-income children in school-based settings. Vulnerable children often experience cultural, social, economic, structural, and geographic barriers when trying to access dental services in traditional dental office settings. These disparities have been discussed for more than a decade in multiple US Department of Health and Human Services publications. One solution is to revise dental practice acts to allow registered dental hygienists increased scope of services, expanded public health delivery opportunities, and decreased dentist supervision. We provide examples of how federally qualified health centers have implemented successful school-based dental models within the parameters of two state policies that allow registered dental hygienists varying levels of dentist supervision. Changes to dental practice acts at the state level allowing registered dental hygienists to practice with limited supervision in community settings, such as schools, may provide vulnerable populations greater access to screening and preventive services. We derive our recommendations from expert opinion. PMID:28661808

  7. Using Registered Dental Hygienists to Promote a School-Based Approach to Dental Public Health.

    PubMed

    Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Wellever, Anthony; Kelly, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    We examine a strategy for improving oral health in the United States by focusing on low-income children in school-based settings. Vulnerable children often experience cultural, social, economic, structural, and geographic barriers when trying to access dental services in traditional dental office settings. These disparities have been discussed for more than a decade in multiple US Department of Health and Human Services publications. One solution is to revise dental practice acts to allow registered dental hygienists increased scope of services, expanded public health delivery opportunities, and decreased dentist supervision. We provide examples of how federally qualified health centers have implemented successful school-based dental models within the parameters of two state policies that allow registered dental hygienists varying levels of dentist supervision. Changes to dental practice acts at the state level allowing registered dental hygienists to practice with limited supervision in community settings, such as schools, may provide vulnerable populations greater access to screening and preventive services. We derive our recommendations from expert opinion.

  8. Public University Trustees: New Expertise Needed as Funding Diversifies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John; Tuby, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    A long-term decline in state-government funding and an increase in funds from other sources are creating the need for broader types of expertise on boards of public universities. Public universities are becoming increasingly market-driven and consequently must deal with a broader base of stakeholders. As a result of these changes, public boards…

  9. Public University Trustees: New Expertise Needed as Funding Diversifies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John; Tuby, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    A long-term decline in state-government funding and an increase in funds from other sources are creating the need for broader types of expertise on boards of public universities. Public universities are becoming increasingly market-driven and consequently must deal with a broader base of stakeholders. As a result of these changes, public boards…

  10. Integrating Equity in a Public Health Funding Strategy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Kristy T; Rice, Ketra; Li, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Equity can be valuable to guide decision makers about where to target funds; however, there are few studies for modeling vertical equity in public health program funding strategies. This case study modeled vertical equity in the funding strategy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Control Program. To integrate vertical equity by using historical funding and health data, we (a) examined the need for colorectal cancer screening, (b) conducted multiple regressions to examine the relationship between factors of need and funding of states, (c) stratified states into similar need groups, (d) estimated vertical equity within groups, and (e) assessed equity in the funding distribution. Certain states with similar needs had high relative funding, whereas other states with similar needs had low relative funding. The methods used to integrate vertical equity in this case study could be applied in publicly funded programs to potentially minimize inequities and improve outcomes.

  11. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  12. Improving the Odds: Increasing the Effectiveness of Publicly Funded Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Burt S., Ed.; King, Christopher T., Ed.

    This book, which is intended for policymakers, administrators, and researchers, contains 13 research papers and reviews of the literature on increasing the effectiveness of publicly funded training. The following papers are included: "Publicly Funded Training in a Changing Labor Market" (Burt S. Barnow, Christopher T. King); "The…

  13. Teachers' Organisational Behaviour in Public and Private Funded Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honingh, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach: A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 per cent and 43 per cent respectively) distributed…

  14. Public and Private Funding Alternatives. Series Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Brian A.; Moreau, Arthur J.

    The paper identifies public and private sources of funding for handicapped children's projects. Section 1 explores public sources of funding at the federal, state, and local levels. For each source identified, the eligible population and local or state contact person is provided. Among program sources described are the Division of Innovation and…

  15. Improving the Odds: Increasing the Effectiveness of Publicly Funded Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Burt S., Ed.; King, Christopher T., Ed.

    This book, which is intended for policymakers, administrators, and researchers, contains 13 research papers and reviews of the literature on increasing the effectiveness of publicly funded training. The following papers are included: "Publicly Funded Training in a Changing Labor Market" (Burt S. Barnow, Christopher T. King); "The…

  16. The "Rules" Still Rule: The Failure of School-Based Management/Shared Decision-Making (SBM/SDM) in the New York City Public School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fager, John C.

    This study finds that the New York City version of school-based decision making, School-Based Management/Shared Decision Making (SBM/SDM), fails to bring school-based management or shared decision making to the schools. This report begins by describing the seriously dysfunctional structure of the New York City public schools and explains the…

  17. Public funding for contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1994.

    PubMed

    Sollom, T; Gold, R B; Saul, R

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, federal and state funding for contraceptive services and supplies reached +715 million. Funding totaled +148 million for contraceptive sterilization and +90 million for abortion services. According to a survey of state health, Medicaid and social service agencies, reported spending on contraceptive services and supplies increased by 11% between 1992 and 1994. In the same period, spending under Title X rose by 37%, making it the third largest public funding source for contraceptive services and supplies. The largest source of public funds for family planning services continues to be the joint federal-state Medicaid program. Medicaid family planning expenditures increased by only 4% between 1992 and 1994, a sizable decrease in growth from previous years. State funds continue to be the second largest source, providing almost one-quarter of reported public expenditures in 1994. The maternal and child health and social services block grants remain relatively minor sources of support nationally, although in a handful of states they provide the majority of public-sector funds. State governments were virtually the sole source of public support for the 203,200 abortions provided in 1994 to low-income women. Despite the loosening of federal abortion funding criteria in FY 1994 permitting payment in cases of rape and incest, federally funded abortions numbered only 282.

  18. Indian Education: Funding Sources for Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockart, Barbetta L.

    Although provisions in countless treaties have mandated Indian educational services, federal and state governments were for many years unenthusiastic about accepting the responsibility for educating the Indian people. Inadequately funded educational services provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs did little to reflect the realities and needs of…

  19. Private Giving versus State Funding: Perspectives on Funding of Maryland 4-Year Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between and among the changes in the level of institutional fundraising and changes in state funding at Maryland public 4-year institutions. As institutions have become more engaged in fundraising, the impact of private giving success on changes in state funding becomes more apparent in the context of increased…

  20. Evaluating public health resources: what happens when funding disappears?

    PubMed

    Freedman, Ariela M; Kuester, Sarah A; Jernigan, Jan

    2013-11-14

    Although various factors affect the sustainability of public health programs, funding levels can influence many aspects of program continuity. Program evaluation in public health typically does not assess the progress of initiatives after discontinuation of funding. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of funding loss following expiration of a 5-year federal grant awarded to state health departments for development of statewide obesity prevention partnerships. The study used qualitative methods involving semistructured key informant interviews with state health departments. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis for effect of funding loss on staffing, programs, partnerships, and implementation of state plans. Many of the programs that continued to run after the grant expired operated at reduced capacity, either reaching fewer people or conducting fewer program activities for the same population. Although many states were able to leverage funding from other sources, this shift in funding source often resulted in priorities changing to meet new funding requirements. Evaluation capacity suffered in all states. Nearly all states reported losing infrastructure and capacity to communicate widely with partners. All states reported a severe or complete loss of their ability to provide training and technical assistance to partners. Despite these reduced capacities, states reported several key resources that facilitated continued work on the state plan. Decisions regarding continuation of funding are often dependent on budget constraints, evidence of success, and perceived ability to succeed in the future. Evaluating public health funding decisions may help guide development of best practice strategies for supporting long-term program success.

  1. Searching for the Public: School Funding and Shifting Meanings of "The Public" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Jessica; Savage, Glenn C.; O'Connor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    School funding is a principal site of policy reform and contestation in the context of broad global shifts towards private- and market-based funding models. These shifts are transforming not only how schools are funded but also the meanings and practices of public education: that is, shifts in what is "public" about schooling. In this…

  2. The Education Foundation. Raising Private Funds for Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Luna, Phyllis

    1995-01-01

    In Oregon, many schools and school districts are turning to private funding to help sustain and enrich the quality of education in their districts. Their vehicle of choice: the local education foundation (LEF). This report describes the nature of private fund raising for public schools and examines its uses as a partial remedy for budget…

  3. Local Public Library Funding in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudy, Frank William; Altman, Ellen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses public library revenues as a reflection of the general economic cycle during the 1980s. Public library expenditures and total local government expenditures from 1966 to 1990 are examined; percentage increases in library spending are compared with other specific city and county expenditures; and academic versus public library funding is…

  4. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…

  5. The danger of declining funds: Public Health Preparedness in NYC.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Monica; Patel, Prachee; Raphael, Marisa; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) has built a strong public health preparedness foundation, made possible in large part by funding from the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While this funding has allowed NYC DOHMH to make great progress in areas such as all-hazards planning, risk communication, disease surveillance, and lab capacity, the erosion of federal preparedness dollars for all-hazards preparedness has the potential to reverse these gains. Since the initiation of the PHEP grant in 2002, PHEP funding has steadily declined nationwide. Specifically, the total federal allocation has decreased approximately 20%, from $862,777,000 in 2005 to $688,914,546 in 2009. With city and state budgets at an all-time low, federal funding cuts will have a significant impact on public health preparedness programs nationwide. In this time of strict budgetary constraints, the nation would be better served by strategically awarding federal preparedness funds to areas at greatest risk. The absence of risk-based funding in determining PHEP grant awards leaves the nation's highest-risk areas, like New York City, with insufficient resources to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies. This article examines the progress New York City has made and what is at stake as federal funding continues to wane.

  6. Estimating Local Food Capacity in Publicly Funded Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Andrew J.; Chopra, Hema M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents three approaches to estimate the size of the publicly funded institutional marketplace to determine what opportunities exist for local farmers and fishers. First, we found that estimates from national foodservice sales statistics over-estimate local capacity opportunities. Second, analyzing budgets of publicly funded…

  7. The Use of Population Projections to Allocate Public Funds,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    reviews recent efforts on the part of several federal agencies to apply demographic forecasting to federal assistance. These efforts reflect a growing...state-local relations. If projected population is to become a factor for the allocation of public funds, then certain questions should be answered before...allocate federal assistance funds. Indeed, considering the generally dismal record of demographic forecasting, one might wonder why anyone would even

  8. Key Issues Affecting School-Based Health Centers and Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Julia Graham; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Because public support for establishing school-based health centers has outstripped the provision of stable funding mechanisms, this article addresses possibilities of using patient care revenue, especially Medicaid, as a component of a long-term funding strategy. Experiences of various state governments authorizing schools to bill Medicaid are…

  9. Recent trends in oropharyngeal cancer funding and public interest.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Michael A; Svider, Peter F; Tenbrunsel, Troy; Vellaichamy, Gautham; Yoo, George H; Fribley, Andrew M; Raza, S Naweed

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has increased in the United States. This has been driven by an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive OPC. Our objective is to determine trends in National Institutes (NIH)-supported research funding and public interest in OPC. The NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools database was evaluated for projects related to OPC between 2004 and 2015. Projects were evaluated for total funding, relation to HPV, principal investigator departmental affiliation and degree, and NIH agency or center responsible for grant. The Google Trends database was evaluated for relative Internet search popularity of oropharyngeal cancer and related search terms between 2004 and 2015. In terms of NIH funding, 100 OPC-related projects representing 242 grant years and $108.5 million were funded between 2004 and 2015. Total NIH funding for OPC projects increased from $167,406 in 2004 to $16.2 million in 2015. Funding for HPV-related OPC increased from less than $2 million yearly between 2004 and 2010 up to $12.7 million in 2015. Principal investigators related to radiation oncology ($41.8 million) and with doctor of medicine degrees ($52.8 million) received the largest share of total funding. Relative Internet search popularity for oropharyngeal cancer has increased from 2004 to 2015 compared to control cancer search terms. Increased public interest and NIH funding has paralleled the rising incidence of OPC. NIH funding has been driven by projects related to the role of HPV in OPC. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:1345-1350, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. School-Based Mental Health Services in Post-Disaster Contexts: A Public Health Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Overstreet, Stacy; Summerville, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Large scale natural disasters pose serious risks to mental health and simultaneously wreak havoc on the very systems called upon to ameliorate those risks. School-based mental health services have been identified as a potential mechanism through which gaps in service delivery systems can be addressed in post-disaster environments. We believe that…

  11. School-Based Management: The Changing Locus of Control in American Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Darrel; Levin, Douglas

    School-based management is a reinvention and countermovement to a broader historical trend to centralize and standardize American education. The present study represents one component of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's project to investigate how schools in 12 member nations can most effectively respond to recent…

  12. School-Based Mental Health Services in Post-Disaster Contexts: A Public Health Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Overstreet, Stacy; Summerville, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Large scale natural disasters pose serious risks to mental health and simultaneously wreak havoc on the very systems called upon to ameliorate those risks. School-based mental health services have been identified as a potential mechanism through which gaps in service delivery systems can be addressed in post-disaster environments. We believe that…

  13. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment of public funds; other uses... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or... be paid to the Secretary. Any net loss from an investment or other use of public funds will...

  14. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment of public funds; other uses... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or... be paid to the Secretary. Any net loss from an investment or other use of public funds will...

  15. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Investment of public funds; other uses resulting... § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or any... paid to the Secretary. Any net loss from an investment or other use of public funds will be...

  16. Federal Funding Sources for Public Job Creation Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clifford M.; Savner, Steve

    This overview on potential funding sources describes three major federal programs that can provide a financing base for public job creation initiatives serving hard-to-employ welfare recipients and non-custodial parents. Section I is an introduction. Section II focuses on the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) block grant. Section III…

  17. Factors Affecting Funding and Citation Rates in Information Science Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.; Hooten, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that examined articles in the "Journal of the American Society for Information Science" from 1972 to 1974 to determine the relationship between funding and other variables for publications in information science. Other variables examined included the subject of the article, institutional affiliation of authors, and…

  18. Public School Funding Formula Task Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Legislative Council Service, Santa Fe.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of a study of New Mexico's financing of education. A task force, created in 1995 by the state legislature, was charged with reviewing public school funding for the purpose of introducing legislation to reform the system. For the study, hired consultants reviewed historical documents, held…

  19. Full State Funding: The Risks for Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lionel

    Many states have found that financing public schools through local property taxes is unlawful under their state constitutions; as a result, they must consider using state tax revenue as the primary source of local school-district funding. The recent California experience provides a sample of political economic behaviors used to respond to the…

  20. State Tax Capacity and Funding of Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Kent

    Quantitative measurements help with understanding the mechanics involved and the role of philosophy in legislative actions. Identification of the key factors and the sequence of decisions is a basic approach to the mechanics of state funding of public higher education. Charts are used to graphically illustrate the relationships and individual…

  1. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  2. Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.

  3. Time to publication for publicly funded clinical trials in Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Linn Beate; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the length of time between receiving funding and publishing the protocol and main paper for randomised controlled trials. Design An observational study using survival analysis. Setting Publicly funded health and medical research in Australia. Participants Randomised controlled trials funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia between 2008 and 2010. Main outcome measures Time from funding to the protocol paper and main results paper. Multiple variable survival models examining whether study characteristics predicted publication times. Results We found 77 studies with a total funding of $A59 million. The median time to publication of the protocol paper was 6.4 years after funding (95% CI 4.1 to 8.1). The proportion with a published protocol paper 8 years after funding was 0.61 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.74). The median time to publication of the main results paper was 7.1 years after funding (95% CI 6.3 to 7.6). The proportion with a published main results paper 8 years after funding was 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.87). The HRs for how study characteristics might influence timing were generally close to one with narrow CIs, the notable exception was that a longer study length lengthened the time to the main paper (HR=0.62 per extra study year, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.89). Conclusions Despite the widespread registration of clinical trials, there remain serious concerns of trial results not being published or being published with a long delay. We have found that these same concerns apply to protocol papers, which should be publishable soon after funding. Funding agencies could set a target of publishing the protocol paper within 18 months of funding. PMID:28336734

  4. Barriers and Facilitators to School-Based Parent Involvement for Parents of Urban Public Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Finigan-Carr, Nadine; Jones, Vanya; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Using semistructured interviews, we explored barriers and facilitators to school-based parent involvement (SBPI) in a sample of predominately African American parents (N = 44) whose children attended urban public middle schools. Barriers to SBPI (e.g., perceptions of hostile parent–teacher interactions and aggressive, disrespectful students in the school) were more commonly reported than facilitators (e.g., child invitations for involvement). Findings suggest that parents’ motivations for engaging in SBPI may be undermined by a variety of barriers, resulting in low participation. Implications and tailored strategies for enhancing SBPI in this population are presented. PMID:27088049

  5. Implementing School-Based Services: Strategies from New Mexico's School-Based Health and Extended Learning Services. Research-to-Results Practitioners Insights. Publication #2009-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ashleigh; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Paisano-Trujillo, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners and policy makers from throughout New Mexico convened in Albuquerque in May 2008 for three Roundtable discussions on implementing school-based health services and extended learning opportunities in the state. Several of the Roundtable participants were involved in the New Mexico Community Foundation's Elev8 New Mexico initiative.…

  6. Implementing School-Based Services: Strategies from New Mexico's School-Based Health and Extended Learning Services. Research-to-Results Practitioners Insights. Publication #2009-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ashleigh; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Paisano-Trujillo, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners and policy makers from throughout New Mexico convened in Albuquerque in May 2008 for three Roundtable discussions on implementing school-based health services and extended learning opportunities in the state. Several of the Roundtable participants were involved in the New Mexico Community Foundation's Elev8 New Mexico initiative.…

  7. Medicaid coverage and access to publicly funded opiate treatment.

    PubMed

    Deck, Dennis D; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Laws, Katherine E

    2006-07-01

    This observational study examines changes in access to methadone maintenance treatment following Oregon's decision to remove substance abuse treatment from the Medicaid benefit for an expansion population. Access was compared before and after the benefit change for two cohorts of adults addicted to opiates presenting for publicly funded treatment. Propensity score analysis helped model some selective disenrollment from Medicaid that occurred after the benefit change. Logistic regression was used to compare access to methadone by cohort controlling for client characteristics. Opiate users presenting for publicly funded treatment after the change were less than half as likely (OR = 0.40) to be placed in an opiate treatment program compared to the prior year. Further analysis revealed that those with no recent treatment history were less likely to present for treatment after the benefit change. These results have implications for states considering Medicaid cuts, especially if the anticipated increases in illegal activity, emergency room utilization, unemployment, and mortality can be demonstrated.

  8. Inequity in Illinois: How Illogical School Funding Has Eroded Public Education. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    People For the American Way, 2004

    2004-01-01

    While there are many factors that determine the quality of a public school, inequitable and insufficient school funding is a major obstacle to improving public education for all children. When it comes to funding public education, Illinois has a serious problem. Not only does the state limit its commitment to adequately fund public schools, but it…

  9. Legislative Funding of Athletic Training Positions in Public Secondary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Barton P.; Okasaki, Eric M.; McCarthy, Michael R.; Ho, Kwok W.

    1995-01-01

    In 1991, approximately 21 000 student athletes were actively participating in organized athletics in Hawaii's 61 (38 public and 23 private) secondary schools. Of the 61 schools, only 5 (all private) employed full-time, NATABOC-certified athletic trainers (ATCs) to facilitate the sports health care of their respective student athletes. In an attempt to convince the state legislature that providing funding to hire ATCs was a primary health and safety issue in the state, a community-based educational platform was established and a twofold needs-assessment study was implemented statewide. The educational platform was aimed at parents, coaches, athletic directors, and school administrators. The needs-assessment studies consisted of a 30-question survey on the current practices of sports health care and a year-long injury surveillance survey within the 38 public secondary schools. There were significant differences between the public and private schools with respect to the practice of sports health care. The public school student athletes demonstrated a normative incidence of injury rate. These findings definitively quantified and qualified the need to hire ATCs in the public secondary schools. In July of 1993, the State of Hawaii funded a 2-year athletic training pilot program for approximately $1.2 million, following an extensive lobbying effort and media campaign. PMID:16558321

  10. Funding Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Attal-Juncqua, Aurelia; Fischer, Julie E

    2017-09-01

    The historical precedents that support state and local leadership in preparedness for and response to disasters are in many ways at odds with the technical demands of preparedness and response for incidents affecting public health. New and revised laws and regulations, executive orders, policies, strategies, and plans developed in response to biological threats since 2001 address the role of the federal government in the response to public health emergencies. However, financial mechanisms for disaster response-especially those that wait for gubernatorial request before federal assistance can be provided-do not align with the need to prevent the spread of infectious agents or efficiently reduce the impact on public health. We review key US policies and funding mechanisms relevant to public health emergencies and clarify how policies, regulations, and resources affect coordinated responses.

  11. Funding Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Attal-Juncqua, Aurelia; Fischer, Julie E.

    2017-01-01

    The historical precedents that support state and local leadership in preparedness for and response to disasters are in many ways at odds with the technical demands of preparedness and response for incidents affecting public health. New and revised laws and regulations, executive orders, policies, strategies, and plans developed in response to biological threats since 2001 address the role of the federal government in the response to public health emergencies. However, financial mechanisms for disaster response—especially those that wait for gubernatorial request before federal assistance can be provided—do not align with the need to prevent the spread of infectious agents or efficiently reduce the impact on public health. We review key US policies and funding mechanisms relevant to public health emergencies and clarify how policies, regulations, and resources affect coordinated responses. PMID:28892446

  12. School-based deworming programme in Sanliurfa, Turkey: changing from externally funding phase to self-sufficient phase.

    PubMed

    Ulukanligil, Mustafa

    2008-06-01

    In Sanliurfa, Turkey, externally funded temporary deworming activities have led to an internally funded self-sufficient programme in 2004-05 academic year. A total of 200,000 doses of mebendazole were distributed to schoolchildren, absentee children and small children and women through both schools and health centres. We interviewed 64 representative teachers, 82 administrative teachers, 112 schoolchildren and 108 parents using questionnaires, department interviews and focus groups discussions. We also collected 162 stool samples from third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren and examined them using the Kato-Katz technique. The evaluation of second year's of deworming program indicated that the programme's methodology of training representative teachers to play a major role in organizing the activities within schools and liaising with health staff was found to be successful by most of the teachers. The results showed that 85.2% of the women had benefited from the extended anthelmintic coverage. A total of 67.4% of them received the drugs from schools and 10.9% obtained them from health centres. The prevalence of helmintic infection had declined from 77 to 35% in shantytown schoolchildren and from 53 to 6.4% in apartment schoolchildren. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura decreased from 63.2 to 17% and from 16.8 to 1.1%, respectively, in schoolchildren. The results also indicated that 53.5% of the schoolchildren changed over to clean habits and began to use soap after using the toilet. The evaluation of the second year's deworming programme showed that the programme was sustainable and there was no risk of the programme being discontinued. Political commitment was obtained from the local business community, academic sector, the local governmental administrations and the city municipality. These organizations realized the programme's rapid and clear benefits and collaborated in a multipartners' programme. The cost of treatment per child was $0

  13. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  14. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity) may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI) and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI) at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02). The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who were overweight or obese

  15. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  16. 78 FR 44982 - Public Inquiry on Competitive Products Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... representing the Net Income after Tax from the Postal Service Fund to the Competitive Products Fund. Id. at... Net Income before Tax from the Postal Service Fund to the Competitive Products Fund so that the... Service Fund. Id. Therefore, on January 10, 2013, the Postal Service transferred the FY 2012 Net Income...

  17. Boston's Rapid Expansion of Public School-Based Preschool: Promoting Quality, Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Jason; Weiland, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In his 2005 State of the City address, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino directed the Boston Public Schools (BPS) to "provide all 4-year-olds in the city with full-day school within five years." There were several reasons for this commitment, including an emerging consensus that early childhood education makes a positive difference in long-term…

  18. Boston's Rapid Expansion of Public School-Based Preschool: Promoting Quality, Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Jason; Weiland, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In his 2005 State of the City address, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino directed the Boston Public Schools (BPS) to "provide all 4-year-olds in the city with full-day school within five years." There were several reasons for this commitment, including an emerging consensus that early childhood education makes a positive difference in long-term…

  19. School-Based Management and Citizen Participation: Lessons for Public Education from Local Educational Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santizo Rodall, Claudia A.; Martin, Christopher James

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses changes that have occurred in the elementary education system in Mexico since 1992 when an administrative de-concentration process took place. This process was accompanied by legal modifications that created opportunities for social participation in public elementary schools affairs. As a result, some school communities in…

  20. Adequate Yearly Progress as a Means of Funding Public Elementary and Secondary Education for Impoverished Students: Florida Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escue, Carlee Poston

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to address the public policy of adequacy by the creation of a Florida state-wide poverty index model to assist in the distribution of state and local dollars in funding public education. This poverty index model would measure the amount and severity of poverty in every public school within the state each year and…

  1. Adequate Yearly Progress as a Means of Funding Public Elementary and Secondary Education for Impoverished Students: Florida Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escue, Carlee Poston

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to address the public policy of adequacy by the creation of a Florida state-wide poverty index model to assist in the distribution of state and local dollars in funding public education. This poverty index model would measure the amount and severity of poverty in every public school within the state each year and…

  2. Performance Funding at MSIs: Considerations and Possible Measures for Public Minority-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    States are increasingly funding higher education institutions based on their performance or outcomes instead of relying solely on student enrollment to determine funding formulas. Performance Funding (also called Performance-Based and Outcomes-Based Funding) policies provide state support to public colleges and universities based on outcome…

  3. Private Funding for Elementary and Secondary Public Education in British Columbia for 1983/84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Kirk

    This study examines major issues in, and effective practices for, private funding for elementary and secondary public education in British Columbia. The sources and allocation of funds for school districts and schools were investigated, along with their funding practices. Using data on funds obtained from a representative sampling of 13 districts…

  4. 76 FR 10053 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the Capital Fund program indicator of the Public... notice is to provide information about the scoring process for PHAS indicator 4, Capital Fund program... the 1937 Act (42 U.S.C. 1437g(d)(2)) do not include HOPE VI program funds. This indicator is...

  5. Philosophical Differences. The Open-mindedness of Publicly Funded Catholic Schools in Canada Challenges American Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how the open-mindedness of publicly-funded Catholic schools in Canada has challenged American preconceptions on funding of parochial schools. In Canada, parochial education has been publicly funded since 1867. On the other hand, parochial schools in America must charge tuition fees and engage in extensive fund…

  6. Philosophical Differences. The Open-mindedness of Publicly Funded Catholic Schools in Canada Challenges American Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how the open-mindedness of publicly-funded Catholic schools in Canada has challenged American preconceptions on funding of parochial schools. In Canada, parochial education has been publicly funded since 1867. On the other hand, parochial schools in America must charge tuition fees and engage in extensive fund…

  7. Student nurses participate in public health research and practice through a school-based screening program.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Christine A; Upchurch, Sandra L; Meininger, Janet C; Hester, Lynne E; Johnson, Gwen; Eissa, Mona A

    2005-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions among children in minority populations, placing them at risk for diabetes and hypertension. The importance of educating a generation of nurses who have the knowledge, skills, and passion to address this public health need is crucial to the profession and to America's health. This article describes the use of a Community Partnership Model to frame baccalaureate nursing students' (B.S.N.) service learning within the context of a research study to screen middle- and high-school students for health risks. The missions of education, research, and practice are linked together in the model by three processes: evidence-based practice, service learning, and scholarly teaching. The aim of the project was early identification of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes and their predictors in a high-risk student population, between 12 and 19 years of age. Early evidence indicates that the model is feasible and effective for directing student learning and addressing public health problems in the community.

  8. Public funding - a solution for technological SMEs and entrepreneurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilia, Calefariu; Traian Alexandru, Buda

    2016-11-01

    Technological SMEs are in a constant struggle for growth or sometimes maintaining the production capacity, increase market share, supporting tax burden, ensuring employees' salaries, profit growth. They constantly consider short-term survival of the company, with trying to maintain a long-term uptrend for the business. Entrepreneurs are again in a position to access public financing under quite favorable conditions. The paper aims to analyze the opportunity of accessing these external financing options, which have both advantages and a series of long-term constraints which should not be excluded before the final decision to access this funding. New research is required, thus sustainable development can be maintained for the business environment in order to increase efficiency, competitiveness, sustainable development strategies that generate job security, regional growth and rewarding the risk-taking of the entrepreneur.

  9. Public Commitment, Resistance to Advertising, and Leisure Promotion in a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: A Component Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada, Mireia; Orgilés José P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the…

  10. Public Commitment, Resistance to Advertising, and Leisure Promotion in a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: A Component Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada, Mireia; Orgilés José P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the…

  11. 75 FR 33821 - Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.205, Public Assistance Funding to Public Housing Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.205, Public Assistance Funding to... the availability of the final Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.205, Public Assistance Funding to Public Housing Facilities. DATES: The fact sheet is effective May 19, 2010. ADDRESSES: The fact sheet...

  12. Why Can't Ohio Equitably Fund Public Education? Education Reform Stifling Equitable Education Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Carlee Escue

    2015-01-01

    Ohio has a long history of school funding inequity. This manuscript provides a brief history of Ohio education funding, the equity and adequacy concerns. Education reform efforts have been expanding while the appropriate management of the funding mechanism has been underfunded or entirely ignored. The researcher examines the negative impact of…

  13. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  14. Group 11: School-Based Social Workers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  15. Group 11a: School-Based Psychologists. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  16. Group 20: All Other School-Based Personnel. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  17. 45 CFR 2516.700 - What matching funds are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What matching funds are required? 2516.700 Section 2516.700 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Funding Requirements § 2516.700 What matching...

  18. 45 CFR 2516.700 - What matching funds are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What matching funds are required? 2516.700 Section 2516.700 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Funding Requirements § 2516.700 What matching...

  19. 45 CFR 2516.700 - What matching funds are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What matching funds are required? 2516.700 Section 2516.700 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Funding Requirements § 2516.700 What matching...

  20. 45 CFR 2516.700 - What matching funds are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What matching funds are required? 2516.700 Section 2516.700 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Funding Requirements § 2516.700 What matching...

  1. [Publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England].

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Dezetter, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Quebec's HealthCommissioner on the performance of the health system clearly highlighted gaps in the collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists, decreased accessibility and inequity in access to effective mental health services such as psychotherapy.Objectives The aim of this article was to describe the implementation of two publicly funded programs of psychotherapy in Australia and England with similar gatekeeper systems to the one in Quebec.Findings Following the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program introduced in Australia in 2003, one of the most important initiatives from the Council of Australian Governments' National Action Plan on Mental Health 2006-2011 was the Better Access Initiative which commenced in 2006. The plan included AUD1.2 billion in funding for integrating and improving the mental health care system. The purpose of Better Access was to improve the treatment and management of mental illnesses and increasing community access to mental health professionals and providing more affordable mental health care. GPs were encouraged to work more closely with mental health professionals. Under this program, these professionals are able to provide mental health services on a fee-for-service basis subsidized through Medicare. Access to psychological therapies is provided through private providers, rather than through fund holding arrangements. As of 2009 in Australia, 2 million people (1 in 11) had received over 11.2 million subsidized mental health services. A recent study showed clinical improvements in patients with depression associated with Better Access, concluding that the program is meeting previously unmet mental health needs.In the case of England, the IAPT - Improving Access to psychological Therapies-program enabled primary care trusts (PCTs) to implement evidence-based psychological therapies as recommended by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for people suffering from

  2. The Texas Research Development Fund: Building Institutional Research Capacity at Texas Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Laura Leal

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Texas state legislature created the Texas Excellence Fund (TEF) and the University Research Fund (URF) with the purpose of supporting institutional excellence and research capacity at general academic institutions. During the 2002-2003 biennium, participating Texas public universities received revenues from these funds (Legislative…

  3. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Satish; Sell, Marie A; Relyea, George

    2007-11-08

    To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category-other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  4. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients

    PubMed Central

    Kedia, Satish; Sell, Marie A; Relyea, George

    2007-01-01

    To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category–other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse. PMID:17996066

  5. 75 FR 68615 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Public Housing Capital Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Public Housing Authorities (PHAs) for modernization, development, financing, and management improvements...) for modernization, development, financing, and management improvements. The funds are allocated based... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Public Housing Capital...

  6. Financing the Future of Education & Explaining Public K-12 Funding Cost for the 21st Century: A School Finance Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, P. R., Sr.

    The three primary sources of funding for public education in America are the federal government, the state government, and the community. This paper presents an overview of trends in funding K-12 public education; the stability of local-funding sources; the value of public education as a factor in cost; political influences on school funding;…

  7. Public Funding Resources for Alcohol and Other Drug Programs. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Michael

    In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in the number of alcohol and other drug education, prevention, and treatment programs in higher education and funding has not kept pace with program development. The purpose of this document is to help those unfamiliar with the process of funding development to identify possible resources and to…

  8. How Much Is Enough? Funding California's Public Schools. EdSource Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    California's public school system lacks the capacity to deliver on today's higher standards and expectations for all its students. Educators and policymakers believe that greater capacity will require additional funding. The more complex question, however, is, "How much funding would be adequate for California public schools?" This…

  9. Public College and University Development: Fund Raising at State Universities, State Colleges, and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    Differences in fund raising in public and private colleges are considered in 14 papers, with attention to different strategies, the organization of the effort, and special considerations. Article titles and authors are: "Private Support of Public Higher Education" (Michael J. Worth); "Organization of Fund Raising at Public…

  10. The Erosion of State Funding for Virginia's Public Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In Virginia, sufficient state support is essential to the vitality of the state's network of public higher education institutions as it currently exists. Unfortunately, a crisis in the funding of Virginia's public higher education system has been evolving over the last two decades. Between 1992 and 2010, general fund appropriations to public…

  11. The Correspondence of Public Perceptions of Graduates' Life Chances and University Departmental Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Haubner, Tanja; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Very little prior research has examined public perceptions of research funding and the life chances associated with various fields of study. In the present task, 315 members of the Austrian general public rated 34 higher-education courses in terms of funding cuts or increases, and the perceived life chances of graduates, respectively. The results…

  12. School Competition and Efficiency with Publicly Funded Catholic Schools. NBER Working Paper No. 14176

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David; Dooley, Martin; Payne, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The province of Ontario has two publicly funded school systems: secular schools (known as public schools) that are open to all students, and separate schools that are open to children with Catholic backgrounds. The systems are administered independently and receive equal funding per student. In this paper we use detailed school and student-level…

  13. The Correspondence of Public Perceptions of Graduates' Life Chances and University Departmental Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Haubner, Tanja; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Very little prior research has examined public perceptions of research funding and the life chances associated with various fields of study. In the present task, 315 members of the Austrian general public rated 34 higher-education courses in terms of funding cuts or increases, and the perceived life chances of graduates, respectively. The results…

  14. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all net income derived from such a use, less Federal, State and local taxes paid on such income, shall... resulting in income. 9004.5 Section 9004.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or...

  15. 11 CFR 9004.5 - Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... all net income derived from such a use, less Federal, State and local taxes paid on such income, shall... resulting in income. 9004.5 Section 9004.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL... PAYMENTS § 9004.5 Investment of public funds; other uses resulting in income. Investment of public funds or...

  16. External funding of obstetrical publications: citation significance and trends over 2 decades.

    PubMed

    Vintzileos, William S; Ananth, Cande V; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the external funding status of the most frequently cited obstetrical publications (citation classics) and to assess trends in funded vs nonfunded manuscripts as well as each publication's type of external funding. For the first objective, the citation classics, which were reported in a previous publication, were reviewed to identify their funding status. For the second objective, all pregnancy-related and obstetrical publications from the 2 US-based leading journals, the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, were reviewed to identify the funding status and trends between 1989 and 2012. Twenty-seven of 44 of the citation classics (61%) had external funding, whereas only 43% of the reviewed regular (non-citation classic) obstetrical publications had external funding. There was a decreasing trend in the number of obstetrical manuscripts associated with a decreasing trend in the number and proportion of nonfunded manuscripts and an increasing trend in the number and proportion of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded manuscripts. Relative to 1989, in 2012 there was a 34.8% decrease in the number of published obstetrical manuscripts, a 59.6% decrease in the number of nonfunded manuscripts, and a 6.8% increase in the number of funded manuscripts accompanied by an 8.2% increase in the number of NIH-funded publications. In the last 9 years (2004-2012), there was a 35.1% increase in the proportion of NIH-funded manuscripts accompanied by an 18.8% decrease in the proportion of non-NIH-funded manuscripts. Our findings provide useful data regarding the importance of securing NIH-based funding for physicians contemplating academic careers in obstetrics. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Value of Public Health Funding in Preventing Hospital Bloodstream Infections in the United States.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Melanie D; Bradley, Cathy J; Atherly, Adam J; Campbell, Jonathan D; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the association of 1 activity of the Prevention and Public Health Fund with hospital bloodstream infections and calculate the return on investment (ROI). The activity was funded for 1 year (2013). A difference-in-differences specification evaluated hospital standardized infection ratios (SIRs) before funding allocation (years 2011 and 2012) and after funding allocation (years 2013 and 2014) in the 15 US states that received the funding compared with hospital SIRs in states that did not receive the funding. We estimated the association of the funded public health activity with SIRs for bloodstream infections. We calculated the ROI by dividing cost offsets from infections averted by the amount invested. The funding was associated with a 33% (P < .05) reduction in SIRs and an ROI of $1.10 to $11.20 per $1 invested in the year of funding allocation (2013). In 2014, after the funding stopped, significant reductions were no longer evident. This activity was associated with a reduction in bloodstream infections large enough to recoup the investment. Public health funding of carefully targeted areas may improve health and reduce health care costs.

  18. Public health implications of a North American publicly funded in vitro fertilization program; lessons to learn.

    PubMed

    Shaulov, Talya; Belisle, Serge; Dahan, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine trends in practice and outcomes that occurred since the implementation of the publicly funded in vitro fertilization (IVF) and single embryo transfer (SET) program in Quebec, in August, 2010. Data presented was extracted from an advisory report by the Health and Welfare Commissioner, and from a report by the Ministry of Health and Social Services published in June 2014 and October 2013, respectively. This data is publicly available, and was collected from all six private and three public-assisted reproduction centers in Quebec providing IVF services. Data pertains to all IVF cycles performed from the 2009-2010 to 2012-2013 fiscal years. SET was performed in 71 % of cycles in 2012. The number of children born from IVF was 1057 in 2009-2010 and 1723 in 2012-2013 (p < 0.0001). Multiple birth rates from IVF were 24 % in 2009-2010 (before the program began) and 9.45 % in 2012-2013 (p < 0.0001). The proportions of IVF babies that were premature, that were the result of multiple births, or that required neonatal intensive care unit admission (NICU) all decreased by 35.5 % (p < 0.0001), 55 % (p < 0.0001), and 37 % (p < 0.0001), respectively, from 2009-2010 to 2012-2013. The cost per NICU admission for an IVF baby increased from $19,990 to $28,418 from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. This first North American publicly funded IVF program with a SET policy shows that such a program contributes substantially to number of births. It has also succeeded in increasing access to treatment and decreasing perinatal morbidity by decreasing multiple birth rates from IVF. A substantial increase in global public health care costs occurred as well.

  19. Public Funding for "Private" Education: The Equity Challenge of Enhanced Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have generated numerous and varied experiments with the use of public resources to support "private" schools, which, in any case, become and behave more like public schools in proportion to their dependence on the public purse. From an equity point of view, however, no compelling moral necessity exists to use public funds to…

  20. Public and private funding of general practice services for children and adolescents in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Susan; Tilyard, Murray; Cunningham, Wayne; Williamson, Martyn

    2011-11-01

    To measure public and private funding of general practice services for New Zealand children. Computerized records from 111 general practices provided private payments for 118,905 general practice services to children aged 6-17 years. Government subsidies and public insurance payments provided public funding amounts for seven services. Overall and for each service we estimated the ratio of public:private payments (RPPP). 64.0% of annual expenditure was public, 36.0% private, (RPPP=1:0.56). General medical consultations were 67.2% of services (RPPP=1:0.57); 15.3% were injury-related (RPPP=1:0.36); 5.2% were prescribing services (all private); 4.9% were immunizations (RPPP=1:0.12); 2.9% were nursing (RPPP=1:1.33); 4.4% were administration (all private); and 0.1% were for maternity care (RPPP=1:0.007). Before capitation funding, public and private funding levels for general medical consultations were similar (RPPP=1:0.93) but after capitation public payments more than doubled (RPPP=1:0.40). There is a complex of pattern of public and private payments for general practice services for children and adolescents in New Zealand. Both funding sources are critical. Capitation funding changed the balance substantially but did not remove ongoing reliance on private funding to support general practice care for children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The changing face of publicly funded employment services.

    PubMed

    Goodall, P; Ghiloni, C T

    2001-02-01

    The federal-state vocational rehabilitation (VR) program has been a significant stream of funding for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the success of this traditional rehabilitation approach with people with brain injuries remains limited. Recently, the use of specialized employment services, such as Supported Employment, has proven to be far more effective, but funding for this population remains limited. In addition, even individuals who receive specialized employment services often require more intensive, ongoing supports to remain employed. In response, many states have developed innovative services and approaches that are improving the placement and retention rates of individuals with TBI. In this article, the authors provide an overview of selected federal funding initiatives related to the provision of employment services to people with brain injuries, including recent amendments to the Rehabilitation Act. The article also highlights progressive state employment policies and makes suggestions for creative use of government employment monies.

  2. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China's pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lan; Chen, Zi-Ya; Lu, Deng-Yu; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-13

    In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002-2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002-2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources.

  3. 76 FR 39474 - Monthly Median Cost of Funds Reporting, and Publication of Cost of Funds Indices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... monthly for the OTS's use in calculating a monthly median cost of funds index. Additionally, the OTS publishes two indices based on calculations from data included in the Thrift Financial Report (TFR): \\2\\ \\2... that ``OTS provide guidance regarding converting ARM loans to an alternative index.'' In particular...

  4. Using Public-Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts to Fund DoD Mobile Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    Public - Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts to Fund DoD Mobile Assets 30 September 2006 by Dr. Joseph G. San... Public - Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts to Fund DoD Mobile Assets 5. FUNDING 6. AUTHOR (S) Dr. Joseph G. San Miguel...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK -vii- ^`nrfpfqflk=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= péçåëçêÉÇ=êÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= = Using Public - Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts

  5. A Historical Mission in the Accountability Era: A Public HBCU and State Performance Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The case study is an analysis of a state performance funding policy at a public historically Black college and university (HBCU). The policy attaches state funding to HBCU performance on measures like graduation rates and equity measures like the reduction in achievement gaps between Black and non-Black students. Participants liked that the policy…

  6. Public Health Preparedness Funding: Key Programs and Trends From 2001 to 2017.

    PubMed

    Watson, Crystal R; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001. State and local preparedness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially received $940 million in FY2002 and resulted in significant preparedness gains, but funding levels have since decreased by 31%. Similarly, the Hospital Preparedness Program within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response was funded at a high of $515 million in FY2003, but funding was reduced by 50%. Investments in medical countermeasure development and stockpiling remained relatively stable. The United States has made significant progress in preparing for disasters and advancing public health infrastructure. To enable continued advancement, federal funding commitments must be sustained.

  7. Assessing state stem cell programs in the United States: how has state funding affected publication trends?

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Cheng, Albert; Jackson, Emily L; Pjecha, Matthew; Levine, Aaron D

    2015-02-05

    Several states responded to federal funding limitations placed on human embryonic stem cell research and the potential of the field by creating state stem cell funding programs, yet little is known about the impact of these programs. Here we examine how state programs have affected publication trends in four states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Funding Sources for Public Higher Education in South Africa: Institutional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, Isaac; de Villiers, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Tuition fees and the use of student loans to complement government's allocations have become unavoidable because of increasing competing new priorities for funding. This article addresses the funding sources of public higher education through tuition and loans. We explore the effects of shifts from first-stream income (government appropriations)…

  9. Public Funding of Primary Education in Kenya: Recent Tends, Challenges, and Implications for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, Edith

    1999-01-01

    Kenyan primary education is plagued by problems of high attrition and gender and regional disparities in access and achievement. Poverty, institutionalized corruption, and declining public funding are primary factors. More funding is needed for teacher salaries, infrastructure development, and improved educational access. (Contains 23 references.)…

  10. Implications of Project-Based Funding of Research on Budgeting and Financial Management in Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…

  11. Public Health Preparedness Funding: Key Programs and Trends From 2001 to 2017

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Tara Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. Methods. In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001. Results. State and local preparedness at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initially received $940 million in FY2002 and resulted in significant preparedness gains, but funding levels have since decreased by 31%. Similarly, the Hospital Preparedness Program within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response was funded at a high of $515 million in FY2003, but funding was reduced by 50%. Investments in medical countermeasure development and stockpiling remained relatively stable. Conclusions. The United States has made significant progress in preparing for disasters and advancing public health infrastructure. To enable continued advancement, federal funding commitments must be sustained. PMID:28892451

  12. A Place at the Table: The Changing Role of Urban Public Education Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth L.; Neild, Ruth Curran

    This paper explores the degree to which the public education funds in selected districts have become players at the policy table and examines the factors that permit funds to have a credible voice in the turbulent political world of urban districts without seriously jeopardizing their working "inside" relationships with these systems. The analysis…

  13. Differentiation-Integration Organization Theory in Fund Development Programs of Public Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Michael S.

    The study reported in this paper applied contingency organization theory to the environment of fund development programs in public research universities. Of particular concern was the recent emphasis of these universities on private fund development and their increased relationships with external environments. Case studies of the development…

  14. Funding Sources for Public Higher Education in South Africa: Institutional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, Isaac; de Villiers, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Tuition fees and the use of student loans to complement government's allocations have become unavoidable because of increasing competing new priorities for funding. This article addresses the funding sources of public higher education through tuition and loans. We explore the effects of shifts from first-stream income (government appropriations)…

  15. A Historical Mission in the Accountability Era: A Public HBCU and State Performance Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The case study is an analysis of a state performance funding policy at a public historically Black college and university (HBCU). The policy attaches state funding to HBCU performance on measures like graduation rates and equity measures like the reduction in achievement gaps between Black and non-Black students. Participants liked that the policy…

  16. Implications of Project-Based Funding of Research on Budgeting and Financial Management in Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudla, Ringa; Karo, Erkki; Valdmaa, Kaija; Kattel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to explore--both theoretically and empirically--the implications of project-based research funding for budgeting and financial management at public universities. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to provide a synthesized discussion of the possible impacts of project-based funding on university financial…

  17. Metropolitan Public Library Funding and Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations: Concepts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Gary M.

    Competition among the many public services for tax supported funding is a major concern for metropolitan public libraries seeking financial support. The absence of the library is an integrated component of the public educational structure or as a general service agency in the mainstream of government has historically placed the library at a…

  18. 42 CFR 433.51 - Public Funds as the State share of financial participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public Funds as the State share of financial participation. 433.51 Section 433.51 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION...

  19. Public health in the emergency department: surveillance, screening, and intervention--funding and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Woolard, Robert; Degutis, Linda C; Mello, Michael; Rothman, Richard; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Post, Lori A; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Haukoos, Jason S; Hungerford, Daniel W

    2009-11-01

    This article summarizes the work and discussions of the funding and sustainability work group at the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention." The funding and sustainability session participants were asked to address the following overarching question: "What are the opportunities and what is needed to encourage academic emergency medicine (EM) to take advantage of the opportunities for funding available for public health research initiatives and build stronger academic programs focusing on public health within EM?" Prior to the session, members of the group reviewed research funding for EM in public health, as well as the priorities of federal agencies and foundations. Recommendations for actions by EM summarize the findings of workshop.

  20. 75 FR 1755 - Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: Notice of Availability of Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: Notice of Availability of Funds AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S.... SUMMARY: On December 2, 2009, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration...

  1. 77 FR 14558 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Resident Opportunity and Self...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Resident Opportunity... Secretary for the Office of Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of Funding Awards. SUMMARY... of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions made by the Department...

  2. 78 FR 28602 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Resident Opportunity and Self...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Resident Opportunity... Assistant Secretary for the Office of Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ] ACTION: Announcement of Funding... Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions made by...

  3. [Food industry funding and epidemiologic research in public health nutrition].

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Tardón, Adonina; Romaguera, Dora; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Vioque, Jesús

    2017-06-05

    The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry. All the experts agreed not only on defending independence in nutritional epidemiology regarding the design, interpretation and conclusion of their studies but also on the crucial need for guaranteed scientific rigor, scientific quality of the results and measures to protect studies against potential biases related to the conflicts of interest of funding by the food industry. Drs Pérez-Farinós and Romaguera believe that the most effective way to prevent conflicts of interest would be not to allow the food industry to fund nutrition research; Drs Marcos and Martínez-González suggested the need to establish mechanisms and strategies to prevent the potential influences of the food industry in selecting researchers or institutional sponsorship and in the analysis and results of the studies, to ensure maximum independence for researchers, as well as their professional ethics. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The interface between publicly funded and industry-funded research in pediatric psychopharmacology: opportunities for integration and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Heiligenstein, John H; Riddle, Mark A; Greenhill, Laurence L; Fegert, Jörg M

    2004-07-01

    Pediatric psychopharmacology research is undergoing a major expansion consequent to increasing use of psychotropic medications in children and recent legislative incentives to industry. In this rapidly changing context, the interface between publicly and privately funded research needs to be reconsidered to integrate activities and avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. Once, by default, the almost exclusive domain of public research, child research is now increasingly funded by industry. There are, however, important issues unlikely to be addressed through private funding for which public support is needed, such as direct comparisons between active medications, between pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, or between combined and single treatment modalities; development of effective treatment strategies for patients unresponsive to first-line treatments; development of better research methods to assess efficacy and safety; identification of moderators and mechanisms of treatment response; and impact of treatment on illness course and prognosis. Industry-sponsored research is limited by the restricted access to proprietary databases, which impedes independent analyses and meta-analyses. Translation of basic neuroscience discoveries into treatment applications for children with mental illness is a critical area of inquiry that can benefit from integration of efforts and collaborations among academia, government, and industry.

  5. Funding New Zealand's public healthcare system: time for an honest appraisal and public debate.

    PubMed

    Keene, Lyndon; Bagshaw, Philip; Nicholls, M Gary; Rosenberg, Bill; Frampton, Christopher M; Powell, Ian

    2016-05-27

    Successive New Zealand governments have claimed that the cost of funding the country's public healthcare services is excessive and unsustainable. We contest that these claims are based on a misrepresentation of healthcare spending. Using data from the New Zealand Treasury and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), we show how government spending as a whole is low compared with most other OECD countries and is falling as a proportion of GDP. New Zealand has a modest level of health spending overall, but government health spending is also falling as a proportion of GDP. Together, the data indicate the New Zealand Government can afford to spend more on healthcare. We identify compelling reasons why it should do so, including forecast growing health need, signs of increasing unmet need, and the fact that if health needs are not met the costs still have to be borne by the economy. The evidence further suggests it is economically and socially beneficial to meet health needs through a public health system. An honest appraisal and public debate is needed to determine more appropriate levels of healthcare spending.

  6. Does Independent Schools Funding Make a Mockery of the Public Schools Funding Formula? BCTF Research Report. RR2015-01 rev2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret; Kuehn, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the Ministry of Education to calculate per Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) student funding for independent schools and discusses the underlying inequities when the public school funding formula is applied to funding for private schools. Vancouver school district is provided as a case example to work through…

  7. State funding for local public health: observations from six case studies.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret A; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe state funding of local public health within the context of state public health system types. These types are based on administrative relationships, legal structures, and relative proportion of state funding in local public health budgets. We selected six states representing various types and geographic regions. A case study for each state summarized available information and was validated by state public health officials. An analysis of the case studies reveals that the variability of state public health systems--even within a given type--is matched by variability in approaches to funding local public health. Nevertheless, some meaningful associations appear. For example, higher proportions of state funding occur along with higher levels of state oversight and the existence of local service mandates in state law. These associations suggest topics for future research on public health financing in relation to local accountability, local input to state priority-setting, mandated local services, and the absence of state funds for public health services in some local jurisdictions.

  8. Politics, Interest Groups and State Funding of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandberg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    State support of public higher education has rapidly declined relative to total state spending. Much of this decline in support is due to the rapid growth in spending on such things as Medicaid. However, relative support of public higher education varies significantly between states. This study applies Tandberg's (2009) fiscal policy framework…

  9. Politics, Interest Groups and State Funding of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandberg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    State support of public higher education has rapidly declined relative to total state spending. Much of this decline in support is due to the rapid growth in spending on such things as Medicaid. However, relative support of public higher education varies significantly between states. This study applies Tandberg's (2009) fiscal policy framework…

  10. Experiences accessing public funds for hydrocarbons research and technological development in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suro-Pérez, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP) is a public facility oriented to research and technological development for the national petroleum industry. Its investment plan and operating expenses come, mainly, from selling engineering services to Petróleos Mexicanos. Its projects include upstream and downstream aspects, and the generated income together with public funds support research projects. These funds were approved since 2005, and widened in 2008 thanks to the so called Energy Reform. Until now, more than 50 projects have been funded, and this presentation shows the process to select, to approve, to fund and to ensure the results promised in the original proposal. It is shown that technical sanction of every particular project is essential to succeed, jointly with a structure of real technical pairs to advise during project development. Likewise, the mechanisms for accessing the funds are described, and simple suggestions are made to improve administrative efficiency.

  11. Public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion in a school-based drug abuse prevention program: a component dismantling study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the Saluda prevention program in one of the following five experimental conditions: complete program, program minus public commitment, program minus resistance to advertising, program minus leisure promotion, and a waiting-list control. The students completed self-report surveys at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up assessments. When excluding the healthy leisure promotion component, the Saluda program showed no loss of efficacy neither on alcohol use nor on other substance-related variables, while public commitment and resistance to advertising improved the aforementioned program's efficacy.

  12. Report of the 2002 Texas Public School Technology Survey Prepared for the Telecommunications Infrastructure Fund Board and Texas Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon; Davis, Trina; Strader, Arlen; Durbin, Brooke

    Over the past four legislative sessions, the Texas State Legislature enacted laws that have accelerated the integration of technology into public education. The significant effort to build technology infrastructure in Texas is evident through the thousands of public school awards provided by the Telecommunications Infrastructure Fund (TIF) Board,…

  13. Education's Fiscal Cliff, Real or Perceived? Public Education Funding during the Economic Downturn and the Impact on Public Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Larry; Batdorff, Meagan; May, Jay; Terrell, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluate what impact, if any, the financial downturn had on the funding of traditional public school districts and public charter schools during the period FY07 to FY11 by examining all education revenues in Denver, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Newark, and Washington, DC. The findings indicate that the majority of sites increased…

  14. Education's Fiscal Cliff, Real or Perceived? Public Education Funding during the Economic Downturn and the Impact on Public Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Larry; Batdorff, Meagan; May, Jay; Terrell, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluate what impact, if any, the financial downturn had on the funding of traditional public school districts and public charter schools during the period FY07 to FY11 by examining all education revenues in Denver, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Newark, and Washington, DC. The findings indicate that the majority of sites increased…

  15. Better prepared but spread too thin: the impact of emergency preparedness funding on local public health.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Justeen; Kim, Basil; Martinez, Linda Sprague; Clark, Mary; Hacker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Local public health authorities (LPHAs) are recognized as playing critical roles in response to biological, chemical, and other health emergencies. An influx of emergency preparedness funding has created new and expanding responsibilities for LPHAs. Concern that funding for emergency response is diverting attention and resources away from other core public health responsibilities is increasing. In order to determine the impact of emergency preparedness funding on public health infrastructure, qualitative interviews with 27 LPHAs in the metro-Boston area were conducted as part of an on-going evaluation of preparedness planning in Massachusetts. Feedback on the benefits and challenges of recent emergency preparedness planning mandates was obtained. Benefits include opportunities to develop relationships within and across public health departments and increases in communication between local and state authorities. Challenges include budget constraints, staffing shortages, and competing public responsibilities. Policy recommendations for improving planning for emergency response at the local level are provided.

  16. The Philosophical Underpinnings of Public School Funding Jurisprudence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, James R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Uses the theories of John Rawls (democratic/egalitarian) and Robert Nozick (libertarian) as prisms through which to analyze judicial opinions underlying court decisions regarding public education financing. (302 footnotes) (MLF)

  17. School-Based Drug Prevention Program: Quantitative Assessment of Life Skills Training Elementary School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindle, Silverlene J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…

  18. School-Based Drug Prevention Program: Quantitative Assessment of Life Skills Training Elementary School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindle, Silverlene J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…

  19. The 10 largest public and philanthropic funders of health research in the world: what they fund and how they distribute their funds.

    PubMed

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2016-02-18

    Little is known about who the main public and philanthropic funders of health research are globally, what they fund and how they decide what gets funded. This study aims to identify the 10 largest public and philanthropic health research funding organizations in the world, to report on what they fund, and on how they distribute their funds. The world's key health research funding organizations were identified through a search strategy aimed at identifying different types of funding organizations. Organizations were ranked by their reported total annual health research expenditures. For the 10 largest funding organizations, data were collected on (1) funding amounts allocated towards 20 health areas, and (2) schemes employed for distributing funding (intramural/extramural, project/'people'/organizational and targeted/untargeted funding). Data collection consisted of a review of reports and websites and interviews with representatives of funding organizations. Data collection was challenging; data were often not reported or reported using different classification systems. Overall, 55 key health research funding organizations were identified. The 10 largest funding organizations together funded research for $37.1 billion, constituting 40% of all public and philanthropic health research spending globally. The largest funder was the United States National Institutes of Health ($26.1 billion), followed by the European Commission ($3.7 billion), and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council ($1.3 billion). The largest philanthropic funder was the Wellcome Trust ($909.1 million), the largest funder of health research through official development assistance was USAID ($186.4 million), and the largest multilateral funder was the World Health Organization ($135.0 million). Funding distribution mechanisms and funding patterns varied substantially between the 10 largest funders. There is a need for increased transparency about who the main funders of health research are

  20. [Disclosure of sources of funding in biomedical journals. Descriptive study of four Spanish publications].

    PubMed

    Roig, F; Borrego, A

    2015-01-01

    The source of research funding can result in bias, and its disclosure is essential in the publication of results. The aim of the study is to identify the frequency and type of sources of funding in the articles published by four Spanish biomedical journals published in Spanish. The frequency and type of financial disclosures in the articles published during 2012 in the ordinary numbers of Atención Primaria, Medicina Clínica, Revista Clínica Española and Revista Española de Cardiología were analyzed. Articles described as "Editorial", "Original article", "Consensus Document", "Review" and "Special Article" were considered. It was decided in each case whether or not the article included any funding disclosure and the type of the declared funding (public or private). Four hundred and twelve publications were analyzed. In 32.5% there was disclosure of funding: 38% in Atención Primaria, 27% in Medicina Clínica, 15% in Revista Clínica Española and 45% in Revista Española de Cardiología. By type of articles, 47% of original articles, 44% of consensus documents, 21% of reviews, 14% of special articles and 8% of editorials had a funding source. In 51.5% of the cases, funding was exclusively public, in 36.5% exclusively private and in 10% mixed. There is considerable variability in the disclosure of funding sources in articles appearing in these four Spanish biomedical journals. It would be necessary to improve the disclosure requirements of sources of funding, making them uniform, clear and transparent.

  1. Efficiency-Based Funding for Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas R.; Comunale, Christie L.; Gara, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an efficiency-based mechanism for state funding of public colleges and universities using data envelopment analysis. We describe the philosophy and the mathematics that underlie the approach and apply\\break the proposed model to data from 362 U.S. public four-year colleges and universities. The model provides incentives to institution…

  2. Flexibility for Survival: State Funding and Contingent Faculty Employment at Public Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Joanna R.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of state funding for public higher education in the United States are changing. Per-student state appropriations to higher education have decreased over the past few decades and have become increasingly volatile from year to year. As public higher education institutions seek ways to educate more students with fewer and less…

  3. Can Public Radio Replace Federal Funds with Audience-Sensitive Income? Info. Packets No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, David

    Public radio can survive cutbacks in federal subsidies, but only if these funds are reduced no more rapidly than public radio can replace them with newly-generated audience-sensitive revenues (listener support and underwriting). A model developed in this analysis suggests a three-to-five year "glide path" to zero federal support. Public…

  4. Flexibility for Survival: State Funding and Contingent Faculty Employment at Public Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Joanna R.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of state funding for public higher education in the United States are changing. Per-student state appropriations to higher education have decreased over the past few decades and have become increasingly volatile from year to year. As public higher education institutions seek ways to educate more students with fewer and less…

  5. Funding Public Computing Centers: Balancing Broadband Availability and Expected Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakar, Krishna; Park, Eun-A

    2012-01-01

    The National Broadband Plan (NBP) recently announced by the Federal Communication Commission visualizes a significantly enhanced commitment to public computing centers (PCCs) as an element of the Commission's plans for promoting broadband availability. In parallel, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has…

  6. Funding and Focus: Resource Dependence in Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing resource dependence theory, this study investigates the relationship between institutional reliance on net tuition dollars as a source of revenue and institutional expenditures for education and related activities at public, four-year institutions of higher education in the United States. Drawing on an 11-year panel of university-level…

  7. Responses of Private and Public Schools to Voucher Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Randall K.; Munich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The post-communist Czech Republic provides a laboratory in which to investigate possible responses to the adoption of universal education vouchers. Private schools appear to have arisen in response to distinct market incentives. They are more common in fields where public school inertia has resulted in an under-supply of available slots. They are…

  8. Responses of Private and Public Schools to Voucher Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Randall K.; Munich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The post-communist Czech Republic provides a laboratory in which to investigate possible responses to the adoption of universal education vouchers. Private schools appear to have arisen in response to distinct market incentives. They are more common in fields where public school inertia has resulted in an under-supply of available slots. They are…

  9. Funding and Focus: Resource Dependence in Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing resource dependence theory, this study investigates the relationship between institutional reliance on net tuition dollars as a source of revenue and institutional expenditures for education and related activities at public, four-year institutions of higher education in the United States. Drawing on an 11-year panel of university-level…

  10. Funding Public Computing Centers: Balancing Broadband Availability and Expected Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakar, Krishna; Park, Eun-A

    2012-01-01

    The National Broadband Plan (NBP) recently announced by the Federal Communication Commission visualizes a significantly enhanced commitment to public computing centers (PCCs) as an element of the Commission's plans for promoting broadband availability. In parallel, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has…

  11. Private-Sector Funding--Handle with Care!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updating School Board Policies, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Financial partnerships are developing between local communities and schools based on the desire to improve public education by raising private sector funds to offset shrinking tax dollars. Those who develop education foundations for a school system must know the basics: defining the school system's role, determining what the fund can and cannot…

  12. Application of a policy framework for the public funding of drugs for rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Winquist, Eric; Coyle, Doug; Clarke, Joe T R; Evans, Gerald A; Seager, Christine; Chan, Winnie; Martin, Janet

    2014-08-01

    In many countries, decisions about the public funding of drugs are preferentially based on the results of randomized trials. For truly rare diseases, such trials are not typically available, and approaches by public payers are highly variable. In view of this, a policy framework intended to fairly evaluate these drugs was developed by the Drugs for Rare Diseases Working Group (DRDWG) at the request of the Ontario Public Drug Programs. To report the initial experience of applying a novel evaluation framework to funding applications for drugs for rare diseases. Retrospective observational cohort study. Clinical effectiveness, costs, funding recommendations, funding approval. Between March 2008 and February 2013, eight drugs were evaluated using the DRDWG framework. The estimated average annual drug cost per patient ranged from 28,000 to 1,200,000 Canadian dollars (CAD). For five drugs, full evaluations were completed, specific funding recommendations were made by the DRDWG, and funding was approved after risk-sharing agreements with the manufacturers were negotiated. For two drugs, the disease indications were determined to be ineligible for consideration. For one drug, there was insufficient natural history data for the disease to provide a basis for recommendation. For the five drugs fully evaluated, 32 patients met the predefined eligibility criteria for funding, and five were denied based on predefined exclusion criteria. The framework improved transparency and consistency for evaluation and public funding of drugs for rare diseases in Ontario. The evaluation process will continue to be iteratively refined as feedback on actual versus expected clinical and economic outcomes is incorporated.

  13. Does targeted, disease-specific public research funding influence pharmaceutical innovation?

    PubMed

    Blume-Kohout, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Public funding for biomedical research is often justified as a means to encourage development of more (and better) treatments for disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between these expenditures and downstream pharmaceutical innovation. In particular, although recent analyses have shown a clear contribution of federally funded research to drug development, there exists little evidence to suggest that increasing targeted public research funding for any specific disease will result in increased development of drugs to treat that disease. This paper evaluates the impact of changes in the allocation of U. S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) extramural research grant funding across diseases on the number of drugs entering clinical testing to treat those diseases, using new longitudinal data on NIH extramural research grants awarded by disease for years 1975 through 2006. Results from a variety of distributed lag models indicate that a sustained 10 percent increase in targeted, disease-specific NIH funding yields approximately a 4. 5 percent increase in the number of related drugs entering clinical testing (phase I trials) after a lag of up to 12 years, reflecting the continuing influence of NIH funding on discovery and testing of new molecular entities. In contrast, we do not see evidence that increases in NIH extramural grant funding for research focused on specific diseases will increase the number of related treatments investigated in the more expensive, late-stage (phase III) trials.

  14. No publication bias in industry funded clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine.

    PubMed

    Son, Colin; Tavakoli, Samon; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    Industry sponsorship of clinical research of degenerative diseases of the spine has been associated with excessive positive published results as compared to research carried out without industry funding. We sought the rates of publication of clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine based on funding source as a possible explanation for this phenomenon. We reviewed all clinical trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov relating to degenerative diseases of the spine as categorized under six medical subject heading terms (spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, spondylosis, failed back surgery syndrome, intervertebral disc degeneration) and with statuses of completed or terminated. These collected studies were categorized as having, or not having, industry funding. Published results for these studies were then sought within the clinicaltrials.gov database itself, PubMed and Google Scholar. One hundred sixty-one clinical trials met these criteria. One hundred nineteen of these trials had industry funding and 42 did not. Of those with industry funding, 45 (37.8%) had identifiable results. Of those without industry funding, 17 (40.5%) had identifiable results. There was no difference in the rates of publication of results from clinical trials of degenerative diseases of the spine no matter the funding source.

  15. Dedicated funding arrangements for public transit systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walther, E.S.

    1985-06-01

    Objective of the present research is to examine the origination of financial support programs for public transit which support six systems in five states. In addition to reviewing the process which led to the structures, the study attempts to extract the common and continuing themes which pervade those processes and isolate them for comment. The systems examined in this study are: Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), Oakland, CA; Capital Area Transit (CAT), Raleigh, NC; Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), Atlanta, GA; Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (METRO), Seattle, WA; New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ Transit), Newark, NJ; and, San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI), San Francisco, CA.

  16. Governing couple-sexuality: publically funded couples' courses in Norway.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Hilde; Ludvigsen, Kari; Mühleisen, Wencke

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the construction of Norwegian couples' sexuality through the study of a publically financed and organised relationship course called Living Well Together (Godt Samliv). Established in 2005, this relationship course aimed at first-time parent couples is offered free of charge by municipal health centres. Scrutiny of national policy documents and political debate and of the course handbooks presented to couples, makes visible a particular Norwegian discourse on sexuality, which stresses gender equality and neutrality and ideas of inclusive democratization. New parents are advised to make active efforts to maintain a loving, lasting relationship and sexuality, for the sake of the children. The idea of sex implied by this couples relationship policy is based on what might be described as a 'duty of spontaneity', presented as a work both parents should undertake in order to achieve a stable and healthy relationship. We argue, however, that the inclusive rhetoric of diversity that characterises this public form of Norwegian sexuality has its limitations and that certain forms of intimacy and sexuality are excluded from this discourse.

  17. Sources of funding for Nobel Prize-winning work: public or private?

    PubMed

    Tatsioni, Athina; Vavva, Effie; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-05-01

    Funding is important for scientists' work and may contribute to exceptional research outcomes. We analyzed the funding sources reported in the landmark scientific papers of Nobel Prize winners. Between 2000 and 2008, 70 Nobel laureates won recognition in medicine, physics, and chemistry. Sixty five (70%) of the 93 selected papers related to the Nobel-awarded work reported some funding source including U.S. government sources in 53 (82%), non-U.S. government sources in 19 (29%), and nongovernment sources in 33 (51%). A substantial portion of this exceptional work was unfunded. We contacted Nobel laureates whose landmark papers reported no funding. Thirteen Nobel laureates responded and offered their insights about the funding process and difficulties inherent in funding. Overall, very diverse sources amounting to a total of 64 different listed sponsors supported Nobel-related work. A few public institutions, in particular the U.S. National Institutes of Health (with n=26 funded papers) and the National Science Foundation (with n=17 papers), stood out for their successful record for funding exceptional research. However, Nobel-level work arose even from completely unfunded research, especially when institutions offered a protected environment for dedicated scientists.

  18. International trade regulation and publicly funded health care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ostry, A S

    2001-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) creates new challenges for the Canadian health care system, arguably one of the most "socialized" systems in the world today. In particular, the WTO's enhanced trade dispute resolution powers, enforceable with sanctions, may make Canadian health care vulnerable to corporate penetration, particularly in the pharmaceutical and private health services delivery sectors. The Free Trade Agreement and its extension, the North American Free Trade Agreement, gave multinational pharmaceutical companies greater freedom in Canada at the expense of the Canadian generic drug industry. Recent challenges by the WTO have continued this process, which will limit the health care system's ability to control drug costs. And pressure is growing, through WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services and moves by the Alberta provincial government to privatize health care delivery, to open up the Canadian system to corporate penetration. New WTO agreements will bring increasing pressure to privatize Canada's public health care system and limit government's ability to control pharmaceutical costs.

  19. Public School-Based Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Catriona L.; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Moore, Dennis W.; Diamond, Neil T.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effectiveness of four categories of intervention when implemented in public schools with adolescents and young adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study's inclusionary criteria include a setting of public schools, participants aged between 12 and 22 years, and the investigation of an…

  20. Public School-Based Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Catriona L.; Deppeler, Joanne M.; Moore, Dennis W.; Diamond, Neil T.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effectiveness of four categories of intervention when implemented in public schools with adolescents and young adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The study's inclusionary criteria include a setting of public schools, participants aged between 12 and 22 years, and the investigation of an…

  1. Applying for, reviewing and funding public health research in Germany and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gerhardus, Ansgar; Becher, Heiko; Groenewegen, Peter; Mansmann, Ulrich; Meyer, Thorsten; Pfaff, Holger; Puhan, Milo; Razum, Oliver; Rehfuess, Eva; Sauerborn, Rainer; Strech, Daniel; Wissing, Frank; Zeeb, Hajo; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2016-06-13

    Public health research is complex, involves various disciplines, epistemological perspectives and methods, and is rarely conducted in a controlled setting. Often, the added value of a research project lies in its inter- or trans-disciplinary interaction, reflecting the complexity of the research questions at hand. This creates specific challenges when writing and reviewing public health research grant applications. Therefore, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the largest independent research funding organization in Germany, organized a round table to discuss the process of writing, reviewing and funding public health research. The aim was to analyse the challenges of writing, reviewing and granting scientific public health projects and to improve the situation by offering guidance to applicants, reviewers and funding organizations. The DFG round table discussion brought together national and international public health researchers and representatives of funding organizations. Based on their presentations and discussions, a core group of the participants (the authors) wrote a first draft on the challenges of writing and reviewing public health research proposals and on possible solutions. Comments were discussed in the group of authors until consensus was reached. Public health research demands an epistemological openness and the integration of a broad range of specific skills and expertise. Applicants need to explicitly refer to theories as well as to methodological and ethical standards and elaborate on why certain combinations of theories and methods are required. Simultaneously, they must acknowledge and meet the practical and ethical challenges of conducting research in complex real life settings. Reviewers need to make the rationale for their judgments transparent, refer to the corresponding standards and be explicit about any limitations in their expertise towards the review boards. Grant review boards, funding organizations and research ethics committees

  2. Public-Private Partnerships: The Evolving Role of Industry Funding in Nutrition Research12

    PubMed Central

    Zachwieja, Jeffrey; Hentges, Eric; Hill, James O.; Black, Richard; Vassileva, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The global burdens of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity-related chronic diseases are crippling public health and are predicted to exponentially increase over the next 3 decades. Meanwhile, the resources necessary to conduct research that may offer solutions to the obesity epidemic continue to decline and funding has become increasingly difficult to secure. Alternative models for funding nutrition and health research are necessary to make considerable and timely progress to improve public health. Key stakeholders include, but are not limited to, government agencies, foundations, private industry, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:24038261

  3. Public-private partnerships: the evolving role of industry funding in nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, Jeffrey; Hentges, Eric; Hill, James O; Black, Richard; Vassileva, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The global burdens of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity-related chronic diseases are crippling public health and are predicted to exponentially increase over the next 3 decades. Meanwhile, the resources necessary to conduct research that may offer solutions to the obesity epidemic continue to decline and funding has become increasingly difficult to secure. Alternative models for funding nutrition and health research are necessary to make considerable and timely progress to improve public health. Key stakeholders include, but are not limited to, government agencies, foundations, private industry, and nongovernmental organizations.

  4. Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

  5. Who Shall Pay for the Public Good? Comparative Trends in the Funding Crisis of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebeau, Yann; Stumpf, Rolf; Brown, Roger; Lucchesi, Martha Abrahao Saad; Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The aftermath of the international financial crisis of 2008/2009 and current economic downturn in the world economy has unsurprisingly put publicly-funded higher education (HE) systems under immense pressure in most parts of the world. Added to measures of the past 20 years, aiming at introducing cost effective management approaches imported from…

  6. Publicly funded medical savings accounts: expenditure and distributional impacts in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Jeremiah; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Rynard, Vicki; Morgan, Steve

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the findings from simulations of the introduction of publicly funded medical savings accounts (MSAs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. The analysis exploits a unique data set linking population-based health survey information with individual-level information on all physician services and hospital services utilization over a four-year period. The analysis provides greater detail along three dimensions than have previous analyses: (1) the distributional impacts of publicly funded MSAs across individuals of differing health statuses, incomes, ages, and current expenditures; (2) the impact of differing degrees of risk adjustment for MSA contributions; and (3) the impact of MSA funding over multiple years, incorporating year-to-year variation in spending at the individual level. In addition, it analyses more plausible designs for publicly funded MSAs than the existing studies. Government uses information available from year t - 1 to allocate its budget for year t in a manner that is ex ante fiscally neutral for the public sector: the government first withholds funds equal to expected catastrophic insurance payments under the MSA plan, and then allocates only the balance to individual MSA accounts. The government captures the savings associated with reduced health-care utilization under MSAs and we examine deductibles that vary by income rather than by current health-care expenditures. The impacts on public expenditures under these designs are more modest than in the previous studies and under plausible assumptions MSAs are predicted to decrease public expenditures. MSAs, however, are also predicted to have unavoidable negative distributional consequences with respect to both public expenditures and out-of-pocket spending.

  7. A comparative study of school based violence and strategies for control in public and private secondary schools in Osun State.

    PubMed

    Omisore, A G; Omisore, B; Adelekan, B; Afolabi, O T; Olajide, F O; Arije, O O; Agunbiade, O I

    2012-01-01

    Violence is universal; it occurs in schools (both public and private). The study aim was to assess the rates of violence as well as existing violence prevention strategies in public and private schools in Osun state. A cross sectional study was conducted among 800 secondary school students (599 in public and 201 in private schools) selected by multistage sampling technique using quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. The mean age for all the respondents was 14.26 years +/- 2.001 Males make up about 51% of the respondents in both public and private schools. Respondents from public schools assaulted other students and staff with a weapon more than their colleagues in private schools (24.7% and 9.7% against 12.9% and 6.5% respectively). The commonest violence 'prevention' strategy in both schools was punishment for violent acts (>90%). Respondents in public schools perpetrated and experienced virtually all forms of school-related violence more than those in private, schools. There were mild differences in existing violence prevention strategies in both schools. School connectedness seems to be a major factor in the differential rates of violence between both groups of schools.

  8. Citations in Life Science Patents to Publicly Funded Research at Academic Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2015-12-01

    The contributions of Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) to biomedical innovation have been difficult to measure because of the challenges involved in tracing knowledge flows from their origin to their uses. The authors examined patent citation linkages between AMC research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and patents. In prospective analyses, they examine the extent to which articles resulting from NIH grants to AMCs awarded between 1990 and 1995 were cited in drug and medical patents. The authors then examine the extent to which these patents are associated with marketed drugs. In retrospective analyses, they examine the share of drugs approved between 2000 and 2009 that have citation links to NIH-funded AMC research. The prospective analyses show over a third of AMC grants resulted in publications that were cited in patents. Most the patents are drug and biotechnology patents, and are assigned to private firms. Patents citing NIH-funded AMC publications were associated with 106 new FDA approved drugs, half of which are new molecular entities and a quarter of which are priority NMEs. The retrospective analyses showed that about half of the new molecular entities approved over the 2000-2009 period had citations links to NIH-funded AMC research. There are strong links between articles from NIH-funded AMC research and private sector medical patenting, including drugs. More research is needed to better understand the types of links the citations represent and their implications for public policy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Citations in Life Science Patents to Publicly Funded Research at Academic Medical Centers

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Harold Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The contributions of Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) to biomedical innovation have been difficult to measure because of the challenges involved in tracing knowledge flows from their origin to their uses. Methods The authors examined patent citation linkages between AMC research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and patents. In prospective analyses, they examine the extent to which articles resulting from NIH grants to AMCs awarded between 1990 and 1995 were cited in drug and medical patents. The authors then examine the extent to which these patents are associated with marketed drugs. In retrospective analyses, they examine the share of drugs approved between 2000 and 2009 that have citation links to NIH‐funded AMC research. Results The prospective analyses show over a third of AMC grants resulted in publications that were cited in patents. Most the patents are drug and biotechnology patents, and are assigned to private firms. Patents citing NIH‐funded AMC publications were associated with 106 new FDA approved drugs, half of which are new molecular entities and a quarter of which are priority NMEs. The retrospective analyses showed that about half of the new molecular entities approved over the 2000–2009 period had citations links to NIH‐funded AMC research. Conclusions There are strong links between articles from NIH‐funded AMC research and private sector medical patenting, including drugs. More research is needed to better understand the types of links the citations represent and their implications for public policy. PMID:26728947

  10. Emergency medicine public health research funded by federal agencies: progress and priorities.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Gail; Goldstein, Amy B; Denisco, Richard A; Hingson, Ralph; Heffelfinger, James D; Post, Lori A

    2009-11-01

    The emergency department (ED) visit provides an opportunity to impact the health of the public throughout the entire spectrum of care, from prevention to treatment. As the federal government has a vested interest in funding research and providing programmatic opportunities that promote the health of the public, emergency medicine (EM) is prime to develop a research agenda to advance the field. EM researchers need to be aware of federal funding opportunities, which entails an understanding of the organizational structure of the federal agencies that fund medical research, and the rules and regulations governing applications for grants. Additionally, there are numerous funding streams outside of the National Institutes of Health (NIH; the primary federal health research agency). EM researchers should seek funding from agencies according to each agency's mission and aims. Finally, while funds from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) are an important source of support for EM research, we need to look beyond traditional sources and appeal to other agencies with a vested interest in promoting public health in EDs. EM requires a broad skill set from a multitude of medical disciplines, and conducting research in the field will require looking for funding opportunities in a variety of traditional and not so traditional places within and without the federal government. The following is the discussion of a moderated session at the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference that included panel discussants from the National Institutes of Mental Health, Drug Abuse, and Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Further information is also provided to discuss those agencies and centers not represented.

  11. Access to publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services in Quebec: waiting lists and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Simon; Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Laliberté, Maude; Lavoie, Amélie; Desmeules, François; Feldman, Debbie E; Perreault, Kadija

    2017-12-01

    Problems with access to outpatient physiotherapy services have been reported in publicly funded healthcare systems worldwide. A few studies have reported management strategies aimed at reducing extensive waiting lists, but their association with waiting times is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to document access to public outpatient physiotherapy services for persons with musculoskeletal disorders in hospitals and explore organizational factors associated with waiting time. We surveyed outpatient physiotherapy services in publicly funded hospitals in the province of Quebec (Canada). A total of 97 sites responded (99%) to the survey. The median waiting time was more than six months for 41% of outpatient physiotherapy services. The waiting time management strategies most frequently used were attendance and cancelation policies (99.0%) and referral prioritization (95.9%). Based on multivariate analyses, the use of a prioritization process with an initial evaluation and intervention was associated with shorter waiting times (p = 0.008). Our findings provide evidence that a large number of persons wait a long time for publicly funded physiotherapy services in Quebec. Based on our results, implementation of a prioritization process with an initial evaluation and intervention could help improve timely access to outpatient physiotherapy services. Implications for Rehabilitation Access to publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services is limited by long waiting times in a great proportion of Quebec's hospitals. The use of a specific prioritization process that combines an evaluation and an intervention could possibly help improve timely access to services. Policy-makers, managers, and other stakeholders should work together to address the issue of limited access to publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services.

  12. 77 FR 34399 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice; Request... Division, Office of General Counsel, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room... Division, Office of General Counsel, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room...

  13. Schools and the Stimulus: How America's Public School Districts Are Using ARRA Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerson, Noelle M.

    2009-01-01

    "Schools and the Stimulus: How America's Public School Districts Are Using ARRA Funds" is the third survey in the American Association of School Administrator's 2009 Summer Surveys series. This survey finds that while school systems around the nation appreciate the opportunity the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding…

  14. 76 FR 12847 - Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 460 RIN 2125-AF42 Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds; Correction AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Correcting... definition for the Highway Safety Program. DATES: This rule is effective April 8, 2011. ] FOR FURTHER...

  15. Does Targeted, Disease-Specific Public Research Funding Influence Pharmaceutical Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume-Kohout, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Public funding for biomedical research is often justified as a means to encourage development of more (and better) treatments for disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between these expenditures and downstream pharmaceutical innovation. In particular, although recent analyses have shown a clear contribution of federally…

  16. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Local Food Procurement in Publicly Funded Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Andrew J.; Chopra, Hema

    2013-01-01

    Community-Based Social Marketing is presented as a technique to add to Extension's community economic development toolbox by examining perceived benefits and barriers to local food procurement at publicly funded institutions. Data were gathered through 86 in-person interviews with representatives across the supply chain. The findings revealed that…

  17. Schools and the Stimulus: How America's Public School Districts Are Using ARRA Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerson, Noelle M.

    2009-01-01

    "Schools and the Stimulus: How America's Public School Districts Are Using ARRA Funds" is the third survey in the American Association of School Administrator's 2009 Summer Surveys series. This survey finds that while school systems around the nation appreciate the opportunity the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding…

  18. 76 FR 52997 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's Accounting Support Fee Among Issuers, Brokers, and Dealers, and Other Amendments to... Accounting Oversight Board (the ``Board'' or the ``PCAOB'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  19. The Use and Misuse of Taxpayers' Money: Publicly-Funded Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbottom, Darrell P.; Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    How should educational research be contracted? And is there anything wrong with the way that public funding of educational research is currently administered? We endeavour to answer these questions by appeal to the work of two of the most prominent philosophers of science of the twentieth century, namely Popper and Kuhn. Although their normative…

  20. 11 CFR 201.3 - Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... soon after the communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the... communication as is reasonably possible but no later than three business days after the communication, unless... REGULATIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS § 201.3 Public funding, audits and litigation: Ex parte contacts...

  1. The Use and Misuse of Taxpayers' Money: Publicly-Funded Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbottom, Darrell P.; Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    How should educational research be contracted? And is there anything wrong with the way that public funding of educational research is currently administered? We endeavour to answer these questions by appeal to the work of two of the most prominent philosophers of science of the twentieth century, namely Popper and Kuhn. Although their normative…

  2. Information Technology Governance, Funding and Structure: A Case Analysis of a Public University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azizi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to investigate the issues of IT governance, funding and structure of a public university in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a case study approach, i.e. a series of interviews with users and information services provider of campus information system. Findings: The university lacks a common…

  3. The Public Funding of Roman Catholic Secondary Schools in Ontario: Implications for Educational Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    The decision to extend the public funding of Roman Catholic schools to include grades 11 through 13 carries with it both minor and major implications for the finance and organization of elementary and secondary education in Ontrario. If the school grant plan is to be successfully adopted, the following issues need immediate attention: (1) the…

  4. Commissioning the University of Excellence: Swedish Research Policy and New Public Research Funding Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallonsten, Olof; Silander, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, current research policy is dominated by managerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of making universities into national strategic assets in the globally competitive knowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and their mirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research, with special…

  5. Does Targeted, Disease-Specific Public Research Funding Influence Pharmaceutical Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume-Kohout, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Public funding for biomedical research is often justified as a means to encourage development of more (and better) treatments for disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between these expenditures and downstream pharmaceutical innovation. In particular, although recent analyses have shown a clear contribution of federally…

  6. 25 CFR 170.436 - How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded? 170.436 Section 170.436 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads...

  7. An Analysis of Size Adjustment Factors in the New Mexico Public School Funding Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Doug

    Using 1975-76 school-year data, the study describes New Mexico size adjustment factors for public school funding, compares them with the manner in which other states recognize smallness or sparsity, and delineates the impact of size adjustment factors on New Mexico school districts in terms of resources, net operational and proportionate…

  8. Commissioning the University of Excellence: Swedish Research Policy and New Public Research Funding Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallonsten, Olof; Silander, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, current research policy is dominated by managerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of making universities into national strategic assets in the globally competitive knowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and their mirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research, with special…

  9. Private Schools and Public Funding: A Comparison of Recent Policies in England and Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Tony; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examines government policies in England and Australia toward nongovernment schools, compares forms of direct and indirect support which such schools and their pupils receive from public funds, and looks at ways in which state aid for nonstate schools has been justified and condemned. (JHZ)

  10. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Local Food Procurement in Publicly Funded Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Andrew J.; Chopra, Hema

    2013-01-01

    Community-Based Social Marketing is presented as a technique to add to Extension's community economic development toolbox by examining perceived benefits and barriers to local food procurement at publicly funded institutions. Data were gathered through 86 in-person interviews with representatives across the supply chain. The findings revealed that…

  11. Who Is Teaching? Early Childhood Teachers in New York City's Publicly Funded Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Robert C.; Marx, Elisabeth

    New York City's publicly funded day care and Head Start systems are hindered by an inability to recruit and retain qualified teachers. Data supporting this conclusion came from a randomly drawn sample of 559 teachers working with 3- to 5-year-olds in New York City's early childhood programs. Teachers were surveyed by mail, and a subset of…

  12. The Case for Public Access to Federally Funded Research Data. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Michael; Milloy, Steven

    This study examines the importance of public review of federally funded scientific research by looking at several case studies. It shows that independent, nongovernmental review of federal scientific research has had a major positive effect on knowledge in many areas. The study focuses on: the Environmental Protection Agency and airborne asbestos;…

  13. Public views on the role of government in funding and delivering health services.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar

    2016-07-01

    Public surveys in socialized health systems indicate strong support for the role of government in health care, although different views can be detected. The study considers the public's views on public versus private funding and delivery of health services. The study is based on a representative national sample of 1532 Icelandic adults, aged 18 and older, who participated in a national public issues survey. Respondents were asked about government spending on health care and whether the government or private parties should deliver health services. The great majority of respondents thought that the government should spend more on health care, and should be the primary provider of care. Lower age, female gender, countryside residence, and expected high use of health care were related to greater support for governmental funding. Furthermore, countryside residence, less education, lower income, not being a governmental health worker, expected high health care use, and left-wing political ideology were all related to greater support for governmental delivery of health care. CONCLUSIONS DESPITE SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIATIONS, THE STUDY FINDS STRONG OVERALL SUPPORT FOR THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN FUNDING AND DELIVERING HEALTH CARE PREVIOUS PERSPECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES OF WELFARE STATE ENDORSEMENT RECEIVED MIXED SUPPORT, SUGGESTING THAT FURTHER THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL WORK IS NEEDED TO BETTER ACCOUNT FOR PUBLIC VIEWS ON THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN HEALTH CARE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. The Perceptions of Stakeholders of the Implementation of a State Funding Model in South African Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Berry, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The government has made great strides in redressing past imbalances in education through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding (NNSSF) policy that focuses on equity in school funding. This NNSSF model compels the state to fund public schools according to a poverty quintile system, where poor schools are allocated much more funding…

  15. The Perceptions of Stakeholders of the Implementation of a State Funding Model in South African Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Berry, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The government has made great strides in redressing past imbalances in education through the National Norms and Standards for School Funding (NNSSF) policy that focuses on equity in school funding. This NNSSF model compels the state to fund public schools according to a poverty quintile system, where poor schools are allocated much more funding…

  16. Multiparous women's confidence to have a publicly-funded homebirth: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Catling-Paull, Christine; Dahlen, Hannah; Homer, Caroline S E; Homer, Caroline C S E

    2011-09-01

    Hospital birth is commonly thought to be a safer option than homebirth, despite many studies showing similar rates of safety for low risk mothers and babies when cared for by qualified midwives with systems of back-up in place. Recently in Australia, demand has led to the introduction of a small number of publicly-funded homebirth programs. Women's confidence in having a homebirth through a publicly-funded homebirth program in Australia has not yet been explored. The aim of the study was to explore the reasons why multiparous women feel confident to have a homebirth within a publicly-funded model of care in Australia. Ten multiparous English-speaking women who chose to have a homebirth with the St George Hospital Homebirth Program were interviewed in the postnatal period using semi-structured, open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed, then a thematic analysis was undertaken. Women, having already experienced a normal birth, demonstrated a strong confidence in their ability to give birth at home and described a confidence in their bodies, their midwives, and the health system. Women weighed up the risks of homebirth through information they gathered and integration with their previous experience of birth, their family support and self-confidence. Women choosing publicly-funded homebirth display strong confidence in both themselves to give birth at home, and their belief in the health system's ability to cope with any complications that may arise. Many women may benefit from access to publicly-funded homebirth models of care. This should be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to Offering Vasectomy at Publicly Funded Family Planning Organizations in Texas.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Campbell, Anthony; Hopkins, Kristine; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E

    2017-05-01

    Few publicly funded family planning clinics in the United States offer vasectomy, but little is known about the reasons this method is not more widely available at these sources of care. Between February 2012 and February 2015, three waves of in-depth interviews were conducted with program administrators at 54 family planning organizations in Texas. Participants described their organization's vasectomy service model and factors that influenced how frequently vasectomy was provided. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using a theme-based approach. Service models and barriers to providing vasectomy were compared by organization type (e.g., women's health center, public health clinic) and receipt of Title X funding. Two thirds of organizations did not offer vasectomy on-site or pay for referrals with family planning funding; nine organizations frequently provided vasectomy. Organizations did not widely offer vasectomy because they could not find providers that would accept the low reimbursement for the procedure or because they lacked funding for men's reproductive health care. Respondents often did not perceive men's reproductive health care as a service priority and commented that men, especially Latinos, had limited interest in vasectomy. Although organizations of all types reported barriers, women's health centers and Title X-funded organizations more frequently offered vasectomy by conducting tailored outreach to men and vasectomy providers. A combination of factors operating at the health systems and provider level influence the availability of vasectomy at publicly funded family planning organizations in Texas. Multilevel approaches that address key barriers to vasectomy provision would help organizations offer comprehensive contraceptive services.

  18. 45 CFR 1639.5 - Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds. 1639.5 Section 1639.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.5 Exceptions for public rulemaking and...

  19. 45 CFR 1639.5 - Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds. 1639.5 Section 1639.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.5 Exceptions for public rulemaking and...

  20. 45 CFR 1639.5 - Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds. 1639.5 Section 1639.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.5 Exceptions for public rulemaking and...

  1. 45 CFR 1639.5 - Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions for public rulemaking and responding to requests with non-LSC funds. 1639.5 Section 1639.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.5 Exceptions for public rulemaking and...

  2. Experiments in Favour of a Publicly Funded and Socially Responsive Higher Education System in the State of Kerala: A Study in the Context of Fast Changing National Preference for Private Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharakan, P. K. Michael

    2017-01-01

    It was not far back in history when a significant section of society in India preferred public funding over private funding for education. This article attempts to go back to the decisive point when private funding replaced public funding for education. It also investigates the reasons for such a shift in preference. Even after the preference for…

  3. Recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source.

    PubMed

    van Lent, Marlies; Overbeke, John; Out, Henk J

    2013-09-30

    Numerous studies on publication bias in clinical drug research have been undertaken, particularly on the association between sponsorship and favourable outcomes. However, no standardized methodology for the classification of outcomes and sponsorship has been described. Dissimilarities and ambiguities in this assessment impede the ability to compare and summarize results of studies on publication bias. To guide authors undertaking such studies, this paper provides recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source. As part of ongoing research into publication bias, 472 manuscripts on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with drugs, submitted to eight medical journals from January 2010 through April 2012, were reviewed. Information on trial results and sponsorship was extracted from manuscripts. During the start of this evaluation, several problems related to the classification of outcomes, inclusion of post-hoc analyses and follow-up studies of RCTs in the study sample, and assessment of the role of the funding source were encountered. A comprehensive list of recommendations addressing these problems was composed. To assess internal validity, reliability and usability of these recommendations were tested through evaluation of manuscripts submitted to journals included in our study. The proposed recommendations represent a first step towards a uniform method of classifying trial outcomes and sponsorship. This is essential to draw valid conclusions on the role of the funding source in publication bias and will ensure consistency across future studies.

  4. Recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies on publication bias in clinical drug research have been undertaken, particularly on the association between sponsorship and favourable outcomes. However, no standardized methodology for the classification of outcomes and sponsorship has been described. Dissimilarities and ambiguities in this assessment impede the ability to compare and summarize results of studies on publication bias. To guide authors undertaking such studies, this paper provides recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source. Methods and results As part of ongoing research into publication bias, 472 manuscripts on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with drugs, submitted to eight medical journals from January 2010 through April 2012, were reviewed. Information on trial results and sponsorship was extracted from manuscripts. During the start of this evaluation, several problems related to the classification of outcomes, inclusion of post-hoc analyses and follow-up studies of RCTs in the study sample, and assessment of the role of the funding source were encountered. A comprehensive list of recommendations addressing these problems was composed. To assess internal validity, reliability and usability of these recommendations were tested through evaluation of manuscripts submitted to journals included in our study. Conclusions The proposed recommendations represent a first step towards a uniform method of classifying trial outcomes and sponsorship. This is essential to draw valid conclusions on the role of the funding source in publication bias and will ensure consistency across future studies. PMID:24079325

  5. Corporate Funding for Schools of Public Health: Confronting the Ethical and Economic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ronald; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the public and private sponsoring of university research and the issues it raises in a context of diminished federal funding. We consider research funding at schools of public health and why these schools have historically had weaker links to industry than have other academic units. We argue that the possibility of enhanced links with industry at schools of public health may raise specific concerns beyond those facing universities generally. Six issues should be considered before entering into these relationships: (1) the effects on research orientation, (2) unacceptability of some funders, (3) potential threats to objectivity and academic freedom, (4) effects on academic standards, (5) the effects on dissemination of knowledge, and (6) reputational risks.

  6. Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; West, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that price increases may be supported where funds are dedicated to tobacco control. This study assessed public support in England for such a policy. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in England between August 2008 and January 2009. A representative sample of 8736 respondents aged 16+, of whom 1900 (22%) were cigarette smokers at the time of the survey, was recruited. The primary outcome measure was support for a 20p (4%) price increase on a pack of cigarettes with proceeds going to fund tobacco control activities. 6216 participants (71%), including half (47%) of current cigarette smokers, indicated that they would support a 20p price increase if funds were dedicated to tobacco control activities. Levels of support among smokers were similar across the social gradient and gender. Younger smokers were more likely to support the increase. Smokers who smoked 0-10 cigarettes per day were more supportive of the increase than heavier smokers. There is broad public support for raising the cost of cigarettes with funds being used for tobacco control activities. The absence of a social gradient among smokers concurs with other research showing that more disadvantaged smokers are as engaged with tobacco control objectives as more affluent smokers.

  7. 77 FR 50151 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Operating Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... practices and that federal funds are used for eligible expenditures. PHAs use the information as a financial... budget receipts and expenditures by major category, as well as blocks for indicating approval of budget receipts and expenditures by the PHA and HUD. The related form provides a record of PHA Board approval...

  8. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  9. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  10. Public funding and policies for provision of the contraceptive implant, fiscal year 1992.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, L

    1994-01-01

    According to results of a survey of state Medicaid, health and welfare agencies, these agencies spent $61 million in federal and state funds on the provision of the contraceptive implant to low-income women in FY 1992. Some $57 million of this was federal funds, with Medicaid accounting for 84% of all public funds spent on the implant; only nine states committed monies from their own coffers. The Medicaid agencies of 13 states reported restrictions on the number of subsidized implants a woman could receive over her reproductive lifetime. No Medicaid agency has provisions to cover required or requested removals of the device among users who become ineligible for Medicaid while the implant is in place; only eight health departments have policies ensuring subsidized removals for such women.

  11. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure Policies of Environmental, Occupational, and Public Health Journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Konecny, Brandon; Kissling, Grace E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze conflict of interest (COI) and funding disclosure policies of 224 journals listed in Journal Citation Reports as focusing on environmental, occupational, or public health research. A survey of journal policies and content analysis. About 96.0% of the policies required COI disclosure, 92.4% required funding disclosure, 75.9% defined COIs, 69.6% provided examples of COIs, 68.8% addressed nonfinancial COIs, 33.9% applied to editors and reviewers, 32.1% required discussion of the role of the funding source, and 1.8% included enforcement mechanisms. Policies were significantly associated with journal impact factor and publisher. Although a high percentage of journals in our sample have COI policies that provide substantial guidance to authors, there is a room for improvement. Journals that have not done so should consider developing enforcement mechanisms and applying COI policies to editors and reviewers.

  12. Taking a Step to Identify How to Create Professional Learning Communities--Report of a Case Study of a Korean Public High School on How to Create and Sustain a School-Based Teacher Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Joonkil

    2017-01-01

    This study intends to identify some key factors in creating and sustaining school-based teacher professional learning communities (PLCs) through a case study of a South Korean public high school. To achieve this, the study identified some essential infrastructure, preparation, and necessary social organization for creating PLCs. The ideal unit and…

  13. Impact: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel 2011-2012. Group 2: Grades 1-12 General Education Teachers without Individual Value-Added Student Achievement Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    IMPACT is the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) system for assessing and rewarding the performance of teachers and other school-based staff. This system is called IMPACT because the adults serving in the DCPS have the ability to make a dramatic, positive impact on students' lives. The system is designed to help staff become more…

  14. Impact of public funding on the development of nanotechnology: A comparison of Quebec, Canada and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmooresnejad, Leila

    Nanotechnology is considered to be the most promising high technology of this century. Worldwide investment in this technology has rapidly increased in the past two decades, and it will likely drive future economic growth. Research in this new science-based technology requires significant public funding to facilitate knowledge production, reduce related uncertainties and risks, and ensure the success of nanotechnology development. Given its potential in a wide range of domains, governments and policymakers have sought to efficiently allocate funding to maximize economic benefits. It is therefore essential to further our understanding of how public funding influences research performance. The main purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of public funding on nanotechnology development, with a special focus on scientific and technological research outputs. The research objectives are twofold: we first seek to examine this funding influence, and second to explore the impact of collaboration and related scientific and innovative networks on nanotechnology development. Afterwards, our goal is to compare the impact of funding and of nanotechnology collaborative networks between Canada and the US on scientific and technological research outputs. This research deals with the prominent outputs of academic research, publications and patents, and characterizes collaborative networks using the co-publication and co-invention links between scientists and inventors. This thesis contributes significantly to the following research questions: how increased public funding to nanotechnology scientists enhances nanotechnology-related publications and patents in terms of (a) number and (b) quality? Are researchers who hold a more influential network position in co-publication/co-invention networks more productive and more cited? Is the influence of public funding on nanotechnology research different in Canada compared with the US? To answer these questions, information about

  15. Reduction in Public Funding for Postsecondary Education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010: A Study Documenting Change and the Resulting Shift from Public to Private Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines and chronicles the change in public funding for postsecondary education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010. Colorado was ranked sixth among states in per capita funding for public higher education in 1970 and declined to 48th in 2010. The study analyzed state appropriations over this time period in five broad categories of spending:…

  16. Reduction in Public Funding for Postsecondary Education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010: A Study Documenting Change and the Resulting Shift from Public to Private Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines and chronicles the change in public funding for postsecondary education in Colorado from 1970 to 2010. Colorado was ranked sixth among states in per capita funding for public higher education in 1970 and declined to 48th in 2010. The study analyzed state appropriations over this time period in five broad categories of spending:…

  17. Does dissemination extend beyond publication: a survey of a cross section of public funded research in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the UK, most funding bodies now expect a commitment or effort on the part of grant holders to disseminate the findings of their research. The emphasis is on ensuring that publicly funded research is made available, can be used to support decision making, and ultimately improve the quality and delivery of healthcare provided. In this study, we aimed to describe the dissemination practices and impacts of applied and public health researchers working across the UK. Methods We conducted a survey of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded applied and public health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire. Four reminder emails were sent out to non-respondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken. Results A total of 243/485 (50%) questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 declining to participate). Most researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to research dissemination. However, most dissemination activity beyond the publishing of academic papers appears to be undertaken an ad hoc fashion. There is some evidence that access to dissemination advice and support may facilitate more policy interactions; though access to such resources is lacking at an institutional level, and advice from funders can be variable. Although a minority of respondents routinely record details about the impact of their research, when asked about impact in relation to specific research projects most were able to provide simple narrative descriptions. Conclusions Researchers recognise the importance of and appear committed to disseminating the findings of their work. Although researchers are focussed on academic publication, a range of dissemination activities are being applied albeit in an ad hoc fashion. However, what constitutes effective dissemination

  18. Time to publication for NIHR HTA programme-funded research: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Fay; Young, Amanda; Goodman, Jennie; Ashton-Key, Martin; Milne, Ruairidh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the time to publication of primary research and evidence syntheses funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme published as a monograph in Health Technology Assessment and as a journal article in the wider biomedical literature. Study design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary research and evidence synthesis projects funded by the HTA Programme were included in the cohort if they were registered in the NIHR research programmes database and was planned to submit the draft final report for publication in Health Technology Assessment on or before 9 December 2011. Main outcome measures The median time to publication and publication at 30 months in Health Technology Assessment and in an external journal were determined by searching the NIHR research programmes database and HTA Programme website. Results Of 458 included projects, 184 (40.2%) were primary research projects and 274 (59.8%) were evidence syntheses. A total of 155 primary research projects had a completion date; the median time to publication was 23 months (26.5 and 35.5 months to publish a monograph and to publish in an external journal, respectively) and 69% were published within 30 months. The median time to publication of HTA-funded trials (n=126) was 24 months and 67.5% were published within 30 months. Among the evidence syntheses with a protocol online date (n=223), the median time to publication was 25.5 months (28 months to publication as a monograph), but only 44.4% of evidence synthesis projects were published in an external journal. 65% of evidence synthesis studies had been published within 30.0 months. Conclusions Research funded by the HTA Programme publishes promptly. The importance of Health Technology Assessment was highlighted as the median time to publication was 9 months shorter for a monograph than an external journal article. PMID:24285634

  19. Publication rate for funded studies from a major UK health research funder: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, S; Wright, D; Maeso, R; Cook, A; Milne, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate what percentage of National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme-funded projects have published their final reports in the programme's journal HTA and to explore reasons for non-publication. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Failure to publish findings from research is a significant area of research waste. It has previously been suggested that potentially over 50% of studies funded are never published. Participants All NIHR HTA projects with a planned submission date for their final report for publication in the journal series on or before 9 December 2011 were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The projects were classified according to the type of research, whether they had been published or not; if not yet published, whether they would be published in the future or not. The reasons for non-publication were investigated. Results 628 projects were included: 582 (92.7%) had published a monograph; 19 (3%) were expected to publish a monograph; 13 (2.1%) were discontinued studies and would not publish; 12 (1.9%) submitted a report which did not lead to a publication as a monograph; and two (0.3%) did not submit a report. Overall, 95.7% of HTA studies either have published or will publish a monograph: 94% for those commissioned in 2002 or before and 98% for those commissioned after 2002. Of the 27 projects for which there will be no report, the majority (21) were commissioned in 2002 or before. Reasons why projects failed to complete included failure to recruit; issues concerning the organisation where the research was taking place; drug licensing issues; staffing issues; and access to data. Conclusions The percentage of HTA projects for which a monograph is published is high. The advantages of funding organisations requiring publication in their own journal include avoidance of publication bias and research waste. PMID:23645914

  20. Should community-based services be publicly funded or contracted out?

    PubMed

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    The introduction of Canada's Medicare in 1966 established precedence for a universally accessible and equitable healthcare system. Although Canada has been a leader in building the foundations of socialized medicine, it has stalled short of fulfilling a vision promulgated by its architects of a system that operates on a continuum of care. The aim of this review was to examine whether the expansion of publicly funded services under the Canada Health Act would be an economically and socially viable policy option. A literature review of the direct and indirect social and economic costs associated with contracting out community-based services in the form of outpatient rehabilitative care, palliative care, and home care was conducted. This article concludes that the private financing of community-based services increases healthcare costs in the long term through increased density and frequency of acute care utilization. It is associated with increased indirect costs in the form of caregiver burden and reduced labor market participation of informal caregivers. The expansion of publicly funded community-based services minimizes these direct health and indirect societal costs. The integration of publicly funded community-based services under the Canada Health Act would ensure that the principles of Medicare in the form of equity and accessibility would be enforced while maintaining an economically sustainable healthcare system.

  1. A qualitative investigation of low-income abortion clients' attitudes toward public funding for abortion.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Adrianne; Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    We explored how low-income abortion clients in states where public funding was and was not available perceived the role of public funding for abortion. From October 2010 through February 2011, we conducted 71 semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews with low-income abortion clients in Arizona, Florida, New York, and Oregon. Women reported weighing numerous factors when determining which circumstances warranted public funding. Though most women generally supported coverage, they deviated from their initial support when asked about particular circumstances. Respondents felt most strongly that abortion should not be covered when a woman could not afford another child or was pregnant outside of a romantic relationship. Participants used disparaging language to describe the presumed behavior of women faced with unintended pregnancies. In seeking to discredit "other" women's abortions, women revealed the complex nature of abortion stigma. We propose that women's abortion experiences and subsequent opinions on coverage indicated three distinct manifestations of abortion stigma: women (1) resisted the prominent discourse that marks women who have had abortions as selfish and irresponsible; (2) internalized societal norms that stereotype women based on the circumstances surrounding the abortion; and (3) reproduced stigma by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with women who have had abortions.

  2. The Role of Publicly Funded Family Planning Sites In Health Insurance Enrollment.

    PubMed

    Yarger, Jennifer; Daniel, Sara; Antonia Biggs, M; Malvin, Jan; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-06-01

    Publicly funded family planning providers are well positioned to help uninsured individuals learn about health insurance coverage options and effectively navigate the enrollment process. Understanding how these providers are engaged in enrollment assistance and the challenges they face in providing assistance is important for maximizing their role in health insurance outreach and enrollment. In 2014, some 684 sites participating in California's family planning program were surveyed about their involvement in helping clients enroll in health insurance. Weighted univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine enrollment activities and perceived barriers to facilitating enrollment by site characteristics. Most family planning program sites provided eligibility screening (68%), enrollment education (77%), on-site enrollment assistance (55%) and referrals for off-site enrollment support (91%). The proportion of sites offering each type of assistance was highest among community clinics (83-96%), primary care and multispecialty sites (65-95%), Title X-funded sites (72-98%), sites with contracts to provide primary care services (64-93%) and sites using only electronic health records (66-94%). Commonly identified barriers to providing assistance were lack of staff time (reported by 52% of sites), lack of funding (47%), lack of physical space (34%) and lack of staff knowledge (33%); only 20% of sites received funding to support enrollment activities. Although there were significant variations among them, publicly funded family planning providers in California are actively engaged in health insurance enrollment. Supporting their vital role in enrollment could help in the achievement of universal health insurance coverage. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Public health research support through the European structural funds in central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mark

    2012-04-05

    Public health research provides evidence for practice across fields including health care, health promotion and health surveillance. Levels of public health research vary markedly across European Union (EU) countries, and are lowest in the EU's new member states (in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean). However, these countries now receive most of the EU's Structural Funds, some of which are allocated to research. STEPS, an EU-funded study, sought to assess support for public health research at national and European levels. To identify support through the Structural funds, STEPS drew information from country respondents and internet searches for all twelve EU new member states. The EU allocates annually around €7 billion through the Structural Funds for member states' own use on research. These funds can cover infrastructure, academic employment, and direct research grants. The programmes emphasise links to business. Support for health research includes major projects in biosciences, but direct support for public health research was found in only three countries - Cyprus, Latvia and Lithuania. Public health research is not prioritised in the EU's Structural Funds programme in comparison with biomedicine. For the research dimension of the new European programme for Structural Funds 2014-2002, ministries of health should propose public health research to strengthen the evidence-base for European public health policy and practice.

  4. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  5. Principles for Public Funding of Workplace Learning. A Review To Identify Models of Workplace Learning & Funding Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof; Mawer, Giselle; Connole, Helen; Solomon, Nicky

    Models of workplace learning and principles for funding workplace learning in Australia were identified through case studies and a literature review. A diverse array of workplace-based approaches to delivering nationally recognized qualifications were identified. The following were among the nine funding proposals formulated: (1) funding…

  6. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  7. How should individual participant data (IPD) from publicly funded clinical trials be shared?

    PubMed

    Tudur Smith, C; Hopkins, C; Sydes, M R; Woolfall, K; Clarke, M; Murray, G; Williamson, P

    2015-12-17

    Individual participant data (IPD) from completed clinical trials should be responsibly shared to support efficient clinical research, generate new knowledge and bring benefit to patients. The Medical Research Council (MRC) Hubs for Trials Methodology Research (HTMR) has developed guidance to facilitate the sharing of IPD from publicly funded clinical trials. Development of the guidance was completed over four phases which included a focussed review of policy documents, a web-based survey of the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (CRC) Registered Clinical Trials Units (CTU) Network, participation of an expert committee and an open consultation with the UKCRC Registered CTU Network. The project was funded by the MRC HTMR (MR/L004933/1-R39). Good practice principles include: (i) the use of a controlled access approach, using a transparent and robust system to review requests and provide secure data access; (ii) seeking consent for sharing IPD from trial participants in all future clinical trials with adequate assurance that patient privacy and confidentiality can be maintained; and (iii) establishing an approach to resource the sharing of IPD which would include support from trial funders, sponsor organisations and users of IPD. The guidance has been endorsed by Cancer Research UK, MRC Methodology Research Programme Advisory Group, Wellcome Trust and the Executive Group of the UKCRC Registered CTU Network. The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) has confirmed it is supportive of the application of this guidance. Implementation of these principles will improve transparency, increase the coherent sharing of IPD from publicly funded trials, and help publicly funded trials to adhere to trial funder and journal requirements for data sharing.

  8. Public funding and private investment for R&D: a survey in China’s pharmaceutical industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, China has experienced tremendous growth in its pharmaceutical industry. Both the Chinese government and private investors are motivated to invest into pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). However, studies regarding the different behaviors of public and private investment in pharmaceutical R&D are scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the current situation of public funding and private investment into Chinese pharmaceutical R&D. Methods The primary data used in the research were obtained from the China High-tech Industry Statistics Yearbook (2002–2012) and China Statistical Yearbook of Science and Technology (2002–2012). We analyzed public funding and private investment in five aspects: total investment in the industry, funding sources of the whole industry, differences between provinces, difference in subsectors, and private equity/venture capital investment. Results The vast majority of R&D investment was from private sources. There is a significantly positive correlation between public funding and private investment in different provinces of China. However, public funding was likely to be invested into less developed provinces with abundant natural herbal resources. Compared with the chemical medicine subsector, traditional Chinese medicine and biopharmaceutical subsectors obtained more public funding. Further, the effect of the government was focused on private equity and venture capital investment although private fund is the mainstream of this type of investment. Conclusions Public funding and private investment play different but complementary roles in pharmaceutical R&D in China. While being less than private investment, public funding shows its significance in R&D investment. With rapid growth of the industry, the pharmaceutical R&D investment in China is expected to increase steadily from both public and private sources. PMID:24925505

  9. Evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research in France between 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: Protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. Design The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. Discussion The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can

  11. The public/private debate in the funding, administration and delivery of healthcare in Canada.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2004-01-01

    To help clarify the confusing debate concerning the public-private divide in Canada and the respective positions of the Romanow and Kirby reports, a new approach is proposed. The funding, administration and delivery of the healthcare "system" is split into distinct analytical categories and then applied to three major coverage groupings: universal public (Canada Health Act) coverage for medically necessary/required services; mixed coverage for drug care, home and long-term care; and private health goods and services. While there were no fundamental differences between Romanow and Kirby concerning the funding of public healthcare in Canada, there were some important differences on issues of administration. In particular, the Romanow report recommended that home mental healthcare services become universally covered under the Canada Health Act as well as fundamental changes to the regulation and administration of prescription drug care. The reports also differed in terms of framing the private delivery question, with the Romanow report questioning whether the evidence justified private-for-profit delivery replacing current private not-for-profit or public arm's length delivery modes.

  12. Sticker Shock: How Information Affects Citizen Support for Public School Funding.

    PubMed

    Schueler, Beth E; West, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of information in shaping public opinion in the context of support for education spending. While there is broad public support for increasing government funding for public schools, Americans tend to underestimate what is currently spent. We embed a series of experiments in a nationally representative survey administered in 2012 (n = 2,993) to examine whether informing citizens about current levels of education spending alters public opinion about whether funding should increase. Providing information on per-pupil spending in a respondent's local school district reduces the probability that he or she will express support for increasing spending by 22 percentage points on average. Informing respondents about state-average teacher salaries similarly depresses support for salary increases. These effects are larger among respondents who underestimate per-pupil spending and teacher salaries by a greater amount, consistent with the idea that the observed changes in opinion are driven, at least in part, by informational effects, as opposed to priming alone.

  13. An evaluation of the International Monetary Fund's claims about public health.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; Gilmore, Anna; Batniji, Rajaie; Ooms, Gorik; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Hammonds, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's recent claims concerning its impact on public health are evaluated against available data. First, the IMF claims that health spending either does not change or increases with IMF-supported programs, but there is substantial evidence to the contrary. Second, the IMF claims to have relaxed strict spending requirements in response to the 2008-9 financial crisis, but there is no evidence supporting this claim, and some limited evidence from the Center for Economic Policy Research contradicting it. Third, the IMF states that wage ceilings on public health are no longer part of its explicit conditionalities to poor countries, as governments can choose how to achieve public spending targets; but in practice, ministers are left with few viable alternatives than to reduce health budgets to achieve specific IMF-mandated targets, so the result effectively preserves former policy. Fourth, the IMF's claim that it has increased aid to poor countries also seems to be contradicted by its policies of diverting aid to reserves, as well as evidence that a very small fraction of the Fund's new lending in response to the financial crisis has reached poor countries. Finally, the IMF's claim that it follows public health standards in tobacco control contrasts with its existing policies, which fail to follow the guidelines recommended by the World Bank and World Health Organization. The authors recommend that the IMF (1) become more transparent in its policies, practices, and data to allow improved independent evaluations of its impact on public health (including Health Impact Assessment) and (2) review considerable public health evidence indicating a negative association between its current policies and public health outcomes.

  14. [Public budget, region and funding in health care: oil revenues and inequalities between municipalities].

    PubMed

    Barros, Delba Machado; de Lima, Luciana Dias

    2015-10-01

    The effects of the allocation of revenues from oil production on socioeconomic development and the funding of public policies have been questioned in the literature. The main objective of this study was to analyze the importance of financial compensation - in the form of royalties and special participation - for public financing of local health services in the Norte Fluminense region of Rio de Janeiro State, namely the state bordering on the offshore area that accounts for more than 70% of the oil produced in Brazil. The methodology involved secondary data analysis of municipal health revenues and expenditures in the 2000s. The results suggest that the variation in oil-derived budget funds were correlated to the significant difference in total health spending in the region's municipalities. However, the execution and distribution of health spending by specialty did not occur proportionally to the variation in the availability of revenues. The heavy dependence on oil revenues suggests greater municipal autonomy in health spending when compared to other municipalities in Brazil. The conclusion drawn is that other criteria for the distribution and use of funds are needed in order to equalize spending and streamline governmental actions in the regional sphere.

  15. Restricting access to publications from funded research: ethical issues and solutions.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, S; Vani, N Isai

    2010-01-01

    India is becoming one of the hubs of clinical research. Commensurate with these advances, the government funding for biomedical research in thrust areas is also increasing. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) are some of the government organizations which provide financial support for various research projects. The results of the funded research projects are published in various international journals. Most of these journals have an access to paid subscribers only. Hence it is unethical to use the research grants from government (people's money) and not allow the scientific community free access to the results of the study. To tackle such issues, these agencies should sign the Berlin declaration and create open access repositories. A public access policy should be formulated and listed in JULIET. The funding bodies in India should also join Pubmed Central (PMC) to form PMC India so that every investigator who has received grants would submit the full text of the paper published from his study and these can be made freely accessible to everyone. Universities and research institutions should also develop institutional open access repositories. The public access policy has definitive advantages and should be implemented.

  16. 77 FR 33760 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Program will be changed to Capital Fund Program (CFP). The PHA certification section will have two check... CFP grant specified on the AMCC (1-check box for SAA requirement applicable, 1-check box for SAA... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Public Housing Capital Fund Program. OMB...

  17. Small College Budgeting: A Funding Proposal Prepared by and for Colorado's Small, Public Colleges. Analysts' Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Board for Community Colleges and Occupational Education, Denver.

    Findings and recommendations of a task force study of funding for small, public colleges in Colorado are detailed in this report. After Chapter I describes the funding and access problems facing the small Colorado colleges, Chapter II outlines the study's parameters, establishing a definition for small colleges, and considering the problems…

  18. 77 FR 14540 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Urban Renewal P.O. Box 467, 204 SW Walnut... Dallas 97338 OR 97338 15,881 Agency of Polk County OR... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Family Self... funding awards. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 102(a)(4)(C) of the Department of Housing and...

  19. Evaluation of the Role of Public Outreach and Stakeholder Engagement in Stormwater Funding Decisions in New England

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A detailed report examining the role of public outreach and stakeholder engagement in stormwater funding decisions based on the experiences of eleven small and medium-sized communities in New England.

  20. Awareness of Evidence-Based Practices by Organizations in a Publicly Funded Smoking Cessation Network.

    PubMed

    Provan, Keith G; Beagles, Jonathan E; Mercken, Liesbeth; Leischow, Scott J

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the awareness of evidence based practices by the public organizations that fund services in the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). NAQC is a large, publicly funded, goal-directed "whole network," spanning both Canada and the U.S., working to get people to quit smoking. Building on prior research on the dissemination and diffusion of innovation and evidence based practices, and considering differences between network ties that are homophilous versus instrumental, we found that awareness of evidence based practices was highest for quitline funders that were strongly connected directly to researchers and indirectly to the network administrative organization, controlling for quitline spending per capita and decision making locus of control. The findings support the importance of maintaining instrumental (a technical-rational argument) rather than homophilous ties for acquisition of evidence based practice knowledge. The findings also offer ideas for how public networks might be designed and governed to enhance the likelihood that the organizations in the network are better aware of what evidence based practices exist.

  1. Awareness of Evidence-Based Practices by Organizations in a Publicly Funded Smoking Cessation Network

    PubMed Central

    Provan, Keith G.; Beagles, Jonathan E.; Mercken, Liesbeth; Leischow, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the awareness of evidence based practices by the public organizations that fund services in the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). NAQC is a large, publicly funded, goal-directed “whole network,” spanning both Canada and the U.S., working to get people to quit smoking. Building on prior research on the dissemination and diffusion of innovation and evidence based practices, and considering differences between network ties that are homophilous versus instrumental, we found that awareness of evidence based practices was highest for quitline funders that were strongly connected directly to researchers and indirectly to the network administrative organization, controlling for quitline spending per capita and decision making locus of control. The findings support the importance of maintaining instrumental (a technical-rational argument) rather than homophilous ties for acquisition of evidence based practice knowledge. The findings also offer ideas for how public networks might be designed and governed to enhance the likelihood that the organizations in the network are better aware of what evidence based practices exist. PMID:25484551

  2. School-Based Clinics That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This paper describes a small set of successful school-based clinics (SBCs) that provide primary health care services for the underserved and identifies factors contributing to their success. Six sites were selected on the basis of three general criteria: (1) direct involvement between the SBC and a federally-funded community health center (CHC);…

  3. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang

    2013-09-01

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R&D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  4. An institutional postdoctoral research training program: predictors of publication rate and federal funding success of its graduates.

    PubMed

    Ross, Randal G; Greco-Sanders, Linda; Laudenslager, Mark; Reite, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health funds institutional National Research Service Awards (NRSA) to provide postdoctoral research training. While peer-reviewed publications are the most common outcome measure utilized, there has been little discussion of how publications should be counted or what factors impact the long-term publication rates of trainees in these programs. The authors reviewed current curricula vitae from 92 graduates of an institutional NRSA and from the faculty mentors of that program to assess publications through 2005. Publications were weighted based on peer versus non-peer-reviewed and authorship position. Trainee and mentor factors were assessed for their impact on publication rates and on becoming principal investigators of larger scale federal grants such as a National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01. Weighted publication scores correlate with total publication rates at such a high rate that the two scores can be used interchangeably. Forty-three percent of graduates average at least one publication per year after completing the postdoctoral program; 20% were listed as an independent investigator on a larger federal grant. The number of publications published during postdoctoral training and additional funded training beyond that provided by the institutional NRSA are correlated with increased posttraining program publication rates; other factors including gender, terminal degree, number of publications prior to postdoctoral training, and mentor variables had no significant impact. Additional funded training, male gender, and increased time since completion of the training are associated with increased likelihood of larger grant federal funding. Weighting publications by whether they were peer-reviewed and by authorship position appears to have little benefit over a simple counting of the number of publications. Publication during research training and the pursuit of funding for additional individual research training may be appropriate

  5. 75 FR 70582 - Use of Public Housing Capital Funds for Financing Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...This publication makes a technical correction to the preamble of the final rule on Capital Fund Financing, published on October 21, 2010. That preamble erroneously included a paragraph in the ``Findings and Certifications'' section'' headed ``Congressional Review of Final Rules.'' That paragraph is only relevant where a rule is deemed economically significant, which this rule is not. Therefore, this paragraph should not have been included in the ``Findings and Certifications'' section of the preamble. Removing this paragraph makes no substantive change to the rule.

  6. Options for Sustaining School-Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swider, Susan M.; Valukas, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Several methods exist for financing and sustaining operations of school-based health centers (SBHCs). Promising sources of funds include private grants, federal grants, and state funding. Recently, federal regulation changes mandated that federal funding specifically for SBHCs go only to SBHCs affiliated with a Federally Qualified Health Center…

  7. Options for Sustaining School-Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swider, Susan M.; Valukas, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Several methods exist for financing and sustaining operations of school-based health centers (SBHCs). Promising sources of funds include private grants, federal grants, and state funding. Recently, federal regulation changes mandated that federal funding specifically for SBHCs go only to SBHCs affiliated with a Federally Qualified Health Center…

  8. Responsibilities of the active participation of geoscientists in public funded projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.

  9. The employment of nurses in publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the organizational and environmental factors associated with the employment of nurses in substance abuse treatment programs. Using data collected from the administrators of 250 publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs, this study examined the organizational and environmental correlates of nurse employment in these settings. Negative binomial regression models indicated that the number of nurses employed by treatment programs was positively associated with government ownership, location within a healthcare setting, and the availability of detoxification services. Outpatient-only programs employed fewer nurses than programs with inpatient/residential services. Two environmental factors were associated with nurse employment. Programs that more strongly endorsed a scale of financial barriers employed significantly fewer nurses, whereas programs indicating that funding from state contracts could be used to pay for healthcare providers employed significantly more nurses. These findings suggest that organizational decisions about employing nurses may reflect both the characteristics of the program and the funding environment. Future research should continue to examine the employment of nurses in substance abuse treatment settings, particularly given the shifting environment due to the implementation of healthcare reform.

  10. Physicians in the substance abuse treatment workforce: understanding their employment within publicly funded treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Oser, Carrie B; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M

    2012-09-01

    The employment of physicians by substance abuse treatment organizations is understudied, despite physicians' importance in implementing pharmacotherapy and integrating treatment into the broader system of medical care. Drawing on data collected from 249 publicly funded treatment organizations, this study examined organizational and environmental factors associated with the employment of physicians in these settings. A negative binomial regression model indicated that greater numbers of physicians were employed when organizations offered detoxification services, were embedded in health care settings, and were larger in size. Funding barriers, including the costs of physicians and inadequate reimbursement by funders, were negatively associated with physician employment. Programs unaware that they could use state contract funding to pay for medical staff employed fewer numbers of physicians than programs aware of this type of state policy. Attempts to increase physician employment in substance abuse treatment may require attention to both organizational and environmental factors rather than simply trying to attract individuals to the field. Increasing physician employment may be challenging in the current economic climate.

  11. A systematic evaluation of payback of publicly funded health and health services research in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Patrick; Johnston, Janice; Fung, Anne Y K; Chong, Doris S Y; Collins, Richard A; Lo, Su V

    2007-07-30

    The Health and Health Services Research Fund (HHSRF) is dedicated to support research related to all aspects of health and health services in Hong Kong. We evaluated the fund's outcomes and explored factors associated with the translation of research findings to changes in health policy and provider behaviour. A locally suitable questionnaire was developed based on the "payback" evaluation framework and was sent to principal investigators of the completed research projects supported by the fund since 1993. Research "payback" in six outcome areas was surveyed, namely knowledge production, use of research in the research system, use of research project findings in health system policy/decision making, application of the research findings through changed behaviour, factors influencing the utilization of research, and health/health service/economic benefits. Principal investigators of 178 of 205 (87%) completed research projects returned the questionnaire. Investigators reported research publications in 86.5% (mean = 5.4 publications per project), career advancement 34.3%, acquisition of higher qualifications 38.2%, use of results in policy making 35.4%, changed behaviour in light of findings 49.4%, evidence of health service benefit 42.1% and generated subsequent research in 44.9% of the projects. Payback outcomes were positively associated with the amount of funding awarded. Multivariate analysis found participation of investigators in policy committees and liaison with potential users were significantly associated with reported health service benefit (odds ratio [OR]participation = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-6.40; ORliaison = 2.03, 95% CI 1.05-3.91), policy and decision-making (ORparticipation = 10.53, 95% CI 4.13-26.81; ORliaison = 2.52, 95% CI 1.20-5.28), and change in behavior (ORparticipation = 3.67, 95% CI 1.53-8.81). The HHSRF has produced substantial outcomes and compared favourably with similar health research funds in other developed economies

  12. School-based clinics: a national conference.

    PubMed

    Kenney, A M

    1986-01-01

    On October 9-12, 1985, 250 health personnel, educators, and social service workers attended the 2nd national conference on school based clinics in the US. The conference, held in Chicago, was sponsored jointly by the Center for Population Options (CPO), a Washington based organization which provides technical assistance to groups interested in establishing school clinics, and the Ounce of Prevention Fund, a group of funding agencies in Illinois which works in cooperation with the state government to provide funds for school clinics in Illinois. The growth and accomplishments of the school based clinic movement in the US was reviewed in opening remarks made by the chairperson of the CPO. In 1984, at the time of the 1st national conference, there were clinics in only about 12 communities throughout the nation. Currently, there are clinics in about 50 communities located in 26 states. The clinics provide primary health care, including physical exams, immunizations, treatment for minor illnesses, counseling, nutrition assistance, gynecological exams, and family planning counseling. Some of the clinics dispense contraceptives. Most of the clinics do not provide abortion referrals. The clinics are generally operated by groups outside the educational system, e.g., hospitals, health departments, and nonprofit organizations. The schools furnish space for the clinics. Clinics are usually staffed by a nurse practitioner and a social worker with a backup physician. Topics discussed by the conference participants included strategies for establishing clinics and for gaining community and student acceptance, clinic evaluation, and funding issues. Controversy frequently accompanies the establishment of new clinics. Participants tended to agree that an essential element in launching a successful program is the establishment of a community advisory committee. A concerted effort must be made to address all community concerns about the clinic. Participants noted that it was best to

  13. Public health case studies in diabetes prevention and control: innovation, partnerships, and funding.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mary V; Cannon, Margaret M; Reese, April; Lovette, Beth; Porterfield, Deborah S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, we conducted case studies of 4 North Carolina local health departments (LHDs) that scored highly on an index of diabetes prevention and control performance, to explore characteristics that may serve as barriers or facilitators of diabetes prevention and control services. Case studies involving in-depth interviews were conducted at 4 LHDs. Sites were selected on the basis of 2 variables, known external funding for diabetes services and population size, that were associated with performance in diabetes prevention and control in a 2005 survey of all North Carolina LHDs. Fourteen interviews (individual and group) were conducted among 17 participants from the 4 LHDs. The main outcome measures were LHD characteristics that facilitate or hinder the performance of diabetes programs and services. Interviews revealed that all 4 high-performing LHDs had received some sort of funding from a source external to the LHD. Case study participants indicated that barriers to additional service delivery included low socioeconomic status of the population and lack of financial resources. Having a diabetes self-management education program that was recognized by the American Diabetes Association appeared to be a facilitator of diabetes services provision. Other facilitators were leadership and staff commitment, which appeared to facilitate the leveraging of partnerships and funding opportunities, leading to enhanced service delivery. The small number of LHDs participating in the study and the cross-sectional study design were limitations. Leadership, staff commitment, partnership leveraging, and funding appear to be associated with LHD performance in diabetes prevention and control services. These factors should be further studied in future public health systems and services research.

  14. Who is willing to pay for science? On the relationship between public perception of science and the attitude to public funding of science.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Carolina; Luján, José Luis

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between the general public's understanding of science and the attitude towards public funding of scientific research. It applies a multivariate and discriminant analysis (Wilks' Lambda), in addition to a more commonly used bivariate analysis (Cramer's V), to data compiled from the Third National Survey on the Social Perception of Science and Technology in Spain (FECYT, 2006). The general conclusion is that the multivariate analysis produces information complementary to the bivariate analysis, and that the variables commonly applied in public perception studies have limited predictive value with respect to the attitude towards public funding of scientific research.

  15. ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Sandra M

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as "fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research". The purpose of this study was to summarize the findings and administrative actions reported in ORI notices of scientific misconduct in clinical trials occurring between May 1992 and 2002. Findings of misconduct were gathered from publicly available sources: the ORI annual reports and the NIH Guide to Grants and Contracts. Clinical trials accounted for 17 (13%) of the 136 investigations that resulted in findings of scientific misconduct, and they were noted in 12 (11%) of the 113 brief reports of investigations closed with findings of no scientific misconduct. In clinical trials, the most severe sanction, debarment from US Government funding, was applied in six (35%) of the cases of misconduct compared to 79 (66%) of 119 cases from all other types of research combined. Of individuals cited for misconduct in clinical trials, three (18%) held doctorates in contrast to 81 (68%) in other types of research. In clinical trials, junior employees may bear the burden of sanction for scientific misconduct. The most frequently applied sanction was the requirement that a plan of supervision of the sanctioned employees accompany any future application for funding which would include them. This imposition of sanction on an individual employee does not address possible causes of misconduct which may be inherent in the overall pattern of leadership, training and supervision in the trial. Furthermore, the definition of misconduct, as interpreted by the Departmental Appeals Board, excludes carelessness and other poor research practices that may lead to dissemination of more incorrect data

  16. Canadian school-based HPV vaccine programs and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Guichon, Juliet; Kelaher, Margaret

    2017-09-08

    The National Advisory Committee on Immunization in Canada recommends human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for females and males (ages 9-26). In Canada, the HPV vaccine is predominantly administered through publicly funded school-based programs in provinces and territories. This research provides an overview of Canadian provincial and territorial school-based HPV vaccination program administration and vaccination rates, and identifies foreseeable policy considerations. We searched the academic and grey literature and contacted administrators of provincial and territorial vaccination programs to compile information regarding HPV vaccine program administration and vaccination rates in Canada's 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. As of October 2016, all 13 Canadian jurisdictions vaccinate girls, and six jurisdictions include boys in school-based publicly funded HPV vaccination programs. Eleven jurisdictions administer the HPV vaccine in a two-dose schedule. The quadrivalent vaccine (HPV4) has been the vaccine predominantly used in Canada; however, the majority of provinces will likely adopt the nonavalent vaccine in the future. According to available data, vaccination uptake among females ranged between 46.7% and 93.9%, while vaccination uptake among males (in programs with available data to date) ranged between 75.0% and 87.4%. Future research and innovation will beneficially inform Canadian jurisdictions when considering whether to administer the nonavalent vaccine, whether to implement a two or one-dose vaccination schedule, and how to improve uptake and rates of completion. The usefulness of standardizing methodologies for collecting and reporting HPV vaccination coverage and implementing a national registry were identified as important priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Paediatric meningococcaemia in northwestern Ontario, Canada: a case for publicly funded meningococcal B vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Ulanova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is an important infectious agent in developed countries, including Canada. Infants are particularly susceptible to infection with serogroup B because of immature immune systems, pathogen virulence factors and changing serogroup dynamics in the post-vaccination era. Currently, the Ontario provincial government does not include serogroup B in its routine publicly funded meningococcal vaccination program. Case Presentation: A formerly well 14-month-old male presented to a tertiary hospital emergency department with fever, minor respiratory problems, diffuse purpuric rash, distended abdomen, tachycardia, and history of one episode of vomiting and melena each. Meningococcaemia was immediately suspected, and he was treated with ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and vancomycin before transfer to a different acute care facility within 12 h. N. meningitidis serogroup B, sensitive to ceftriaxone and penicillin, was identified in his blood. The patient developed gangrene of the lower legs and underwent bilateral below-knee amputation 8 days post-admission. Conclusion: This instance of meningococcaemia with extensive sequelae is an example of the various serious outcomes of meningococcal infection. It provides persuasive reason for routine publicly funded vaccination against N. meningitidis serogroup B in Ontario. PMID:28348748

  18. Characterizing psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder receiving publicly funded mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Ganger, William

    2017-09-01

    Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from 201 children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a community effectiveness trial across 29 publicly funded mental health programs. Non-autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were assessed using an adapted Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version. Approximately 92% of children met criteria for at least one non-autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (78% attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 58% oppositional defiant disorder, 56% anxiety, 30% mood). Logistic regression indicated that child gender and clinical characteristics were differentially associated with meeting criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, an anxiety, or a mood disorder. Exploratory analyses supported a link between challenging behaviors and mood disorder symptoms and revealed high prevalence of these symptoms in this autism spectrum disorder population. Findings provide direction for tailoring intervention to address a broad range of clinical issues for youth with autism spectrum disorder served in mental health settings.

  19. The appeal to nature implicit in certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance. We draw on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in arguing for the plausibility of an appeal to nature in opposition to the charge that it must contain a logical fallacy. We also invite consideration of the moral plausibility of some appeal to nature. Finally, we examine what follows in the case of ART. Should medicine respect as natural limits that should not be overcome: the need for a man and a woman in reproduction; menopause; and even declining fertility with age? We must first ask ourselves to what degree we should defer to nature in the conduct of medicine, at least in the particular if not the general case. This will involve also asking ourselves what we think is natural and in what instances and spirit might we defy nature. Divergent opinions and policies concerning who should receive ART treatment and public funding are more easily understood in view of the centrality, complexity and fundamental nature of these questions.

  20. Fiscal versus social responsibility: how Philip Morris shaped the public funds divestment debate

    PubMed Central

    Wander, N; Malone, R E

    2006-01-01

    Calls for institutional investors to divest (sell off) tobacco stocks threaten the industry's share values, publicise its bad behaviour, and label it as a politically unacceptable ally. US tobacco control advocates began urging government investment and pension funds to divest as a matter of responsible social policy in 1990. Following the initiation of Medicaid recovery lawsuits in 1994, advocates highlighted the contradictions between state justice departments suing the industry, and state health departments expanding tobacco control programmes, while state treasurers invested in tobacco companies. Philip Morris (PM), the most exposed US company, led the divestment opposition, consistently framing the issue as one of responsible fiscal policy. It insisted that funds had to be managed for the exclusive interest of beneficiaries, not the public at large, and for high share returns above all. This paper uses tobacco industry documents to show how PM sought to frame both the rhetorical contents and the legal contexts of the divestment debate. While tobacco stock divestment was eventually limited to only seven (but highly visible) states, US advocates focused public attention on the issue in at least 18 others plus various local jurisdictions. This added to ongoing, effective campaigns to denormalise and delegitimise the tobacco industry, dividing it from key allies. Divestment as a delegitimisation tool could have both advantages and disadvantages as a tobacco control strategy in other countries. PMID:16728755

  1. Public funding of scientific research: Policy criteria for investigator discretion, sponsor`s intent, and accountability for outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Branscomb, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    The author explores when government expenditures for scientific research are justified and how should the funds be allocated to purposes and performers. The definition of scientific research includes basic, fundamental and application of results. Technology development is viewed as a critical link between societal goals and the research that is pursued by virtue of society`s commitment to those goals. Thus technology is considered the most important source of demand for science in the sense of motivation and financial support. The growing budget pressure on public funding of scientific research exacerbates tensions that have accompanied public funding of research for a long time. The author explores policies of the current administration and those of the congress and suggests a methodology for decision makers to apply in public funding of research. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  2. UK research funding bodies' views towards public participation in health-related research decisions: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Hilton, Shona

    2014-07-24

    A challenge facing science is how to renew and improve its relationship with society. One potential solution is to ensure that the public are more involved in the scientific process from the inception of research plans to scientific dissemination strategies. However, to date, little is known about how research funding bodies view public participation in research funding decisions, and how they involve the public into their strategies and practices. This paper provides insights into how key representatives working in the UK non-commercial research funding sector perceive public participation in health-related research funding decisions and the possible implications of these. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders from 10 UK non-commercial research funding bodies that either partially or exclusively fund health-related research. The findings were written up in thematic narrative form. The different disciplines that encompass health research, and their differing frames of 'science and society', were found to influence how research funding bodies viewed and implemented public participation in research funding decisions. Relevant subsets of the public were more likely to be involved in research funding decisions than lay public, which could be linked to underlying technocratic rationales. Concerns about public participation stemmed from the highly professionalised scientific environment that the public were exposed to. Additionally, from a more positivist frame, concerns arose regarding subjective views and values held by the public that may damage the integrity of science. Underlying assumptions of technocracy largely appear to be driving PP/PE within the research grant review process, even in funding bodies that have overtly democratic ideals. Some conceptions of technocracy were more inclusive than others, welcoming different types of expertise such as patient or research-user experiences and knowledge, while others suggested

  3. UK research funding bodies’ views towards public participation in health-related research decisions: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A challenge facing science is how to renew and improve its relationship with society. One potential solution is to ensure that the public are more involved in the scientific process from the inception of research plans to scientific dissemination strategies. However, to date, little is known about how research funding bodies view public participation in research funding decisions, and how they involve the public into their strategies and practices. This paper provides insights into how key representatives working in the UK non-commercial research funding sector perceive public participation in health-related research funding decisions and the possible implications of these. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders from 10 UK non-commercial research funding bodies that either partially or exclusively fund health-related research. The findings were written up in thematic narrative form. Results The different disciplines that encompass health research, and their differing frames of ‘science and society’, were found to influence how research funding bodies viewed and implemented public participation in research funding decisions. Relevant subsets of the public were more likely to be involved in research funding decisions than lay public, which could be linked to underlying technocratic rationales. Concerns about public participation stemmed from the highly professionalised scientific environment that the public were exposed to. Additionally, from a more positivist frame, concerns arose regarding subjective views and values held by the public that may damage the integrity of science. Conclusion Underlying assumptions of technocracy largely appear to be driving PP/PE within the research grant review process, even in funding bodies that have overtly democratic ideals. Some conceptions of technocracy were more inclusive than others, welcoming different types of expertise such as patient or research-user experiences

  4. Impact of a school-based intervention on nutritional education and physical activity in primary public schools in Chile (KIND) programme study protocol: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, Sonia; Leyton, Bárbara; Cano, Marcelo; Albala, Cecilia

    2016-12-03

    Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children. For each region one school will be selected for each of the three nutritional intervention modes and one school will be selected as the control group. The intervention modes consist of the following: Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN); Optimized physical activity (AFSO); Healthy Kiosk and nutritional education (KSEAN) + optimized physical activity (AFSO); Control group. The effectiveness of each intervention will be evaluated by determining the nutritional condition of each child by measuring percentage of body fat, BMI and the z-score of the BMI. This study will also identify the eating behaviours, nutritional knowledge and fitness of each child, along with the effective time of moderate activity during physical education classes. A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to control and/or reduce the rates of childhood obesity for children between 6 and 10 years of age was developed. The protocol was developed in line with the Declaration of Helsinski, the Nüremberg Code and the University of Chile Guidelines for ethical committees, and was approved by the INTA, Universidad de Chile ethical committee on Wednesday 12 March 2014. There is consensus among researchers and health and education personnel that schools are a favourable environment for actions to prevent and/or control childhood obesity. However a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to date has led some to question the wisdom of allocating resources to programmes. This is the first study

  5. Cross-Border Healthcare Requests to Publicly Funded Healthcare Insurance: Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stewart Ferreira, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the legal authority to confirm, override or modify healthcare insurance decisions made by physicians and government officials, health tribunal decisions have not been empirically analyzed. Using a novel quantitative methodology, all 387 Health Services Appeal and Review Board written and publicly available electronic decisions released over a five-year time period were statistically analyzed with respect to Ontario public health insurance requests for global cross-border healthcare. The statistical results found that patients knew their diagnosis prior to requesting cross-border healthcare, and 84% of patients requested specific northern US facilities for specific treatment. Two specific healthcare facilities in the US were requested for either surgery or assessments. A significant number of patients were seeking cross-border healthcare for pain treatment. This research challenges the assumption that cross-border treatment requests result only from domestic delay when instead patients are seeking specific treatments at specific facilities. This novel quantitative research methodology and data source of written and publicly available electronic Health Services Appeal and Review Board decisions should be used to inform policy decision regarding the utilization and evaluation of Canada's healthcare system and publicly funded healthcare insurance. PMID:27027791

  6. Evaluation of a federally funded workforce development program: the Centers for Public Health Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Young, Andrea C

    2013-04-01

    The Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) program was a five-year cooperative agreement funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The program was initiated in 2004 to strengthen terrorism and emergency preparedness by linking academic expertise to state and local health agency needs. The purposes of the evaluation study were to identify the results achieved by the Centers and inform program planning for future programs. The evaluation was summative and retrospective in its design and focused on the aggregate outcomes of the CPHP program. The evaluation results indicated progress was achieved on program goals related to development of new training products, training members of the public health workforce, and expansion of partnerships between accredited schools of public health and state and local public health departments. Evaluation results, as well as methodological insights gleaned during the planning and conduct of the CPHP evaluation, were used to inform the design of the next iteration of the CPHP Program, the Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLC).

  7. Supporting a Culture of Evidence-Based Policy: Federal Funding for Public Health Law Evaluation Research, 1985-2014.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Sorensen, Aaron A; Grunwald, Heidi; Burris, Scott

    Law powerfully influences health and can be a critical tool for promoting population well-being. Evaluation research is needed to measure the health effects of law and guide policy making and implementation. The purpose of this study was to assess trends in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for scientific public health law research (PHLR). Using data from the UberResearch NIH grant repository, we collected and coded all grants with a focus on health law between FY'85 and FY'14 and then analyzed the grants by funding agency and topic areas. Between FY'85 and FY'14, NIH funded 510 research grants on health policy making, the health effects of laws or enforcement practices. On average, 4 PHLR grants were funded annually with a median total funding of $545 956 (range: $2535-$44 052 300) and a median annual funding of $205 223 (range: $2535-$7 019 517). National Institutes of Health has supported important PHLR but not nearly to the extent necessary to ensure that public health laws affecting the population are evaluated in a rigorous and timely manner. In addition to greater funding evaluation research, NIH can increase its support for creating legal datasets, fund training in PHLR, and work with the National Library of Medicine to create Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to PHLR.

  8. Where does public funding for HIV prevention go to? The case of condoms versus microbicides and vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the priorities of public donors in funding HIV prevention by either integrated condom programming or HIV preventive microbicides and vaccines in the period between 2000 and 2008. It further compares the public funding investments of the USA government and European governments, including the EU, as we expect the two groups to invest differently in HIV prevention options, because their policies on sexual and reproductive health and rights are different. We use two existing officially UN endorsed databases to compare the public donor funding streams for HIV prevention of these two distinct contributors. In the period 2000-2008, the relative share of public funding for integrated condom programming dropped significantly, while that for research on vaccines and microbicides increased. The European public donors gave a larger share to condom programming than the United States, but exhibited a similar downward trend in favour of funding research on vaccines and microbicides. Both public donor parties invested progressively more in research on vaccines and microbicides rather than addressing the shortage of condoms and improving access to integrated condom programming in developing countries. PMID:21192787

  9. Prevalence, awareness, and management of CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded health care.

    PubMed

    Verhave, Jacobien C; Troyanov, Stéphan; Mongeau, Frédéric; Fradette, Lorraine; Bouchard, Josée; Awadalla, Philip; Madore, François

    2014-04-01

    It is uncertain how many patients with CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded universal health care systems are aware of their disease and how to achieve their treatment targets. The CARTaGENE study evaluated BP, lipid, and diabetes profiles as well as corresponding treatments in 20,004 random individuals between 40 and 69 years of age. Participants had free access to health care and were recruited from four regions within the province of Quebec, Canada in 2009 and 2010. CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation; <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) was present in 4.0% of the respondents, and hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were reported by 25%, 7.4%, and 28% of participants, respectively. Self-awareness was low: 8% for CKD, 73% for diabetes, and 45% for hypercholesterolemia. Overall, 31% of patients with hypertension did not meet BP goals, and many received fewer antihypertensive drugs than appropriately controlled individuals; 41% of patients with diabetes failed to meet treatment targets. Among those patients with a moderate or high Framingham risk score, 53% of patients had LDL levels above the recommended levels, and many patients were not receiving a statin. Physician checkups were not associated with greater awareness but did increase the achievement of targets. In this population with access to publicly funded health care, CKD and cardiovascular risk factors are common, and self-awareness of these conditions is low. Recommended targets were frequently not achieved, and treatments were less intensive in those patients who failed to reach goals. New strategies to enhance public awareness and reach guideline targets should be developed.

  10. Funding, Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Micah

    2009-01-01

    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  11. Funding, Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Micah

    2009-01-01

    I show herein how to develop fundable proposals to support your research. Although the proposal strategy I discuss is commonly used in successful proposals, most junior faculty (and many senior scholars) in political science and other social sciences seem to be unaware of it. I dispel myths about funding, and discuss how to find funders and target…

  12. School Vouchers: Publicly Funded Programs in Cleveland and Milwaukee. Report to the Honorable Judd Gregg, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This report provides information on Cleveland's and Milwaukee's publicly funded school voucher programs, using previous research and reviews of state laws, school district and voucher program records, state budgets, voucher-related reports and articles, and site visits and interviews. Researchers examined eligibility criteria; public and voucher…

  13. 76 FR 40950 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed Board Funding Final Rules...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... COMMISSION Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Notice of Filing of Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's Accounting Support Fee Among Issuers, Brokers, and Dealers, and Other... 2002 (the ``Act''), notice is hereby given that on June 21, 2011, the Public Company Accounting...

  14. Federal Funding Sources Available to Local Governments for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This publication contains information on 101 federal programs that provide funding to rural projects initiated by local governments, public agencies, tribal governments, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, citizen groups, and individuals. Eligible local project categories include conservation, farm ownership and operation, housing,…

  15. An Institutional Postdoctoral Research Training Program: Predictors of Publication Rate and Federal Funding Success of Its Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; Greco-Sanders, Linda; Laudenslager, Mark; Reite, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute of Mental Health funds institutional National Research Service Awards (NRSA) to provide postdoctoral research training. While peer-reviewed publications are the most common outcome measure utilized, there has been little discussion of how publications should be counted or what factors impact the long-term…

  16. An Institutional Postdoctoral Research Training Program: Predictors of Publication Rate and Federal Funding Success of Its Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; Greco-Sanders, Linda; Laudenslager, Mark; Reite, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute of Mental Health funds institutional National Research Service Awards (NRSA) to provide postdoctoral research training. While peer-reviewed publications are the most common outcome measure utilized, there has been little discussion of how publications should be counted or what factors impact the long-term…

  17. Oral Health Care for Children in Countries Using Dental Therapists in Public, School-Based Programs, Contrasted with That of the United States, Using Dentists in a Private Practice Model

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jay W.; Nash, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children’s access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, “A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States.” We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices. PMID:23865650

  18. Oral health care for children in countries using dental therapists in public, school-based programs, contrasted with that of the United States, using dentists in a private practice model.

    PubMed

    Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A

    2013-09-01

    The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children's access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, "A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States." We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices.

  19. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes may integrate Job Placement and Training Program funds into their Public Law 102-477 Plan....

  20. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes may integrate Job Placement and Training Program funds into their Public Law 102-477 Plan....

  1. Economics and the evaluation of publicly funded energy R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Paik, I.K.

    1998-10-19

    There are three major areas in which economics can contribute to the evaluation of federal R and D: assessment of net benefits, ex ante expected as well as ex post realized; tailoring of R and D portfolios to policy goals; and guiding the contractual organization of R and D production. Additionally, evaluation of R and D and scientific activity tend to be distinctly retrospective, principally because of the long lags between the initial production activity and the observability of consequences. Extending the purview of economic evaluation of R and D, they find ample opportunity for evaluation that can inform current R and D management practice. The conduct of R and D is organized through a series of explicit and implicit contracts designed to elicit long-term commitments by some agents while attempting to limit the commitment by others. It is natural to consider the efficiency with which R and D is conducted as a subject for economic inquiry, although in practice such inquiries generally are restricted to accounting exercises. In evaluating the efficiency with which R and D is done, the current ordinary practice is to look at labor rates and equipment and materials prices while considering quantities of those items as the principal instrument variables in an optimization problem (the authors conceptualization, not that of the typical review of an R and D project). The authors recommend the contractual structure and other elements of the incentive structure (pay and promotion) of R and D production as prime focal points for managerially useful economic evaluation. Non-economic motivations for funding public R and D, including energy R and D, are well known. The US will consider spending several billion dollars on an international space station, partly if not largely, to fund the peaceful employment of scientists from the Former Soviet Union. Nonetheless, it will be useful to understand the economics of the R and D programs even if other considerations play important

  2. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publically funded, international trials

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address world-wide clinical and public health research questions. However, for many conditions, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly-funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity, and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. Methods We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of INSIGHT, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. Results It is possible to reduce costs of participant follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The INSIGHT network has successfully completed four large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publically funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. Conclusion New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity; minimal up-front costs; payments for performance; and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They include institutional resistance to financial change, growing

  3. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publicly funded, international trials.

    PubMed

    Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address worldwide clinical and public health research questions. However, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. It is possible to reduce costs of participants' follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials network has successfully completed three large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publicly funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity, minimal up-front costs, payments for performance, and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They

  4. How does complementary private prescription drug insurance coverage affect seniors' use of publicly funded medications?

    PubMed

    Allin, Sara; Law, Michael R; Laporte, Audrey

    2013-05-01

    Like in many other high-income jurisdictions, the public drug program in Ontario, Canada provides comprehensive coverage of prescription drugs to the 65 years and older population with some cost sharing. The objective of this study was to examine the marginal impact of holding private drug coverage on the use of publicly funded medicines among the senior population in Ontario. We drew on linked survey and administrative data sources to examine the impact of private drug coverage first on total spending and utilization of medications, and second, on clinically recommended medications for individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes. Approximately 27% of Ontario seniors reported having private prescription drug insurance from a current or prior employer. The population-level analysis of all seniors found that individuals with private insurance coverage, on average, took about a quarter of an additional drug and incurred 16% more in costs to the public program in a year compared to those without additional coverage. The disease-specific analysis of seniors with a diagnosis of diabetes found that private coverage was associated with two-fold higher odds of taking an anti-hypertensive drug, but it had no association with the use of statins or anti-diabetic medications. The results of this study provide some evidence that seniors in Ontario are sensitive to the price of drugs. These findings raise equity concerns relating to the cost sharing arrangements in the public system and our policy of allowing private plans to "top-up" the public plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost Savings From the Provision of Specific Methods of Contraception in a Publicly Funded Program

    PubMed Central

    Rostovtseva, Daria P.; Brindis, Claire D.; Biggs, M. Antonia; Hulett, Denis; Darney, Philip D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the cost-effectiveness of contraceptive methods dispensed in 2003 to 955 000 women in Family PACT (Planning, Access, Care and Treatment), California's publicly funded family planning program. Methods. We estimated the number of pregnancies averted by each contraceptive method and compared the cost of providing each method with the savings from averted pregnancies. Results. More than half of the 178 000 averted pregnancies were attributable to oral contraceptives, one fifth to injectable methods, and one tenth each to the patch and barrier methods. The implant and intrauterine contraceptives were the most cost-effective, with cost savings of more than $7.00 for every $1.00 spent in services and supplies. Per $1.00 spent, injectable contraceptives yielded savings of $5.60; oral contraceptives, $4.07; the patch, $2.99; the vaginal ring, $2.55; barrier methods, $1.34; and emergency contraceptives, $1.43. Conclusions. All contraceptive methods were cost-effective—they saved more in public expenditures for unintended pregnancies than they cost to provide. Because no single method is clinically recommended to every woman, it is medically and fiscally advisable for public health programs to offer all contraceptive methods. PMID:18703437

  6. Revenue sources for essential services in Florida: findings and implications for organizing and funding public health.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Morris, Michael; Sorensen, Bonita; Chapman, Karen; Rivera, Lillian; Beitsch, Les; Street, Phil; Coughlin, Susan; Smotherman, Carmen; Wood, David

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Public Health Practice-Based Research Network conducted the study of Florida county health departments (CHDs) to assess relationships between self-assessed performance on essential services (ESs) and sources of funding. Primary data were collected using an online survey based on Public Health Accreditation Board standards for ES. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of sources and amounts of revenue obtained from the Florida Department of Health financial system to responses to the survey of CHD capacity for ESs. Self-assessed CHD performance for each ES varied extensively among the CHDs and across the 10 ESs, ranging from a high of 98% CHDs completely or almost completely meeting the standards for ES 2 (Investigating Problems and Hazards) to a low of 32% completely or almost completely meeting standards for ES 10 (Research/Evidence). Medicaid revenue and fees were positively correlated with some ESs. Per capita revenue support varied extensively among the CHDs. Revenue for ES is decreasing and is heavily reliant on noncategorical (discretionary) revenue. This study has important implications for continued reliance on ES as an organizing construct for public health.

  7. Getting to know the competition: a content analysis of publicly and corporate funded physical activity advertisements.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; McCarville, Ron E; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to conduct a content analysis of physical activity advertisements in an effort to determine which advertisements were more likely to include features that may attract and maintain attention levels. Fifty-seven advertisements were collected from top circulation Canadian magazines. The advertisements ranged from publicly funded health promotion pieces to corporate sponsored advertisements using physical activity to sell a product. Advertisements were examined for textual and pictorial factors thought to increase attention allocated to advertising of this nature. Only two public health advertisements were found, and the majority of advertisements (57.9%) were from commercial advertisers using physical activity images to sell products or to encourage brand recognition. The advertisements originating with the private sector tended to possess most of the characteristics thought to attract the attention of readers. Once this attention was gained, however, most of these advertisements failed to highlight the benefits of physical activity. As a result, the positive effect of these advertisements may have been compromised. Public health advertisements were so infrequent that we could not compare their characteristics with those originating with the private sector. The characteristics with those we did find were inconsistent with those thought to attract and maintain attention levels. Results are discussed in terms of potential implications for promoting physical activity.

  8. Policy on infant formula industry funding, support or sponsorship of articles submitted for publication

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Annette; Amir, Lisa H

    2007-01-01

    Despite current scientific evidence that artificial feeding is a harmful practice, unquestioned acceptance of breastfeeding as the normal or "default" method of infant feeding remains elusive in the industrialised world. Throughout the developing world the profound consequences of the aggressive marketing strategies of the infant formula industry since the end of the Second World War is well known. A key objective of the International Breastfeeding Journal is to promote breastfeeding through addressing issues that encourage breastfeeding initiation, duration and effective management. Informing this aim is the recognition of artificial feeding as a harmful practice that places infant health at risk. From this perspective it would be unethical for this journal to accept for publication any manuscript that has received funding, sponsorship or any other means of support from infant formula manufacturers. This stance is consistent with the journal's aim of supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. It will also contribute to the promotion of a breastfeeding culture. PMID:17341315

  9. Organizational factors associated with the use of contingency management in publicly funded substance abuse treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Bride, Brian E; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    A promising area within technology transfer studies is the identification of organizational factors that influence the adoption of treatment innovations. Although studies have identified organizational factors associated with the adoption of pharmacological innovations, few studies have examined organizational factors in the adoption of psychosocial innovations, among which contingency management (CM) is a significant practice. Using data from a sample (N = 318) drawn from the population of publicly funded treatment centers in the United States, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of structural characteristics, workforce variables, values and norms, and patient characteristics associated with the use of CM. Organizations were more likely to use CM if they embrace a supportive therapeutic approach, are research friendly, offer only outpatient levels of care, or serve drug-court patients. Implications for studying the diffusion and implementation of evidence-based psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  10. Wait times for publicly funded addiction and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the definitions of wait times and intake processes used by drug and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada, as well as the various strategies employed to ameliorate client backlog. Methods An online survey was developed and distributed to 203 publicly-funded, provincial substance use and problem gambling treatment agencies from June to August, 2011. All aspects of the intake process were covered in the survey. Results Based on 139 responses, six different wait time periods were identified. Additional analyses were completed by type of service offered. Suggestions for effective interventions to shorten wait times and recommendations for future research are provided. Conclusion The results of this study highlight a need for standardized definitions of wait times across substance use and problem gambling treatment services. PMID:24252217

  11. Conceptual clarifications regarding Chilean Act 20850 on public funding of high-cost diseases.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2016-04-30

    In 2015, Chile enacted the 20850 law, providing public funds for rare and costly diseases that demanded high diagnostic and therapeutic expenditures. The law modifies the Chilean Sanitary Code regulation of research with human beings, aiming at the protection of subjects by securing post-investigational medical benefits and insurance coverage for damage imputable to the research they participated in. Due to ambiguous phrasing, a polemic rose for fear that these protective measures applied to all clinical research, although a careful reading of the law in its context clearly suggests that it refers to phase I therapeutic trials. This paper stresses the distinction between compassionate use and genuine phase I/II therapeutic trials aimed at both pharmacodynamics and an intended therapeutic effect for severe and progressive diseases that are therapeutically orphaned, emphasizing the ethical and medical duty of providing post-trial beneficial medication.

  12. Conflicts between religious or spiritual beliefs and pediatric care: informed refusal, exemptions, and public funding.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Although respect for parents' decision-making authority is an important principle, pediatricians should report suspected cases of medical neglect, and the state should, at times, intervene to require medical treatment of children. Some parents' reasons for refusing medical treatment are based on their religious or spiritual beliefs. In cases in which treatment is likely to prevent death or serious disability or relieve severe pain, children's health and future autonomy should be protected. Because religious exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws do not equally protect all children and may harm some children by causing confusion about the duty to provide medical treatment, these exemptions should be repealed. Furthermore, public health care funds should not cover alternative unproven religious or spiritual healing practices. Such payments may inappropriately legitimize these practices as appropriate medical treatment.

  13. The long-term fiscal impact of funding cuts to Danish public fertility clinics.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark P; Postma, Maarten J; Crespi, Simone; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Ziebe, Søren

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the fiscal impact attributed to recent policy changes that limited funding to public fertility clinics in Denmark. Taking into consideration that introducing patient co-payments will influence the numbers of couples treated, the number of children born every year from assisted reproductive technology will be affected. To reflect the government perspective, the model assessed the average life course of a cohort of assisted-conception singletons taking into consideration age-specific, per-capita government transfers (e.g. education, health care, family allowances, education, pensions) and lifetime gross tax contributions to derive the discounted net tax contribution from assisted-conception singletons. An investment of €11,078 in a mother aged <40 to achieve an assisted-conception singleton was valued at €154,100 in cumulative discounted net tax revenue when the child reaches age 50. A reduction in the number of live births generated additional savings of €67-112 million due to reduced government transfers by age 25. However, by age 50, because of fewer children born and consequently fewer tax payers, a €74-123 million loss to government was estimated. The projected discounted net tax revenue attributed to assisted-conception children suggests that publicly funded treatment provides economic benefits to government over the lifetime of the conceived children. In January 2011, the Danish Parliament introduced a law that limited reimbursement to publicly funded fertility clinics in Denmark. Because reimbursement for fertility services can influence couples' ability to receive treatment, this will consequently result in fewer children being born each year. To inform the policy decision, this study assessed the fiscal consequences of the policy change on the government over many generations. The analytical framework discussed here estimates the net tax revenue of a cohort of assisted-conception children and the discounted net tax revenue that

  14. Organizational Factors Associated with the Use of Contingency Management in Publicly Funded Substance Abuse Treatment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Brian E.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    A promising area within technology transfer studies is the identification of organizational factors that influence the adoption of treatment innovations. While studies have identified organizational factors associated with the adoption of pharmacological innovations, few studies have examined organizational factors in the adoption of psychosocial innovations, among which contingency management (CM) is a significant practice. Using data from a sample (n = 318) drawn from the population of publicly funded treatment centers in the U.S., this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of structural characteristics, workforce variables, values and norms, and patient characteristics associated with the use of CM. Organizations were more likely to use CM if they: embrace a supportive therapeutic approach, are research-friendly, offer only outpatient levels of care, or serve drug-court patients. Implications for studying the diffusion and implementation of evidence-based psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:20850259

  15. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  16. Publicly-funded home birth in Victoria, Australia: Exploring the views and experiences of midwives and doctors.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Helen; McKay, Heather; Powell, Rhonda; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann; Cullinane, Fiona; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della

    2016-04-01

    to explore midwives' and doctors' views and experiences of publicly-funded homebirthing models. cross-sectional survey implemented two years after the introduction of publicly-funded homebirthing models. two public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. midwives and doctors (obstetric medical staff). midwives' and doctors' views regarding reasons women choose home birth; and views and experiences of a publicly-funded home birth program, including intrapartum transfers. of the 44% (74/167) of midwives who responded to the survey, the majority (86%) supported the introduction of a publicly-funded home birth model, and most considered that there was consumer demand for the model (83%). Most thought the model was safe for women (77%) and infants (78%). These views were stronger amongst midwives who had experience working in the program (compared with those who had not). Of the 25% (12/48) of doctors who responded, views were mixed; just under half-supported the introduction of a publicly-funded home birth model, and one was unsure. Doctors also had mixed views about the safety of the model. One third agreed it was safe for women, one third were neutral and one third disagreed. Half did not believe the home birth model was safe for infants. The majority of midwives (93%) and doctors (75%) believed that intrapartum transfers from home to hospital were easier when the homebirthing midwife was a member of the hospital staff (as is the case with these models). responding midwives were supportive of the introduction of publicly-funded home birth, whereas doctors had divergent views and some were concerned about safety. To ensure the success of such programs it is critical that all key stakeholders are engaged at the development and implementation stages as well as in the ongoing governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

    2013-04-01

    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  18. Income status and approval for bariatric surgery in a publicly funded regional obesity program.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Kieran; Padwal, Raj S; Johnson-Stoklossa, Carlene; Sharma, Arya M; Birch, Dan W

    2011-03-01

    Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and safe treatment for severe obesity and utilization rates have increased dramatically. In private health care settings, low socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced likelihood of undergoing a bariatric procedure. Whether this relationship is also present in a universally accessible, publicly funded health care system is not currently known. A retrospective analysis of the Edmonton Weight Wise obesity program clinical registry was conducted. Patients who were unemployed, on long-term disability or receiving social assistance were classified as "low income" status. The remaining patients were categorized as "regular income" status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between low income status and approval for surgery within 1 year of program entry. Thirty-three (7%) of 419 patients were ineligible for surgery or excluded because of missing income status data. Of the remaining 386 patients, 72 (19%) were of low income status and 89 (23%) were approved for surgery. Low income patients were older, heavier, and had greater comorbidity. Compared to patients of regular income status, those with low income status were less likely to be approved for surgery (15.3% versus 24.8%; adjusted OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.94). Within a publicly funded and universally accessible regional obesity program, lower income status patients were less likely to be approved for bariatric surgery. Further study is necessary to clarify this apparent disparity and to determine if program modifications are necessary to ensure equity across all socioeconomic strata.

  19. 'Public enemy no. 1': Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response - a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate how tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: (1) During the 1990s, Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the USA, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; (2) In both Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high-profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist

  20. Public Enemy No. 1’: Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response – a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and from AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate that tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: 1) During the 1990s Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the US, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; 2) In both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in Sub-Sahara Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist. This demonstrates the

  1. Challenges in defining an optimal approach to formula-based allocations of public health funds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, James W; Holtgrave, David R

    2007-01-01

    Background Controversy and debate can arise whenever public health agencies determine how program funds should be allocated among constituent jurisdictions. Two common strategies for making such allocations are expert review of competitive applications and the use of funding formulas. Despite widespread use of funding formulas by public health agencies in the United States, formula allocation strategies in public health have been subject to relatively little formal scrutiny, with the notable exception of the attention focused on formula funding of HIV care programs. To inform debates and deliberations in the selection of a formula-based approach, we summarize key challenges to formula-based funding, based on prior reviews of federal programs in the United States. Discussion The primary challenge lies in identifying data sources and formula calculation methods that both reflect and serve program objectives, with or without adjustments for variations in the cost of delivering services, the availability of local resources, capacity, or performance. Simplicity and transparency are major advantages of formula-based allocations, but these advantages can be offset if formula-based allocations are perceived to under- or over-fund some jurisdictions, which may result from how guaranteed minimum funding levels are set or from "hold-harmless" provisions intended to blunt the effects of changes in formula design or random variations in source data. While fairness is considered an advantage of formula-based allocations, the design of a formula may implicitly reflect unquestioned values concerning equity versus equivalence in setting funding policies. Whether or how past or projected trends are taken into account can also have substantial impacts on allocations. Summary Insufficient attention has been focused on how the approach to designing funding formulas in public health should differ for treatment or service versus prevention programs. Further evaluations of formula

  2. Government and charity funding of cancer research: public preferences and choices.

    PubMed

    Shah, Koonal Kirit; Sussex, Jon; Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla

    2015-09-03

    It is unclear how the public would respond to changes in government decisions about how much to spend on medical research in total and specifically on major disease areas such as cancer. Our aim was to elicit the views of the general public in the United Kingdom about how a change in government spending on cancer research might affect their willingness to donate, or to hypothecate a portion of their income tax payments, to cancer research charities. A web-based stated preference survey was conducted in 2013. Respondents considered hypothetical scenarios regarding changes in the levels of government funding for medical research. In each scenario, respondents were asked to imagine that they could allocate £100 of the income tax they paid this year to one or more medical research charities. They were asked how they wished to allocate the £100 between cancer research charities and medical research charities concerned with diseases other than cancer. After having been given the opportunity to allocate £100 in this way, respondents were then asked if they would want to reduce or increase any personal out-of-pocket donations that they already make to cancer research and non-cancer medical research charities. Descriptive analyses and random effects modelling were used to examine patterns in the response data. The general tendency of respondents was to act to offset hypothetical changes in government spending. When asked to imagine that the government had reduced (or increased) its spending on cancer research, the general tendency of respondents was to state that they would give a larger (or smaller) allocation of their income tax to cancer research charities, and to increase (or reduce) their personal out-of-pocket donations to cancer research charities. However, most respondents' preferred allocation splits and changes in personal donations did not vary much from scenario to scenario. Many of the differences between scenarios were small and non-significant. The public

  3. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding.

  4. State Barriers to Appropriating Public Health Emergency Response Funds During the 2009 H1N1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, David; Menachemi, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined state-specific administrative barriers to allocating 2009 H1N1 influenza public health emergency response (PHER) funds. Methods. We conducted a qualitative review of PHER grants management reports to identify and code barriers reported by states in allocating funds. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship between the percentage of funds allocated and each individual barrier and, separately, the cumulative effect of multiple barriers. Results. States reported 6 barrier types, including regulatory issues (n = 14, or 28%), contracting issues (n = 14, or 28%), purchasing issues (n = 6, or 12%), legislative issues (n = 5, or 10%), staffing issues (n = 5, or 10%), and issues transferring funds between state and local health departments (n = 4, or 8%). In multivariate models, having experienced a purchasing barrier was associated with a significant decrease in PHER allocation (B = −26.4; P = .018). Separately, the cumulative effect of having 3 barriers was associated with a decrease in PHER allocation (B = −16.0; P = .079). Conclusions. Purchasing barriers were associated with delayed use of PHER funds. Moreover, the cumulative effect of any 3 barriers hampered the allocation of funds. Understanding barriers to using funds can inform future funding guidance for improved efficiency of response efforts. PMID:25689213

  5. State barriers to appropriating public health emergency response funds during the 2009 H1N1 response.

    PubMed

    Yeager, Valerie A; Hurst, David; Menachemi, Nir

    2015-04-01

    We examined state-specific administrative barriers to allocating 2009 H1N1 influenza public health emergency response (PHER) funds. We conducted a qualitative review of PHER grants management reports to identify and code barriers reported by states in allocating funds. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship between the percentage of funds allocated and each individual barrier and, separately, the cumulative effect of multiple barriers. States reported 6 barrier types, including regulatory issues (n = 14, or 28%), contracting issues (n = 14, or 28%), purchasing issues (n = 6, or 12%), legislative issues (n = 5, or 10%), staffing issues (n = 5, or 10%), and issues transferring funds between state and local health departments (n = 4, or 8%). In multivariate models, having experienced a purchasing barrier was associated with a significant decrease in PHER allocation (B = -26.4; P = .018). Separately, the cumulative effect of having 3 barriers was associated with a decrease in PHER allocation (B = -16.0; P = .079). Purchasing barriers were associated with delayed use of PHER funds. Moreover, the cumulative effect of any 3 barriers hampered the allocation of funds. Understanding barriers to using funds can inform future funding guidance for improved efficiency of response efforts.

  6. School-Based Health Care State Policy Survey. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) surveys state public health and Medicaid offices every three years to assess state-level public policies and activities that promote the growth and sustainability of school-based health services. The FY2011 survey found 18 states (see map below) reporting investments explicitly dedicated…

  7. Social inequalities in the organization of pregnancy care in a universally funded public health care system.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Georgina; Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    To examine the social organization of pregnancy care and the extent to which socioeconomic factors affect women's experience of care. We consider these data in the global discussion on taking action to reduce health inequalities. This study draws on cross-sectional data from a large population-based survey of Australian women 6 months after giving birth. Only those women reporting to attend publically-funded models of antenatal care (i.e., public clinic, midwife clinic, shared care, primary medical care, primary midwife care) were included in analyses. Results showed a social patterning in the organization and experience of care with clear links between model of care attended in pregnancy and a number of individual-level indicators of social disadvantage. Our findings show model of care is a salient feature in how women view their care. How women from socially disadvantaged backgrounds navigate available care options are important considerations. Pregnancy care is recognized as an opportunity to intervene to give children 'the best start in life.' Our data show the current system of universally accessible pregnancy care in Australia is failing to support the most vulnerable women and families. This information can inform actions to reduce social disparities during this critical period.

  8. Explaining public support for space exploration funding in America: A multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, François

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have identified the need to understand what shapes public attitudes toward space policy. I address this gap in the literature by developing a multivariate regression model explaining why many Americans support government spending on space exploration. Using pooled data from the 2006 and 2008 General Social Surveys, the study reveals that spending preferences on space exploration are largely apolitical and associated instead with knowledge and opinions about science. In particular, the odds of wanting to increase funding for space exploration are significantly higher for white, male Babyboomers with a higher socio-economic status, a fondness for organized science, and a post-secondary science education. As such, I argue that public support for NASA's spending epitomizes what Launius termed "Apollo Nostalgia" in American culture. That is, Americans benefitting most from the old social order of the 1960s developed a greater fondness for science that makes them more likely to lament the glory days of space exploration. The article concludes with suggestions for how to elaborate on these findings in future studies.

  9. Citizens' Perspectives on Disinvestment from Publicly Funded Pathology Tests: A Deliberative Forum.

    PubMed

    Street, Jackie M; Callaghan, Peta; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Hiller, Janet E

    2015-12-01

    Deliberative forums can be useful tools in policy decision making for balancing citizen voice and community values against dominant interests. To describe the use of a deliberative forum to explore community perspectives on a complex health problem-disinvestment. A deliberative forum of citizens was convened in Adelaide, South Australia, to develop criteria to support disinvestment from public funding of ineffective pathology tests. The case study of potential disinvestment from vitamin B12/folate pathology testing was used to shape the debate. The forum was informed by a systematic review of B12/folate pathology test effectiveness and expert testimony. The citizens identified seven criteria: cost of the test, potential impact on individual health/capacity to benefit, potential cost to society, public good, alternatives to testing, severity of the condition, and accuracy of the test. The participants not only saw these criteria as an interdependent network but also questioned "the authority" of policymakers to make these decisions. Coherence between the criteria devised by the forum and those described by an expert group was considerable, the major differences being that the citizens did not consider equity issues and the experts neglected the "cost" of social and emotional impact of disinvestment on users and the society. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Privatization in a publicly funded health care system: the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2008-01-01

    The United States has four decades of experience with the combination of public funding and private health care management and delivery, closely analogous to reforms recently enacted or proposed in many other nations. Extensive research, herein reviewed, shows that for-profit health institutions provide inferior care at inflated prices. The U.S. experience also demonstrates that market mechanisms nurture unscrupulous medical businesses and undermine medical institutions unable or unwilling to tailor care to profitability. The commercialization of care in the United States has driven up costs by diverting money to profits and by fueling a vast increase in management and financial bureaucracy, which now consumes 31 percent of total health spending. The Veterans Health Administration system--a network of government hospitals and clinics--has emerged as the leader in quality improvement and information technology, indicating the potential for public sector excellence and innovation. The poor performance of U.S. health care is directly attributable to reliance on market mechanisms and for-profit firms, and should warn other nations from this path.

  11. Characteristics of the population eligible for and receiving publicly funded bariatric surgery in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is the most effective current treatment for severe obesity. Capacity to perform surgery within Canada’s public health system is limited and potential candidates face protracted wait times. A better understanding of the gaps between demand for surgery and the capacity to provide it is required. The purpose of this study was to quantify and characterize the bariatric surgery-eligible population in Canada in comparison to surgery-ineligible subjects and surgical recipients. Methods Data from adult (age > 20) respondents of the 2007–09 nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) were analyzed to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of the surgery-eligible and ineligible populations. Federally mandated administrative healthcare data (2007–08) were used to characterize surgical recipients. Results In 2007–09, an estimated 1.5 million obese Canadian adults met eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery. 19.2 million were surgery-ineligible (3.4 million obese and 15.8 million non-obese). Surgery-eligible Canadians had a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 39.3 to 40.9 kg/m2) and, compared to the surgery-ineligible obese population, were more likely to be female (62 vs. 44%), 40–59 years old (55 vs. 48%), less educated (43 vs. 35%), in the lowest socioeconomic tertile (41 vs. 34%), and inactive (73 vs. 59%). Self-rated mental health and quality of life were lower and comorbidity was higher in surgery-eligible respondents compared with the ineligible populations. The annual proportion of Canadians eligible for surgery that actually underwent a publicly funded bariatric surgery between 2007–09 was 0.1%. Surgical recipients (n = 847) had a mean age of 43.6 years (SD 11.1) and 82% were female. With the exception of type 2 diabetes, obesity-related comorbidity prevalence was much lower in surgical recipients compared to those eligible for surgery. Conclusions The proportion of bariatric surgery

  12. Patient Organizations’ Funding from Pharmaceutical Companies: Is Disclosure Clear, Complete and Accessible to the Public? An Italian Survey

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Cinzia; Mosconi, Paola; Villani, Walter; Garattini, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients’ and consumers’ organizations accept drug industry funding to support their activities. As drug companies and patient groups move closer, disclosure become essential for transparency, and the internet could be a useful means of making sponsorship information accessible to the public. This survey aims to assess the transparency of a large group of Italian patient and consumer groups and a group of pharmaceutical companies, focusing on their websites. Methodology/Principal Findings Patient and consumer groups were selected from those stated to be sponsored by a group of pharmaceutical companies on their websites. The websites were examined using two forms with principal (name of drug companies providing funds, amount of funding) and secondary indicators of transparency (section where sponsors are disclosed, update of sponsorship). Principal indicators were applied independently by two reviewers to the patient and consumer groups’ websites. Discordances were solved by discussion. One hundred fifty-seven Italian patient and consumer groups and 17 drug companies were considered. Thirteen drug companies (76%) named at least one group funded, on their Italian websites. Of these, four (31%) indicated the activities sponsored and two (15%) the amount of funding. Of the 157 patient and consumer groups, 46 (29%) named at least one pharmaceutical company as providing funds. Three (6%) reported the amount of funding, 25 (54%) the activities funded, none the proportion of income derived from drug companies. Among the groups naming pharmaceutical company sponsors, 15 (33%) declared them in a dedicated section, five (11%) on the home page, the others in the financial report or other sections. Conclusions/Significance Disclosure of funds is scarce on Italian patient and consumer groups’ websites. The levels of transparency need to be improved. Disclosure of patient and consumer groups provided with funds is frequent on Italian pharmaceutical

  13. 25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? 26.22 Section 26.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes may integrate Job Placement and Training Program funds into their Public Law 102-477 Plan....

  14. 77 FR 33223 - Announcement of the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements Under the Runaway and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...) are now available for application. CFDA Number: 93.623, 93.550 Statutory Authority: Runaway and... of the following Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) to the ACF Funding Opportunities Web site... Application Funding opportunity title (FON) Access to FOA due date Basic Center Program HHS-2012-ACF-ACYF-CY...

  15. Economies of scale and scope in publicly funded biomedical and health research: evidence from the literature.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla; Sussex, Jon; Robin, Enora; Guthrie, Sue; Wooding, Steve

    2017-02-02

    Publicly funded biomedical and health research is expected to achieve the best return possible for taxpayers and for society generally. It is therefore important to know whether such research is more productive if concentrated into a small number of 'research groups' or dispersed across many. We undertook a systematic rapid evidence assessment focused on the research question: do economies of scale and scope exist in biomedical and health research? In other words, is that research more productive per unit of cost if more of it, or a wider variety of it, is done in one location? We reviewed English language literature without date restriction to the end of 2014. To help us to classify and understand that literature, we first undertook a review of econometric literature discussing models for analysing economies of scale and/or scope in research generally (not limited to biomedical and health research). We found a large and disparate literature. We reviewed 60 empirical studies of (dis-)economies of scale and/or scope in biomedical and health research, or in categories of research including or overlapping with biomedical and health research. This literature is varied in methods and findings. At the level of universities or research institutes, studies more often point to positive economies of scale than to diseconomies of scale or constant returns to scale in biomedical and health research. However, all three findings exist in the literature, along with inverse U-shaped relationships. At the level of individual research units, laboratories or projects, the numbers of studies are smaller and evidence is mixed. Concerning economies of scope, the literature more often suggests positive economies of scope than diseconomies, but the picture is again mixed. The effect of varying the scope of activities by a research group was less often reported than the effect of scale and the results were more mixed. The absence of predominant findings for or against the existence of

  16. School Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  17. The Transition to Medication Adoption in Publicly Funded Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs: Organizational Structure, Culture, and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Medications for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) are not widely available in publicly funded SUD treatment programs. Few studies have drawn on longitudinal data to examine the organizational characteristics associated with programs transitioning from not delivering any pharmacotherapy to adopting at least one SUD medication. Method: Using two waves of panel longitudinal data collected over a 5-year period, we measured the transition to medication adoption in a cohort of 190 publicly funded treatment organizations that offered no SUD medications at baseline. Independent variables included organizational characteristics, medical resources, funding, treatment culture, and detailing activities by pharmaceutical companies. Results: Of 190 programs not offering SUD pharmacotherapy at baseline, 22.6% transitioned to offering at least one SUD medication at follow-up approximately 5 years later. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that the employment of at least one physician at baseline, having a greater proportion of Medicaid clients, and pharmaceutical detailing were positively associated with medication adoption. Conclusions: Adoption of pharmacotherapy was more likely in programs that had greater medical resources, Medicaid funding, and contact with pharmaceutical companies. Given the potential expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, patients served by publicly funded programs may gain greater access to such treatments, but research is needed to document health reform’s impact on this sector of the treatment system. PMID:24766760

  18. The transition to medication adoption in publicly funded substance use disorder treatment programs: organizational structure, culture, and resources.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Medications for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) are not widely available in publicly funded SUD treatment programs. Few studies have drawn on longitudinal data to examine the organizational characteristics associated with programs transitioning from not delivering any pharmacotherapy to adopting at least one SUD medication. Using two waves of panel longitudinal data collected over a 5-year period, we measured the transition to medication adoption in a cohort of 190 publicly funded treatment organizations that offered no SUD medications at baseline. Independent variables included organizational characteristics, medical resources, funding, treatment culture, and detailing activities by pharmaceutical companies. Of 190 programs not offering SUD pharmacotherapy at baseline, 22.6% transitioned to offering at least one SUD medication at follow-up approximately 5 years later. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that the employment of at least one physician at baseline, having a greater proportion of Medicaid clients, and pharmaceutical detailing were positively associated with medication adoption. Adoption of pharmacotherapy was more likely in programs that had greater medical resources, Medicaid funding, and contact with pharmaceutical companies. Given the potential expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, patients served by publicly funded programs may gain greater access to such treatments, but research is needed to document health reform's impact on this sector of the treatment system.

  19. Reforms are needed to increase public funding and curb demand for private care in Israel's health system.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, Dov

    2013-04-01

    Historically, the Israeli health care system has been considered a high-performance system, providing universal, affordable, high-quality care to all residents. However, a decline in the ratio of physicians to population that reached a modern low in 2006, an approximate ten-percentage-point decline in the share of publicly financed health care between 1995 and 2009, and legislative mandates that favored private insurance have altered Israel's health care system for the worse. Many Israelis now purchase private health insurance to supplement the state-sponsored universal care coverage, and they end up spending more out of pocket even for services covered by the entitlement. Additionally, many publicly paid physicians moonlight at private facilities to earn more money. In this article I recommend that Israel increase public funding for health care and adopt reforms to address the rising demand for privately funded care and the problem of publicly paid physicians who moonlight at private facilities.

  20. Impact of a publicly funded monovalent rotavirus vaccination program in the Province of Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Comeau, Jeannette L; Gagneur, Arnaud; Quach, Caroline

    2016-02-10

    In November 2011, the province of Quebec, Canada implemented a publicly funded rotavirus (RV) vaccination program using the monovalent RV vaccine (RV1). To assess its impact, trends in passive RV laboratory detection and Emergency Department (ED) visits for gastroenteritis (GE) at two pediatric centers were evaluated. RV tests performed were extracted from the virology laboratory databases and ED visits for GE between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2013, from the ED databases of The Montreal Children's Hospital (MCH) and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS). The percent positive RV tests over time and season duration were assessed using 5-week moving averages. We defined season start and end as the first two and the last two consecutive weeks where the percent positive RV tests were ≥ 10%, respectively. Comparing the pre- and post-vaccination program periods, a decrease in the proportion of positive RV tests was seen: 15.9% vs. 5.1% (p<0.001). Pre-vaccination program, RV seasons started between December and February, peaked in March or April and ended in May. In 2011-2012, the season started in March, peaked in April, and ended in May. In 2012-2013, the season lasted 3 weeks in May. ED visits for GE decreased post-introduction of the RV1 program: from 4.8% to 3.4% in 2011-2012, and 4.2% in 2012-13 (p<0.001). In children <2 years of age, ED GE visits decreased from 7.5% to 4.8% in 2011-2012, and 5.2% in 2012-2013 (p<0.001). Admissions for GE also decreased significantly from 0.41% of all ED visits to 0.14% in 2011-2012 and 0.22% in 2012-2013 (p<0.005). Implementation of a publicly funded RV vaccination program had a major impact on the epidemiology of RV infections in Quebec: RV seasons have started later and been of shorter duration, peak positives were fewer, and ED visits for GE decreased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury: burden in a publicly funded, universal healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Marie K; Alolabi, Noor; Goekjian, Serge R; Willoughby, Lauren I; Farrokhyar, Forough; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2015-10-23

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to determine the volume and timing of referrals for obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to multidisciplinary centers in a national demographic sample. Secondarily, we aimed to measure the incidence and risk factors for OBPI in the sample. The burden of OBPI has not been investigated in a publicly funded system, and the timing and volume of referrals to multidisciplinary centers are unknown. The incidence and risk factors for OBPI have not been established in Canada. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study. The authors used a demographic sample of all infants born in Canada, capturing all children born in a publicly funded, universal healthcare system. OBPI diagnoses and corresponding risk factors from 2004 to 2012 were identified and correlated with referrals to Canada's 10 multidisciplinary OBPI centers. Quality indicators were approved by the Canadian OBPI Working Group's guideline consensus group. The primary outcome was the timing of initial assessment at a multidisciplinary center, "good" if assessed by the time the patient was 1 month of age, "satisfactory" if by 3 months of age, and "poor" if thereafter. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to determine the OBPI incidence over the study period. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the strength of association for risk factors. RESULTS OBPI incidence was 1.24 per 1000 live births, and was consistent from 2004 to 2012. Potential biases underestimate the level of injury identification. The factors associated with a very strong risk for OBPI were humerus fracture, shoulder dystocia, and clavicle fracture. The majority (55%-60%) of OBPI patients identified at birth were not referred. Among those who were referred, the timing of assessment was "good" in 28%, "satisfactory" in 66%, and "poor" in 34%. CONCLUSIONS Shoulder dystocia was the strongest modifiable risk factor for OBPI. Most children with OBPI were not referred to multidisciplinary care. Of those who were

  2. Print Media and Public Reaction to the Controversy over NEA Funding for Robert Mapplethorpe's "The Perfect Moment" Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Douglas M.; MacKenzie, Jill A.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on agenda-building and public controversies, and on print media coverage of controversial art by examining media coverage of Robert Mapplethorpe's photography exhibit and the controversy that emerged surrounding National Endowment for the Arts funding. Finds two ironic outcomes of the controversy: increased museum…

  3. Funding long-term care: applications of the trade-off principle in both public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ping

    2003-02-01

    The uncertain need for long-term care services is a risk best protected by insurance. However, the current funding relies heavily on personal payment and public welfare, and only lightly on social and private insurances. This method, akin to sitting on a two-legged stool, is unlikely to be sustainable. To incorporate insurance as a key component of funding and to mobilize public and private resources more effectively, we propose a three-legged-stool funding model under which social insurance would provide a basic protection, to be supplemented by private insurance and personal payment. When these sources do not provide sufficient protection for some individuals, Medicaid as public welfare would serve as a safety net. This article (a) discusses how to implement this funding model by using the trade-off principle in both the public and private sectors when resources for long-term care are scarce, and (b) analyzes several objections to this model from cognitive psychology/behavioral economics

  4. Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges to Providing Universal Access to Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

    2010-01-01

    Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend…

  5. A Key Informant Survey To Assess Service Adequacy in California's Publicly Funded Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Hohman, Melinda M.

    2002-01-01

    Study examined administrators' perceptions of service adequacy, provision of services, and evaluation of services of publicly funded alcohol and other drug treatment systems in California. Administrators reported that systems adequately serve most populations; however some suggested that adolescents, elderly, and homeless were not as adequately…

  6. Print Media and Public Reaction to the Controversy over NEA Funding for Robert Mapplethorpe's "The Perfect Moment" Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Douglas M.; MacKenzie, Jill A.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on agenda-building and public controversies, and on print media coverage of controversial art by examining media coverage of Robert Mapplethorpe's photography exhibit and the controversy that emerged surrounding National Endowment for the Arts funding. Finds two ironic outcomes of the controversy: increased museum…

  7. Strategic Planning, Marketing & Public Relations, and Fund-Raising in Higher Education: Perspectives, Readings, and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryans, Cynthia C.; Shanklin, William L.

    Perspectives on college and university strategic planning, marketing and public relations, and fund-raising are offered. Also included are previously published journal articles by experts in this area, annotated bibliographies of books and journal articles on these subjects, author/title and subject indexes, and a directory of publishers. Three…

  8. Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges to Providing Universal Access to Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

    2010-01-01

    Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend…

  9. Examining Quality in Two Preschool Settings: Publicly Funded Early Childhood Education and Inclusive Early Childhood Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Logan, Jessica A.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although classroom quality is an important consideration, few recent research studies have examined the process and structural quality in publicly funded early childhood education (ECE) and inclusive ECE classrooms. This study provides an important contribution to the literature by comparing two conceptualizations of quality in…

  10. Examining Quality in Two Preschool Settings: Publicly Funded Early Childhood Education and Inclusive Early Childhood Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Logan, Jessica A.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although classroom quality is an important consideration, few recent research studies have examined the process and structural quality in publicly funded early childhood education (ECE) and inclusive ECE classrooms. This study provides an important contribution to the literature by comparing two conceptualizations of quality in…

  11. 76 FR 800 - Policy and Procedural Change Regarding the Publication of Notices of Funding Opportunities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Administration (ETA) will no longer publish the full text of Solicitation of Grant Applications (SGAs) in the... Federal agencies, is mandated to publish SGAs on http://www.grants.gov . ETA has published the full text... public of our funding opportunities by modifying our policy of publishing the full text of SGAs in...

  12. Strategic Planning, Marketing & Public Relations, and Fund-Raising in Higher Education: Perspectives, Readings, and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryans, Cynthia C.; Shanklin, William L.

    Perspectives on college and university strategic planning, marketing and public relations, and fund-raising are offered. Also included are previously published journal articles by experts in this area, annotated bibliographies of books and journal articles on these subjects, author/title and subject indexes, and a directory of publishers. Three…

  13. The effects on population health status of using dedicated property taxes to fund local public health agencies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United States, a dedicated property tax describes the legal authority given to a local jurisdiction to levy and collect a tax for a specific purpose. We investigated for an association of locally dedicated property taxes to fund local public health agencies and improved health status in the eight states designated as the Mississippi Delta Region. Methods We analyzed the difference in health outcomes of counties with and without a dedicated public health tax after adjusting for a set of control variables using regression models for county level data from 720 counties of the Mississippi Delta Region. Results Levying a dedicated public health tax for counties with per capita income above $28,000 is associated with improved health outcomes of those counties when compared to counties without a dedicated property tax for public health. Alternatively, levying a dedicated property tax in counties with lower per capita income is associated with poor health outcomes. Conclusions There are both positive and negative consequences of using dedicated property taxes to fund public health. Policymakers should carefully examine both the positive association of improved health outcomes and negative impact of taxation on poor populations before authorizing the use of dedicated local property tax levies to fund public health agencies. PMID:21672231

  14. Policy related to abdominoplasty in publicly funded elective surgery programs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Wiechula, Rick; Jordan, Zoe; Louey, Melissa

    2009-06-01

    Objectives  This systematic review set out to establish best practice in relation to policy for the inclusion/exclusion of abdominoplasty procedures within public health systems. Inclusion criteria  The review considered any studies relating to abdominoplasty that addressed issues of inclusion/exclusion from public funded health systems including criteria for clinical need, contraindications, fit/ready for surgery, policy compliance and issues in relation to surgical training. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find published and unpublished studies and papers limited to English. An initial search of Medline and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of keywords contained in the title, abstract and index terms. A second comprehensive search was then undertaken using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Health Business, and FullTEXT Elite and PsycINFO. The search was restricted to the period 1995-2005. Methodological quality  Each paper identified was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management and Assessment Review Instrument package. Results  A total of 19 papers were included in the review. Owing to the diverse nature of the papers no meta-analysis or meta-synthesis was able to be used to pool studies. The results are therefore presented in a narrative form. The papers identified were mainly retrospective audits and discussion/opinion papers. The main issues addressed were criteria to establish clinical need, contraindications and policy compliance. Conclusion  There are clinical indicators, mainly in relation to physical symptoms/dysfunction, to support exemption of some cases of abdominoplasty. For abdominoplasty to be conducted clinical need must be assessed and formally documented. Where clinical need is primarily based on psychological distress/dysfunction a

  15. Policy related to rhinoplasty in publicly funded elective surgery programs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Wiechula, Rick; Jordan, Zoe; Henstridge, Victoria

    2009-06-01

    Objectives  This systematic review set out to establish best practice in relation to policy for the inclusion/exclusion of rhinoplasty within public health systems. Inclusion criteria  The review considered any studies relating to rhinoplasty that addressed issues of inclusion/exclusion from public funded health systems including criteria for clinical need, contraindications, fit/ready for surgery, policy compliance and issues in relation to surgical training. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find published and unpublished studies and papers limited to English. An initial search of Medline and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of keywords contained in the title, abstract and index terms. A second comprehensive search was then undertaken using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Health Business, and FullTEXT Elite and PsycINFO. The search was restricted to the period 1995-2005. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management and Assessment Review Instrument package. Results  A total of nine papers were included in the review. Owing to the diverse nature of these papers, meta-synthesis was only possible for three of the seven papers. For this reason, the rest of the results are presented in narrative form. The majority of the papers included in the review related to psychological indicators for surgery and the potential impact of surgery on quality of life. Conclusion  Where clinical indications for surgery are determined and documented following thorough diagnostic evaluation, rhinoplasty may be conducted.

  16. Anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Indian public-funded research institutes and organizations.

    PubMed

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2014-08-01

    This review discusses the various drug therapeutic targets and latest technologies of anticancer patents from 10 Indian public-funded research organizations covering more than 150 esteemed institutes. We have identified and reported the leading assignee and inventors along with their collaboration network and, thereby, have analyzed the various patent trends, geographical distributions, citation maps, Derwent World Patents Index, international patent classification analysis and the like. This article provides the insights of 1905 patent documents from 191 families and discusses in-depth anticancer technology through categorization studies at the level of drug discovery, drug development and treatment and diagnosis. In addition, various cancer targets were correlated with recent technologies so as to identify the white spaces for upcoming technologies. Over a period of 13 years (1990 - 2013) the main focus of Indian cancer research was in the field of synthetic chemistry and natural extracts followed by the pharmaceutical compositions and combinations, whereas, the white spaces for future cancer remedy were identified from research in the areas of cancer stem cell lines, vaccines, gene therapy, nano formulations with targeted drug delivery systems as core and latest technologies.

  17. Ecology of medical care in a publicly funded health care system: a registry study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Alberto; Kristiansson, Per M D

    2011-09-01

    To explore the influence of sociodemographic factors on access to appointments with physicians in primary, secondary, and tertiary health care in a publicly funded health care system. A population-based registry study. Different health care settings in Västernorrland county, Sweden. All residents in the county at the end of 2006. The number of people per 1000 residents who had at least one appointment with a physician in an average month in different health care settings. A total of 87 people had appointments with a physician in primary health care, 44 in outpatient clinics at a regional hospital, 20 in an emergency department, 14 in home care, and two in a university hospital outpatient clinic. Twelve were hospitalized at a regional hospital and <1 at the university hospital. Being young or elderly, female, divorced, widowed, and having a contractor as usual source of care were all independently associated with higher odds of receiving primary care. The physician's office in primary care is the setting that has the potential to affect the largest number of people. The extent of the use of health care was independently influenced by all sociodemographic characteristics studied, which highlights the importance of individual factors in future resource allocation. Regarding availability the ecology model provides superior information as compared with the absolute number of physicians' appointments. The prerequisites in Sweden of high-quality registries and unique personal identification numbers encourage future research on the ecology model to optimize accessibility of health care.

  18. 76 FR 4363 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Notice of Funding Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Availability for the Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program AGENCY: Office... information: Title of Proposal: Notice of Funding Availability for the Transformation Initiative: Sustainable...

  19. Public funding of health at the district level in Indonesia after decentralization – sources, flows and contradictions

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Peter; Harahap, Nida P

    2009-01-01

    Background During the Suharto era public funding of health in Indonesia was low and the health services were tightly controlled by the central government; district health staff had practically no discretion over expenditure. Following the downfall of President Suharto there was a radical political, administrative and fiscal decentralization with delivery of services becoming the responsibility of district governments. In addition, public funding for health services more than doubled between 2001 and 2006. It was widely expected that services would improve as district governments now had both more adequate funds and the responsibility for services. To date there has been little improvement in services. Understanding why services have not improved requires careful study of what is happening at the district level. Methods We collected information on public expenditure on health services for the fiscal year 2006 in 15 districts in Java, Indonesia from the district health offices and district hospitals. Data obtained in the districts were collected by three teams, one for each province. Information on district government revenues were obtained from district public expenditure databases maintained by the World Bank using data from the Ministry of Finance. Results The public expenditure information collected in 15 districts as part of this study indicates district governments are reliant on the central government for as much as 90% of their revenue; that approximately half public expenditure on health is at the district level; that at least 40% of district level public expenditure on health is for personnel, almost all of them permanent civil servants; and that districts may have discretion over less than one-third of district public expenditure on health; the extent of discretion over spending is much higher in district hospitals than in the district health office and health centers. There is considerable variation between districts. Conclusion In contrast to the promise

  20. 45 CFR 2516.200 - How may grant funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Use of Grant Funds § 2516.200 How may grant funds be used? Funds under a school-based service learning grant may be used for the purposes described in... may use funds to pay for planning and building its capacity to implement school-based...

  1. 45 CFR 2516.200 - How may grant funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Use of Grant Funds § 2516.200 How may grant funds be used? Funds under a school-based service learning grant may be used for the purposes described in... may use funds to pay for planning and building its capacity to implement school-based...

  2. 45 CFR 2516.200 - How may grant funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Use of Grant Funds § 2516.200 How may grant funds be used? Funds under a school-based service learning grant may be used for the purposes described in... may use funds to pay for planning and building its capacity to implement school-based...

  3. School-Based Management & Accountability Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    The 1996 session of the North Carolina General Assembly enacted legislation, The School-Based Management and Accountability Program (the ABCs plan), an educational reform initiative designed to improve student performance. The accountability model for the public schools in kindergarten through eighth grade is designed to provide focus on the basic…

  4. School based obesity intervention: Inclusion of peers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the comorbid physical and psychological health problems highlight a pressing need to identify effective treatments that address this public health problem during the childhood years. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a school-based pe...

  5. Effectiveness of a publicly-funded demonstration program to promote management of dryland salinity.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M J; Measham, T G; Batchelor, G; George, R; Kingwell, R; Hosking, K

    2009-07-01

    Community and catchment-based approaches to salinity management continue to attract interest in Australia. In one such approach, Catchment Demonstration Initiative (CDI) projects were established by the Western Australian (WA) Government in 2000 for targeted investment in large-scale catchment-based demonstrations of integrated salinity management practices. The aim was to promote a process for technically-informed salinity management by landholders. This paper offers an evaluation of the effectiveness of one CDI project in the central wheatbelt of WA, covering issues including: its role in fostering adoption of salinity management options, the role of research and the technical requirements for design and implementation of on-ground works, the role of monitoring and evaluation, the identification and measurement of public and private benefits, comparison and identification of the place and value of plant-based and engineering-based options, reliance on social processes and impacts of constraints on capacity, management of governance and administration requirements and an appreciation of the value of group-based approaches. A number of factors may reduce the effectiveness of CDI-type approaches in facilitating landholder action to address salinity, many of these are socially-based. Such approaches can create considerable demands on landholders, can be expensive (because of the planning and accountability required) on the basis of dollars per hectare impacted, and can be difficult to garner ownership from all involved. An additional problem could be that few community groups would have the capacity to run such programs and disseminate the new knowledge so that the CDI-type projects can impact outside the focus catchment. In common with many publicly-funded approaches to salinity, we found that direct benefits on public assets are smaller than planned and that results from science-based requirements of monitoring and evaluation have long lead times, causing farmers

  6. Organizing Publicly Funded Substance Use Disorder Treatment in the United States: Moving Toward a Service System Approach.

    PubMed

    Padwa, Howard; Urada, Darren; Gauthier, Patrick; Rieckmann, Traci; Hurley, Brian; Crèvecouer-MacPhail, Desirée; Rawson, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    Historically, publicly funded substance use disorder (SUD) treatment services in the United States have been disorganized and inefficient. By reconfiguring and linking services to create systems of care-services, structures, and processes that are purposively interconnected to treat SUD systematically-health systems can transform discrete service components into cohesive service systems that comprehensively and efficiently treat SUDs. In this article we: (1) articulate the potential benefits of organizing publicly funded SUD services into systems of care; (2) review basic principles underlying theories of SUD system organization; (3) describe the mix and configuration of services needed to create comprehensive, integrated systems of publicly funded SUD care; (4) elucidate how patients can flow through systems of SUD services in a clinically sound and cost-efficient manner, and; (5) propose eight steps that can be taken to create systems of care by identifying and leveraging the strengths, assets, and capacities of SUD service providers already operating within their health care systems. In July 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) announced opportunities for states to redesign their Medicaid-funded SUD service systems. This paper provides considerations for SUD system design and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is There a Relationship between Research Sponsorship and Publication Impact? An Analysis of Funding Acknowledgments in Nanotechnology Papers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Shapira, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations. PMID:25695739

  8. Is there a relationship between research sponsorship and publication impact? An analysis of funding acknowledgments in nanotechnology papers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Shapira, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.

  9. A BASIC THOUGHT ON THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL AND THE APPROPRIATE WAY OF DISCRETIONAL RAISING FUND FOR PUBLIC WORKS THAT ACCOUNTS FOR MACRO ECONOMIC INFLUENCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Nakano, Tsuyoshi

    In this paper, we tried to discuss about the appropriate level of national fund for public works and the appropriate way of raising fund for them that accounts for their macro economic influences. It was then discussed that we have to adopt "austere fiscal policy" during inflation period in order to mitigate the inflation and have to raise fund through tax rather than public bond, and we have to adopt "positive fiscal policy" during deflation period in order to mitigate deflation, and have to raise fund through inland public bond rather than tax increase.

  10. 77 FR 24213 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: FY 2012 Notice of Funding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Funding Availability (NOFA) for Rural Capacity Building Program AGENCY: Office of the Community Planning... for national organizations to develop the ability and capacity of rural communities to undertake..., announced through a Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) that announces the amount of Rural...

  11. The Equality of Public School District Funding in the United States: A National Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Michele; Rubenstein, Ross

    2002-01-01

    Examines funding equality across school districts in 49 states for fiscal years 1992 and 1995. Presents rankings of each state's funding equality and explores factors that may be related to the level of equality within states and to changes across years. (Contains 29 references.) (Author)

  12. 78 FR 76160 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS) Capital Fund Interim Scoring Notice: Reinstitution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...: Reinstitution of Five Points for Occupancy Sub- Indicator and Request for Comment AGENCY: Office of the..., the award of 5 points for the occupancy sub-indicator of the Capital Fund Program Indicator to all PHAs for the PHAS Capital Fund Program Indicator. This award of points is provided as regulatory...

  13. Access and Funding in Public Higher Education--The 2011 National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.

    2011-01-01

    With current tuition increases at more than double the rate of inflation and cuts in state funding and Pell Grant programs, students and their families are being squeezed financially. The purpose of this study was to uncover access and funding issues by displaying current year and future year predictions for all access sectors including community…

  14. 75 FR 10561 - Request for Public Comment: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Initiatives, and Bank Enterprise Awards AGENCY: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, U.S... assistance awards, the Native Initiatives and the Bank Enterprise Awards (BEA). In particular, the CDFI Fund..., thereby providing an incentive to banks to invest in their communities and in other CDFIs; (d) the...

  15. Examining the Funding Request Process between Public Higher Education and the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Andrew Michael

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the funding request process whereby higher education institutions seek financial support from state government. The study tested whether a model based on state goals and priorities for higher education could distinguish a funded request from an unfunded request. The research was qualitative and followed a comparative case…

  16. Examining the Funding Request Process between Public Higher Education and the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Andrew Michael

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the funding request process whereby higher education institutions seek financial support from state government. The study tested whether a model based on state goals and priorities for higher education could distinguish a funded request from an unfunded request. The research was qualitative and followed a comparative case…

  17. A Study of Fund Raising and Fee Collection Practices in Tennessee Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry E.; Reddick, Thomas L.

    Most school systems in Tennessee raise additional revenue for instructional and extracurricular activities through fund raising projects and voluntary student fee collections. Responses to a questionnaire by 129 principals (from a sample of 15) were analyzed to determine the extent, diversity, and results of fund raising activities and fee…

  18. Bridging the financial gap through providing contract services: a model for publicly funded clinical biobanks.

    PubMed

    Kozlakidis, Zisis; Mant, Christine; Cason, John

    2012-08-01

    Biobanks offer translational researchers a novel method of obtaining clinical research materials, patient data, and relevant ethical and legal permissions. However, such tissue collections are expensive to establish and maintain. Current opinion is that such initiatives can only survive with core funding from Government or major funding bodies. Given the present climate of financial austerity, funding agencies may be tempted to invest in fast-return research projects rather than in maintaining tissue collections, whose benefits will only become apparent in much longer timescales. Thus, securing additional funding for biobanks could provide a valuable boost enabling an extension of core services. Here we suggest that using biobank expertise to offer contract services to clinicians and industry may be an alternative approach to obtaining such extra funding.

  19. Guided by Principles. Shaping the State of California's Role in K-12 Public School Facility Funding. Full Policy Research Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Gross, Liz S.

    2015-01-01

    K-12 public school facilities need regular investment to ensure student health and safety and support educational programming. Yet, the future of K-12 school facility funding in California is uncertain. A strong state-local partnership has existed that funded new construction, modernization, and other investments in public school facilities across…

  20. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  1. Women’s Experiences Seeking Publicly Funded Family Planning Services in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Kristine; White, Kari; Linkin, Fran; Hubert, Celia; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Little is known about low-income women’s and teenagers’ experiences accessing publicly funded family planning services, particularly after policy changes are made that affect the cost of and access to such services. METHODS Eleven focus groups were conducted with 92 adult women and 15 teenagers in nine Texas metropolitan areas in July–October 2012, a year after legislation that reduced access to subsidized family planning was enacted. Participants were recruited through organizations that serve low-income populations. At least two researchers independently coded the transcripts of the discussions and identified main themes. RESULTS Although most women were not aware of the legislative changes, they reported that in the past year, they had had to pay more for previously free or low-cost services, use less effective contraceptive methods or forgo care. They also indicated that accessing affordable family planning services had long been difficult, that applying and qualifying for programs was a challenge and that obtaining family planning care was harder than obtaining pregnancy-related care. As a result of an inadequate reproductive health safety net, women experienced unplanned pregnancies and were unable to access screening services and follow-up care. Teenagers experienced an additional barrier, the need to obtain parental consent. Some women preferred to receive family planning services from specialized providers, while others preferred more comprehensive care. CONCLUSION Women in Texas have long faced challenges in obtaining subsidized family planning services. Legislation that reduced access to family planning services for low-income women and teenagers appears to have added to those challenges. PMID:25639913

  2. Do parent perceptions predict continuity of publicly funded care for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Zima, Bonnie T; Bussing, Regina; Tang, Lingqi; Zhang, Lily

    2013-03-01

    To examine whether parent perceptions about care (barriers, disorder knowledge, treatment willingness) vary among children who drop out of or stay in publicly funded care for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to explore whether parent perceptions are predictive of staying in care over time. A longitudinal cohort study of 529 children ages 5 to 11 years receiving care for ADHD in primary care or specialty mental health clinics in a large, countrywide, managed-care Medicaid program. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify parent perceptions associated with the likelihood of staying in care across three 6-month time intervals, controlling for child and parent demographic characteristics, parental distress, clinical need, and recent special education use. At least three-fourths of children had at least 1 contact for any mental health care during a 6-month time interval (75%, 85%, 76%). Parent-perceived barriers, ADHD knowledge, and counseling willingness did not predict staying in care, whereas willingness for medication treatment was predictive at baseline. Minority status, nonmarried parent, parental distress, clinical need, and special education use were predictive of staying in care, but mostly during only one 6-month time interval, and their influence varied over time. Parent willingness for medication treatment along with several demographic and need factors predicted staying in care but not consistently over time. Future research is needed to develop practical tools for clinicians to elicit parent priorities about ADHD treatment and to integrate them into quality-improvement interventions targeted to improving shared decision-making for longer term ADHD care.

  3. Policy related to varicose veins in publicly funded elective surgery programs: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Wiechula, Rick; Jordan, Zoe; Stern, Cindy

    2009-12-01

    Objectives  This systematic review set out to establish best practice in relation to policy for the inclusion/exclusion of varicose vein procedures within public health systems. Inclusion criteria  The review considered any studies relating to varicose veins that addressed issues of inclusion/exclusion from publicly funded health systems including criteria for clinical need, contraindications, fit/ready for surgery, policy compliance and issues in relation to surgical training. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find published and unpublished studies that were limited to English. An initial search of Medline and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of key words contained in the title, abstract and index terms. A second comprehensive search was then undertaken using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Health Business FullTEXT Elite and PsycINFO. The search was restricted to the period 1995-2005. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information software (JBI-SUMARI). Results  A total of nine papers were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of these papers, meta-analysis and synthesis of the results was not possible. For this reason, results are presented in narrative form. The majority of papers included in the review related to the identification of indicators for surgical intervention for the treatment of varicose veins. Other major themes were related to measures of quality of life of patients with varicose veins and the potential for surgical training. Recommendations for practice and research 1 Reasons for presentation should be thoroughly examined before any decision is made regarding surgery for varicose veins and indications documented thoroughly. 2 Every effort should be

  4. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Parents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L.; MacDonald, Judy; Collins, Ramona; Frank, Christine J.; Davis, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. Purpose We explored parents’ perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program. Participants Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone. Findings Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV), Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support), families (e.g. convenience), the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities), the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness) and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles). Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized), families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions) and the education sector (loss of instructional time). Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process. Conclusions Parents perceived advantages and

  5. Hubbell Metropolitan Development Fund I, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Hubbell Metropolitan Development Fund I, LLC, for alleged violations at the SE Westown Parkway realignment, near the intersection of R22, and undertaken as part of the Glyn

  6. Women's Experiences of Publicly Funded Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Ontario, Canada: Considerations for Health Technology Policy-Making.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, Meredith; Yacoub, Karima; Giacomini, Mita; Hulan, Danielle; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) via fetal DNA in maternal blood has been publicly funded in Ontario, Canada, for high-risk women since 2014. We solicited women's experiences and values related to this new health technology to describe how this test is currently being used in Ontario and to provide information about patient priorities to inform future policy decisions about the use of NIPT. Guided by constructivist grounded theory methodology, we interviewed 38 women who had diverse personal experiences with NIPT. Participants' accounts of their values for decision making about NIPT heavily relied on three mutually modulating factors: timing, accuracy, and risk. The values expressed by women conflict with the way that publicly funded NIPT has typically been implemented in Ontario. We offer recommendations for how NIPT might be integrated into prenatal care pathways in a way more consistent with women's values.

  7. UK publicly funded Clinical Trials Units supported a controlled access approach to share individual participant data but highlighted concerns.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Carolyn; Sydes, Matthew; Murray, Gordon; Woolfall, Kerry; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Evaluate current data sharing activities of UK publicly funded Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and identify good practices and barriers. Web-based survey of Directors of 45 UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC)-registered CTUs. Twenty-three (51%) CTUs responded: Five (22%) of these had an established data sharing policy and eight (35%) specifically requested consent to use patient data beyond the scope of the original trial. Fifteen (65%) CTUs had received requests for data, and seven (30%) had made external requests for data in the previous 12 months. CTUs supported the need for increased data sharing activities although concerns were raised about patient identification, misuse of data, and financial burden. Custodianship of clinical trial data and requirements for a CTU to align its policy to their parent institutes were also raised. No CTUs supported the use of an open access model for data sharing. There is support within the publicly funded UKCRC-registered CTUs for data sharing, but many perceived barriers remain. CTUs are currently using a variety of approaches and procedures for sharing data. This survey has informed further work, including development of guidance for publicly funded CTUs, to promote good practice and facilitate data sharing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Technology whitespaces India should focus: a comparative anti-cancer patent rational analysis of Indian and international public funded universities.

    PubMed

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    The article reported an in-depth comparative technology analysis of 1708 Anti-cancer patents from top 20 international universities and leading 10 Indian public funded organization and research institutes. The study segregated pioneer universities vs. technologies used in the field of Anticancer research at a level of drug discovery, development, diagnosis and treatment, which are illustrated in the form of novel substantive patent landscape maps. The reported competitive intelligent maps identified genetics, composition and synthetic compounds as dominating technologies; followed by natural extracts, combination and drug delivery systems as upcoming technologies. The least number of patents were reported by surgical apparatus, targeted therapy and animal models. In addition, the study analysed the key technologies followed by Indian universities in comparison to the international universities, to identify the overlooked technologies by the Indian public funded institutes. In an ever changing competitive world, it is essential for every university to have their own research plan and thrust areas; but at the same time, it is equally important for any organisation to have an idea of their competitor's research plan as well. So, the article suggested Indian institutes to focus on the latest emerging Anti-cancer technology trends, which are in practice by the international universities. Concurrently, this study may be a landmark indication for Indian public funded universities and institutes, calling for a U-turn from their traditional approaches.

  9. National Center for Education Research Publication Handbook: Publications from Funded Education Research Grants, FY 2002 to FY 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2002, the National Center for Education Research (NCER) in the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) has funded over 700 education research grants and over 60 education training grants. The research grants have supported exploratory research to build theory or generate hypotheses on factors that may affect educational…

  10. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Methods: Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. Results: For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Conclusions: Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Implications: Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross

  11. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys.

    PubMed

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys across the four countries of the United Kingdom

  12. [Funding, public spending and management of health resources: the current situation in a Brazilian state].

    PubMed

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia

    2012-07-01

    This article investigates the issue of funding and the decentralization process in order to examine the composition, application and management of resources in the healthcare area. The sample surveyed involved 14 municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The research involved data gathering of financial transfers, the municipality's own resources and primary healthcare expenses. Management analysis included a survey of local managers and counselors. It was seen that the Unified Health System is funded mainly by federal transfers and municipal revenues and to a far lesser extent by state resources. Funds have been applied predominantly in primary healthcare. The management process saw centralization of actions in the city governments. Municipal secretarial offices and councils comply partially with legislation, though they have problems with autonomy and social control. The results show that planning and management instruments are limited, due to the contradictions inherent to the institutional, political and cultural context of the region.

  13. Return on Investment: A Fuller Assessment of the Benefits and Cost Savings of the US Publicly Funded Family Planning Program

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B

    2014-01-01

    Context Each year the United States’ publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Methods Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. Findings In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99,100 cases of chlamydia, 16,240 cases of gonorrhea, 410 cases of HIV, and 13,170 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease that would have led to 1,130 ectopic pregnancies and 2,210 cases of infertility. Pap and HPV tests and HPV vaccinations prevented an estimated 3,680 cases of cervical cancer and 2,110 cervical cancer deaths; HPV vaccination also prevented 9,000 cases of abnormal sequelae and precancerous lesions. Services provided at health centers supported by the Title X national family planning program accounted for more than half of these benefits. The gross public savings attributed to these services totaled approximately

  14. Reflection on the history, coordination, and funding trends for U.S. public meat research: information to enhance resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L R

    2002-08-01

    A study was conducted to analyze resource allocation for public meat research in the United States and characterize the portfolio of meat research investments. Trends in the amount of public resources provided for meat research (beef, pork, lamb, and poultry) were analyzed for fiscal years 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 1997. An in-depth analysis was conducted for data from fiscal year 1998 to characterize the profile of the research portfolio. Funding levels and scientist-year equivalents were aggregated to represent the measures of resource allocation for three mutually exclusive research categories: 1) meat quality, 2) food safety, and 3) product development and processing. Data for the 1998 profile analysis were derived from a computer search based on the combination of key words and research classification codes to avoid duplication and cluster research projects. Individual research projects were individually reviewed and a percentage was assigned to four mutually exclusive research categories: 1) meat quality, 2) food safety, 3) product development and processing, and 4) marketing. As meat research evolved over the past century, considerable efforts were expended by researchers and administrators to ensure the coordination of research and program relevance. This is demonstrated by the establishment of numerous multistate research committees. Total funding for meat science increased only modestly when adjusted for inflation during the two decades of this study; however, notable changes occurred in the distribution of resources in the portfolio. Funding for meat quality and product development and processing remained virtually unchanged when adjusted for inflation, whereas funding for food safety increased considerably. The total number of scientists conducting meat research remained virtually unchanged during the period, but the proportion allocated to food safety research increased substantially. The federal portion of total funding decreased from 61.3% to 51

  15. Assessing the Use of Aggregate Data in the Evaluation of School-Based Interventions: Implications for Evaluation Research and State Policy Regarding Public-Use Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin T.; Goddard, Roger D.; Kim, Eun Sook

    2014-01-01

    It is often difficult and costly to obtain individual-level student achievement data, yet, researchers are frequently reluctant to use school-level achievement data that are widely available from state websites. We argue that public-use aggregate school-level achievement data are, in fact, sufficient to address a wide range of evaluation questions…

  16. Group 12: Related Service Providers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  17. Group 6: Shared Special Subject Teachers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  18. Group 16: Mentor Teachers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  19. Group 3b: Special Education Teachers--Early Childhood Education. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  20. Group 15: Instructional Coaches. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  1. Group 13: Special Education Coordinators. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  2. Group 14: Program Coordinators and Deans. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  3. Group 19: Custodial Staff. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  4. Group 17: Educational Aides. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  5. Group 5: Itinerant English Language Learner (ELL) Teachers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  6. Group 3: Special Education Teachers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  7. Group 9: Library Media Specialists. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  8. Group 18: Office Staff. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  9. Group 7: Visiting Instruction Service (VIS) Teachers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  10. Group 3a: Special Education Teachers--Autism Program. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  11. Group 10: Counselors. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  12. Group 2a: Early Childhood Education Teachers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  13. Group 4: Non-Itinerant English Language Learner (ELL) Teachers. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  14. Group 8: Student Support Professionals. IMPACT: The District of Columbia Public Schools Effectiveness Assessment System for School-Based Personnel, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012-2013 school year represents a pivotal juncture for DC Public Schools. Last spring, Mayor Gray and Chancellor Kaya Henderson introduced "A Capital Commitment," their ambitious plan to dramatically accelerate student achievement in the district over the next five years by providing all of their students with a safe, academically…

  15. The Equity of Public Education Funding in Georgia, 1988-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Ross; Doering, Dwight; Gess, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Employs school funding formulas enacted under Georgia's Quality Basic Education Act to explore changes in interdistrict equity over time. Regarding overall distribution of per-pupil resources across districts (horizontal equity) and for special- needs students (vertical equity), dispersion measures approach Odden and Picus' suggested equity…

  16. A Decision-Making Analysis of Fund Raising Options in a Public Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitwood, James P.

    Because financial stability of colleges and universities is threatened by level or decreased funding from all government sources, private resource development looms as a crucial element of community college operations in the next century. In order to determine the optimal private sources to target, Okaloosa-Walton Community College (OWCC), in…

  17. Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 49. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This document lists 248 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1995, which is available online from the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System (FAPRS). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

  18. 75 FR 65197 - Use of Public Housing Capital Funds for Financing Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... percent cap. This is due to the fact that the Capital Fund formula grants represent only a small portion... under 24 CFR 905.505(k), and demonstration of construction management and financial controls under 24... discretion to require assessments, opinions, or controls in certain cases. In addition, physical...

  19. A Guide to Funding Resources. Revised Edition. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Katherine, Comp.

    This guide is a compilation of information from both governmental and private sources on funding opportunities available to local governments, small businesses, organizations, associations, groups, and individuals. The directories, catalogs, guides, newsletters, annual reports, computer database services, and other resources cited in this…

  20. Private Universities and Public Funding: Models and Business Plans. Policy Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The growth of private higher education has come as a surprise to most governments, which have tried to catch up in their regulatory and funding policymaking. In China, Malaysia and South Africa they have given legal recognition to previously disallowed private higher education and this has helped to fuel its subsequent growth. Some governments…

  1. Funding Public Colleges and Universities for Performance: Popularity, Problems, and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Joseph C.

    This book explores how to forge policies that preserve the internal autonomy required for campus creativity and diversity while ensuring the external accountability demanded for campus performance and results. It attempts to separate the reality and rhetoric of performance funding. The chapters are: (1) "The New Accountability"; (2)…

  2. 78 FR 2277 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Notice of Funding Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... appropriate automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting... funded applications. Agency Form Numbers: SF-424, SF-424 Supplemental, HUD-424-CB, SF- LLL, HUD-2880, HUD... recognized and accredited institutions of higher education, non-profit foundations, think tanks, research...

  3. State Share of Instruction Funding to Ohio Public Community Colleges: A Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated various state policies to determine their impact on the state share of instruction (SSI) funding to community colleges in the state of Ohio. To complete the policy analysis, the researcher utilized three policy analysis tools, defined by Gill and Saunders (2010) as iterative processes, intuition and judgment, and advice and…

  4. 78 FR 21623 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Capital Fund Final Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... with its 16 point value; ``it serves no useful purpose''; too much emphasis is placed on the occupancy... occupancy; the occupancy component of the management indicator is extremely important, with a 16 point value... Fund subsystem will still be present in subsequent fiscal years. This notice is only a...

  5. Power-law-like distributions in biomedical publications and research funding.

    PubMed

    Su, Andrew I; Hogenesch, John B

    2007-01-01

    Gene annotation, as measured by links to the biomedical literature and funded grants, is governed by a power law, indicating that researchers favor the extensive study of relatively few genes. This emphasizes the need for data-driven science to accomplish genome-wide gene annotation.

  6. As 1989 Legislatures Convene, Public Colleges in Many States Face Tough Battles for Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1989-01-01

    The summer drought, the oil-market slump, and the desire for political popularity are among the causes for state financial problems. A report by the National Governors' Association and the National Association of State Budget Officers found that in 1987, the amount of money left in general-fund accounts was at its lowest point in 12 years. (MLW)

  7. Private Universities and Public Funding: Models and Business Plans. Policy Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The growth of private higher education has come as a surprise to most governments, which have tried to catch up in their regulatory and funding policymaking. In China, Malaysia and South Africa they have given legal recognition to previously disallowed private higher education and this has helped to fuel its subsequent growth. Some governments…

  8. 75 FR 21018 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Notice of Funding Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Availability for the Historically Black Colleges and Universities Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...: Notice of Funding Availability for the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Program. OMB... Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). Estimation of the total number of hours needed to prepare...

  9. As 1989 Legislatures Convene, Public Colleges in Many States Face Tough Battles for Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1989-01-01

    The summer drought, the oil-market slump, and the desire for political popularity are among the causes for state financial problems. A report by the National Governors' Association and the National Association of State Budget Officers found that in 1987, the amount of money left in general-fund accounts was at its lowest point in 12 years. (MLW)

  10. Return on investment: a fuller assessment of the benefits and cost savings of the US publicly funded family planning program.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B

    2014-12-01

    Policy Points: The US publicly supported family planning effort serves millions of women and men each year, and this analysis provides new estimates of its positive impact on a wide range of health outcomes and its net savings to the government. The public investment in family planning programs and providers not only helps women and couples avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, but also helps many thousands avoid cervical cancer, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, infertility, and preterm and low birth weight births. This investment resulted in net government savings of $13.6 billion in 2010, or $7.09 for every public dollar spent. Each year the United States' publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99

  11. 25 CFR 170.436 - How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects funded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects... WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Public Hearings § 170.436 How are public hearings for IRR planning and projects...

  12. Public Opinion and Children's Issues: A Special Report from the Children's Defense Fund of Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Rick

    Based on findings from public opinion polls, focus groups, and related academic research, this report explores the challenges facing child advocates in framing issues for public debate. Examining the growing public sentiment supporting governmental involvement in children's issues and general perceptions regarding the causes of current problems,…

  13. 11 CFR 300.71 - Federal funds required for certain public communications (2 U.S.C. 441i(f)(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal funds required for certain public communications (2 U.S.C. 441i(f)(1)). 300.71 Section 300.71 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BIPARTISAN CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF 2002-(BCRA) REGULATIONS NON-FEDERAL FUNDS State and Local Candidates § 300...

  14. 11 CFR 300.71 - Federal funds required for certain public communications (2 U.S.C. 441i(f)(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal funds required for certain public communications (2 U.S.C. 441i(f)(1)). 300.71 Section 300.71 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BIPARTISAN CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF 2002-(BCRA) REGULATIONS NON-FEDERAL FUNDS State and Local Candidates § 300...

  15. 11 CFR 300.71 - Federal funds required for certain public communications (2 U.S.C. 441i(f)(1)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal funds required for certain public communications (2 U.S.C. 441i(f)(1)). 300.71 Section 300.71 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BIPARTISAN CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF 2002-(BCRA) REGULATIONS NON-FEDERAL FUNDS State and Local Candidates § 300...

  16. The HPV vaccine: knowledge and attitudes among public health nurses and general practitioners in Northern Norway after introduction of the vaccine in the school-based vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Karin; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw; Klouman, Elise

    2017-09-21

    To investigate knowledge of and attitudes to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, cervical cancer, related sources of information and factors associated with willingness to vaccinate one's own daughter among primary health care (PHC) personnel. Cross-sectional study. PHC. All public health nurses (PHNs) and general practitioners (GPs) in Northern Norway were invited to answer a structured electronic questionnaire; 31% participated (N = 220). Self-reported and actual knowledge, information sources, attitudes and willingness to vaccinate their (tentative) daughter. 47% of respondents knew that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. PHNs had higher self-reported and actual knowledge about HPV vaccination and cervical cancer than GPs. PHNs used the Norwegian Institute of Public Health's numerous information sources on HPV, while GPs had a low user rate. 88% of PHNs and 50% of GPs acquired information from the pharmaceutical industry. 93% PHNs and 68% of GPs would vaccinate their 12-year-old daughter. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, willingness to vaccinate one's daughter was positively associated with younger age, being PHN (OR = 5.26, 95%CI 1.74-15.94), little concern about vaccine side effects (OR = 3.61, 95%CI 1.10-11.81) and disagreement among experts (OR = 7.31, 95%CI 2.73-19.60). Increased knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination is needed, particularly among GPs. Those least concerned about side effects and disagreements among experts were most likely to vaccinate their daughter. These findings are of interest for public health authorities responsible for the Norwegian vaccination and cervix cancer screening programmes, and providers of training of PHC personnel. Key points One year after introduction of HPV vaccination among 12-year-old schoolgirls in Norway, a cross-sectional study in Northern Norway among general practitioners (GPs) and public health nurses (PHNs) showed that

  17. Public Funding of Clinical-Stage Antibiotic Development in the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided. PMID:26042859

  18. Public funding of clinical-stage antibiotic development in the United States and European Union.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided.

  19. Funding renal replacement therapy in southeast Asia: building public-private partnerships in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Morad, Zaki; Choong, Hui Lin; Tungsanga, Kriang; Suhardjono

    2015-05-01

    The provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing economies is limited by lack of financial and other resources. There are no national reimbursement policies for RRT in many countries in Asia. The Southeast Asia countries of Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia have adopted a strategy of encouraging public-private partnerships to increase the RRT rates in their respective countries. The private organizations include both for-profit and philanthropic bodies. The latter raise funds from ordinary citizens, corporations, and faith-based groups, as well as receive subsidies from the government to support RRT for patients in need. The kidney foundations of these countries play a leadership role in this public-private partnership. Many of the private organizations that support RRT are providers of treatment in addition to offering financial assistance to patients, with hemodialysis being the most frequently supported modality. Public-private partnership in funding RRT is sustainable over the long term with proper organization and facilitated by support from the government.

  20. Variation in Pregnancy Options Counseling and Referrals, And Reported Proximity to Abortion Services, Among Publicly Funded Family Planning Facilities.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Luciana E; Fabiyi, Camille; Hasselbacher, Lee A; Starr, Katherine; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2016-06-01

    As frontline providers, publicly funded family planning clinics represent a critical link in the health system for women seeking information about pregnancy options, yet scant information exists on their provision of relevant services. Understanding their practices is important for gauging how well these facilities serve patients' needs. A 2012 survey of 567 publicly funded family planning facilities in 16 states gathered information on referral-making for adoption and abortion services, and perceived proximity to abortion services. Chi-square, multivariable logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to assess differences among facilities in referral-making and reported proximity to abortion services. Abortion referrals were provided by a significantly smaller proportion of providers than were adoption referrals (84% vs. 97%). Health departments and community health centers were significantly less likely than comprehensive reproductive health centers to refer for abortion services and to have a list of abortion providers available (odds ratios, 0.1-0.2). Rural facilities were more likely than urban ones to report a distance of more than 100 miles to the closest first-trimester abortion provider (relative risk ratio, 11.4), second-trimester abortion provider (8.7) and medication abortion provider (8.0). Health departments were more likely than comprehensive reproductive health centers not to know the location of the closest first-trimester, second-trimester or medication abortion provider (2.5-3.5). A better understanding of disparities in provision of pregnancy options counseling and referrals at publicly funded family planning clinics is needed to ensure that women get timely care. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  1. Gender differences in publication productivity, academic position, career duration, and funding among U.S. academic radiation oncology faculty.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Emma B; Jagsi, Reshma; Wilson, Lynn D; Choi, Mehee; Thomas, Charles R; Fuller, Clifton D

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze gender differences in rank, career duration, publication productivity, and research funding among radiation oncologists at U.S. academic institutions. For 82 domestic academic radiation oncology departments, the authors identified current faculty and recorded their academic rank, degree, and gender. The authors recorded bibliographic metrics for physician faculty from a commercially available database (Scopus, Elsevier BV), including numbers of publications from 1996 to 2012 and h-indices. The authors then concatenated these data with National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding per Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. The authors performed descriptive and correlative analyses, stratifying by gender and rank. Of 1,031 faculty, 293 (28%) women and 738 (72%) men, men had a higher median m-index, 0.58 (range 0-3.23) versus 0.47 (0-2.5) (P < .05); h-index, 8 (0-59) versus 5 (0-39) (P < .05); and publication number, 26 (0-591) versus 13 (0-306) (P < .05). Men were more likely to be senior faculty and receive NIH funding. After stratifying for rank, these differences were largely nonsignificant. On multivariate analysis, there were correlations between gender, career duration and academic position, and h-index (P < .01). Determinants of a successful career in academic medicine are multifactorial. Data from radiation oncologists show a systematic gender association, with fewer women achieving senior faculty rank. However, women achieving seniority have productivity metrics comparable to those of male counterparts. This suggests that early career development and mentorship of female faculty may narrow productivity disparities.

  2. School-Based Budgets: Getting, Spending, and Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry L.; Herman, Janice L.

    With the advent of large interest in school-based management came the task of inventing a different type of budgeting system--one that delegated the many tasks of developing a budget, expending the allocated funds, and controlling those expenditures in a way that did not exceed the allocation to the site level. This book explores the various means…

  3. Racial Disparities in Completion Rates from Publicly Funded Alcohol Treatment: Economic Resources Explain More Than Demographics and Addiction Severity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Jerry O; Robinson, Paul L; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess racial and ethnic differences in rates of completion from publicly funded alcohol treatment programs, and to estimate the extent to which any identified racial differences in completion rates are related to differences in patient characteristics. Data Sources Administrative intake and discharge records from all publicly funded outpatient and residential alcohol treatment recovery programs in Los Angeles County (LAC) during 1998–2000. Study participants (N = 10,591) are African American, Hispanic, and white patients discharged from these programs, ages 18 or older, who reported alcohol as their primary substance abuse problem. Study Design Bivariate tests identified racial and ethnic differences in rates of treatment completion and patient characteristics. Logistic regression models assessed the contribution of differences in patient characteristics to differences in completion. Principal Findings Significantly lower completion rates by African Americans (17.5 percent) relative to whites (26.7 percent) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–0.68) are partially explained (40 percent) by differences in patient characteristics in outpatient care (adjusted OR = 0.75, 95 percent CI: 0.63–0.90), mostly by indicators of economic resources (i.e., employment, homelessness, and Medi-Cal beneficiary). In residential care, only 7 percent of differences in completion (30.7 versus 46.1 percent) could be explained by the patient-level measures available (OR = 0.52, 95 percent CI: 0.45–0.59; AOR = 0.55, 95 percent CI: 0.47–0.65). Differences in completion rates between Hispanic and white patients were not detected. Conclusions Large differences in rates of outpatient and residential alcohol treatment completion between African American and white patients at publicly funded programs in LAC, the nation's second largest, publicly funded alcohol and drug treatment system, are partially because of economic differences among

  4. Public and Private Schools: How Management and Funding Relate to Their Socio-Economic Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In most PISA-participating countries and economies, the average socio-economic background of students who attend privately managed schools is more advantaged than that of those who attend public schools. Yet in some countries, there is little difference in the socio-economic profiles between public and private schools. Why? An analysis of PISA…

  5. The Management of Publicly Funded Regional Universities during Times of Fiscal Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Philip Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Strategic financial management is being redefined as a result of the ongoing fiscal challenges facing the nation's public colleges and universities. The Great Recession reached its peak in 2009 and the era of "business as usual" for public higher education quickly faded. A "new normal" has emerged that is causing leaders to…

  6. Who Profits from the Public Funding of Education: A Comparison of World Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingat, Alain; Tan, Jee-Peng

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of primary, secondary, and higher-education enrollment ratios and public unit cost of education by socioeconomic status (SES) in the major world regions (Africa, Asia, Latin America, Middle East and North Africa, and European countries) shows that, in developing nations, higher SES groups receive a larger share of public education…

  7. Public and Private Schools: How Management and Funding Relate to Their Socio-Economic Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In most PISA-participating countries and economies, the average socio-economic background of students who attend privately managed schools is more advantaged than that of those who attend public schools. Yet in some countries, there is little difference in the socio-economic profiles between public and private schools. Why? An analysis of PISA…

  8. The Management of Publicly Funded Regional Universities during Times of Fiscal Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Philip Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Strategic financial management is being redefined as a result of the ongoing fiscal challenges facing the nation's public colleges and universities. The Great Recession reached its peak in 2009 and the era of "business as usual" for public higher education quickly faded. A "new normal" has emerged that is causing leaders to…

  9. Using a public hospital funding model to strengthen a case for improved nutritional care in a cancer setting.

    PubMed

    Boltong, Anna G; Loeliger, Jenelle M; Steer, Belinda L

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of malnutrition risk and assessed malnutrition in patients admitted to a cancer-specific public hospital, and to model the potential hospital funding opportunity associated with implementing routine malnutrition screening. A point-prevalence audit of malnutrition risk and diagnosable malnutrition was conducted. A retrospective audit of hospital funding associated with documented cases of malnutrition was conducted. Audit results were used to estimate annual malnutrition prevalence, associated casemix-based reimbursement potential and the clinical support resources required to adequately identify and treat malnutrition. Sixty-four percent of inpatients were at risk of malnutrition. Of these, 90% were assessed as malnourished. Twelve percent of malnourished patients produced a positive change in the diagnosis-related group (DRG) and increased allocated financial reimbursement. Identifying and diagnosing all cases of malnutrition could contribute an additional AU$413644 reimbursement funding annually. Early identification of malnutrition may expedite appropriate nutritional management and improve patient outcomes in addition to contributing to casemix-based reimbursement funding for health services. A successful business case for additional clinical resources to improve nutritional care was aided by demonstrating the link between malnutrition screening, hospital reimbursements and improved nutritional care. What is known about the topic? It is known that between 20 and 50% of hospital patients are malnourished and oncology patients are 1.7 times more likely to be malnourished than are other hospitalised patients. Despite the existence of practice guidelines for malnutrition screening of at-risk oncology patients, these are not routinely implemented. Identification of malnutrition in hospitalised patients is linked to casemix funding via DRG. Casemix reimbursement for malnutrition can be enhanced if: (1) malnutrition risk is

  10. Future funding for mental health and substance abuse: increasing burdens for the public sector.

    PubMed

    Levit, Katharine R; Kassed, Cheryl A; Coffey, Rosanna M; Mark, Tami L; Stranges, Elizabeth M; Buck, Jeffrey A; Vandivort-Warren, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Spending on mental health (MH) and substance abuse (SA) treatment is expected to double between 2003 and 2014, to $239 billion, and is anticipated to continue falling as a share of all health spending. By 2014, our projections of SA spending show increasing responsibility for state and local governments (45 percent); deteriorating shares financed by private insurance (7 percent); and 42 percent of SA spending going to specialty SA centers. For MH, Medicaid is forecasted to fund an increasingly larger share of treatment costs (27 percent), and prescription medications are expected to capture 30 percent of MH spending by 2014.

  11. Land revenues, schools and literacy: a historical examination of public and private funding of education.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2010-01-01

    Despite the centralised nature of the fiscal system in colonial India, public education expenditures varied dramatically across regions with the western and southern provinces spending three to four times as much as the eastern provinces. A significant portion of the inter-regional difference was due to historical differences in land taxes, an important source of provincial revenues in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The large differences in public spending, however, did not produce comparable differences in enrollment rates or literacy in the colonial period. Nonetheless, public investments influenced the direction of school development and perhaps the long run trajectory of rural literacy.

  12. The Link Between Reproductive Life Plan Assessment And Provision of Preconception Care At Publicly Funded Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Gavin, Loretta; Carter, Marion W; Moskosky, Susan B

    2017-09-01

    Federal and clinical guidelines recommend integrating reproductive life plan assessments into routine family planning encounters to increase provision of preconception care. Yet, the prevalence of clinical protocols and of relevant practices at publicly funded health centers is unknown. Administrators and providers at a nationally representative sample of publicly funded health centers that provide family planning services were surveyed in 2013-2014; data from 1,039 linked pairs were used to explore the reported prevalence of reproductive life plan protocols, frequent assessment of patients' reproductive life plan and frequent provision of preconception care. Chi-square tests and multivariable general linear models were used to examine differences in reports of protocols and related practices. Overall, 58% of centers reported having reproductive life plan assessment protocols, 87% reported frequently assessing reproductive life plans and 55% reported frequently providing preconception care. The proportions reporting protocols were lower in community health centers than in other center types (32% vs. 52-91%), in primary care centers than in those with another focus (33% vs. 77-80%) and in centers not receiving Title X funding than in those with such support (36% vs. 77%). Reported existence of a written protocol was positively associated with reported frequent assessment (prevalence ratio, 1.1), and the latter was positively associated with reported frequent preconception care (1.4). Further research is needed on associations between written protocols and clinical practice, and to elucidate the preconception care services that may be associated with reproductive life plan assessment. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  13. Equity of publicly-funded hip and knee joint replacement surgery in New Zealand: results from a national observational study.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, Helen; Davie, Gabrielle; Derrett, Sarah; Abbott, Haxby; Gwynne-Jones, David

    2016-09-23

    This study examines equity in the provision of publicly-funded hip and knee total joint replacement (TJR) surgery in New Zealand between 2006 and 2013 to: 1) investigate national rates by demographic characteristics; 2) describe changes in national rates over time; and 3) compare rates of provision between District Health Boards (DHBs). Hospital discharge data for people aged 20 years or over who had at least one hip or knee TJR between 2006 and 2013 was obtained from the Ministry of Health's National Minimum Dataset. Higher TJR rates were observed among those aged 75-84 years, females, those of Māori ethnicity, those not living in rural or main urban areas and those in the most deprived socio-economic groups. TJRs increased from 7,053 in 2006 to 8,429 in 2013, however the rate was highest in 2007. In 2012-13, age-ethnicity-standardised rates varied between DHBs from 196 to 419/100,000 person years, with larger DHBs having lower rates than smaller DHBs. There was evidence of geographic inequity in TJR provision across New Zealand. Despite increased numbers of procedures, rates of publicly-funded TJR surgery are barely keeping up with population increases. Reasons behind differences in provision should be examined.

  14. The paradox of non-evidence based, publicly funded complementary alternative medicine in the English National Health Service: An explanation.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Maria K

    2015-10-01

    Despite the unproven effectiveness of many practices that are under the umbrella term 'complementary alternative medicine' (CAM), there is provision of CAM within the English National Health Service (NHS). Moreover, although the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was established to promote scientifically validated medicine in the NHS, the paradox of publicly funded, non-evidence based CAM can be explained as linked with government policy of patient choice and specifically patient treatment choice. Patient choice is useful in the political and policy discourse as it is open to different interpretations and can be justified by policy-makers who rely on the traditional NHS values of equity and universality. Treatment choice finds expression in the policy of personalised healthcare linked with patient responsibilisation which finds resonance in the emphasis CAM places on self-care and self-management. More importantly, however, policy-makers also use patient choice and treatment choice as a policy initiative with the objective of encouraging destabilisation of the entrenched healthcare institutions and practices considered resistant to change. This political strategy of system reform has the unintended, paradoxical consequence of allowing for the emergence of non-evidence based, publicly funded CAM in the NHS. The political and policy discourse of patient choice thus trumps evidence based medicine, with patients that demand access to CAM becoming the unwitting beneficiaries.

  15. Age-specific cost and public funding of a live birth following assisted reproductive treatment in Japan.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Eri; Ishihara, Osamu; Saito, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and assess the cost of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles and live-birth events in Japan in 2010. We performed a retrospective analysis of 238,185 ART cycles, registered with the national registry of assisted reproductive treatment during 2010. Costs were calculated, using a decision analysis model. The average cost per live birth was ¥1,974,000. This varied from ¥1,155,000 in women aged < 30 years to ¥50,189,000 in women aged ≥ 45, which was 29.6 times higher than that of women aged 35-39 years. This rose sharply in the early 40s and upwards. Public funding per live birth was ¥442,000. This was ¥6,118,000 in women aged ≥ 45, 15.4 times higher than that of the 35-39-year-old age group. The costs and public funding of a live birth after ART treatment rises with age due to the lower success rates in older women. It may provide economic background to improve the current subsidy system for ART and to provide practical knowledge about fertility for the general population. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Edmonton Obesity Staging System Prevalence and Association with Weight Loss in a Publicly Funded Referral-Based Obesity Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Karissa L.; Brown, Ruth E.; Wharton, Sean; Sharma, Arya M.; Kuk, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the distribution of EOSS stages and differences in weight loss achieved according to EOSS stage, in patients attending a referral-based publically funded multisite weight management clinic. Subjects/Methods. 5,787 obese patients were categorized using EOSS staging using metabolic risk factors, medication use, and severity of doctor diagnosis of obesity-related physiological, functional, and psychological comorbidities from electronic patient files. Results. The prevalence of EOSS stages 0 (no risk factors or comorbidities), 1 (mild conditions), 2 (moderate conditions), and 3 (severe conditions) was 1.7%, 10.4%, 84.0%, and 3.9%, respectively. Prehypertension (63%), hypertension (76%), and knee replacement (33%) were the most common obesity-related comorbidities for stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In the models including age, sex, initial BMI, EOSS stage, and treatment time, lower EOSS stage and longer treatment times were independently associated with greater absolute (kg) and percentage of weight loss relative to initial body weight (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Patients attending this publicly funded, referral-based weight management clinic were more likely to be classified in the higher stages of EOSS. Patients in higher EOSS stages required longer treatment times to achieve similar weight outcomes as those in lower EOSS stages. PMID:26060580

  17. Edmonton Obesity Staging System Prevalence and Association with Weight Loss in a Publicly Funded Referral-Based Obesity Clinic.

    PubMed

    Canning, Karissa L; Brown, Ruth E; Wharton, Sean; Sharma, Arya M; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    To determine the distribution of EOSS stages and differences in weight loss achieved according to EOSS stage, in patients attending a referral-based publically funded multisite weight management clinic. 5,787 obese patients were categorized using EOSS staging using metabolic risk factors, medication use, and severity of doctor diagnosis of obesity-related physiological, functional, and psychological comorbidities from electronic patient files. The prevalence of EOSS stages 0 (no risk factors or comorbidities), 1 (mild conditions), 2 (moderate conditions), and 3 (severe conditions) was 1.7%, 10.4%, 84.0%, and 3.9%, respectively. Prehypertension (63%), hypertension (76%), and knee replacement (33%) were the most common obesity-related comorbidities for stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In the models including age, sex, initial BMI, EOSS stage, and treatment time, lower EOSS stage and longer treatment times were independently associated with greater absolute (kg) and percentage of weight loss relative to initial body weight (P < 0.05). Patients attending this publicly funded, referral-based weight management clinic were more likely to be classified in the higher stages of EOSS. Patients in higher EOSS stages required longer treatment times to achieve similar weight outcomes as those in lower EOSS stages.

  18. Report: EPA Needs to Demonstrate Public Health Benefits of Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0032, December 5, 2014. The EPA needs to enforce grant requirements for collecting DWSRF project information to demonstrate the public health results of the $11.37 billion it has invested in drinking water infrastructure since 2009.

  19. Early Evaluation Findings From a Federally Funded Training Program: The Public Health Associate Program.

    PubMed

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Young, Andrea C; Wigington, Corinne J; Duncan, Heather

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Public Health Associate Program (PHAP) to establish a continuous source of public health professionals who can deliver frontline services at the federal, state, tribal, local, and territorial levels. The article describes preliminary evaluation findings for PHAP. The evaluation's primary purposes are to assess the quality and effectiveness of PHAP, determine its value and impact, and provide information to continuously improve the program. Because the evaluation is both formative and summative and focuses on aggregate outputs and outcomes of PHAP, the methodology is complex and builds over time as different cohorts cycle into and out of the program. Results presented are outcomes of various Web-based surveys and reporting systems. Four PHAP cohorts, consisting of 579 individuals, participated in 1 or more of the evaluation activities described in this article. The majority of participants report satisfaction with their PHAP experiences, and 74% of recent graduates indicate they are continuing their careers or education in public health immediately after program completion. Seventy-eight percent of recent PHAP graduates who accept a job in public health are employed by the federal government. One year post-PHAP, 74% of alumni report that PHAP has been influential in their careers. CDC's investment in PHAP has increased the capacity and capabilities of the public health workforce. Results presented are early indicators of program quality, effectiveness, and impact. Today's public health workers are asked to do more with less, in the face of a dynamic array of complex public health challenges. PHAP offers public health agencies assistance in tackling these losses and challenges.

  20. Stated and Revealed Preferences for Funding New High-Cost Cancer Drugs: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Patients, the Public and Payers.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Tatjana E; Harris, Anthony H; Mahal, Ajay

    2016-06-01

    The growing focus on patient-centred care has encouraged the inclusion of patient and public input into payer drug reimbursement decisions. Yet, little is known about patient/public priorities for funding high-cost medicines, and how they compare to payer priorities applied in public funding decisions for new cancer drugs. The aim was to identify and compare the funding preferences of cancer patients and the general public against the criteria used by payers making cancer drug funding decisions. A thorough review of the empirical, peer-reviewed English literature was conducted. Information sources were PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Business Source Complete, and EconLit. Eligible studies (1) assessed the cancer drug funding preferences of patients, the general public or payers, (2) had pre-defined measures of funding preference, and (3) had outcomes with attributes or measures of 'value'. The quality of included studies was evaluated using a health technology assessment-based assessment tool, followed by extraction of general study characteristics and funding preferences, which were categorized using an established WHO-based framework. Twenty-five preference studies were retrieved (11 quantitative, seven qualitative, seven mixed-methods). Most studies were published from 2005 onward, with the oldest dating back to 1997. Two studies evaluated both patient and public perspectives, giving 27 total funding perspectives (41 % payer, 33 % public, 26 % patients). Of 41 identified funding criteria, payers consider the most (35), the general public considers fewer (23), and patients consider the fewest (12). We identify four unique patient criteria: financial protection, access to medical information, autonomy in treatment decision making, and the 'value of hope'. Sixteen countries/jurisdictions were represented. Our results suggest that (1) payers prioritize efficiency (health gains per dollar), while citizens (patients and the general public) prioritize

  1. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals. PMID:21067580

  2. Use of fees to fund local public health services in Western Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Shila Waritu, A; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Begay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Recent budget cuts have forced many local health departments (LHDs) to cut staff and services. Setting fees that cover the cost of service provision is one option for continuing to fund certain activities. To describe the use of fees by LHDs in Western Massachusetts and determine whether fees charged cover the cost of providing selected services. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was used to identify the types of services for which fees are charged and the fee amounts charged. A comparative cost analysis was conducted to compare fees charged with estimated costs of service provision. Fifty-nine LHDs in Western Massachusetts. Number of towns charging fees for selected types of services; minimum, maximum, and mean fee amounts; estimated cost of service provision; number of towns experiencing a surplus or deficit for each service; and average size of deficits experienced. Enormous variation exists both in the types of services for which fees are charged and fee amounts charged. Fees set by most health departments did not cover the cost of service provision. Some fees were set as much as $600 below estimated costs. These results suggest that considerations other than costs of service provision factor into the setting of fees by LHDs in Western Massachusetts. Given their limited and often uncertain funding, LHDs could benefit from examining their fee schedules to ensure that the fee amounts charged cover the costs of providing the services. Cost estimates should include at least the health agent's wage and time spent performing inspections and completing paperwork, travel expenses, and cost of necessary materials.

  3. Reducing the gap between the economic costs of tobacco and funds for tobacco training in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Rovniak, Liza S; Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn F; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use costs approximately dollar 167 billion annually in the U.S., but few tobacco education opportunities are available in schools of public health. Reasons for the discrepancy between the costs of tobacco use and the creation of tobacco training opportunities have not been well explored. Based on the Behavioral Ecological Model, we present 10 recommendations for increasing tobacco training in schools of public health. Six recommendations focus on policy changes within the educational, legislative, and health care systems that influence funds for tobacco training, and four recommendations focus on strategies to mobilize key social groups that can advocate for change in tobacco control education and related policies. In addition, we present a model tobacco control curriculum to equip public health students with the skills needed to advocate for these recommended policy changes. Through concurrent changes in the ecological systems affecting tobacco control training, and through the collaborative action of legislators, the public, the media, and health professionals, tobacco control training can be moved to a higher priority in educational settings.

  4. Why Principal Investigators Funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health Publish in the Public Library of Science Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontika, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The National Institutes of Health public access policy requires the principal investigators of any Institutes-funded research to submit their manuscript to PubMed Central, and the open access publisher Public Library of Science submits all articles to PubMed Central, irrespective of funder. Whether the investigators, who made the…

  5. Linking Resources to Results: The Chicago Public Education Fund's Master Teacher Initiative. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Linking Resources to Results" explores the deliberate approach--including specific goals, a clearly articulated grantmaking strategy and benchmarks for measuring progress--the Chicago Public Education Fund used to help the Chicago Public Schools recognize, reward and deploy high-quality teachers. The case study is intended to help…

  6. Interest Groups and Governmental Institutions: The Politics of State Funding of Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandberg, David

    2010-01-01

    In attempting to explain state support of public higher education, this study develops a theory-driven, comprehensive conceptualization of the state political system within a larger theoretical framework that consists of state economic and demographic factors and higher education system attributes. Furthermore, although the higher education policy…

  7. Economic Growth, Productivity, and Public Education Funding: Is South Carolina a Death Spiral State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Lisa G.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Watson, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the Great Recession of 2007-2009, most states experienced declines in employment, consumer spending, and economic productivity (Alm, Buschman, and Sjoquist 2011). In turn, these events led to historic declines in state tax revenues (Mikesell and Mullins 2010; Boyd and Dadayan 2009), resulting in major cuts in public spending. Local…

  8. Shared Interests: Public Funding Challenges Increase Appeal of For-Profit Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2013-01-01

    The current financial crisis in higher education is driving more public institutions to look at alternative ways to generate support. Many are leveraging longstanding relationships with private corporations, seeking ways to expand their involvement. Supporters who once simply made philanthropic contributions are becoming strategically involved…

  9. 76 FR 12135 - Publication Procedures for Federal Register Documents During a Funding Hiatus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... human life or protection of property. Since it would be impracticable for the OFR to make case-by- case... functions necessary to address imminent threats to the safety of human life or protection of property. Since... that publication in the Federal Register is necessary to safeguard human life, protect property,...

  10. 78 FR 59974 - Publication Procedures for Federal Register Documents During a Funding Hiatus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... human life or protection of property. Since it would be impracticable for the OFR to make case-by- case... functions necessary to address ] imminent threats to the safety of human life or protection of property... that publication in the Federal Register is necessary to safeguard human life, protect property,...

  11. Shared Interests: Public Funding Challenges Increase Appeal of For-Profit Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2013-01-01

    The current financial crisis in higher education is driving more public institutions to look at alternative ways to generate support. Many are leveraging longstanding relationships with private corporations, seeking ways to expand their involvement. Supporters who once simply made philanthropic contributions are becoming strategically involved…

  12. Willingness to Fund Public Education in a Rural, Retirement Destination County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher D.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Park, William M.; Wilcox, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Retiree recruitment is a burgeoning economic development strategy among rural communities despite uncertainty over whether later-life migrants will bring with them "Gray Gold" in the form of economic development or "Gray Peril" in the form of a reduced willingness to support the provision of local public services such as…

  13. Now is the Time to Act. FCS Core Standards in Public Education Policy and Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Current education reform initiatives give little support to family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs. However, there is evidence suggesting a critical need for such preventive education that is focused on nurturing human development. Despite rhetoric of public officials concerning "prevention models" of wellness, society continues to function…

  14. Economic Growth, Productivity, and Public Education Funding: Is South Carolina a Death Spiral State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Lisa G.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Watson, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the Great Recession of 2007-2009, most states experienced declines in employment, consumer spending, and economic productivity (Alm, Buschman, and Sjoquist 2011). In turn, these events led to historic declines in state tax revenues (Mikesell and Mullins 2010; Boyd and Dadayan 2009), resulting in major cuts in public spending. Local…

  15. The Implementation of Enrollment Management at Two Public Universities Experiencing Demographic and Funding Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of enrollment management at two public universities. The theoretical framework was conceptual and centered on the effectiveness of the implementation process as a pivotal factor in the development of a comprehensive enrollment management operation. This multi-site case study included 14…

  16. The Implementation of Enrollment Management at Two Public Universities Experiencing Demographic and Funding Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of enrollment management at two public universities. The theoretical framework was conceptual and centered on the effectiveness of the implementation process as a pivotal factor in the development of a comprehensive enrollment management operation. This multi-site case study included 14…

  17. Health care and ideology: a reconsideration of political determinants of public healthcare funding in the OECD.

    PubMed

    Herwartz, Helmut; Theilen, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we examined if partisan ideology and electoral motives influence public healthcare expenditure (HCE) in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. We distinguished between the effects on the growth of the expenditures and its adjustment to violations of a long-run equilibrium linking HCE with macroeconomic and demographic trends. Regarding the influence of partisan ideology, we found that if governments are sufficiently long in power, right-wing governments spend less on public health than their left-wing counterparts. Furthermore, if a right-wing party governs without coalition partners, it responds more strongly to deviations from the long-run HCE equilibrium than left-wing governments. With regard to electoral motives, we found that health expenditure increases in years of elections. Independent of their partisan ideology, single-party (minority) governments induce higher (lower) growth of public HCE. Each of these political factors by its own may increase (decrease) HCE growth by approximately one percentage point. Given an average annual growth of HCE of approximately 4.1%, political factors turn out to be important determinants of trends in public HCE. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Duplication, Gaps and Coordination of Publicly Funded Skill Training Programs in 20 Cities. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Planning Association, Washington, DC. Center for Priority Analysis.

    A study of duplications in public skill training programs in twenty American cities resulted in a two-volume report. Volume One (ED 068 706) summarized and drew conclusions from the individual city reports contained in Volume Two. "Skill training" is used to mean all programs whose major purpose is the imparting of marketable skills to…

  19. Public Funding and Open Access to Research: A Review of Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Carol; Stephenson, Erin; Chaves, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, is the leading cause of nontraumatic neurological damage in young adults. Canada has one of the highest reported incidents of MS, with estimates between 55 and 240 per 100,000 individuals. Between 2009 and 2014, the MS Society of Canada provided over Can $90 million to researchers and, since 2013, has encouraged researchers to make both current and previous research products openly available. Objective The goal of the study was to determine the open access (OA) cost implications and repository policies of journals frequently used by a sample of MS researchers. This study benchmarked current publishing preferences by MS Society of Canada researchers by examining the OA full-text availability of journal articles written by researchers funded between 2009 and 2014. Methods Researchers were identified from the 2009 to 2014 annual MS Society of Canada Research Summaries. Articles were identified through searches in Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase (both via OVID). Journal level analysis included comparison of OA policies, including article processing charges (APCs) and repository policies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results There were 758 articles analyzed in this study, of which 288 (38.0%) were OA articles. The majority of authors were still relying on journal policies for deposit in PubMed Central or availability on publisher websites for OA. Gold OA journals accounted for 10.2% of the journals in this study and were associated with significantly lower APCs (US $1900) than in hybrid journals (US $3000). Review of the journal self-archiving options highlighted the complexity of stipulations that authors would have to navigate to legally deposit a version of their article. Conclusions This study found that there are currently researcher- and publisher-imposed barriers to both the gold and green roads to OA. These results provide a

  20. Public Funding and Open Access to Research: A Review of Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Research.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Caitlin; Stephenson, Carol; Stephenson, Erin; Chaves, Debbie

    2017-02-27

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, is the leading cause of nontraumatic neurological damage in young adults. Canada has one of the highest reported incidents of MS, with estimates between 55 and 240 per 100,000 individuals. Between 2009 and 2014, the MS Society of Canada provided over Can $90 million to researchers and, since 2013, has encouraged researchers to make both current and previous research products openly available. The goal of the study was to determine the open access (OA) cost implications and repository policies of journals frequently used by a sample of MS researchers. This study benchmarked current publishing preferences by MS Society of Canada researchers by examining the OA full-text availability of journal articles written by researchers funded between 2009 and 2014. Researchers were identified from the 2009 to 2014 annual MS Society of Canada Research Summaries. Articles were identified through searches in Web of Science, Scopus, Medline and Embase (both via OVID). Journal level analysis included comparison of OA policies, including article processing charges (APCs) and repository policies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There were 758 articles analyzed in this study, of which 288 (38.0%) were OA articles. The majority of authors were still relying on journal policies for deposit in PubMed Central or availability on publisher websites for OA. Gold OA journals accounted for 10.2% of the journals in this study and were associated with significantly lower APCs (US $1900) than in hybrid journals (US $3000). Review of the journal self-archiving options highlighted the complexity of stipulations that authors would have to navigate to legally deposit a version of their article. This study found that there are currently researcher- and publisher-imposed barriers to both the gold and green roads to OA. These results provide a current benchmark against which efforts to enhance

  1. Determining quantitative targets for public funding of tuberculosis research and development.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, David R

    2013-03-08

    South Africa's expenditure on tuberculosis (TB) research and development (R&D) is insignificant relative to both its disease burden and the expenditure of some comparator countries with a minimal TB incidence. In 2010, the country had the second highest TB incidence rate in the world (796 per 100,000 population), and the third highest number of new TB cases (490,000 or 6% of the global total). Although it has a large TB treatment program (about $588 million per year), TB R&D funding is small both in absolute terms and relative to its total R&D expenditure. Given the risk and the high cost associated with drug discovery R&D, such neglect may make strategic sense. However in this analysis it is shown that TB R&D presents a unique opportunity to the national treasuries of all high-burden countries. Using two separate estimation methods (global justice and return on investment), it is concluded that most countries, including South Africa, are under-investing in TB R&D. Specific investment targets for a range of countries, particularly in areas of applied research, are developed. This work supports the outcome of the World Health Organization's Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development: Financing and Coordination, which has called for "a process leading to the negotiation of a binding agreement on R&D relevant to the health needs of developing countries".

  2. Determining quantitative targets for public funding of tuberculosis research and development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Africa’s expenditure on tuberculosis (TB) research and development (R&D) is insignificant relative to both its disease burden and the expenditure of some comparator countries with a minimal TB incidence. In 2010, the country had the second highest TB incidence rate in the world (796 per 100,000 population), and the third highest number of new TB cases (490,000 or 6% of the global total). Although it has a large TB treatment program (about $588 million per year), TB R&D funding is small both in absolute terms and relative to its total R&D expenditure. Given the risk and the high cost associated with drug discovery R&D, such neglect may make strategic sense. However in this analysis it is shown that TB R&D presents a unique opportunity to the national treasuries of all high-burden countries. Using two separate estimation methods (global justice and return on investment), it is concluded that most countries, including South Africa, are under-investing in TB R&D. Specific investment targets for a range of countries, particularly in areas of applied research, are developed. This work supports the outcome of the World Health Organization’s Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development: Financing and Coordination, which has called for “a process leading to the negotiation of a binding agreement on R&D relevant to the health needs of developing countries”. PMID:23496963

  3. Exploring industry perspectives on implementation of a provincial policy for food and beverage sales in publicly funded recreation facilities.

    PubMed

    Vander Wekken, Suzanne; Sørensen, Susanne; Meldrum, John; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2012-03-01

    To explore industry perspectives on the transition to healthier food and beverage sales in publicly funded recreation facilities and specifically (a) the awareness of the BC provincial Guidelines and implementation supports; (b) challenges encountered in the transition to healthier products; and (c) thoughts on future trends and opportunities in the snack and beverage business. We used a qualitative research design (semi-structured interviews) with thematic analysis to explore the data collected. Overall, the industry was aware of the BC Guidelines and philosophically supported the transition to healthier choices in public recreation facilities. Main challenges in implementing the Guidelines were the: (1) perceived limitations of the Guidelines; (2) issues stocking healthy products; (3) competition in food sales environments; and (4) negative impact on profits. Interviewees believed that consumer choice is increasingly influenced by environmental and health priorities and that adapting to these trends would be important for future business success. The food and beverage industry needs time, resources and expertise to adapt their business model and to find new palatable products that meet healthy Guidelines. Strategies that strengthen accountability, provide opportunities for economic development and enhance private-public sector communication will help industry partners support implementation of nutrition policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges To Providing Universal Access To Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

    2010-02-01

    Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend far less in US dollars per unit cost on primary education than do developed countries. Increasing the unit cost of education in order to enable a government to guarantee universal primary education would take away resources from other tiers of the education system in many countries in the region. The alternative is to universalise access, despite existing budget allocation constraints, and thereby further compound the problems of poor infrastructure and limited human resource capacity that continue to compromise education quality in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Transition age youth in publicly funded systems: identifying high-risk youth for policy planning and improved service delivery.

    PubMed

    Heflinger, Craig Anne; Hoffman, Cheri

    2008-10-01

    Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbances (SED) face many challenges as they approach the transition to adulthood and adult services. This study examines publicly funded transition-age youth in order to describe the numbers and type of youth in need of policy and service planning in one state. Using Medicaid enrollment and claims/encounter data, youth with high risk of transition difficulties were identified in the following groups: SED, state custody/foster care or risk of custody, users of intensive or frequent mental health services, or having diagnoses of major mental disorders, conduct disorders, or developmental disabilities. Almost one quarter of all enrolled 14 to 17-year olds met criteria for at least one of the high risk groups, and three-quarters of these were youth with SED. High risk youth are described, with greater detail on those with SED, and implications for policy, services, and research are discussed.

  6. Expected Impact of Health Care Reform on the Organization and Service Delivery of Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Vega, William A; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will be implemented in publicly funded addiction health services (AHS) organizations. Guided by a conceptual model of implementation of new practices in health care systems, this study relied on qualitative data collected in 2013 from 30 AHS clinical supervisors in Los Angeles County, California. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with ATLAS.ti software. Supervisors expected several potential effects of ACA implementation, including increased use of AHS services, shifts in the duration and intensity of AHS services, and workforce professionalization. However, supervisors were not prepared for actions to align their programs' strategic change plans with policy expectations. Findings point to the need for health care policy interventions to help treatment providers effectively respond to ACA principles of improving standards of care and reducing disparities.

  7. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  8. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  9. A Laboratory-Based System for Managing and Distributing Publically Funded Geochemical Data in a Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, B.; Brown, A.; Liffers, M.

    2015-12-01

    Publically funded laboratories have a responsibility to generate, archive and disseminate analytical data to the research community. Laboratory managers know however, that a long tail of analytical effort never escapes researchers' thumb drives once they leave the lab. This work reports on a research data management project (Digital Mineralogy Library) where integrated hardware and software systems automatically archive and deliver analytical data and metadata to institutional and community data portals. The scientific objective of the DML project was to quantify the modal abundance of heavy minerals extracted from key lithological units in Western Australia. The selected analytical platform was a TESCAN Integrated Mineral Analyser (TIMA) that uses EDS-based mineral classification software to image and quantify mineral abundance and grain size at micron scale resolution. The analytical workflow used a bespoke laboratory information management system (LIMS) to orchestrate: (1) the preparation of grain mounts with embedded QR codes that serve as enduring links between physical samples and analytical data, (2) the assignment of an International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) and Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to each grain mount via the System for Earth Sample Registry (SESAR), (3) the assignment of a DOI to instrument metadata via Research Data Australia, (4) the delivery of TIMA analytical outputs, including spatially registered mineralogy images and mineral abundance data, to an institutionally-based data management server, and (5) the downstream delivery of a final data product via a Google Maps interface such as the AuScope Discovery Portal. The modular design of the system permits the networking of multiple instruments within a single site or multiple collaborating research institutions. Although sharing analytical data does provide new opportunities for the geochemistry community, the creation of an open data network requires: (1) adopting open data reporting

  10. Development of a measure of health care affordability applicable in a publicly funded universal health care system.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Jeannie L; Levesque, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-02-04

    Direct measures of health care affordability from the user perspective are needed to monitor equitable access to publicly funded health care in Canada. The objective of our study was to develop a survey-based measure of healthcare affordability applicable to the Canadian context. We developed items after focus group exploration of access and cost barriers in the healthcare trajectory. We administered an initial instrument by telephone to a randomly-selected sample of 750 respondents in metropolitan, rural, and remote settings in Quebec. After analysis we developed a new, self-administered version eliciting the frequency of problem access due to five affordability dimensions. This version was mailed to a subset of participants. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. We used ordinal logistic regression modelling to examine how individual items and the subscale score predicted indicators of difficult access. We looked for effect modification by income categories. The five items load on a single construct with good internal consistency (α = 0.77). The overall score, 0 to 5, reflects the sum of problems with healthcare affordability due to direct and indirect costs. The item and subscale scores are sensitive to income status, with affordability problems more prevalent among low-income than high-income respondents. Each unit increase in the subscale score predicts increased likelihood of unmet needs (OR = 1.54), emergency room use (OR = 1.41), and health problem aggravation (OR = 1.80). This subscale reliably and validly measures cost barriers to medically necessary services in Canada, and can potentially be applied in other settings with publicly funded health systems. It can be used to monitor and compare healthcare equity.

  11. The Grand Convergence: Closing the Divide between Public Health Funding and Global Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Global Health 2035 report notes that the “grand convergence”—closure of the infectious, maternal, and child mortality gap between rich and poor countries—is dependent on research and development (R&D) of new drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and other health tools. However, this convergence (and the R&D underpinning it) will first require an even more fundamental convergence of the different worlds of public health and innovation, where a largely historical gap between global health experts and innovation experts is hindering achievement of the grand convergence in health. PMID:26933890

  12. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Methods Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Each forum demonstrated stakeholders’ capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around ‘equity’ and ‘patient responsibility’, culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Conclusions Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical

  13. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  14. Publicly funded, pegylated interferon-alpha treatment in British Columbia: Disparities in treatment patterns for people with hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Priscilla C; Buxton, Jane A; Tu, Andrew W; Hill, Warren D; Yu, Amanda; Krajden, Mel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An estimated 60,000 British Columbians are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV); 10% to 20% will develop cirrhosis after 20 years and 5% to 10% of these will develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Although treatment may prevent cirrhosis and liver cancer, and improve quality of life, availability is limited. METHODS: Individuals with HCV genotypes 1, 4, 5 and 6 who underwent baseline HCV-RNA tests between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2005, and were eligible for publicly funded treatment through PharmaCare were linked to British Columbia’s reportable disease database. Patterns in treatment were examined, including age at treatment, sex, location, time to treatment from HCV diagnosis and seasonality of treatment. RESULTS: When corrected for HCV prevalence, men were more likely to receive treatment than women (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31). Patients aged 35 to 54 years and 55 years or older were 3.45 times (95% CI 2.80 to 4.26 times) and 4.49 times (95% CI 3.55 to 5.69 times), respectively, more likely to initiate treatment than 15- to 34-year-olds. Differences were noted between health authorities. Patients in rural health service delivery areas (HSDAs) were 1.25 times (95% CI 1.10 to 1.42 times) more likely to receive treatment than those in urban HSDAs. Patients had an average lapse of four years between HCV diagnosis and receiving treatment. The highest proportion of patients initiated therapy between January and March (36.5%), with the lowest between October and December (less than 14%). CONCLUSIONS: This data linkage enabled us to identify populations less likely to receive publicly funded treatment. Rural HSDAs have higher rates of therapy initiation; this pattern merits further research but may be a result of integrated prevention and care projects in rural areas. Policy changes to the current PharmaCare funding co-payment schedules could reduce seasonal variability of treatment initiations throughout the year. PMID:18414709

  15. [Evaluation of the German Research Foundation's (GRF) »Clinical Trials Academy for Junior Researchers« - publications and funding profiles].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Levka; Krummenauer, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Background | The »Clinical Trials Academy for Junior Researchers« is a strategic funding instrument of the German Research Foundation (GRF). In clinical research, this program responds to an increasing lack of qualified clinician scientists. Application for participation in the workshop is based on a self-proposed academy project; participants can furthermore apply for a GRF grant to implement this academy project. This evaluation should quantify publication and third-party-funding profiles after participation in one of the previous GRF junior researchers workshops on clinical trials. Methods | Participants of all four GRF workshops were addressed by a standardized questionnaire to consider the project related number of publications and the cumulative impact factor, as well as the cumulative project-related consequential third-party-funding. Results | 64 of 92 former participants took part in the survey. From 41 implemented projects, 32 were granted with initial financial support by the GRF. 27 publications with a cumulative impact factor of 130 impact factor points (IP) were published by 13 authors. Of the 21 persons who submitted a grant application for subsequent third-party-funding a cumulative total grant volume of 5 223 000 € was reported by 13 participants. Conclusion | Although only 13 out of 64 participants reported impact publications or third-party-funding, respectively, these junior researchers' output can be considered encouraging. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. School-based asthma programs.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Evans, David; Kattan, Meyer

    2009-08-01

    Asthma is prevalent in school-age children and contributes to school absenteeism and limitation of activity. There is a sizable literature on school-based interventions for asthma that attempt to identify children with asthma and improve outcomes. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss limitations of screening tools and school-based asthma interventions. Identification of children with asthma may be appropriate in schools located in districts with a high prevalence of children experiencing significant morbidity and a high prevalence of undiagnosed asthma, provided there is access to high-quality asthma care. We review strategies for improving access to care, for teaching self-management skills in schools, and for improving school personnel management skills. Although studies indicate that school-based programs have the potential to improve outcomes, competing priorities in the educational system present challenges to their implementation and emphasize the need for practical, targeted, and cost-effective strategies.

  17. Fanconi Anemia Research Fund

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Publications Fundraising News What is the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund? Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease that can lead to ... population. Lynn and Dave Frohnmayer started the Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, in 1989 to find effective treatments ...

  18. Development of an evaluation framework for publicly funded R&D projects: The case of Korea's Next Generation Network.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eungdo; Kim, Soyoung; Kim, Hongbum

    2017-02-28

    For decades, efforts have been made globally to measure the performance of large-scale public projects and to develop a framework to perform such measurements due to the complexity and dynamics of R&D and stakeholder interests. Still, limitations such as the use of a simply modified model and the lack of a comprehensive viewpoint are prevalent in existing approaches. In light of these research gaps, this study suggests a practical model to evaluate the performance of large-scale and publicly funded projects. The proposed model suggests a standard matrix framework of indices that evaluates the performance of particular elements in an industrial ecosystem in vertical categories and the economic and technological outcomes of those elements in horizontal categories. Based on the application of a balanced scorecard, this study uses mixed methodologies such as social network analysis, inter-industry analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process. Finally, the model evaluates the performance of Korea's Next Generation Network project as a case study.

  19. Correlates of public support toward federal funding for harm reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Teachman, Bethany A; Werntz, Alexandra J; Gasser, Melissa L; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2015-06-30

    Historically, US federal policy has not supported harm reduction interventions, such as safe injection facilities (SIFs) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs), which can reduce the burden associated with injection drug use. Given recent increases in abuse of both legal and illegal opioids, there has been a renewed debate about effective ways to address this problem. The current study (1) assessed participants' support for SIFs and NSPs, and (2) evaluated several demographic factors (e.g., age, gender, race, education, political ideology, and religiosity) and individual differences in stigmatizing beliefs about people who inject drugs (PWID) that might relate to support for these interventions. U.S. adults (N = 899) completed a web-based study that assessed self-reported support for NSPs and SIFs, and stigma about PWID. The majority of participants were at least somewhat supportive of both NSPs and SIFs. Regression analyses indicated greater support for NSPs and SIFs was predicted by more liberal political ideology, more agreement that PWID deserve help rather than punishment, older age, and male gender. Also, participants who endorsed lower stigma about PWID were more supportive of NSPs and SIFs. Race, religiosity, and education did not predict support for NSPs and SIFs. Most participants tended to report support for harm reduction strategies. Age, political ideology, and individual differences in stigmatizing beliefs about PWID were significantly associated with support. Given the potential malleability of stigmatizing beliefs, efforts that seek to shift stigma about PWID could have important implications for public policy towards harm reduction strategies for PWID.

  20. The Design of the Rhode Island School Funding Formula: Toward a Coherent System of Allocating State Aid to Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    Reforming the way a state distributes its funding to local school districts is clearly a challenging task. This paper presents the Rhode Island story on school funding reform. First, the paper begins with a short history of Rhode Island's school finance system and the key factors that called for school funding reform. Second, the paper discusses…